Material Information

Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Creation Date:
January 26, 1975
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000329131 ( ALEPH )
03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )

Full Text

Vol. 5 No. 4

162 EA-:' -' iTCcTT SUNDAY JANUARY 26, 1975
NEW ",,r ,i ',
:u .. =

A FULL house turned out to the San Fernando Town
Hall last Tuesday January 21, to discuss Tapia proposals
on the oil industry. They heard Secretary Lloyd Best
suggest that the OWTU should insist on the 144% or 147%
or whatever the traffic could bear-the whole bread.

Top Union officials heard Best explain that the case
of Weekes and the OWTU was different from that of
Manswell and the PSA. "We have to win a bigger share for
Trinidad & Tobago out of the gravy that Texaco and the
corporations would otherwise be taking home."

~- ,.T~-. I
AV1 -

"For every dollar won
by the workers, at least 45
cents represent a transfer from
the corporations to the people
of this country."
The contradiction, Best
continued, was that 55 cents
would have gone to the Gov-
ernment as taxes.
"We can only resolve
this contradiction by taking
over Texaco and the other
corporations, by nationalizing
them, localizing them and
putting effective control in the
hands of the local people
including the Unions and the
Municipalities along with the
Central Government."
Best insisted that such
hard bargaining by the OWTU
was justified in the light of
the incompetence of the Gov-
ernment and the PNM's in-
capacity to manage the
economy properly, demon-
strated by the purely public
relations Budget of 1975.
"So long as this crooked
and incompetent Government
survives, the Union must take
on the responsibility for
representing Trinidad and
Tobago in the life-line industry
of this country."




Oil, Best declared, was
"more politics than economics,
and the OWTU is the only
force with the ideology and
the resources to substitute in
this matter for a Government
that is out of date and out of

touch with the revolutionary
developments abroad and the
revolutionary demands at
Outlining the responsibil-
ity which the OWTU had to
accept at least for the few

weeks that th
might still surv
posed that a
up to involve
country in the
the Union sh

Mr Chambers setting laglee

THE 1975 Budget was
described byTapia's Secre-
tary as one which showed
no concept of the public
sector as the biggest single
producer in the country.
The Budget, he added, was
totally devoid of any notion
of national accounting and
overall planning." Mr.
Chambers is only setting
laglee wherever bird number,
The PNM have lost any
will to fight, any sense of
purpose. They have aban-
don d the concept -of the
Government as a manager of
the economy,
Their policy is all algebra
and no arithmetic, Best told
the capacity crowd at the
Town Hall. "An equation
ivith all unknowns," he
quipped. "Nothing concrete,
no bricks and mortar."
How is it possible to
gauge the meaning of the
programmes to increase food
output and to increase indus-
trial jobs if there are no
supply and demand balances,
no manpower statement?
"Where is the coherence

between monetary policy, debt
policy, tariff policy and the
colossal spending which the
government is encouraging by
subsidies and reliefs?"
At what level of output,
personal spending and business

investment are we meaning to
curb the rising cost of living?
"What contribution are we
expecting imported supply to
make and where is the foreign
exchange budget that flows
from that?"

Secretary cor
Budget is a
in the Budg
opportunity it
political manipu


TAPIA expects the OWTU
to treat the wage negotia-
tions in a way compatible
with a responsible, free
and participatory republic.
The bargaining must insist
on the maximum take
from the Corporations
and the Government so
long as the Government
has no serious plan and
the corporations continue
digging out we eye.
With a different Govern-
ment and a reconstruction of
the economy, take-home pay
would be less important; there
would be full employment,
far greater equality and a
large platform of welfare
available to all citizens on a
strictly equal basis.

In that context, there
would be no foreign corpora-.
tions and wage bargaining
could become a national
matter to be conducted
annually in a big-macco Senate,
assembling all the valid com-
muni ty voices.

E m

In the present context, the
OWTU is advised by Tapia to
outline a full plan.
To maximize the wage
increase from the Com-
To distribute the gain
amongst the Oil Workers
so that the gap is closed
between the lower paid and
the higher paid workers by

SOmIe scheirn
board dollar.
some meaning
in % gains
levels, or pe

* To leach
schemes of c
and invest
coinrol the
living. Ther
graduated s;
funds toward
(b) Food
Technical ;ua
tion (d) Sm
ex-oil work
* To clear
need for full!
and localize


ie Government
ive Best pro-
plan be drawn
ve the entire
gains for which
would hold out.

," the Tapia
included, "the
scandal. The
major interest
et lies in the
provides for

e of across the
r increases, or
tgful difference
for different
rhaps, by some
of tile two.

d the way in
-ollective saving
ient aimed to
rising cost of
e could be a
savings scheme,
y channelling
ds (a) Housing
Production (c)
id Craft Educa-
all Business for
ify the urgent
nation of the
atl corporations.

25 Centx
1' .


II .*'h. C

THE PNM Government
is mortally afraid to
present any Budget for
Petroleum. In San Fer-
nando, Lloyd Best
advanced six possible
1. The revenue figures for
1971, 1972, 1973, 1974 and
1975 are all suspect.

2. The expenditure figures
cannot be defended so far as
they relate to the past and
they cannot be computed so
far as they relate to Govt's
rainbow plans of the future.
3. The terms of acquiring
participation are far too
favourable to the multi-
national corporations.
4. The downstream opera-
tions announced for the
energy using and energy-
based sectors are largely
5. The Govt's strategy for
sustaining and improving the
viability of the existing
petroleum sector is extremely
nebulous as is reflected in
diplomacy which by-passes
both the Arab States and
Venezuela for tourist adven-
tures in east Asia. The
Govt. have no concept of
where to find secure crude
oil imports for refining and
where to sell products -
they were even losing the
West Indian market.
0. The Techretarial and
Administrative machinery is
not in place and there is not
even a concrete plan afoot
to organise expertise equal to
thle historic task of our time.





The leave is crucial


IN another letter on January 7, Dr. Sampath
pursues a matter central to the difference
between the DAC and Tapia. It is worth
rescuing from the underworld of confusion
in which invariably he loses his ideas since he
has'become an Editor of the seasonal journal,
Dr. Sampath now has so little confidence in the
political superiority of his own party and in its
capacity to outdo Tapia by reference to what we are
and what we do that he resorts to the charge that we
are "collaborating with the present regime". In
contrast, when Benedict Wight suggested that Mr.
ANR Robinson might have left !he PNM in a con-
spiracy with Dr. Williams,. .iptly and publicly
denounced the preposterous but popular inclination
to cast doubt on the bona fides of any political
leader with whom you happen to disagree. We have
heard similar charges that Karl Hudson Phillips was
only putting on an act, that the Mitra Sinanan
Minority Report was prompted from official sources
and that the INP is flying a kite for PNM.
In every c,.', notice an inability to point to
obvious limitations of the political method, the
political means and the'political style of particular
individuals and groups and the readiness to optinstead
for the discrediting of their motives in a kind of
medieval passion for devils and for angels.
The problem obviously is that avast number of
us no longer have the will to trust, owing to our
intense involvement in the dreams of 1956 and our
subsequent disenchantment over what has nurt us as a
scandalous betrayal. Related to this is our profound
respect for the competence and the capacity of the
Messiah of those halcyon days. So that, for many, Dr.
Williams has become an obsession, a fonnidable
stumbling block to clear the political road of which is
our one and only important task and-yet, a task that,
in the final analysis, few feel the country has the
means to fulfil.

Two of the important facts about Tapia are
first, that most of our people are under 30 and have
little or no investment in the PNM-DLP regime; and
secondly, that, unlike Robinson, Hudson Phillips,
Millette, Granger, Sinanan, Jamadar and Lequay, I
am lucky tohave been outof the country for the best
part of the 15 years before 1968 and Ihave therefore
never seriously became caught up in the politics for
and against the PNM.
With this background, the Tapia leadership
remain open-minded but not too impressed when
some sympathisers argue that our most important
job is the defeat of Dr. Williams, that it is a terribly
difficult job to carry out, and that the only way to
do it is to form some coalition of Opposition forces.
We have sometimes proposed Opposition collabora-
tion on specific political projects compatible with the

integrity of the Tapia Movement but we have not
been able to regard Dr. Williamns as a particularly
reactionary monster or his stranglehold on the
machinery of the State as impossible to break.
On the evidence of the total disarray in the
PNM, in the government and in the entire country,
we fail to see how anybody could regard the Prime
Minister as being even moderately competent or
equal to the leadership demands of a free and parti-
cipatory democracy. We readily concede that in the
context of the colonial generation, Dr. Williams was
politically far advanced; and that, even in the context
of the transitional generation, he possessed energies
and insights and skills well suited to an exploitation
of the authoritarian traditions and conventions
fonned during our-Crown Colony history.

