Material Information

Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Creation Date:
April 7, 1974
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000329131 ( ALEPH )
03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )

Full Text

iEW yLj; N. Y,


Vol. 4 No. 14

AS THE poui-season
fades out in a blaze of
golden glory, members,
associates and supporters
will gather this Sunday
April 7, in the garden
setting of the Tapia House
fora political stock-taking
The occasion is Part One
of the Annual General


Assembly 1974.
Part Two will come off on
Sunday May 8 and will be for
Members only. That sit-
ting will be devoted to a
discussion of Reports from
local groups and the National
Executive and to the election

Assembly This Sunday

of an Executive for the new
Term 1974/75.
Tapia people are request-
ed to regularise their member-
ship and their financial stand-
ing in time for nomination
papers to be distributed at the
end of this Sunday's pro-

Nominations will close on
April 28 for the eleven offices
which are filled by elections
out of a full complement of
AS usual a shuttle service
will be in operation this Sun-
day on St. Vincent Street,

Tunapuna, to transport Tapia
people up to the House.
The plan is to wind up the
Sitting just about lunch-time
although the Assembly aims
at a full assessment of the
political situation in the coun-
Beer, soft drinks and, light
lunches will be available for
those wishing to stay on for
old talk at the end.


STARVATION is at the
door of nine families and.
nearly 70 people in Cen-
tral Trinidad. For 8 years
now the breadwinners
have been scrunting for
wages in the Morichal
Quarry "behind God
back" in the Central
Range. And now they
have reached their wits'
Arnold John, a quarry
man for 30 years, and his
brother quarrymen gave the

story to Tapia. He looked as
hard as theyellow boulders
piled up on the site waiting
to be taken away.
The problem is that no-
body wants their stone. al-
though it is. a Gpvernment
Quarry. No sales, no wages.
Pay is given only when the
mined stone has been trans-
ported. For this year barely
10 yds have been moved.
The quarrymen say that
in 1966 Victor Campbell came
and deemed the stone unfit
for road construction. Camp-

bell is himself a Contractor-
whose trucks and associates
are everywhere dealing in
stone. He should know when
stone is good.
"The onliest thing why we
feel he must be make a mis-
take, said one of tfee mens "is
that five crash-programme
getting stone from quarries
right by here".
When Tapia checked, sure
enough Trinidad Cement
Limited and Guaracara Quar-
ries were -supplying stone to
Government Projects. And

both are within a mile or two
of Moricha!, dining similar
"The Minister of Labour
must be en' know how much
bobol can go on in private
"And the stone is so much
cheaper at the Govt. Quarry.
Is $5.00 per yard as against

Steps Towards Our West Indian Nation

Compiled from three publications of the Caribbean
Community Secretariat, Geoegetown, Guyana.

1958-62 WestIndiesFederation in existence.
1962 Mid-year Common Services Con-
ference. Decision to continue com-
mon services in Shipping, Univer-
sity Education, Meteorology.
Independence for Jamaica and
Trinidad and Tobago August.
Trinidad & Tobago proposes uni-
tary statehood for Eastern Carib-
bean W.I. islands and advocates
Caribbean Economic Community.
1963 First Heads of Government Con-
ference attended byJamaica, Guy-
ana, Barbados and Trinidad &
Tobago July.
1962-68 Trinidad & Tobago discuss with
Grenada possibility of unitary state.
Little Eight establish Regional
Council of. Ministers and discuss
political unity. Barbados with-
draws in 1965 but discussion con-
tinue among Little Seven. By 1967
all save Montserrat accept status
of Associated State with Gt Britain
responsible for defence and ex-
ternal affairs only. Late 1967 a
W. Indies Associated States Coun-
cil formed. Eastern Caribbean Com-
mon Market established in 1968:
1964 Second Heads of Government
Conference January.
1965 Third Heads of Government Con-
ference March

* CARIFTA and the New Caribbean, 1971
* From CARIFTA to Caribbean Community, 1972
* The Caribbean Community: A Guide, 1973

1966 Independence for Guyana and
Barbados February & November.
1967 Regional Integration Studies sub-
mitted by University Economists.
August meeting of Govt officials
and private sector discusses Inte-
gration Studies and a; possible
Caribbean Development Bank.
Fourth Conference of Heads of
Government in October lays foun-
dations of Caribbean Community.
Little Seven and Bahamas join in.
Agreement to establish CARIFTA
as first step. Common External
Tariff, Harmonisation of Fiscal
Incentives, regional integrated in-
dustries and Regional Air and Sea
Carriers envisaged. Special provi-
sions for poorer countries take
the form of an Agricultural Mar-
keting Protocol, a Reserve List
allowing import duties to be re-
tained for a special period,
Article 39 allowing the imposition
of protective duties, and a policy
to locate industries in these parts.
1968 CARIFTA comes into being. An-
tigua, Barbados, Guyana, Trinidad
& Tobago, (May). Dominica, Gre-
nada, St Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, St
Lucia, St Vincent, (July), Jamaica,
Montserrat, (August).
Commonwealth Caribbean Re-

gional Secretariat established -
May. Charged to administer Free
Trade Area and to service com-
mon services and functional co-
1969 Caribbean Development Bank es-
tablishedformally. To begin opera.
tions in 1970. Major purpose to
provide capital funds for poorer
countries espeically via "soft
loans". Members CARIFTA coun-
tries plus Bahamas, Caymans,
Turks & Caicos, British Virgin.
U.K., Canada also contribute
equity capital. U.S. contribute
substantially to soft-loan fund.
Control of Bank anchored in with
Commonwealth Caribbean coun-
Fifth Heads of Government Con-
ference February. Caribbean
Health Ministers Conference in-
augurated -- February.
1970 Sixth Heads of Government Con-
ference April.
Caribbean Technical Assistance
Programme started -- November.
1971 Council of Legal Education set
up-March Belize joins CARIFTA

Continued on Page 8

Official condemnation of
the Quarry affects nine men
in all and over 60 dependents.
All the men have been winning
stone for over 15 years.
Ramdeen has 14 children,
Samuel Gooralal 14, Victor
Gonzalez 8, Black Sookoo
and Saroop 5 each, Beresford
Benn and Evan Simon four
"And who care? All the
I'nion does do is take out
dues". The Union is NUGFW.
If the men get a day or
a forthnight's pay, two dollars
have to come out for union
"I leggo Critchlow and
dem five years ago, all they
want is to handle big nego-
tiations, Morichal too small".
Arnold John looked rue-
fully at the hundreds of yards
of mined stone lying idle on
the quarry floor.

New World

THE New World Group
announces the publica-
tion of The Idea of a
Caribbean Community,
a 12-page statement on
the political integration
movement in the West
The pamphlet is written
by Dr' Vaughan Lewis,Deputy
Director of the Institute of
Social and Economic Studies,
UWI dnd Chief of the Cave
Hill Branch.
It goes on sale this weel
in bookstores throughout the
region for 75 cents (W.I.) and
35 cents (.1).
Dr Lewis concludes that
no integration movement
based on trade and produc-
tion can survive without new
political terms.

25 Cents



Let them eat bread...