We have no illusions whatsoever about his form-
idable strength as an electoral opponent because of
his party's control of the State-machine, with its
patronage and its publicity as well as that trump
which Hitler finessed so well its legality. Tapiahas
these realities so very clearly in perspective that we
cannot be diverted into any facile but futile adven-
ture to knock the Government out.
We know that the survival capacity of the old
regime depends upon certain specific pillars of
strength which have to be systematically dislodged
by the building up of counter-balancing power
in all fields except the field of police. For politics
and for diplomacy, for administration and for govern-
ment Tapia, after years of solid building, is infinitely
more competent and better equipped than is the PNM.
Dr. Williams knows better than anybody else that, in
the context of 1975, he is an hilarious anachronism
and a hopelessly ineffectual treadmiller. Devoid of
purpose and lacking any flair, every note he plays
these days, repeatedly falls flat.
But none of that would count unless we in the
Opposition shared the Governmrent's control of
legality and official publicity, unless we countered its
patronage with a nobler promise, too rich in spiritual-
ity and idealism to yield place to the seductions ind
the blandishments of vulgar PNM materialism. It is
this offering to our people, if it springs froin our
hearts as well as our heads, which will successfully
ann us with the ultimate power of police, the will and
the determination of our people to unbolt die gates
to greener pastures by any necessary means.
All this explains why Tapia has never wavered
from our initial position that the revolutionary
reconstruction of Trinidad and Tobago necessarily
lies along the constitutional and parliamentary road.
In starting from the absurd and facile premise that
Tapia is "collaborating with the present regime",
Dr. Sampath fails entirely to make a factual and
persuasive interpretation'of what we truly are about,

even of the errors that we must surely have made, and
the deficiencies in our tactics. He, Rrnno-t-therefore
make sense of the perils and problems of Tapia's
presence in the Senate. By thesamne token he under-
stands nothing of its promises or its possibilities
I invite Dr. Sampath to consider that no mili-
tary confrontation of the kind mentioned by Mr.
A.N.R. Robinson could be valid unless the vast
majority of the law-abiding citizens saw no other
option. In that eventuality, there would be no need
for armed force by a handful of self-styled revolu-
tionaries or rebels. The striking force would be a
civil army ofhousewives,youth and frustrated citizens
in all their reputable community organisation
When the government is displaced by such an
upheaval, the successors will not and cannot be a
new elite of guerrillas or soldiers or even of conven-
tional politicians who, knowing no constructive
involvement, can promote only magical and apocalyp-
tic solutions to the distress and the suffering of
people. So far from being a military coup or putsch,
such a change would necessarily be an affirmation of
the sovereignty of the enormous multitude over any
Little King or any narrow oligarchy of privileged
elites. Such a re-establishment of the State would be
entirely constitutional, provided that it came only
after all the legal and parliamentary options had
first been tried in vain.
That is what Tapia perceives so very clearly
and,'on his record of licid statement in the morning
papers, I certainly expected Dr. Sampath to share this
perception of on;.. I have never fully understood
how he could have come to associate himself with
the DAC's repeated assertion that the 1971 Parlia-
ment is illegal when that is obviously untrue, when I
personally-took pains everywhere and from the very
beginning to draw the crucial distinction between
illegality on the one hand and illegitimacy on the


That the Parliament was fairly elected under
the law is not at all in dispute. What is at issue is the
political and constitutional meaning of the 33%
participation and the 28% vote for the ruling party
when the validity of the regime was clearly at stake
in the election following the 1970 upheaval and
after the Prime Minister's attempt to counter the
Opposition boycott with a call for a pledge of confi-
dence by way of a massive poll.
The difference between Tapia and the DAC is
that we refused to be trapped into a repetition of
the 28% fonnula as the means of establishing for
the population the illegitimacy of the Parliament.
Whoever wrote the Express Editorial condemning
Tapia for making an aboutface to enter the Senate
and claiming that we had repeatedly denounced the
28% Government typically had not done the needed
home-work. Had he checked Tapia, he might have
found the occasional rhetorical flourish perhaps,
because Tapia is no monolith; and he most
certainly would have found bald description of the
fact that the Government's vote was equivalent to
28% of the registered electors. What he would never
ever find is the hurling of this propagandist's formula
as a substitute for analysis of the hard political facts.
Both Moko and Truth revelled in the 28% this
and the 28% that, They were too short-sighted to see
that Dr. Williams would cut them to ribbons r'
pointing to the more complex statistical picture,
he is always disposed to do, given his particular hang-
ups. Anticipating this, a Tapia front-page headline
actually warned the "seventy-two percenters" against
such simple sloganeering not because propagai 'a
does not have a place but because in the middl- of a
revolutionary upheaval, propaganda without a base
can only play into the hands of the old regime.
The solid Tapia case, which Dr. Williams does
not dare refute, is that the Parliament would have
been invalid and illegitimate, whatever the statistics of
the voting pattern. The cructal judgment we have
made in the light of the po!:- :1 evidence is that
Parliament is not nearly t ,'alid assembly of
representatives desired by -Alitical interests in
Trinidad & Tobago. Elec: e: results cannot provide

Continued on Page 11




SSte he O nS

I _



Tap i a. to


At Kitchener's tent

Lennox Grant

THIS is Trinidad, where
a movement, a tendency,
a Carnival band or a
calypso tent becomes
identified with the name
of the man who leads it.
Who remembers playing
in a band called "Myths
of the Mediterranean"
a few years ago? No, but
you remember playing
with Ken Morris that
And what happens if you
go to Kitchener's tent and
he dosen't appear? Not only
does the Lord Kitchener not
appear, but the only other
man who appeared for a
moment to challenge the
Lord's pre-eminence, The
Shadow, dosen't appear


Not only that even. The
Mighty Stalin, regular master
of ceremonies and himself a
big attraction in that role and
as a singer, dosen't come
on stage till nearly 90
minutes after the show starts.
And to crown the outrage,
Stalin makes the announce-
ment off stage at midnight;
Kitch and Shadow won't be
appearing, but on behalf of

Esther leGendre

'IT'S four years now I
haven't been to Pano-
rama,' Cheryl-Ann Green
confesses. This certainly
is a record for a lively
nineteen-year-old who
loves to dance.
And once more Panorama
preliminaries at Skinner Park
have come around just when
Cheryl-Ann and other mem-
bers of Eugene Joseph's
Trinidad Dance Theatre are
rehearsing for their first big
production 'Calypso Woman'.
'Calypso Woman' with a
cast of a hundred and fifty,
including the T&TEC Power
Stars and Choir along with
Tony and the Earthworms,
has its premiere at Naparima
Bowl on Wednesday, 29th,
The Company presented
'Tatumba' in 1972 and
teamed up with Aubrey
Adams' Folk Performing
Company to produce inter-
nationally acclaimed 'Amba-
kaila' in the same year,
But now the T.D T. is off
on its own scene, so to speak.
'Calypso Woman' hopes to
be evidence of the Theatre's
pledge: to carry on the
tradition of dance with
emphasis on sustained levels
of excellence in performances
and interpretations, as well
as to experime-rt with indi-
genous mate dals dance
forms and tezcniques of all
kinds, with av-:,w to develop-
ing a style and form which
will enrich the dance and
reflect "the flexibility and

the management of the
Calypso Revue, thanks for
With the peculiar Trini-
dadian sophistication that
tells a cinema audience a
film is about to end some-
times a full five minutes
before it does, everybody has

got up by the time Stalin
begins to make the announce-
ment from the wings, and
the dragging of chairs prob-
ably drowns out the loud
speaker anyway.

It was a poorly managed
show, last week Thursday
night, and we shouldn't be
surprised that there was
nothtng to justify the drag-
ging on after two and a half
hours or so. Surely to push
Fluke back onstage for four
pretended encores must be a
glaring example of padding.


But once you pay your
five-dollars and settle into
one of those horribly un-
comfortable metal chairs in
the fourth row down from
the stage, you don't have
any more rights. You remain
subject to the tyranny of the
Lords, and the Kings and the
Mighties, and now the
Duchesses and Princesses
too. Its their moment;
they're decisively in charge.

To make yourself conspi-
cuous by shouting a protest
is to invite one of those
put-downs in the choicest of
abusive language that the
masters of ceremonies reserve

Rhette Burris and Cheryl-Ann Greene in a tender scene


versatility of the West Indian
Down at Thunderbird
Terrace last Sunday, above
the obvious enthusiasm of
the Earthworms, Eugene
Joseph talked about his
'Calypso Woman'.
'Even as a boy I saw how
people did not understand
the steelband-man. So here I
am trying to show the depth
of the steelband-man and the
strength of the Trinidad
I noted that a variety of
dance techniques being used,

all influenced in varying
degrees by our folk tradition.
But, Eugene Joseph points
out: 'We are not presenting
folk, just using the chemistry
of folk. We are seeking self-
The scene of this 'musical
melodrama' moves from a
fishing village somewhere in
Mayaro to a Port-of-Spain
nightclub and finally to the
streets at Carnival time. The
script for the drama is written
by Horace Wonne and the
musical score by Alvin

Cont'd on Page 10


for uppity types like yourself.
People in five-dollar seats
are normally good and law-
abiding citizens who don't
join in slow handclaps and
foot-stamping. But in any
case the master of ceremonies
can respond with supreme
unflappability by joining in
the slow handclap.
And what then? An absurd
question. This is Trinidad
man. Don't dig nutten.
So you sit back and take
note of the heavy plastering
of advertising hoardings
around the stage and down
the side of the dusty Princes
Building hall. They seem
somehow better done this
year, as if built to last, to
stay as a part of the scene.
CRIX: large discs hanging
from the roof proclaimed it
"Powerfood of the People!"
It's 8.41 pnm. Even with
Trinidad time, you'd expect
to see signs of something
getting together. But nothing
at all three microphone
stalks are planted on the
stage which is bathed in red
and yellow light.
The hall is filled, empty
chairs in the five-dollar and
reserve sections only, Not a
bad hall, the ceiling is high,
there are two bars (for soft
and hard drinks).
Nearby in the aisles stand
two self-conscious young
usherettes, not looking like
they know what's going on
or want to be held respons-
ible for it. At the foot of the
stage is the inevitable Smiley
with his obscene paunch and
sweating brow, facing the
audience, pointing out empty
chairs to new arrivals, a pile
of overpriced ($1.25) calypso
brochures under his arm.
Behind the waist-high
barrier which allows a con-
veniently wide panel for Vat
19, Mike Boothman appears,
calmly, unhurriedly unpack-
ing a bass guitar.
It's 8.57. Slow clapping
and foot-stamping gains
wider support in the audience.
The hall lights flicker

,management is acknowledg-
ing the complaint, nothing
Just in front of you, a
typical group of gay creoles
come and sit noisily and
ostentatiously, the kind of
group the press photo-
graphers will take as they
"go up" in delight. One of
them has a plastic bag of
Chinese prunes which he
holds up high every now and
then, as if advertising some-
thing lost and found, and a
girl behind him will good-
humouredly accept one
prune; they will all laugh.


Still no sign of Clive
Bradley, bandleader. Or of
any other musician, though
you occasionally hear a
tuning-up squawk or twang
coming from behind the
Lord, it's five to nine!
And Bradley arrives, whisker-
ed and capped, no sweat. He
strikes "G" for Mike Booth-
man to tune up. One by one
the rest of the band comes
into view three trumpets,
trombone, three saxes. Fami-
liar Police Band off-duty
Bradley passes around
sheets. The musicians arrange
them on top of the Vat 19
barrier and stand to atten-
tion, shiny brass horns at the
ready. A dry,very un-calypso
fanfare, and Nap Hepburn
walks onto the stage. 9 p.m.
Nap Hepburn, clearly un-
equal to the task in any case,
dosen't presume to make up
for anything with fast-
talking. He merely screws
the microphone stand to the
correct height andintroduces
The first of 19 calypson-
ians who will sing 23 songs
over three hours. Cisco is
unexciting. But he looks well,
dancing and gesticulating so
correctly that you wish he
would mime to somebody
else's soundtrack. His trite
badjohn saga, warning that
"violence is mih middle
name" fails to hold interest.


You are more interested
in the Sparks, the four back-
up singers in frilly saffron
shirts, doing a chipping
routine before the two other
mikes. And the band, with
their professionally neutral
faces reflecting a lack of
engagement with the singers
that they never quite get
Much of the music sounds
as if sight-read for the first
time, though Bradley, learn-
ing and playing the organ
with a casual one-hand stance,.
and Boothman do makc
some appealing combinations
in the background.
But Dacron, the next
calypsonian, can hold the
spotlight. Here is the com-
plete calypsonian singer,
dancer, wit. The three com-
Cont'd on Page 10



U ,.R 0-

Dear Sir,
Once more, the Gov't has
demonstrated its disregard for
the citizens of the Country.
'In a house of thirty-five
members of which only two
are independent( Oppositioni,
one would have thought that,
the Gov't, would (as a
.matter of courtesy if not
formality) have given the
feeble opposition some time
to study the Budget. Instead,
we find them doing worse
than before.
There cannot be a clearer
demonstration 6f arrogance,
inmora; tiy, corruption, mis-
rchief ;.iAd even wickedness.
A I see it, the whole idea
is to push down 'te throats
of -,e electorate his elec-
tioneeri.g pill, well knowing
ho, they .re likely to forget
':o soo 1 He knows that his
s;btb gimmick will
so confuse them that they
wv:, forget too soon his
previous promises.
To mention only two,
what about the proposed
Consortium with Chinese and
Japanese experts _o convert
the rich soil of th..e vAin of
+11i Oropouche int -. t-ivi
food basket and inost recent
of all, a Venezuelan Ma;-
facturing Shoe Company to
manufacture cheap shoes at
fifteen dollars per pair.
It was a well know fact
that the Community Lands
Development Project was
one of dhe biggest t prostitutes
of public funds. Dont be
surprised to know tiiht the
pattern set by thfli' s bi!he
(CL.D.P.) corruption -vise is


dwelling in cottages.
Let's take a glance at sub-
The fertilizer Subsidy
Scheme to small food crop
farmers is a flop. The bu .of
this scheme is enjoyed by
Extension Officers and Agri-
cultural Retail Shops.
Hereunder are. some of the
upside-downesses of the
(1) Some.traditional Crops
like sweet potatoes are ex-
(2) Many of our Crops
e.g. vegetables, are of eight
weeks duration. Yet when
one applies, it takes up to
four to six months' to get the
fertilizer. Though one may
have qualified if his crop is
already harvested, his quota
is forfeited.
No wonder, with all the
propaganda in the Press and
Media about incentives to
food production, our food
o:oblem is purposely left
L-.s'.:ii : o 9lt there caL
La :,.aS iingcrILtion because
that v.,^.Tr- ::'.e' Comimerci l
Coin;:''rity :h:': ,.d rti+e
digest :Miis: ),i C s L' cc:n
from that source.
(3) Agricultur, retailshiop
sell their fertilizers at a profit
of 30-60% since the Subsidy
helps the farmer with 30%
of his fertilizer output why

continuing in io wake.
After the dissolution of
the C.L.D.P.,.farmers were
told, they would be turned
over to the Agricultural
Development -Bank (another
cancer of trie Food Produc-
tic !," ?:' eent) for their
assistance. CT Bank refused
to ;7::- :-'' .ie. i' a -. rs.-But .
the said bank credible' ihe
fav-rs ,'ji; sjs T'hrough
the Extj'io'+ C-7fi,-23rs"to pay
Conitrr~~ts- is prcpl:ve- land
for the *fo2rewl.
..of:; r s -:.e f the

jtbr c!7,.ritI.;: 3r.:ir v, ith

in a nutshell when '';.'rds
are credited to the farmers
by this winding process, the
value of such loan is depreci-
ated to the tune of 50-4I0%
of i s, cted 7'l~ .

The Contr:" c .; .b 1.) :.;*:' i.-
give 'Cuts' t:o i; :f' .:, do
not perform the quarnti:' and

quality of work, they should
with the result that the
farmers cannot utilize the
work; also, supplies of fertili-
zers and' plants are short
Yet, one hears from the
Budget Speech, such expres-
sion as'incentives to farmers'.


Of course- these are all
part and parcel of Eric
Williams Electioneering Cam-
paign. Any keen Political
Observer san see dtht Williams
". bothPrime Mni:'cr, Min-
ist:, of h'' n;.' r i ministerr
: '--,;:y .,, ': crce
" ,. i: ; L'y boys
masquerading as Minis trs.
VWhat nice language:
'Incentives to farmers'.
One hps orlyv to cme to
the Cth- Food Cropi
F -, ic n. farmi:ers uwl.-L-
.;: i; pr.".-; and slies s .. .
c':.?: .;: ') i"~cse farmers .cI
.l im-.a Yout (amp,
canii %; s:.-.; 'ate and hogs

Chatham food project

Agri-lIture Getting a raw deal

Your Family is well

Sfed with

o B a Blue Band

j on Bread


Our coverage or


is unsurpassed aidywhere

for focus. and point.

Keep abreast of the

real currents in the

Caribbean Sea.


Trinidad & Tobago

S12.00 TT
18.00 Wl

Other Caribbean 12.50 US
North America 15.00
Britain L 8.00U.K.
Europe 10.00
Overseas Deliveries Airmail Surface Rates o, Request
Back Issues Available

T a; ia, &1, T rivpuna R4, Tunapuna, Trinidad i Tobago, W.I.

is a waste down
i is ullw as. -







not give the farmer 30% of
his fertili.:e oulpul in ca:,
on the .u liii :s .i i .t his bills.
Alternativel. iiicc there
is a state or' ned agency
(C.M.A.) Why can' t all
application for Subsjid., after
being processed, be passed
over to the C.M.A. Who can
buy the fertilizer wholesale
at a cheaper rate than that
paid to the retailshops.
This will be far more
advantageous to the farmers,
many of whom are con-
tracted .with the CM.A.
Whom has depots throughout
the Country.
It is not that nobody sees
the advantageous side of this
scheme; but the move is that,
somebody must get his 'Cut'
from everything coming to
the small farmer, especially
the food crop farmer.
(4) I now come to the
A.D.B., another cancer of the
food production scheme. I
needn't say much on this
point, for the proof of the
pudding is in the eating. What
achievement nay, develop-
ment, has been made in our
food production scheme over
the years?
The mere idea of an
executive of the bank open-
ing his mouth widely
of four million dollars loan
to farmers. Shows that, these
people are as far from the
scope-and'magnitude of the
problem -as the East is from
the West.
In example:
100 10 acre food crop
la:,ns with a suitable irrega-
tion scheme will cost at least
$1.6 million.
50 25 acre dairy farms
with .:*; .facihiies will
need at least $2.5 million.
You will appreciate that
"the foregoingis only a synop-
sis of the 1001 grassroot
problems which even those
of you who are trying your
best to bring our problems
to light, may be unaware of.