Malcolm Buggeridge

THE LATEST appointee
to the Post of Vice-
Chancellor of the UWI is
Mr Ashton "Zac"Preston,
known as "Marse Preston"
to the more unlettered ot
his Jamaican friends. In
other words., the new V.C
is a true true Jamaican.
His is a very interesting
choice, for his career at the
UWI has been, not in the
academic field but in the area
of finance. He is an accountant
by profession and ball ac-
counts a first rate one at that.
I'took the opportunity to
go in and speak to a few of
our studious Ph.D's on their
reactions to Mr. Preston's ap-
pointment. What follows is
not a tape recording and per-
sons interviewed claimed to
be non-spokesmen of the
Me: Tell me, Dr
Dinga-ling, how has the news
of Mr. Preston's appointment
struck you.


Dr Dinga-ling: Well, at
first, I was really struck by it.
I mean to say, you know this
is an academic institution
after all, and one rather
thought that an academic ap-
pointee would have been lo-
Me: But isn't it true that
academics are often suspected
of being rather impractical,
and ii. any case have been
unable to stop the University
from drifting along to one
confusion after .another?
Wouldn't a practical man be
Dr. Dinga-ling: You may
well be right, the truth is that
the main obsession of the
University's Senior Adminis-
tration for years has been'
finance. Thegovernmentspro-
mise money and do not pay
up. In recent times, from
month to month, it hasn't
been clear that salaries would
be paid to staff.
There have even been ru-
mours of threats to close
down theUniversity if certain
governments would not pay
up. But, of course, I don't
want to say too much on this
for I need a work permit you
know. If Preston has the ap-
proval of the Governments, he
may be able to persuade them
to pay up.
University teachers are or-
ganized in Trade Unions
known as WIGUTS. If we
areto believe Richard Jacobs of
WIGUT, St. Augustine, Uni-
versity teachers must discover
their primary condition as
workers. Since they are high-
class workers then they must
press for higher and higher
wages and other conditions of
service to ensure that they
can consume as well as high-
paid civil-servants.
Paradoxically, they must
also issue messages of support
for sugar workers who are
among the lowest earners in
the country. WIGUTS have
been so busy discovering their
status as workers, that they

have had no time to issue or
discuss matters related to West
Indian education and its
orientation. That is at least
one good reason that you
need to put an accountant in
Further, it is needless
arguing that you need a Vice-
Chancellor to provide direc-
tion for- academic develop-
ment. The University has been
consistently unable to set forth
its own line of development.
It must settle in to what the
Governments want, because
they are the ones (Trinidad,
Barbados, Jamaica) who pay
the bills.
The Governments want
more Management Studies,
and Hotel Management ex-
perts, more doctors, more
engineers, the Jamaican go-
vernment wants Spanish
speakers in case they develop
a serious relationship with the
Cubans some day, they want
communication arts, and the
University will accommodate,
whoever is Vice Chancellor.

Me: What would you say
has been most lacking in the
Dr Ding-aling: The Uni-
versity's signal failure, now
that it approaches its twenty
fifth anniversary, is indicated
in the fact that it has pro-
duced no satisfactory perspec-
tive on Caribbean civilization
which might orient both its
teaching programme and its
research interests. Thus you
have the anomaly that an
expatriate scholar whose un-
divided interest is Scottish
Literature of the 13th century
can get tenure instead of a
three year terminal contract,
if we are not to cuestionlthe
absurdity of his having been
hired at all. Engineers will go
off to do Ph.D. these that
have relevance only to indus-
trially developed countries,
because facilities are inade-
quate for research on relevant
tropical projects.


Although there is a scien-
tific overlap between the Facul-
ties of Engineering, Agricul-
ture and Natural Sciences,
there is no inter-faculty re-
search committee to co-ordi-
nate. The result is that some-
times men from different
Faculties can end up separate-
ly working on the same project,
competing for funds, even-
tually leading to jealousy and
Me: Have the Governments.
been willing to use expertise
on the ground.
Dr Ding-aling: The evi-
dence is that certainly the
Trinidad Government has sel-
dom wished to use expertise
on the ground. In many in-
stances, foreign experts have
been brought in where there
were competent people on the
spot. It is better that the
"expert" should leave after
his report. In this way when
his recommendations are not
implemented, he is no longer
around to issue uncomfortable
It would appear that the

Jamaican Governmeritis more
willing to use the experties
around..For example there is a
strong feeling that the Faculty
of Agriculture ought to be
transferred to Jamaica. It is
the only territory where agri-
cultural development seems
to be taken seriously.
In Agriculture, the Uni-
versity has had a Regional
Research Council which has
signally failed to make any
serious impact. One can only
"hope that some new sense of
purpose will make itself felt
as the University enters on a
period in which its survival
seems to be at stake.


Money man takes over on campus

Me: What role can the Vice
Chancellor elect play in all this.
Dr Ding-aling: It may be
that he ought to go into re-
treat for a month or two to
meditate on the institution's
problems. His perspective has
largely been a Mona Campus
perspective and the future
must lie with decentralization.


Campus autonomy would
alleviate frustrations, delays
and the postponement of de-

cisions. Futile travel for meet-
ings would be cut down. Prin-
cipals could be made truly
executive officers. The sterile
dominance of the Mona Cam-
pus administrators must be
Meditation might lead to
that rare degree of self-know-
ledge which could open up
the way to campus initiatives.
The Vice-Chancellor's main
role would be that of phasing
himself and his post out of
existence, while establishing
and promoting a dynamic con-
cept of regional co-operation.

ur kind

THERE IS nothing wrong
with an airline advertising.
But it is difficult for such
advertising not to involve
a measure of dishonesty.
Indeed in the last few
years, one can positively
speak of a measure of
Take three obviotis cases:
BOAC, now British Airways,
Pan Am, and Air Canada. Facth
airline is associated with a
country in which black people
have been abused, persecuted
and otherwise made to feel
There was something par-
ticularly-strident even unreal
about Air Canada advertising
after the Sir George William
computer incident. The slo-
gans of welcome sounded so
phony, what with immigra-
tion officers suspecting every
West Indian of wishing to land
illegally that these days Air
Canada invites us to visit that
country so that we can see a
a wild life reservation with all
kinds of animals from Africa.
There aie certain hidden
implications in this advertise-
ment that must be uncovered.
It is of course, directed to our
more affluent middle class
and it is saying-the following:

of muddle"

Come to clean and decent
Canada, a fine stable country
and at the same time enjoy a
view of the primitive. Imagine
that we are saving you going
to Africa where things are so
unstable, what with civil wars
and other unpieasant incidents
So crme to CanaRda where you
can see African wildlife and be
spared seeing Africans.
Pan Am, as we know,
makes the going great to New
York where you can see the
wonders of Harlem and enjoy
racist America. The compen-
sations are of course the
Airways takes you to
the Britain of Enoch Powell.
The concept-of going off
tohave a swinging timeisworth
examining. Because, really,
when we seek to lure tourists
here at Carnival, we are trying
to get them to come down and
have a swinging time. What's
the difference in the swing?
My suspicion is that the image
of Big City serving is tinged
with a hint of unlawful plea-
sure, of sophisticated sexual-
ity of blue movies which

would never be allowed tio
Trinidad except with the
hearty connivance of Customs
Connected with the idea
of "holiday" travel is another
notion which has been pressed
by Willie Demas. If is that we
are a poor nation, always?
having to invite in investors
on the grounds that we don't
have capital, and yet at the
same time, we take so few
steps to stop the outflow of
foreign currency reserves.
In other words, how can
we afford to be tourists to the
developed countries, while we
are supposed to be concerned
with balance of payments
problems? It is in this sense
that BWIA is involved in a
contradiction when it seeks
to induce us into travel.
What we have is the
absurdity of a local airline
which must encourage us to
be tourists and therefore spend
foreign currency UnpingJtlus
will help it to balance its
order to help it to balance its
books so that it will no
longer appear to be a drain
on the country's resources.