I WANT to suggest that
it is really a set of mea-
sures of this kind, set out
clearly in the right place
with the right amount of
time, with the right docu-
mentation and quantifica-
tion an;d so on. which is

going to inspire the
country because it has
two ingredients.
One, it has the ingredient
of talking the truth, of telling
the country what everybody
knows is true but is not
talked about anywhere, the

ingredient of dealing in
And secondly, it possesses
technical seriousness so it is
going to mobilize the country
on the moral plane, including
all our young technocrats,
engineers and all those people

with their skills who are
thinking now of going to
Canada or the United States
of drinking grog and eating
wahbeen, morning, noon and
night. All these people, if
we can give them that 'vision,
so that they can call on their

I have no doubt whatsoever
that the Budgets and the Plans
and the White Papers and
the Throne Speeches would
assume an entirely different
character ..... Lloyd Best
Budget Debate, Dec. 27, 19/4.

MR. PRESIDENT. brothers and sisters in the
Senate. the 1975 budget comes at a crucial
period of our history, and certainly the
happenings over the last few minutes indicate
how crucial this particular period is.
We are governed by Standing Orders that
have come from the Colonial period and
which, by the admission of the Senate heir-
archy itself, are inadequate to the demands
of an independent Parliament.
There is a committee that is supposed to deal
with Standing Orders but, like everything else in
Government, these committees never work..
There can be no doubt that the national con-
sciousness is at an all time low, frustration and a lack
of spirit mark the population and is reflected in the
low level of productivity that Mr. Chambers referred
to in his Budget Speech.
It is the state of the national condition, Mr.
President, that cannot be measured in statistical
terms but can only be perceived if we are relating
our politics to the needs and aspirations of our
There arethose, of course, who are caught up
in constitutional discourses going on in Germany,
who are flying around in Kaiser's aeroplanes in the
United States of America and who, as my brother
Denis Solomon pointed out just now, are being con.-

gratulated, patted on their backs on their nationalisa-
tion policy by big business interests in Hong Kong
and Japan. Senator Tull, I think, was there in Japan
when those congratulations were made.
We, in Tapia, are caught up in dealing with
here. Wtth the multitude of economic problems
confronting the country, with lie political tensions
existing in the society even though Senator Prevatt
tried to tell us that there are none.
By any measure, the problems are severe, they
are critical and I want to add as a preface to the
review of the economy in 1974 after 18 years of
PNM rule.
Thie economic con edition is marked by stagnation
and decline in production and employment particularly
in two important areas agriculture and construc-
tion. I am excluding oil,
The economy is marked by large scale
uncnployment somewhere around 70,000 un
employed and the bulk of that in the age group 15
to 25 years, 39 to 40 per cent possibly in the age
group 15 to 25 years.
By Government's own admission, increasing
inequality. Seventy per cent of the households are
getting below the national average.
Terrific inflation. It is remarkable to hear
the Leader of Government Business here categorize
all those countries in which there is spiralling infla-
tion, he seemed to enjoy mentioning Barbados' 40

per cent; but I did not hear him make any mention
of Venezuela where according to the data presented
to us, it is six per cent. It is very interesting seeing
that Venezuela is right on our doorstep, very
similar to Trinidad in a lot of respects. It is bigger, of
course, but its economic structure has a marked
similarity to Trinidad and Tobago. Galloping infla-
tion. And the forecast is that it is going to increase in
But when we talk about inflation being somewhere
around 22 per cent or when we say, in terms of food,
prices are rising by 29 or 30 per cent, I would like
to give a little bit of data that I took the time to get
from a shop where poor people have to buy their
ingredients oml week to week.
Smoked herring increased between Chrisunas
1973 and Christmas 1974 from 90 cents to S1.89;
saltfish $1.10 to S2.40; rice from 15 cents to 30
cents; cornbeef from S1.40 to S2.19; sugar 14 cents
to 21 cents; cooking-oil from 96 cents to S1.51;
chicken from 89 cents to $1.24; eggs from 12 cents
to 30 cents; sardines from 24 cents per tin to 35
cents; Crix from three for one cent to one for one
cent; brown soap from 15 cents to 33 cents; hops
bread three cents to seven cents; condensed milk 39
cents to 70 cents per tin; mararine from 15 cents per
1/ lb. pack to 33 cents for the same '.i lb. pack.

Continued on Page 6

Ivan Laughlin Tapia Community relations

Our natural resources must be utilized in- the National interest ...and not for the part time
pleasure of some North American tourist


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From Page 5

These are the prices that those people in the
70 per cent category are having to pay for basic
food commodities. I wouMk like the statisticians to
total up what that increase mean; in terms of infla-
ion, in terms of a percentage rise in prices, that
people have to pay for basic food just to be able to
Industrial unrest.
When you couple with those factors, all item-
ized in that very honest review of the 1974 economy,
when we couple those factors to dte increasing
inefficiency and at times complete breakdown of
public utilities it must give us an indication of the
state of the country, of die problems people are
Of course, the budget gives no indication of
the breakdown in public utilities, so I took a little
time again, Mr. President, to glance quickly at the
newspapers for the month of November to get a
picture, just a brief picture, of the conditions and
the problems that people are facing in just two
public utilities Water and Transport. Just a quick
On November 2, we hear of people in Granville
down in Cedros saying that they live within half mile
of the Granville Waterworks and the problem for
the past several months the man is writing and I am
"I have never, been able to find water in my taps
during the day and sometimes even at night."
That is November 2.
Maybe, I should go back a little further to
October 31 where we see that the PNM member of
Parliament is approached by the residents of Princes
Town seeking water.
Siparia, November 16, "within the last few
weeks the residents of this village, Quarry Village,
have been undergoing much severe hardship in
obtaining water."
Sangre Grande, Tuesday, November 19, for
four days pipe borne water was not received by
residents in an outlying area of Sangre Grande and
they were not informed of it and that is a critical
dimension of this thing.Not only are people paying
enormous prices for food commodities just to exist,
but the normal utilities that people should be
receiving, at a time when a gastro epidemic is on
the threshold, not only people are not getting water
but they are not even being informed about it.
I live in Tunapuna and water goes off hap-
hazardly all the time in the street where we live; all
the time.
Dundonald Hill, they have not got water for
months even though there is a big storage tank up on
top the hill.
November 11 in Arouca, lack of water and
stagnated drains are reported to the Member of
Parliament, Mr. McClean, who was speaking so highly
of the Budget here a few years ago. Since 1966, they
say this has been happening.
In California, roads "Workers Homes Lack
Water and Power" the headline reads in the "Express".
"La Brea Residents Take Woes to Prevatt" is
another headline on November 26 where they say

that lack of water is another problem of die residents
who said that they have been without water for
several weeks.
So, the Leader of Government Business is
obviously aware of this.
You go to Granville, Siparia. Princes Town, La
Brea, Dundonald Hill. lunapuna- everywhere you go
people are not receiving the normal public utility
water, and you relate to tlhti the problem of electri-
city which is another commodity tilat is extremely
The problems being faced in the Trinidad and
Tobago Electricity Commission are important and
significant and have to be raised; there are real indus-
trial problems there.
Workers are raising queries about the chairman-
ship of T&TEC. The country has been facing break-
downs and so on, and the Government is not taking
any serious view of the significant problems being
faced in the electricity area.

N .



Young people can start enjoying and understanding the importance of local food.

Anybody travelling on the roads of this
country in the morning It is amazing that any
work is going on in Tiuiidad and Tobago. It is
incredible if you try to get into Port-of-Spain from
the South, to see the congestion, to see the mad
accumulation of traffic extending near ly 'ck to
Chaguanas in the morning.
And Chambers tells us in his budget speech
that the congestion is going to increase. It is going ,
increase. You cannot get into Port-of-Spain in the
morning. Nobody starts work before eleven o'clock.
You know now we take lunch at 11.30, and nonrally
we are supposed to come back to work at 12.30, but
people say they have to stick to the old regime -
1.00 o'clock the work begins even though it is sup-
posed to be 12.30. We leave on time but we come
back at the old hours.

m m

So, congestion from the south; congestion from
the west Diego Martin and St. James terrific pres-
sures; mental, physical and mechanical wear and
k, tear in transport. Public transport is wholly inade-
quate. And couple with the transport problem the
inadequacies of public transport.
Let Ime give you an idea of what the problem
is in terns of transport because we have to take
into account the numerous people, including school
-: children, who have to travel by public transport.
We see that on November 2 as I said I only
took a quick glance at November. If you had to
duplicate this for every month of the year it will give
you an idea of what the problem must be like.
Working residents of Chaguanas and its environs
would like a bus service leaving the area for Port-of-
p Spain at 5.00 ajn. instead of 7.00 and 6.00 a.m. as
at present because they get caught up in die traffic
jams. They reach to work late. They have got problems.
People are being fired because diey do not
come to work on time and so on.
What is significant about this particular report
is that a spokesman for the Public Transport Service
S Corporation, said the run out position of buses at
present was not as good as it should have been
because of spare parts problem facing the Corpora-
tion. He said:
"'lie ('Coporation was unable to i b mu ilainii existing
tiie tables and when the situation improves the
'Public Transport Service corporationn will be happy to
Of course, when you read the budget you get
an idea that there is no problem ii transport.
On November 2, you see 1a ih,:sle in the
Guardian: "Worried School Children .i.v Getting
Home After Dark."
School-Children gctl;n hi :. t err dark. A
teacher reports.