r~-L1 Ir





By The "Wolfman"
I Understand that the
film 'American Grafitti'
has been playing to pack-
ed houses in the United
States. It has also been
nominated for something
like five academy awards.
Now that I have had the
opportunity to view the,
film I can readily under-
stand why.
The movie succeeds in im-
mersing us in a bath of nostal-
gia. A happy, heady trip down
memory lane. A generous slice
of Americana chock full of all
the goodies, hKce one of those
super-duper burgers from Mac-
Donald's or Burgerchef or
Gino's, in wnich a quarter
pound of ground is covered
with layer after layer of onions
and tomatoes and lettuce and
the whole is smothered in




ketchup and melted cheese
and hollandais, sauce. Man,
'those were the days.
Re-mem-ber when all
America was singing, Oh Yes,
I am a great pretender, pre-
tending that I'm doing well
. who was it, I think it was
Bill Haley or it might have
been the Platters, not that it
really matters. For anythirig
went on those Saturday nights.
As we cruised through the
streets of the town watching
the girls go by, or drag racing
on the strip in those super-
souped-up wheels that we used
to own.
Remember those parties we

had in the gym of "Anywhere
SHigh". One o'clock, two o'-
clock, three o'clock, Rock
'Five o'clock, six o'clock, seven
o'clock, Rock. And the booze
and the cigarettes we srieaked
in the dark, and the kisses we
stole and our first tentative
approachesto thei soft flesh of:
the girl next door.
All that and iore ,the.
skating rink, the ice cream
parlor, the penny arcades,
the darkened Drive-in movies,
the gorgeous waitresses on
their roller skates, and let us
not forget our neighborhoods
own genuine juvenile delin-
The things we did that
Summer ... a lifetime of fun,
innocent, healthy fun mind
you, packed into that .last
Saturday night between dusk
and dawn.
The year is' 1962 and eu-
phoria reigned. America never
had it so good. And to top it


all off,.like the pinnacle on the
mound of a Baikirl i'idj Rob-
bins ice-cream cone, we all
dearly loved our own 'Prince
Charming who guided over
our destinies from the Oval
Rn'.cm -\ith such'B str$bni'oar.
charm. Monarchy revised,
,Aristocracy recalled Empti-
ness entrenched.
And then And then
along came Autumn when the
leaves began to fall. But not
before the whole country had
become a spectacle of gold,.
and orange and red.
Only this time the gold and.
orange came from the flames
that leapt to the skies as angry
young black men sought to
take by any means necessary
the justice and equality so
long denied them in the land
of the free ard the home of
the slave.



THE Town and Coun-
try Planning Division can
give no guarantee that
the plan for East Port of
Spain will be implemented.
However, the residents of
this community can in-
fluence the implementa-
tion by making public
representation to the Gov-
ernment, through such
means as written memo-
This statement came from
Mr. Anthony Fifi, Town Plan-
er, in a recent public session
with residents of ths Trou
Macque area of Laventille,

broadcast over the G. B. U.
Mr. Fifi, was replying to
questions from community
residents. One person pointed
out that work has been going
on for 10 years on the paving
of a 500-yard road in Upper
Laventille. How long, he then
.asked, would it take Govern-
ment to complete a re-develop
Scheme for the entire area?

Another resident complain-
ed that there was a 6 ft. deep
hole in one of the streets of
the area. In the light of the
history of piece-meal work by
the Government, what was

the guarantee that. the present
plan would be implemented?
This guarantee, Mr. Fifi
could not give. Instead he
pointed out to residents that
united action by the com-
munity could bear results.
He also promised that his
Department would make pro-
posals to the Minister of Plan-
ning and Development follow-
discussions with the commu-
Answe -ing another question
,he Town Planner revealed
that the new road system pro-
posed would allow Public
Transport buses to travel to
Upper -Laventille.





0O % discount



For Your Easter Bargains

shop at


the place where thrifty people shop

62 Queen St, P.O.5

--- ---- -~P*-.-------.L--U;Y~CiPi~2~_~~l^iZi



And the red, the red came
from the :splitopned heads
and the shotopened belliess of
thousands 01 young men and
women, first in the Civil Rights
Movement and then increas-
ingly and overwhelmingly in
the protest against a sense-
less war in Viet Nam
Other voices joined the
chorus of protest. The women
having moved from bobby-
socks to stockings proceeded
to burn their bra's in a sym-
bolic,- gesture of defiance
against the restrictions of the
baby" society.
There are still thousands
of small towns and burgs
dotted all over the American
landscape. And the main strips
still blaze with light on a
Saturday night. But .where
have all the cruisers gone?
Well quite a few were leff to
fertilise the fields of Viet Nam.
Others not prepared to meet
that end are making homes in
Other lands.
.For many of us who re-
,~g i ti, the. trips we; t e. are.
' lights or fancy or agony on-"
hypodermic wings. And Juve'n:'
ile Delnquenc) has become
Organised Crime.The signs on
the subway walls, standing
ten feet tall, now read:--
Impeach Nixon.
American in the
end memorable not only for
its faithful documentation of
a period but above all for
the questions gently posed.
Was this all that we did that
It is a snapshot of a civil-
ization an instant before the
shit hit the fan and the stench
of its decay was blown from
sea to shining sea.


PRESENT day Canada has been described as the world's
richest underdeveloped country. Needless to say, the
description is a West Indianjone, New World vintage. In
the years since our Movement first began to shake free
from the shackles of colonial thinking, we have come to
realise that the idea of being "developed" is one which
the nMw imperialism has conned the freshly independent
states into accepting. Everywhere the intellectual and
political leaders are dutifully selling the notion of
LDC's and MDC's to those fortunate to have missed the
metropolitan education.
Since development is taken
to mean mimicry of the indus-
trial countries of the North
Atlantic, the political free-
dom to promote development
has been transformed into a
kind of voluntary colonialism.
Decolonisation is no different '':- -
from re-colonisation. And the
multi-national corporations
know that so very well that
their public relations depart-
ments are often the most
enthusiastic supporters of
national independence. They
even finance Better Village, Lloyd Best
programmes and people's na- As far as the Tapia Mani-
tional movement s festo is concerned, we are
The development of Third taking back our marbles. We
World countries is a game insist that development is
which none but themselves sist tt "eelomen i
can win.euphemism for self-destruc-

tion while Underdevelopment
is nothing but a state of sub-
jugation, beginning without
imprisonment in imperial
ways of thought. In this per-
spective, we agree with the
historian who once said that
Ireland was truly the first
(underdeveloped) Caribbean
There is value in seeing
Ireland and Canada in this
way. We are forced to regard
the struggle in the world to-
day not as one in which we
ire trying merely to increase
income or master industrial
technology or bring about
modernisation. What we must
see is a struggle in which we
must so free our minds from
orthodox imperial ways of
seeing that we can focus on
the quality of human exist-
ence in a country and on the
way that power is used.

In those terms, the Third
World is exactly the same as
the Second and the First.
Indeed, in some ways, it is
far less underdeveloped be-
cause our guns are so much
more primitive. Except that
countries such as Canada,
Ireland and Trinidad & To-
bago are among those which
are most subservient to the
industrial captains who con-
trol the technological civiliza-
tion out of headquarters in
the North Atlantic.