YOU have to open up the powers of creative enter-
prise, for small industry of every kind and the arts; a
million flowers must bloom here giving the opport-
unity to a lot of people to express their creativity,
their wit, to create a climate, a culture, a civilization
that our people can be proud of, one that could
transcend all these narrow considerations of race and
class and generation, a larger and brighter vision for
Trinidad & Tobago. That is what Senator Laughlin
was talking about and he talked about it with a spirit
appropriate to the vision. Lloyd Best
Budget Debate
~er~lam ar ac~as----P- -F---------r---




PW ''

t~ Cl':

We are talking
about libraries
and museums
so that children
can develop in an
of genuine education

~]a -'-L .. 1-

~Qe h .1.
:Lw -

or N~-~-.7

"In a country that never loses a moment to boast of
their great oil wealth it is disgraceful to see so many
children standing at the roadsides, on mornings and
late at nights, vainly hoping for some means of
getting to their homes. Mr. George Alleyne, Public
Relations Officer, was not available for comment
yesterday. But a source told the Sunday Guardian
that the school bus system was not operating at full
strength and this was responsible for the difficulties."
And when you read the documents thai dthe
Government are producing they say there is no
problem with the school bus system.

Children line up late at night. They have to
start going to school at 5.00 o'clock in the morning.
It is disgraceful to see the problems that people are
facing immediately in terms of transport, in terms of
the normal public utilities and there is nothing in the
budget not a single statement to indicate that the
population is going to be alleviated in any way
All we hear is that congestion is going t(
increase. There is no proposal; not even an attempt
to suggest proposals for making a change.
There are so many reasonable things that could
be done immediately, We could stagger working
hours. We could undertake, certainly, to bring some
taxis and mini-buses into the Public Transport Service
Corporation to ensure that school children can get to
school on time and go back home on time.
These are normal, simple measures. There is no
big set of revenues needed to do this. It just needs a
bit of imagination and an understanding of what it
means to use practical measures to control problems.
It is just a simple practical application of manage-
ment to deal with the problems the country is facing.
But we are dealing with a Government that is
impractical, to the point of being frightening, it
giv'es us an indication of the problems that the
p.,. ition is facing at present and will continue to
fa.,-c for the normal sanities that we should have.
Mr. President, it is significant that as we debate
the budget proposals for 1975, the issue of constitu-
tion reform is also on center stage.
There can be no doubt that it is the political
dimension that will be decisive in 1975. It is only the
play of politics that can give direction and purpose
to the population and open up the possibilities of the
better world to encourage our people to work, to
build and to save.
We are maintaining that the country is at a
critical juncture. Our people are under extreme stress
taking pressure on the roads, in the food markets,
in homes; scrunting on the blocks. And it is in tdat
context that the 1975 budget, like the constitution
reform exercise, must be seen.
It must be that they answer both those

exercises, constitution reform and the budget, coming
at a critical moment in tfle history of this couniuy,
the demands of a people, for participation, for work
and for an equitable sharing of the national cake.
The budget this year also indicates significant
increases in Government's revenue deriving from oil
revenues that possibly could be much higher if we
take all the arguments raised by any ..._ ii. Senator
Solomon. But it is against that background of
spiralling inflation and a background of a country
yearning for a better standard of living; it is against
that background that the 1975 budget is in faci a
Once again the Governoent has shown its lack
of perception of the national yearning. They have
once again failed to locate the population to see
the population from inside. They continue to have a
view of the people of this country located outside of
They have failed to see the potential commit-
ment of this population to economic re-organisation
and that failure is marked in the Prime Minister's
statement at the end of that trip that he has just
made. It is marked in the proposals being made, to
activate the economy, in the budget.
I am saying that the Government failed to
perceive what tie yearnings of the people of this
country are. I am not saying that ithey do not see
what the problems in the economy are. Or, let nme

M an

put it this way. They may see what they are in
writing, whether they understand the complexities
of those problems is another matter. But the point is
that they must see dtem because they are documented
from way back. From way back they are documented.
One of tie interesting things in listening to the
Government present their budget and talk about the
problems in the country, is itat it always reminds
me of instant time travel. I do not know if they ;ae
talking about 1964 or 1974. It is a len-year pIelspec-
tive that they seem to recapture a! one and the same
They see the problems. The need for di"ersirica-
tion, the economy is dependent on oil, lthy ,ay;
structural unemployment exists; die econoni, is
highly open. You read that in dite docnuicitis
produced here lhe Review of tie Ecoomy, 'in
The Budget, and you pick up die 1964 D)raft F.c-
Year Plan and you read the same tiiig. 1 94 1974,
the problems that existing tie economy are the saie,
No different. Instant time travel- I think you can
call that phenomenon.

Whi;i it indicates is that radical measures ai:
ii::, -ii to be able to deal with the fundamental
,..-i, ;.s3s.-,: and limi n nations in the economy.
S. iniy, when we look at the picture. of
: i it tist make us realise itat we must take
o. i c': :;!certed measures to deal with tdie pro-
i' iie iimedniate problems facing the country.
And the situation is that the Government,
ikni. ,g what the problems are, cannot take those
1,c1asIres because fundamentally they do not have
,oi-.lenice in the population:
Continued on Page 8

/1.,lW i /io ci c J(. ,em't/ilio/i 0.5 ... bring
liht"n 6i9 mlls c~a// \ ci'mierprise.


A brighter vision

From Page 7.
That is why Williams is bringing Kaiser, Tenneco,
Amoco and Grace and that whole range of his new
colonialisers to resolve the problems of this country.
That is why he is doing it. Because they do not have
the confidence in the population and they do not
have confidence in the population, because they do
not have confidence in themselves. That is the fun-
damental factor. That is the frightening dimension of
budgetary proposals and Five-Year Plans in the
Government context.
They do not have confidence, that is the first
And the evidence of budgetary policy indicates,
certainly to me, that added to the dimension of a
lack of self-confidence is incompetence.
They are producing five year plans, outlining
perspectives, giving budgets year in year out and we
cannot see any way in which the structural pro-
blems of the economy are changing
They talk about long range measures and
short range measures, about the long run and the
short run and today we heard about the medium
run I think the Leader of Government Business
introduced that dimension. The fact is that the long
run is made up of a series of short runs. It is what
you do in the short rvn that decides what the long
run possibilities are goii to be.
The fact is that five-year development plans
outline perspectives, show overall policies and show
where the country can go. It is the Budget that gives
the marching orders to the country as to what we are
going to implement from year to year and how in the
process of time we can see the way in which by a set
of budgetary measures we can deal with the problems
the economy is facing.
The incompetence is revealed anytime we look
at Government's policy over the lasteighteen years.
They continually fail to set priorities. The
population cannot see any thrust in terms of mone-
tary or fiscal measures or budget proposals to deal
with the underlying problems of the economy, not
to talk about the lack of political direction.
It reveals a failure to look at the total picture
and see against a background of the problems, where
to intervene and how to set the reconstruction
process in motion.
Every time the Government comes here with
policy changes, it is as if they are starting anew.
I have said that they lack self confidence., it is
clear that there is gross incompetence but the really

I a IN

frightening dimension of their policy is the fact that
they always seem to be starting anew. They always
talk as if they have not been here for eighteen years,
as if they are not responsible for the condition of
the economy, for the problems facing the country.
They are never prepared to accept the responsibility
for the situation that the country is facing.
Williams goes to China and says that this
country lacks national identity. Eighteen years rule
by the People's National Movement and Williams
goes to China and says that this is the position here
- no national identity.
The Leader of Government Business outlined
the problems.facing the economy. They are the same
problems that existed at the beginning of the 1960's
and he gives no indication of the extent to which it is
Government's policy that is responsible for the
condition of the economy and for the problems the
country is facing.
It is a People's National Movement phenome-
non, it seems to me, of failure ity and to vaps, that is what it really means.
Williams retired last year. After two monthshe
returned from retirement and all of a sudden we had
a whole set of programmes and policies. There was
somebody apparently contesting to take his place but
he returned and took back his marbles, as we like to
say in Tapia, and proceeded with a whole new set of
perspectives for die society.
I am saying that it is a frightening phenome-
non and I want to make special mention of it
because there is a statement in the Budget given by
the Minister of Finance that I think is extremely
important for the people of this country. He was
talking about education and he said:
"The academic type of education which many parents
still seem to require can only result in frustration for
the student as after years of study he will be unable
to obtain a job for the simple reason that he does not
have the basic training to fill the types of vacancies
which the development in the economy will generate.
The fact is that we have an over-supply of students
who have 'O' level passes in subjects which are not
directly and immediately relevant to the require-
ments of the economy. They experience difficulty
in finding j6bs, they- become frustrated, some even
become delinquent. We cannot change the technology
to suit the training; the training must be related to the
technology of the type of industries which we can
develop in order to create jobs. Parents, teachers and
students must take a long term view of the economy
and see whether the training they desire is relevant
to the circumstances which prevail."
This is 1974 and the Minister of Finance is

In IIIIn Ill. 11 111


g- i


You always

wanted her to



makes it easy -

and an ideal

Gift too.