The distinguishing feature
of Canada is that while that
country is a virtual plaything
of U.S. economic and political
decision, it also enjoys all the
wealth and technological so-
phistication associated with


the countries which style
themselves asbeing advance
and developed.
Nothing to my mind so
emphasises its colonial status
as this glaring contradiction
between servility and wealth.
The growing fierceness of
Canadian nationalist feeling
may well be a testimony to
the validity of that opinion.
In the article on this page,
Bob Chodos, Editor of The
Last Post, published out of
Toronto, notices some of the
sidelights of this nationalist
resurgence up North.

THOSE few Canadian
writers who have gained
an international reputa-
tion are not necessarily
the ones who are most
popular at home or who
best mirror the national
tempt;. Few people out-
side Canada have ever
heard of Pierre Berton,
for instance, since he
writes almost entirely
about Canadian subjects,
but several, of his books
are at or near the top of
the all-time Canadian best-
seller list. His latest
achievement is an eight-
part television series of
which he is the host,
narrator and overall archi-
tect, based on two books
of his and retelling the
great epic of Canadian
history, the building of
the Canadian Pacific
Now the story of the CPR
is nothing new to Canadians
- Berton's is only one of
three histories of it in the last
six years alone. But each
historian draws his own les-
sons from the text, and Bert
ton's lesson is a nationalist
one. Nationalism in Canada
has become a powerful force
in the media, the universities,
the government, even, to a
minor extent, the business
elite, and if Berton's success
is any indication, it is a highly
saleable commodity.
Berton has titled his ver
sion of the CPR story The
National Dream. It relates
how Sir John A. Macdonald,
the canny but fallible Scottish
Tory who was Canada's first
prmie minister, conceived the
visionary and, to many of
his contemporaries, absurd -
scheme of building a railway
acrosshis newborn and sparsely
populated country to the

Pacific Ocean. Mcdonald in-
sisted that the railway be an
all-Canadian project, despite
tne tormuable obstacles of
Canadian geography, he would
allow no part of it to go
through the United States,
nor would he entertain the
suggestion that American
capital be involved in building
it. After several false starts
and much arduous work, the
railway was finally completed
by a private Canadian com-
pany across an all-Canadian
route in 1885, fourteen years
after ithad first been proposed
by Macdonald.


Berton is quick to reach
the proper conclusions. "What
we once did we can do again",
he wrote ina 1971 article on
the CPR in the national mass-
circulation m ag azine
Maclean's. "Once again, the
time seems ripe for a com-
mon endeavour that will hold
us together". He proposed a
"massive and carefully
thought-out program to re-
gain this country for .the
benefit of Canadians". Few
prople would disagree with
such noble aims.The problems
arise when Berton tries to
use the CPR as a model.
First of all, Macdonald's
nationalism was not Canadian
at ail but British. "A Britisn
subject I was born and a
British subject I will die",
is perhaps his most famous
statement. Another Macdonald
statement that was lived in
the hearts of Canadians is the
text of a telegram he sent to
the solicitor tor the original
Canadian Pacific Railway
syndicate in 1872. It went
something like this: "Must
have another $10,000. Will

be last time of calling. Do not
fail me. Answer today", Mac-
donald had sold the right to
build the railway for election
campaign contributions, and
the ensuring scandal forced
him to resign the next year
(only to return 'five, years
later, stronger than ever).


And what of the Chinese
who were imported as in-
dentured workers to build
the railway and paid half the
wages of white labourers? Or
the native Indians and half-
breeds whose livelihood the
railway destroyed? What of
Canaaa's western prairie re-
gion, which was left almost
entirely at the mercy of the
powerful CPR company and
whose grievances against that
company were among the
major factors leading to the
growthofa significant western
protest movement? These
things are mentioned in the
Berton version,but glancingly,
their edge dulled, The overall
impression created is that
business is good, so long as it
is Canadian.


There is no better coun ter-
example to that proposition
than the modern-day CPR
itself, which long-ago stopped
being just a railway company
and has become a conglome-
rate on the model of ITT. The
railway has in recent years in
fact been one ot the company's
lesser interests, since the pro-
fits to be realized from it are
not as great as those that can
be made from real estate,
mining or oil and gas. Oddly
for a nationalist model, the
CPR's search tbr profits has

- as 'ray,

often taken it well beyond
the borders of Canada. While
its passenger service has di-
minished to the vanishing
Point and the prairie wheat
crop cannot be carried to
export markets because of a
shortage of CPR boxcars,
Canadian Pacific subsidiaries
mine tin in Australia, ,operate
hotels in Mexico, explore for
oil in Italy and build ships in
But on Sunday nights
Canadians can watch the rail-
way's past glories come alive
again on Television. Acclaim
for the series in the Toronto-
centred national media has
been predictably high. John
Hofsess, film critic for
Maclean's, has proclaimed the
eight episodes collectively "the
great Canadian movie many
of us have been waiting for".
In the Toronto Globe and
Mail, television critic Blaik
Kirby called it "the greatest
series of programs. [the Cana
dian Broadcasting Corpora-
tion has ever made". The
Toronto Star. the country's
largest newspaper, devoted a
full page to it, in colour.


In fact, there is little in
the series, in terms of sheer
entertainment value, to justify
the acclaim. The first episode
consisted largely of Berton
talking against a backgiounu
of the majestic Rocky Moun-
tains, the worst terrain faced

by the railway builders. The
only plot in it was a rather
tedious exposition of a con-
flict between two surveyors.
The second episode, dealing
with the scandal that brought
down the first Macdonald go-
vernment, was an improve-
ment, with Shakespearean
actor William Hutt playing
Macdonald tightly and be-
lievably, but there was still
far too much of Berton, who
seemed to intrude whenever
the drama was getting interest-


wnat the series lacks most
is perspective and any real
sense of the complexity of
history, and in that it reflects
the nationalism of which it is
a part. Canadian self-assertion
is a very 'new phenomenon,
nmd is as a result often strident
and undiscriminating. As
Canadian nationalismmatures,
the same critics who are now
canonizing The National
Dream will probably look
back on it as an interesting
historical curiosity, and per-
haps not without some em-
barrassrent at the fuss that
was made over it.
Meanwhile, the CBC is
already planning its next
spectacular, a multimillion-
dollar adaptation of Kiondike.
a bestselling book about the
1989 Yukon gold rush by -
of course Pierre Berton.

Bob Chodos

Tapia taking back

a s I na I- II I Is







"Not only will we promote regional economic
integration to embrace all the Greater and Lesser
Antilles as well as Guyana, Venezuela and other
territories on the Caribbean littoral, but we will aim
at the creation of an Eastern Caribbean, a West Indian
and perhaps even a Caribbean nation state, to be
achieved in successive stages".
Manifesto, Tapia's New World, p22.