making that state'.,-rt. It is a grossly irresponsible
statement because the policies in education have not
been enumeratedby the parents, die economy has not
changed, oil has always been a factor here.
It'is when you do not see yourself in charge of
the economy that you do not perceive the way in
which the economy can develop based on the re-
sources that exist here and if it is that the Govern-
ment of this country has been running this place for
eighteen years and they have created a situation in
which people cannot g. :obs because they are not
adequately trained to the extent that they become
delinquent then it is an indictment on the Govern-
Who is the Minister of Finance refcimuig to? Is
he referring to Harewood and Jeffers and Jones who
were shot? Is he referring to them as the delinquents
of this education programme?
What is it that Mr. Chambers stands up and
blames parents and students and teachers about?
Those are people who went into the school
system innocent. They went into a system organized
by Government and they came out of that system
achieving its goals because the goals of thatsystem are
the '0' levels.
They achieved those goals; they came out on
top and they entered into a world where there are no
jobs and the Minister of Finance has the callous-
ness, the irresponsibility, the audacity to blame the
young people who paid for that education system
with their lives.
That is what it means and it is frightening to
know that Government are setting down policy
measures of education in this irresponsible way.
Who is running the country? Is it not Kamal,
Mahabir, Chambers, Williams, Prevatt and the rest of
them? It is a disgrace, an indictment, bigger than any
of the set of corrupt practices going on in this
country. It stands higher than all of that because
these are young people who paid for those irrespons-
ible programmes set down by" Government with
their lives.
They have produced three five-year plans,
budgets year in year out, perspectives for the society
and the country is facing hardships die likes of which
we have never had before. It is "blows like peas", as
we say in Trinidad, "everywhere you turn."
'Government has not grasped the logistics of
practical implementation. The Leader of Government
Business is always talking about the fact that Tapia
is not practical. To be practical means that when you
set yourself a set of aims and objectives, you have to
be able to implement them. That is what practicality
is. You have to design marching orders, you have to
design a system of implementation. And tdie thing
that says you are achieving those policies and directives
is tie trend existing in die economy.
You must be able, at some point in time, to
discern trends of coming to terms \with unemploy-
ment, coming to terms with die need to diversity die
economy, you must be able to discern diese tends.
But after die enumeration oi the economic
problems in the Second Five-Year Plan 14 dithe
trends today indicate that unemployi .L is rising,
that agriculture is decliinng, diiit construction is
declining. All tde trends indicae mi ..: we are worse
off today than we weie \!:eni we hbla thdie second
five-year plan in 1964. Continued next week.

. r ---- -- -M R ......... I.. RM ...... I .... MM .......... L...-M

._ --

~e~c~In -J.
As 1 jw- .-"

' ,'- i : 26, 1975

Alston Grant addresses St Clements youth council

BROTHERS and Sisters,
I want to say how glad
I am to be here with you
today. I thank Brother
De Caires for giving me
the opportunity to come
to St. Clements today.
Our presence in St.,
Clements this day must be
viewed in the larger context
of our existence in the West.
Indies as a whole. Who
among us does rot know that
sugar cane, for which St.
Clement is noted, was one of
the main economic forces
that motivated the Imperial-
ist 'mother countries' to
embark on the wholesale
transfer of our forefathers
from Africa and India? The
results of this saga, termed
the Enterprise of the Indies,
is well known. The psychol-
ogical effects of that enter-
prise are notably still with
us today.
From Fyzabad to St.
Clements is not a long way.
Sugar cane production, to
petroleum production, for
which Fyzabad is noted, is
not long either, Characteristic-
ally, both sugar and oil.
continue to be agents for
exploitation and degradation.
Caroni Ltd. and Trinidad
Tesor.o and both owned and'
controlled in part by Imperial-
ist interest. Not to mention
the banks, insurance com-
panies, Fedchem, Amoco and
others well known: The
Enterprise of the Indies,
started since in the days of
Columbus, is still good busi'
ness in the West indies,.
I ha;v been asked to speak
on one of the most talked
about issues of the day -
"Community work and youth
in a changing society"; for
this opportunity, I am grate-
Like all colonised people,
victims of Imperial rule,
there are maior problems
besetting us all. Some of
which are with us since
"sugar was king". In coming
to St. Clement today for us
of standing up and saying
something to my people? In
other words I was question-
ing my ability my self-
confidence that is. The
startling truth is that we are
all trying at this particular
historical moment, more
than ever to regain our self
confidence, our manhood.
There is no better way to do
this, than by having occasions
hke this one organised by St,
Clement Youth Council.
In speaking about Youth
and change, I want us to go
back a little to the highpoint

of what is now labeled. The
February Revolution.
It is possible that there
will be those of us who will
'be asking -i vhy February
1970? Why go back there?
The answer is, February saw
the emergence of organisa-
tions like yours, which the
whole country almost the
whole country never knew
existed. Organizations like St.
Clements Youth Council
which gave me the opport-
unity to say something Here.
How many of us remember
UMROBI from San Fernan-
do, Pinetoppers from behind
the bridge in Port-of-Spain
and a whole range of others
which I missed out.


The emergence of these
organizations revealed that up
to this day the country is
thinking about a whole range
of issues. Inequality, un-
employment, Imperialist
domination, exploitation and
Afro-Indian relations. I hope
members of this organisation
are thinking about them.
Brother De Caires is. We
speak about them. It is in
this context that I hope we
see community organizations.
As vehicles for humanising
the society. Yes! I make
boldly the statement that the
su:iety is unjust, inhumane
and materialistic, and it is
our historical responsibility


to remedy this fact. History
will not absolve is if we fail.
The. writings and philoso-
phies ofMarx, Lenin and Mao
are sweeping the Caribbean
as a tidal wave, may I add
however, that quoting chapter
and verse from these socialist
theoreticians would hardly
help us. Informative as they
are. Our job is much harder.
It involves first, a definition
of our society, based on our
past and present historical
conditions whichhaveset the
stage for the present Socio-
economic and political
arrangement, against which
we are rebelling.
It is easy for us all to
speak about using community
organizations as a medium for
changing the Society. Th.e
fundamental question re-
mains. How do we do it?
Primarily, I believe that com-
munity organizations must be
built in the spirit of brother-
hood. Community organisa-
tions must transcend bread
and butter issues. Important
as they are. They ought to be
built on a universal vision
of man's equality. We must
remove our gaze from the
narrow alley of materialism
and reach for the wider plains
of spiritual fulfilment too.
Man. cannot live by bread
All organizations have
goals. Those which we intend
to create and yours,-must-
also have goals. It is only by
genuine commitment that

anything worthwhile can be
achieved by any organisation,
Our'organisations must teach
people to talk and talk back.
We will all disagree at times,
and we must be able to say
so when we do.
Any organisation which
does not allow for conflict'
is a one man organisation, it
is anotherP.N.M. organisation
or a D.LP. for that matter. It
is autocratic, it has no cpnfi-
dence in its members. It, is
only when an organisation
has confidence in the wisdom
of its members, it allows
dissenting views. We all talk
back at times when we dis-
agree, and any organisation
that cannot facilitate this,
will not have us for'long.
Our community organisa-
tion must teach us to crawl,

For all citizens who
strive towards a better
life for themselves
& their children..


PHONES: 31421.


walk and talk, in so far as
community organizations can.
Our self confidence can be
strengthened here in this way.
I want to humbly say, at
this point, .that if today I
stand before you capable of
saying something, I owe that
organisation The. Tapia
House Group due credit. It
is no different, essentially,
from yours. The only differ-
ence is that mine or (ours) is
in Fyzabad, where I live.

In concluding, I want to
thank every one for- their
attention. It was indeed a
pleasure. Proverbs chapter '29,
verse 18-says, I quote "whe3,l
there is no vision the.pec'.:.
perish" -and "Forwzrj
ever, backward never," was'
a motto that "was taught to
me in Primary school i:n
Tobago, where'I was born. I
coIrimend both quotations to
youi and thank you.
. '

Attention Southernc


Be in Bread

Cakes & Pastries

are now in your area



Crown Bakeries Ltd

99-101 Charlotte St., 21-23 iza. St..
Port-of-Spain St. James
62-344 71 & 345 79 62-23208 & 210 79


/Ys~ymbtoi cafzcWiiry

--- --- "IlL~nrC

L-I ~

- -- I






Rose, COi~rY1-. ian (rt tfl witii T'D-lv 'and the tart/i v. ,n~isin (tie t\CPckr. 'Uiia

Even little ones have their part in Calypso Woman.

From Page 3
Boynes and Tony and the
The story centres on Rose,
played by Cheryl-Ann Green,
a young woman of the
village who works at a city
nightclub. She nevertheless
returns regularly to see her
lover Jules Bonaparte, played
by Rhette Burris,a ping-pong
player. Jules loves Rose with

From Page 3

bine in the climax of each
stanza, as the audience laughs
on cue and Dacron opens his
eyes wide, sings "Bom",
throws back his head, begins
to bend wildly backwards
and forwards stiffly from the
waist, and to do a funny
kind of goose-step on tip-toe.
Nobody else can quite do
that- the song, the dance,
the look on his face are all
elements of a distinctive
dramatic act which is
Not like Unity who
comes after Dacron. Unity
has the studied look of a
creep close cut hair,
opaque dark glasses, bright
red shirt open down the
front like a jacket. He leans
forward to the audience. He
has no dance,


He tries to look con-
sumed by the scandalousness
of the outrage of bribery
which he is decrying, but he
dosen't convince; he tries
too hard to look and act the
part, and he never fully
carries the audience.
You try to look at the
different styles as they appear
in the course of the night.
From Blakie, the one-time
"crowd-pleaser" wearing a
blouse and mini skirt to
demonstrate how some
women walk, now forgetting
his lines and missing his cue
with the band, to Fighter, as
always, provoking laughs for
his own ugliness,punching the
air, wagging his bottom and
exposing his bald head.
Then there is Brigo. "Yuh
horner man come," he sings.
It's a tip-off from a macocious
neighbour, and Brigo manages
to capture that mixture of
malice, sympathy and gloat-
ing that marks the attitude
of the professional maco.
Look at Brigo in black all in

a jealousy which causes
disaster later on.
The production promises
to be rich in folk music,
calypsoes by Pascal Gay,
dances influenced by the
bongo, shango and tamboo-
shades ofMartha Graham and

one suit with a red bolero
and red wide-brimmed hat.
See his mouth open wide,
lips quivering, nostrils flaring
and eyes shot: "Yuh horner
man come!"
You can't escape the
dirty jokes called smut. Some
dirty jokes are funnier than
others; some achieve effect
by shock. Take Calypso
Prince and Hindu Prince.
Calypso Prince ends his
song by using the micro-
phone stand as a prick with
which he chases after a
wining-back female pelvis.
The literalness is a little too
shocking. The audience is
not transported.
Hindu Prince pretends to
be an animal doctor trained
in Calcutta to tend to the
ills of, naturally, pussy, ass,
cock and so on. The "cat
specialist" doctor rescues a
cat from a picker patch "it
would dead wid prick."
Stink: a sustained litany of
reeking epithets. Hindu
Prince must have a strong
Tall, slim, with Panday-
style hairdo, the Hindu
Prince never smiles or shows
any particular involvement
with the story the per-
fectly detached raconteur ,
depending for his effect not
on how he looks, but on the
sensational content of his

Valentino immediately
after that is a sharp change
of mood. He hopes for no
laughs. He sets out to make
people feel uneasy, introduc-
ing an impolite, even un-
fashionable, topic: he gets
"political", Focussing on the
don't-care Trinidadian atti-
tude, he sums up the in-

West Side Story. And I saw
this literally in black and
white, leotards.

Think of the difference
that will be made by cos-
tuming and this weekend's
all-weekend session.'We work

equality and shows how
both the haves and the
have-nots appear to be
jumping up together in a
band singing a roadmarch
"Trinidad is nice, Trinidad
is a paradise"'
The sarcasm is abrasive,
and the underlying menace
comes out at the end of each
chorus "ah hear them talking
about revolution day ... fire
on the way."
Valentino would slow
down the pace, not merely
to tug at a sleeve, but to
put you to sit down as they
say. He himself assumes a
conversational pose, sitting
at the edge of the stage,
concerned more than any-
thing else to reach the hearts
of the brothers and sisters.
An altogether overpowering


The chorus is repeated by
the Sparks: "Trinidad is
nice .. It sounds farther
and farther away as the song
goes on, as if it's an idea
alienated from the group
consisting of the presiding
calypsonian and the Trini-
dadians in the audience.
What Valentino has
achieved is the dramatisation
of the message, through the
superb management of its
presentation. The rest of the
show is a climb-down from
"Trinidad is nice .. .".
The Revue is still slack,
the programme not properly
arranged so as to avoid slack.
By 10.47, after the 14th
:singerand the fourth "encore"
for Fluke, it's unrelieved
boredom. Yes, ho hum. The
unconscionably late start, the
disaster of Nap Hepburn's

all week-end at the studio
and at nights we sleep on
foam mattresses placed
around the same studio. We
bathe and breakfast at a
friend's home and it's back
to work,' one young member
living over thirty miles away
in Curepe tells me.
Three shows on the 29th,
30th and 31st are carded
for the Bowl and the idea of

The "Lord Intermission,"
as he is introduced by Stalin,
holds the stage for 20
minutes. The resumption is
"Neo-Calypso". The Sparks,
employing the fancy-stepping
choreography introduced by
the Temptations some years
ago, and the approaches to
calypso pioneered by Lance-
lot Layne and Frankie
Atwell, sing a medley of
Kitchener's last-s e a s o n's
calypso hits, ending up with
their own "Mas in Africa"
and "Cricket Match", This is
a new and welcome develop-
ment in the calypso tents, an
insurance for continuity and
future improvements.
The 16th calypso for the

having one at a Port-of-
Spain venue is still being
considered. But the opening
night promises to be a grand
occasion: Just about every-
one who is something in the
world of the performing arts
will be there to witness what
director/choreographer Eu.
gene Joseph hopes will be a
mile-post in the evolution of
Trinidad dance.

night is "Tempo" sung by a
spring-heeled little singer in
white shoes called Maestro.
The 19th is called "Chuky
Chuky", and it's sung by
Scoobie spelling: unsure), a
feller who splutters into the
microphone and manages to
sound likeCalypso Rc-. .
song is about dancing clos-
when everybody else is
wailing and jumping up -
Carnival body music.

Number 20 calypso is by
a so-called 14-year-old
wonder. And you put your
hand by your mouth when
you hear the song this child
is going to sing is called
"Bull She". But let Stalin
say it whey yuh digging?



N am e: .................. ..........
(Surname) (Other names)
A address: .............................

Occupation: ............................

Place of Work: .................. .....

Interests: (Indicate or Insert)
SOU-SOU INVESTMENT ............... .
DRAMA ..................... ......
SPORT.. ...... ..........
OTHER ...... ...................
Group affiliation: (Indicate or Insert)
TAPIA HOUSE GROUP .................
I hereby subscribe to the rules of the TAPIA
HOUSE GROUP and enclose $1,00 membership
Signed: ................... Date: ......

Return to Tapia, 82 St. Vincent Street, Tunapuna, Trinidad

Calypso Woman


The leave is crucial

From Page 2
any useful measure of the validity of Parliament when
the political and constitutional arrangements make it
virtually impossible for community interests to find
meaningful political expression. The marches of 1970
were at least suggestive evidence that even the 1966
Parliament was perhaps invalid in spite of a 66%voter
Long before the February, Revolution boiled
over in 1970, racial distortion of political life and
Doctor Politics in the most arrogant of its many
varieties, had, in both major parties, made it inpos-
sible to secure representation equal to the people's
hopes. As early as October 1969, Tapia therefore
felt compelled to advocate a sweeping constitution
reform. This was before the black power eruption,
long before the boycott; it was when ANR Robinson
and Martin Sampati were still wedded to the People's
National Movement.

We in Tapia were firmly committed to the view
that the Parliament was illegitimate and the Empire
Day Election of 1971 only served to confirm that
position. It is because of this long-standing belief that
our major political involvement from the start has
been in the issue of constitution refonn. Dr. Sampath
and those who wish to oppose us honestly cannot be
allowed conveniently to avoid the evidence which is
rich and full and available.
The position taken by dte DAC is very different
from ours. Mr. Robinson is on record as being happy
with the present framework of rules and his party
has repeatedly treated constitution reform as a minor
issue and has insisted on elevating the revision
of the electoral rules into the only disputed matter.
It is in the context of its campaign to force new
elections on terms hopefully more favourable to the
Opposition that the DAC came to highlight the
"illegal" character of Parliament. Its insistence on
"illegality" was merely an extravagant tactical
manoeuvre in support of its demand for early elec-
tions and a clumsy device for improving the party's
short-term prospects.
The DAC's first response to the successful
boycott, like, that of UNIP, was not to agitate consti-
tution reform but to call for new elections. His visit
to the Governor General suggests that Mr. Robinson
had bullied the ACDC-DLP into staying away from
the election because he trusted unconventional
instincts more than his own, and equally likely,
because he did not fancy his chances. It is significant
that-in his Savannah Speech he began with the Tapia

headline of that week on the subject: "Time to Take
Your Stand".
Tapia people do not see anything dishonourable
with the DAC position. The stand seems perfectly
valid in ite conventional perspective which they
bring to the political situation, conventional not in
any abusive sense but in the sense that they do not
believe that we aile in any profound constitutional or
political crisis. The DAC people are fully consistent;
they believe that the solution lies in holding a fresh
election and that the established ways of proceeding
are quite adequate to the needs of our age. Tapia's
position is in no way morally superior to that; we
simply do not believe that itresponds to the needs of
this particular phase of our history.
I-orTapia, consti iutional reform is iequiied now
both to establish a State with much more room for
popular involvement and to forge new methods of
political intercourse, methods appropriate to a nation
now engaged in welding its fragments into an un-
divided whole. 'The categorical imperative now is the
founding of professional political organizations witli
very distant horizons.
Tapia certainly envisages a time when it will be
our responsibility to insist on the due processes of
the law and tie constitution. If the DAC felt equally
confident about the future of their politics, they
would appreciate that a heritage of lawlessness,
however attractive now, would become far less
attractive later. If we are serious about the future,
must think responsibly from now; in politics as in
billiards, the "leave" is the crucial thing.

m 0

From the very beginning, Tapia has therefore
insisted on a resolution of the crisis via a Constituent
Assembly of Citizens which would repose the
sovereignty in the large majority of tie people. We
have never entertained the proposal by Justice
Georges and"Mr. de la Bastide that the Government
should risk transferring the legal supremacy of
Parliament to any assembly of which die validity
would still be a matter of doubt and of speculation.
Instead, we advocated an Assembly of Citizens,
groups and parties to be held at the political as
distinct from tie governmental level with an all-party
decision-making body, the decisions of which could
be duly taken to Parliament where they would bind
that legal body on the strength of the prior agreement
involving the governing party,
Such a plan contained none of the pitfalls

identified by the Prime Minister in his decision to
take the constitutional issue to the illegitimate
Parliament and to have it decided there. If Dr.
Williams had wanted reasonable with the
country and the opposition, there existed no con-
stitutional obstacles to the calling of the Tapia
Conference of Citizens and Constituent Assembly at
the level of the political parties. There existed few
political obstacles even because the Tapia proposal
was so timed and played in such a key as to prevent
any large Government loss of face. It is a measure of
Dr. Williams' excessive insecurity that he has been as
rigid as he has turned out to be. This proves that the
real political obstacle to a solution is the low estimate
which the Prime Minister really has made of his own
prospects for the future.