I DO NOT know if you have been noticing
but the issue of West Indian political integra-
tion has been creeping up on us once again -
this time without the insistence of the Secre-
tary of State for the Colonies.
It is perhaps an odd thing to say when the top
and only spokesman for the Government of Trinidad
announced definitively last September that,
"It is now clear beyond any possibility of doubt that
Caribbean integration will not be achieved in the
foreseeable future and that the reality is continued
Caribbean disunity and even perhaps the reaffirma-
tion of colonialism".
We of Tapia agree that:
"There is considerable truth in this because wherever
the Governments have fallen for the strategy of
industrialization, the self-confidence of the people has
been destroyed and metropolitan power has grown fat
on the mendicancy, the obsequiousness and the
downright kowtowing". Manifesto, p 21.
We are also living witness to inter-island jealou-
sies which can seldom have been more subversive of
unity than they are now. In much the same way as
during the fateful final decades of the slave plantation
at the end of the 18th century, insightfully document-
ed by Elsa Goveia, the breakdown of the old inter-
national economy today is a cause in some quarters of
more insularity than ever, whatever the rhetoric of
economic integration.
The ravages of world food shortages and spiralling
inflation, the debilitating uncertainties of exchange
instability and tight credit, have all been aggravated
by the energy crisis, and compounded in the islands by
iniquitous management of income distribution and
incredibly inept administration of the.balanceof pay-
ments. The result has been that the large majority of
the West Indian people in Jamaica and Guyana, in
particular have been pushed into a tight corner
from which they can only cast envious glances at what
invariably appears to be brethren better-placed in the
other territories. In some ways, it is dog eat dog and
survival of thefittest.


Yet it is in this climate that political integration
-is emerging as a favoured horse if we are to judge by
statements uttered recently by two regional men of
The first in the Address given by William
Demas, Secretary General of the Caribbean Com-
munity, at the QRC Achievement Day on March 15
gone. (See pages 6 & 7 of this Tapia). The second is
the New World Pamphlet, The Idea of a Caribbean
Community, released in the region this week and
written by Vaughan Lewis, a St Lucian and now the
Deputy Director of the Institute of Social and
Economic Research, UWI.
Demas is now arguing that the creation of a
West Indian nation is "inevitable. The logic of our
entire history drives us to it". The two tasks he sees
now are the widening of the Caribbean (Economic)
Community to embrace all the islands of the Carib-
bean Sea along with Belize and the three Guianas and
"the building of a single West Indian Nation in the
English-speaking Eastern Caribbean ..."
Lewis does not think that in "a proper political
perspective", political integration can be expected to
"simply follow economic integration in some far
distant future". What he concludes is that an integra-
tion movement involving both trade and production
based on regional resources cannot long survive
"without political structures national and regional
different from ones which we have in the Common-
wealth Caribbean at the present time". (p. 12)
Unless we overlook the fact that Demas has
always been an Official Economist, talking with the
authority of the State behind him, certain that the
Press would report him fully and faithfully and there-
fore unpractised in the persuasions of poli:i.'s (as
distinct from government), Tapia people may be in-
clined to allow the pontifical stances he invariably
adopts these days to get in the way of a proper
evaluation of the meaning of what he says.
Some of us will remember how sadly Demas
misjudged the significance of the New World Group.

The same self-confidence and the same indigenous
ideology which he treasures so highly now were in
those days being built among the intellectual classes.
The tremendous volume of literature now coming out
of that intellectual movement is possible largely
because we won the strength to express our own
ideas, we launched a quarterly journal as a vehicle of
our own creation, and by establishing the machinery
to run a regional group and publishing enterprise, we
built up a formidable array of skills for the future. And
we did it in the face of every kind of official hostility
to what was then an early manifestation of an un-
conventional political movement.


Demas also completely failed at first to foresee
the power of the issue of constitutional reform (in
November 1969 when Tapia No 3 came out with the
headline, Whose Republic?) Now he sees that the
rationale for it is "greater popular participation,in the
political process". He should also see that street
demonstrations are perfectly valid and vitally neces-
sary when the old institutions break down and block
participation as the parties and the Parliament cer-
tainly did in Trinidad between 1961 and 1970.
Constitutional reform becomes necessary when it
becomes clear what institutional changes are needed.
Before that the citizens must have their say by
forming new parties or re-shaping old ones and by
arranging a generally acceptable settlement between
them. With the old Parliament illegitimate (other-
wise there would have been no street demonstrations)
the settlement can be effected either by civil war or
by a Conference that assembles the citizens, parties
and groups. Extra-parliamentary politics is no chimera,
it cannot be avoided when Parliament is not valid.
In fact, most politics is always extra-parliamentary.
Politics is the process which allows the State
(i.e. Parliament & the Cabinet, etc) to function in
sympathy with the communities (or inhibits it from
so doing). Normally politics is the business of com-




munity groups and agencies. When these are in a state
of revolutionary inadequacy, the citizens necessarily
spill over into the streets to demonstrate. Demas'
thinking on these matters, throughout his career, has
been hysterical and confused and it unfortunately
casts a shadow over his monumental sanity and
lucidity in other areas.
Some Tapia and New World people will also
look suspiciously at a thinker who seems to believe
that Trinidad needs to have made a bicycle to prove
itself. This is an old hobby-horse of Demas whose
major *published work once took position as if the
North Atlantic countries would always remain the
source of technology for small countries like ours.
What then does Demas mean when he says that we do
possess "dynamism, energy, imagination and crea-
tivity?" What is the evidence of these qualities if we
have not created something from them? And if we
have, why are they inferior to a bicycle? except
that our Western educated elites are so colonised that
they think a bicycle is somehow better than a steel -
pan. vu Continued on Page 8

.. Vest \ndians formed
Clico, a company of West Indians formed
for the economic upliftment forth people
ofthe egion. Clco has grown from humble
of the r egi O oe of the largest financial
O ts n,;tOne

beg1 nn i 6z)-
insttuto in t Southern Caribbean
in through tions inUR teRUST
through YOUR TRUST

Assets for the security of policy

holders total over $54,000,000.00
il~ldrs toa ove


*Growth '.=_ li i-

Strength tw


Service ---
29 St. Vincent St., Port-of-Spain. Tel: 31421 7 Branch Offices and Friendly Security
Representatives throughout Trinidad & Tobago, the Caribbean and London.

__ ____ I




Ll 1.


William Demas

LET me say how pleased I am to be here this
afternoon with you at Queen's Royal College
which I attended in the 1940's before all
those of you graduating today were even born.
Of course, in many respects the school has
changed a lot since those days and, I am sure,
for the better in at least some respects. We
should never be too concerned about,change;
for change is inevitable.
I may be digressing a bit but I cannot refer to
Queen's Royal College in the 1940's without recalling
the name of Charles Vernon Gocking certainly in
my view the greatest teacher in my time at Queen's
Royal College: an entire generation at Queen's Royal
College m the 1940's and early 1950's owe their
intellectual awakening to this gifted and great teacher.


I wish to talk to you this afternoon on the
subject: The Road to West Indian Nationhood. We
have made much progress since the collapse of the
former four-year old West Indies Federation in
creating structures of regional economic integration
and regional cooperation generally all culminating
in the establishment of the Caribbean Community in
1973 eleven years after the end of the Federation;
But the task of completing the structure of Caribbean
Integration will not be completed until two further
steps are taken. The first is the building of a single
West Indian Nation in the English-speaking Eastern
Caribbean and the second is the "widening" of the
Caribbean Community to include all the Islands of
the Caribbean Sea, the Bahamas, Belize and the three
Guianas. It is the first of these two further stepson
which I wish to concentrate this afternoon the
creation of a single West Indian Nation in the English-
speaking Eastern Caribbean.
In my view, the creation of such a West Indian
Nation is inevitable. The logic of our entire history
drives us to it. We cannot continue to resist historical
currents; for, if we do, History will never absolve us.
As you know, in spite of our achievement in
establishing the Caribbean Community, we West
Indians are still the laughing-stock of the world -
what with our petty insularities and vanities, our
tendency to fragmentation, divisiveness and seces-
sionism. We glibly excuse ourselves and blame the
state of affairs on the fact that we are all separated by
the sea. This, however, is seen to be a very shallow
and indeed fallacious line of argument, when we con-
sider that both Indonesia and the Philippines both
of which are Unitary States, and not even Federations
consist of thousands of islands. Basically, we West
Indians do not respect ourselves. We welcome foreign-
ers, we ape foreigners, we give: away our national
patrimony for a pittance to foreigners, we seek
continually the approval of foreigners and, what is
worse, we vie among ourselves in doing all of these
things. In short, we have no self-respect. Until we
come to respect ourselves, the rest of the world will
never respect us.
We must admit, however, that in the face of
these psychological limitations, this narrow-mindness,
this absence of vision and this historical tendency to
fragmentation, building a viable and. lasting West
Indian Nation is no easy task. But then no great and
worthwhile endeavour is ever easy. It always poses a
The fundamental question on which we have to
be very clear is: why should we strive to build a West
Indian Nation in the Eastern Caribbean?


The arguments for the creation of a new West
Indian Federal State embracing the English-speaking
Eastern Caribbean countries from St. Kitts/Nevis/
Anguilla to Guyana are well-known and I will deal
with them here only very briefly. Let me make it
clear that I am not disputing the need for economic
integration at the widest possible Caribbean level,
including the Spanish-speaking, Dutch-speaking,
French-speaking as well as the English speaking Carib-
bean. What I am talking about is the creation of a
West Indian nation consisting of the English-speaking
Eastern Caribbean countries as a constituent element
in a wider Caribbean Community. There is no conflict
between the creation of such a nation and the con-
tinued existence of the Caribbean Community. In fact,
such a West Indian nation as a constituent unit of
the wider Caribbean Community could do nothing
but impart strength and cohesiveness to the wider
First, as small and economically weak States
living in a world of large and powerful States, trading
blocs multinational corporations and other external







private interests, the countries of the English-speaking
Caribbean cannot hope to achieve effective sovereignty
(as distinct from formal political independence)
except with full political unity, with its concommit-
ant nfa single foreign diplomatic and economic policy.
To deal with giants, pygmies have to combine and
indeed merge their respective strengths.
Secondly, in order to preserve a sense of cultural
identify the creation of a West Indian State is
essential; for there may well be powerful forces
emanating from other parts of the Hemisphere which
have the effect of cultural erosion leading to loss of
any kind of West Indian cultural identity in the
individual units.
Third, it is clear that only West Indian-Wide
economic development planning, especially in Agri-
culture, can bring about true and lasting economic
development and economic independence of the
individual units.


Fourth, without the creation of a single West
Indian State in the Eastern Caribbean with an appro-
priate Constitution, the forces of fragmentation and
secessionism are bound to gain momentum and in
the end we may find ourselves, in this part of the
world with 20 little fragmented units each with its
National flag, National Anthem, National Diplomatic
Corps, National Investment and Tourism Promotion
Offices abroad, National (on paper) Airline, National
(on paper) Shipping Company, thus institutionalising
and giving even further scope for the full play of the
forces making for external manipulation and domina-
tion and its consequent nvalrnes and divisiveness. Such
an outcome namely, the creation of a "Balkanised"
Caribbean consisting of a number of formally inde-
pendent mini-Client States will probably be even
worse than the present uneasy interregnum.
Fifth, there is the argument of the need for
pooling of scarce talents for the good of the entire
small Region and its concomitant overcoming of the
limited geographical scope for the exercise of such
Finally, there is the important consideration
that is the small "face-to-face" communities of the
individual West Indian countries it is often difficult
with the best will in the world to ensure fundamental
human rights. A more impersonal machinery operat-
ing at Federal level is more likely to be effective in
ensuring and safeguarding fundamental human rights.
It is clear that Trinidad and Tobago has an
important (indeed a key) role to play in the Eastern
Caribbean. Here 1 am not being chauvinistic but
perfectly objective. There is the relative prosperity of
Trinidad and Tobago, based in part upon its natural
resources of oil and natural gas. There is the fact that,




With one million persons, Trinidad and Tobago is the
Unit with the largest population in the Eastern
Caribbean (including Guyana). There is the fact that
Trinidad and Tobago has historically attracted many
settlers from the other islands and even from Guyana.
Last, but not least, there is the dynamic, energy,
imagination and creativity of the population of Trini-
dad and Tobago. For these reasons the people of
Trinidad and Tobago cannot abdicate their historical
responsibility in playing a leading role in the forma-
tion of the new West Indian State.
(Lest -I be accused of chauvinism let me hasten
to add parenthetically that all the other territories
have a great deal to contribute to the new West In-
dian Nation. For example, Guyana can contribute its
great potential in land and natural resources its
ideological consciousness and its sense of forward
movement of a society; Barbados can contribute its
high level of education as well as commonser.;-,
sound judgement, discipline and method (virtues
hardly in evidence in Trinidad and Tobago today);
the people of the Windward and Leeward Islands
can contribute thrift and reliability, a more wide-
spread attachemnt to Agriculture than is to be found
in the bigger countries and a strong desire for a West
Indian identity).
How can you as young citizens of Trinidad and
Tobago contribute to fulfilling this historical destiny
of your two islands? You have, I would suggest, to
contribute at two levels the level of national
integration and the level of regional integration.


You can contribute to promoting national
integration of Trinidad and Tobago by developing
new attitudes and new outlooks in several areas of
national life. When I use the term "national integra-
tion" in the context of Trinidad and Tobago, I mean
the following:-

First, the development of appreciation of, and
a sense of pride in, what is indigenous (It
should of course be stressed that this does not
preclude an appreciation of what is non-
Second, the development of greater solidarity
and cohesiveness between the two main ethnic
groups in the country African and Indian.
This solidarity and cohesiveness will no, be fully
achieved unless the original cultural roots of
both Africans and Indians are widely appre-
ciated by both groups;
Third, the achievement of a greater degree of
economic and social equality in the community
mainly although not exclusively -- through
the provision of full employment, raising the



L) ~b- -~-C

s~dP -- -~3~ -- -~ s ~-a~p ~sra--~sll~ ~a




4PRIL 1974



incomes of the under-employed and under-paid
and increasing the standard of living of the
agricultural and rural population?
Fourth, the assumption of ownership and con-
trol by both the State and the people of the
key sectors of the national economy (including,
of course, the petroleum sector);
Fifth, greater popular participation in the
economic life of the country. This means the
development of a much wider range of "middle-
level" skills in Business and Cooperative Ma-
nagement, and in specialised fields such as
Agriculture: Fisheries; Forestry, Mechanical,
Chemical and Electornic Technology; Labora-
tory and Scientific Work etc. Many of you
young people talk glibly about inequality of
economic opportunity in the country. But how,
many of you are prepared to undergo a two-
year course of training in Business Management
or Agriculture and become self-employed in
Small Business, Cooperatives, or in Agriculture?
Sixth, greater popular participation in the
political process. This is the real rationale of
Constitutional Reform (apart from converting
the country from a Monarchy into a Republic).
A Constitution relevant to our circumstances
and to our needs is important; but Constitutions
alone do not make for popular participation
in the political process. Such participation
ultimately depends upon the attitudes and
choices of you, the young people. You must
not be misled by the chimera of "non-con-
stitutional" or "extra-Parliamentary" politics.
For that is not politics; it is anarchy and un-
ending street demonstrations. No political order
-whether revolutionary, radical, middle-of-the-
road or conservative can be run except
within certain rules of the game, as defined by
a Constitution. To think otherwise is to delude
yourselves or, more precisely, to allow your-
selves to be deluded by those whose genuine
idealism is not sufficiently disciplined by their
intellects or by those who conceal their lust for
power in the guise of revolutionary rhetoric;