The Tapia Constituent Assembly offered the
Government a democratic and feasible reconciliation
between the legality and theillegitimacy of the 1971
Parliament. When Dr. Williams refused,it only exposed
his sense of weakness and his willingness to employ
the legality of Parliament not in support of a legiti-
mate Assembly involving the valid Opposition but as
a substitute for any such Assembly.


Tapia immediately understood the dangers and
the opportunities of this empty parliamnentarist
posture. When the chance came for us to enter the
Senate, we seized it, knowing full well that in doing
so, we would give the Government yet another
chance to assemble the valid forces, this time within
the very walls of the illegitimate Parliament. At the
same time, we were confident that, out of the
weakness he had already betrayed, Dr. Williams
would prove incapable of- saving his government and
his party from the ultimate discredit. Vhen our
Amendment to their Motion on the Constitution
gave the Government a chance to bring the country
together through the Senate, they rejected it with
great bravado and made it plain to all and sundry
that, even on so fundamental an issue, the PNM
Government places the interest of their party's
survival above the future of the nation.
Fortunately, nobody now regards the Prime
Minister's exploitation of legality as anything but a
sham and a shoddy imposture. In refusing the Tapia
Amendment, he trampled on a perfectly legal chance.
The real value of the Tapia presence in the
Senate, so far as the constitutional crisis is concerned,
is that we have taken the PNM Government way
along dte constitutional and parliamentary road,
Even if the future fails to bear fruit for this Tapia
strategy, the moral and ideological cogency of the
position will stand, whatever the huffing and the
puffing on the partof Dr. Sampath.

Tapia House
Jan. 20, 1975.

: 7

I I .1 OI'

On Sale


Lloyd Best

Address to the Tapia Fourth
Annual General Assembly Part
1 held on Sunday April 7th
1974 at the Tapia House

SThe closer you look,

C jJ Lt-_LALa the better we look.

Look close at
Me Eniearney


THE OWTU must collect the money for Trinidad &
Tobago because the Williams Government refuses to do the
job. That is the real case for the hardest possible bargain-
ing and, on the strength of the available figures, there is no
resisting it. Over the 5 years 1971-1975, the loss to the
country could amount to over $800m.
These losses amount to just about the estimate of the total
take from petroleum in 1975 ($810m); to more than the estimate of
total recurrent expenditure ($675m.); and to nearly 2/3 of the
total overall expenditure budgeted for this year ($1294m). Such is
the scale of the leakages involved, of the criminal negligence on the

part of the PNM'.
The amount of taxable
income in the industry
depends on the number of
barrels of crude; the quality
of the crude in relation to
sulphur content and specific
gravity; the price we assume
for tax purposes; the amount
and the price of natural gas
sold; and the exploration,
production and capital costs
which are deductible *iom
earnings. Wage & salary : .s
are only one small part of the
last item.
The tightest possible tax
policy must therefore begin by
proper inspection and moni.
touring arrangements to check
the flow of oil (production
and imports) and gas, to
sample the quality, to pick up
changes in selling prices and to
spot any padding of costs.
Then there is the ques-
tion of the tax rates. We
impose royalties, corporation
tax, withholding tax, un.
employment levy, a through-
put tax on refined oil and
other miscellaneous duties and


There is only one
genuine consideration which
the Minister must bear in
mind in deciding how much
his total take should be. It is
whether the rate of profit and
the flow of cash yielded to
the companies are enough to
keep them in the business at a
level of output acceptable to
On this basis, there is no
warrant whatsoever for the
low returns to the Government
and the high profit rates now
ruling in Trinidad & Tobago
oil. Official negligence is an
established fact in regard to
a) monitoring and inspection
b) slow response to changed
prices c) slipshod cotnputation
of costs d) faulty calculations
of royalties e) low rates of
combined corporation tax f)
low throughput taxes,
The only variable with
which the PNM Government
has never ceased to be con-
cerned has been the wages and
salaries bill bargained for by
the Oilfields Workers Union.
Over the last 13 years or so,
this has been the largest single
cause of continuing official
anxiety. The major thrust of
policy has been towards "tran-
quillity in industrial relations"
by means of restrictive legisla-
ti on,
In his Budget Speech of
1964, ANR Robinson set the
stage for coercive legislation.

arguing that business and
Union restlessness"are tending
tc .Iy the various incen-
tives offered by the govern-
ment to attract investment.. .
"A healthy industrial
relations pattern cannot
be achieved on the basis
of turbulence on the one
side or intransigence on
the other. The process
has already gone too far.
Any continuation of this
state of affairs into 1964
will permanently injure
our industrialization
effort and damage our
international reputa-
The ISA duly followed
in 1965. The failure of that
law and of the IRA of 1972
clinches Tapia's contention
that the running battle has
nothing to do with whether
or not George Weekes is a
Badjohn as the right thinks

"IT is a scandal that the
Government has present-
ed no outline Budget for
the Petroleum Sector
over the next one, five
and 10 years.
Best said that oil was now
contributing over 60% of
total government revenue, the
sector was our "navel-string
sector", and it had always
been the biggest contributor
to exports, imports,national
income and domestic pro-
duct and to most of the
important totals,
"Now we have the second
boom in 20 years; our
country has a golden chance

- or that Williams is a Badjohn
- as the left too often thinks.
Our basic problem is the
irrational control of oil by the
corporations. Given this con,
trol, hard wage bargaining is
both good because it increases
oil-workers income and there-
fore national income at the
expense of corporate profits
as well as bad because it
reduces government revenue,
increases inequality and pos-
sibly unemployment in so far
as it leads to an irrational
overall wage-pattern.
How does the incom-
petence of the Williams Gov-
ernment come in? Well, they
aggravate the situation mark-
edly both .because of tax
policy'and because of spending
Inefficient taxation re-
sults in a split with the
companies of perhaps 60/40
Every- Union dollar therefore

increases the national take by
40 cents. The feasible take
according to Tapia estimates
should be no less than 85/15,
in which case the OWTU
would no longer have the
responsibility for collecting
what they can, of the money
due to the nation.
The inefficiency of the
Government's spending leaves
the Union another responsibil-
ity. At the moment the OWTU
can better be trusted than the
PNM to spend on housing,
food production, technical
education, small business for
ex-workers and so on.
The resources are there
and the climate is right for the
Union while no Government
plan could ever be implement-
ed. There is too much corrup-
tion, too much disenchant-
ment, too much unavoidable
At home and abroad,

oil is politics as well as econ-
omics, Armed with a plan for
constructive spending of the
money, the Union must hold
out for the full increase in
income- pending the national-
ization of the industry when
the Government finally falls.
The task now for the
OW'U, in the context of
some such plan, is to rally the
whole of the progressive
movement and to provide a
focus for the mobilization of
resources needed to confront
the old regime with a new
vision of the economy of
Trinidad & Tobago.
Whatever is decidedupon
moi:. ,ay special attention to
unemployment, to inequality
and to the rising cost of living.
When oil is owned by
the people, the ball-g;: will
change again. The responsibility
of Mr. Weeks will then be the
same as Mr. Mansweli's,

Wanted: an oil budget

to reconstruct the colonial
economy. This means that
the major industrial thrust
must be in the energy-based
and energy-using sector. The
expenditures in oil are just
as crucial now."
The Government, the
Tapia Secretary pointed out,
regarded oil as a defensive
political shield and was only
casting about for plans. Tapia
wanted a Budget giving the
figures as follows.

250 million jumping up in ste elband

THE Govt's main concern
is now with the political
control gained from ex-
tended State participation.
Fully 100,000 jobs and
votes were now in the pay
of the Treasury and the
big boast of the ruling
party was that salaries
nowamountedto some 55%
of the annual recurrent
Mr, Best charged that the
Government is engaged in all
kinds of "skull juggling."
a colossal figure was
budgeted for the Ministry

of Finance more than
half the recurrent total.
This allowed all kinds of
allocations for purposes not
approved by Parliament.
* a sinister dependence
on special funds has been
emerging with little or no
proper accounting in the
required detail.
* a complete blank on the
earnings from participation.
In spite of a gigantic State
investment in oil, sugar,
utilities, manufacturing and
tourism, no funds came
back into the Consolidated
Account. About $250m.
are jumping up in steelband,

* Ministry of Petroleum
Planning & Operations
* Energy Secretariat
Research, Education & Training
* Petroleum Institute
*Faculty of Engineering, UWI
Participation in Oil
Downstream Operations


Corporation Tax
Withholding Tax
Unemployment Levy
Throughput Tax
Excess Profits Tax
Premia on Leases
Dividends foi State

Totting up the losses

1971- 73
1971-73 Back taxes from Texaco and Shellamountedto
only $27m, (for 2 years) and $1 7m. respectively. Loss incalcul-
able but definite. Bad monitoring, low prices, padded costs, no
throughput tax, income tax too low.

1974 Loss at least $280m. Slow adjustment of
reference prices. Tax rates too low. Negligent monitoring of
crude output and of refining output and input; faulty com-
putation of royalty.


1975 Estimates way out. At least S400m..'
output is projected at 70m. barrels. Corporate ta
low, throughput tax 50% too low. Loss could L
monitoring not improved immediately.

.-'king if
-'% too
more if


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