Seventh, and above all a change in attitudes
towards public affairs and economic life. How-
ever radical you may be (and it is always
healthy for young people to be radical), you
must approach public affairs and economic life
with a high degree of rationality, you the new
generation must recognize that in all countries,
however prosperous, the financial resources of
the State are limited in relation to all the
competing demands made upon them. You have
free Primary, Secondary Technical and Univer-
sity Education a luxury undreamt of by your
parents of even by young people in their
thirties; you have free Health Services; you
have many subsidized Public Utilities parti-
cularly Water. You cannot have every public
and social service at the same time nor can the
State by waving a magic-wand give to-morrow
everybody a nice and cushy job at a high wage
or salary.

In Trinidad and Tobago we want the consump-
tion patterns of North America and a 35-hour
work week, when we have not yet been able even to
make a bicycle, while in many countries which have
mastered nuclear technology and number of motor-
cars per head is lower than here and the number of
working hours per week is higher than here. We com-
plain about the inadequacy of the road system, not
realising that the real problem is not insufficient
roads but too many motor-cars. We advocate tele-
vision sets and minimum Government wage-scales for
prisoners while many law-abiding citizens remain
without jobs or without water. We continue to indulge
our taste for imported foodstuffs, arguing that there
is insufficient locally produced food, while we oppose
higher prices for locally grown food and higher earn-
ines for agricultural worker and farmers as incentive.
V increase local agiIcui'tuial production. We are reluc-
tant to pay higher rates for Public Utilities while we
complain that Public Utilities are not being suffi-
ciently expanded through new investment.
We bemoan the large numbers of unemployed
people and at the same time. we ask for fantastic

increases in wages and salaries in both the public and
private sectors for a relatively privileged oligarchy of
workers. Our consumers complain incessantly about
high prices and low quality of locally produced goods
and urge the abandonment of protection for such
g,'ods, forgetting that in the early stages of movement
from a colonial to a more balanced economy an under-
developed country cannot always avoid higher costs
and lower quality in its production than the more
highly devlcoped and experienced metropolitan coun-
tries, ignoring the fact that protection of local goods
from foreign competition creates additional jobs and
purchasing power locally, and overlooking the fact
that the foodstuffs we import from temperate
countries often recieve export subsidies and can
therefore be sold abroad at artificially low prices.
Differences of opinion, conflicts of interest
arise every day in every democratic society; yet
every minor incident in Trinidad and Tobago is
exaggerated into a "crisis". In our view of the econo-
my we alternate between euphoria and gloom.
In short, we behave like spoilt children in
economic life and in matters of public policy.
Some commonsense is badly needed.
These attitudes towards economic life and pub-
lic affairs are highly irrational. Perhaps they spring
from the fact that we are an oil economy. But never
forget that an economy based on oil has very serious
drawbacks. An oil economy can permit people to
have a freenesss" mentality; to avoid hard and
sustained work; to try to make easy business profits
without the discipline of proper Business Manage-
ment; to aim at highly unrealistic wage and salary
increases; to spend too much on imported consumer
goods and to save very little or not at all; and to neglect
the devleopment of local Agriculture. All of these
tendencies contribute, of course, to high and growing
levels of unemployment and under-employment in
the less fortunate sectors of the economy. Because
you are blessed (or cursed) with an oil economy, you
the young people of Trinidad and Tobago have to be
exceedingly careful that your attitudes to economic
life and public affairs are at all times serious and
The achievement of national integration there-
fore poses profound challenges for the young people
of Trinidad and Tobago. You have to adopt an
entirely new and non-traditional set of values and
attitudes based on reason and analysis and not on
irresponsibility, hysteria and meaningless slogans. A
serious and rational integrated community national of
Trinidad and Tobago would be the most valuable
endowment that your country can make the new
West Indian Nation.
Apart from seeking to achieve national integra-
tion in Trinidad and Tobago, what else can you, the
secondary school students, do to realise the goal of
West Indian Nationhood as quickly as possible?
First, you must get to know more about the
West Indies and the wider Caribbean, about our
historical experience, about our heroes (and there are
several West Indian heroes).
Seocnd, you must understand that in inter-
national relations in the world today, where small
States are confronted by large and powerful States
and by large multinational corporations, Unity
among such small States is the only way to their
economic, political and cultural survival.
Third, you must recognize that there is much
more in common among West Indians than what
divides them. For example, you must get rid of the
mentality which reflects itself in the phrase "small
islanders". This mentality is absurd not only because
Trinidad and Tobago is itself small, but because a
very large part of the very population of Trinidad and
Tobago is itself small, but because a very large part of
the very population of Trinidad and Tobago originat-
ed two or three or four generations ago in the so-
called "small islands" to the north of Trinidad and
Above all, you must stop looking back in re-
crimination af instances where other West Indian
countries have behaved badly towards Trinidad and
Tobago. You must look forward, not backwards, ever
committed to the goal of a West Indian Nation in the
Eastern Caribbean within the wider framework of an
enlarged Caribbean Community, covering the entire
Caribbean. In short, always undeterred by setbacks.
always ti cC to the larger vision, keep travelling along
the road which History has mapped out for you.

APRIL 1974

Vaughan Lewis

The Idea

a Caribbean Community

New World Jamaica
Tapia Trinidad

0.35 J
0.75 WI
0.50 US
0.20 UK

_ __I __I_ ~I

--C-ll~---------------- ---


* From Page 5
Demas would be much clearer and more con-
vincing if he would begin by regarding himself as
part of the problem-like all the rest of us. He would
then see that we are in the middle of a community
awakening, a revolutionary upheaval of established
institutions and habits caused by the break-up of the
North Atlantic Empire and perhaps the breakdown of
Western European civilisation as well. At any rate, the
independence of the new states has trapped all of us
off-side, as it were, caught in a web of contradictions.
That is one plausible reason why people who
genuinely wish a more equitable and humane society
are at the same time caught up in a mad scramble for
private, personal and sectional gain. We need leader-
ship and organisation to help us iron out the contra-
dictions and the first attribute of such leadership is
that it must have the humility to see itself as part of
the crowd. The assumption of charismatic super-
potence is all pervasive among us but totally
invalid nonetheless.


Demas who regards himself as being in hte
vanguard of progressive West Indian thinking must
remember that he is touted as the architect of the
PNM's economic policy which has landed Trinidad &
Tobago (and by extension, the \West Indies) in a
complete mess today ...after fully a decade and a half
of so-called economic planning. If the "oil mentality"
still survives, are the architects of policy not part of
the problem too? If the Trades Unions still find them-
selves in a position where, due to our failure to take-
over the life-line industries, it is necessary for them
and profitable to the nation to engineer shifts from
profits to wages, whose fault can that be taken to be?
For the planners to disown responsibility for
this sorry state of things would be as irresponsible
as all the irresponsible postures Demas so well des-
cribes. Yet, when all is said and done, it would be an
unpardonable error for our people not to take heed of
what Demas has been so tirelessly striving to put
over in recent years.
For all the political and ideological contradictions
in which this dedicated, dynamic and above all,
disinterested public servant is caught, his messgae is
that we must win back discipline, self-control and
common-sense. We must win back our manhood, that
is what Demas is saying. His noble vision of a West
Indian nation around the corner, not only puts him in
diametric opposition to the defeatist dodges of
Williams and PNM oligarchy, but is recognized in-
stincti;ly by every true Caribbean person as plain
and simply just right for us.
This is the vision that Vaughan Lewis attempts
to service in his timely little booklet and he services it
by a clinicaldiagnosis of the currents in the movement
towards Caribbean! economic integration. He notices
that the impulses to integration are deriving now from
concerns internal to the politics of the territories
not from the prompting of the Colonial Office as a
matter of administrative convenience.


In fact the colonial tie of the smaller islands is a
hindrance to integration because it insulates these
islands from the reality of international negotiations.
The independent countries alone are fully awarethat
to get a more effective voice in world councils,
negotiators have to be able to say that we are talking
for such and such a solid region.
According to Lewis, the bigger CARICOM
countries are moving quickly now to economic inte-
gration in their own interest and, unlike the old days,
it is the smaller governments which are lagging now.
The Caribbean Community may for them only be a
second-best to political integration. But
"There is no suggestion in the integration movement,
and deliberately so, that it has the capacity, struc-
tures or the possibilities of developing into a federa-
tion or a unitarypolitical system .. "
This underlying conflict between the bigger and
smaller territories is an additional source of tension,
another area of instability. Already we have a strong
tendency to extra-regional economic integration, that
pull to make deals with sundry metropolitan interests
at the expense of Caribbean collaboration. And not
to be forgotten, is the mortal fear harboured by local
parties that regional pre-occupations might cut their
Doctors off from the fountains of their support "by
leaving a vacuum for new political brokers to fill and
to challenge them ... "
In this context, the Caribbean Community
necessarily assumes the character of a diplomatic
institution serving two ends. First, it organises the
prior bargaining among the West Indian countries in
relation to further international bargaining for the
region as a whole. Secondly, it administers the
economic integration within the Caribbean. There is
a link between the two tasks but it remains only a


tenuous one owing to the inordinate concentration
of the integration movement on matters of trade
rather than production.
What Lewis is really saying is that to open up
the question of production would force CARICOM
to face up to political integration. And since the
integration of production is a necessary background
noise, the bigger countries keep hinting that the
smaller ones should get together politically in a
Federation presumably so as to simplify the
democracy by creating a more manageable oligocracy
of a few big fish.
".. it is surely ni the face of it strange that one
should accept the view that the six Associated States
and Montserrat should in some way be capable of
coming to an agreement and be represented by one
single individual while we have previously had a
federation in which this proved to be quite impossible".
The conclusion is irresistible "an alternative
conception ofpolitical integration must be articulated".
Lewis then proceeds to outline a regional agency
similar to the one proposed in Tapia, No 18 where
we repeated our suggestions made to the Webster
Government in 1969 at the height of the Anguilla
"The new deal must be imaginative enough to permit
the right blend of insular and regional commitment. It
must allow each territory to hold on to its own
constitutional apparatus while being free to cede
powers to the regional body as the changing context
dictates. In concrete terms it- means creating a
Permanent Commission of the Heads of Governmentc
Conference as a co-ordinating body tirdep which we
begin by placing CARIFTA, the Regional Develop-
ment Bank, the regional parts of the system of
Higher Education, the Secretariat to deal with the
multinational corporations, and so on".
Tapia, July 25, 1971. p 4.
The Lewis scheme starts with the fact that:
"political power derives from the islands; that the
region is composed not of one contiguous land mass,
but of islands that are separate from each other, that
have developed their local customs and local ways of
political organisation".
The scheme sees that
"the degree of co-ordination is to be decided on the
basis of the necessity for co-operation not on the
basis of some text-book formula".
That is the New World ideology at work .. make a
clinical and empirical assessment of your own situa-
tion and start from there to build practical models -
you cannot stal-t with Marx, Lenin, Bismarck, Maz-

Seventh Heads of Government
Conference October. Decision
taken to transform CARIFTA into
Common Market and to establish
Caribbean Community. Common
External Tariff, Fiscal Harmoni-
sation, co-ordinated planning of
agriculture, industry and tourism,
joint development of natural re-
sources, consultation on economic
policies, all now to be adopted.
Additional measures to benefit
poor countries. Pursuit of a wider
community to include all Carib-
bean islands and Guyanas. Com-
mittee of Attorneys General
established to draft legal instru-
ments. AG's meet in November.
Four independent countries open
diplomatic relations with Cuba.


Georgetown Accord signed on
the basis of Draft Treaty sub
mitted by Attorney's-Gencral to
Eighth Heads of Governmnp;ts Con-
ference April. Only CARIFTA
Members not signing are Antigua
and Montserral. Agreements to
come in force in June 1973 for

zini or Garibaldi. Your theory of revolutionary change
must be your own.
On the matter of integration, this approach
yields a whole range of startling possibilities for
Lewis. He proposes a whole range of what Tapia would
possibly describe as Techretariats in monetary
matters, capital budgeting, export marketing, foreign
policy management, health and welfare, regional
security. Necessarily the details are highly debatable
but the principle of approaching functional integra-
tion in this way (having discarded the orthodoxies
about unitary states and confederations etc.) is not
seriously open to challenge.
The principle is not open to challenge because it
does admit unitary states and federations where these
are feasible. Lewis reminds us that particular ties of
trade and culture could dictate the political unifica-
tion of say, Jamaica and Antigua; St Lucia, St
Vincent and Grenada, Barbados and St Vincent or
St Lucia; Guyana and Trinidad & Tobago; Grenada
and Trinidad and Tobago. Any of these could be
swung at very short notice depending on the movement
of political forces.
And the movement of political forces is not easy
to determine in advance. As Lewis puts it in another

"the place of Trinidad in the regional system at the
present time is quite unpredictable because the future
course of the political system there is itself qiuite
inpredicta blc".
'eT!. e. i. Tapia are prepared to chance a
prediction that would change the regional prospects.
The next move will sweep from the stage Williams and
the PNM, Gairy and the GULP. When we are through
with that, Trinidad, Tobago and Grenada will be the
united nation thta they come out to be.
To make such a prediction however, is to open
the Pandora Box of domestic politics. Understandably,
neither Demas nor Lewis delves too deeply here. It is
Tapia's responsibility to make it quite clear that the
most essential ingredients in West Indian nationhood
are not the regional structures that we build though
we must build them with realism and wisdom.
The most crucial ingredients are native ideology
and local community organisation. Together th3se
would breed political movements with the historic
vision and the self-confidence to embrace the natural
Caribbean fraternity. It is Tapia's responsibility to
say it and then do exactly what we say.

h (~Pis.

Fiscal Harmonisatioi, Double
Taxation Avoidance, Caribbean
Investment Corporation. Carib-
Dean Conmunity Treaty to be

signed on July 4 by the four
independent countries and to
come into effect August 4. Other
signatories to join in May 1974.
Venezuela. joins Caribbean De-
velopment Bank April.

Montserrat signs Georgetown Ac-
cord in December following visit
by CARIFTA Secretary-General
and Team of Ministers to that
island in May.

Caribbean Examinations Council
inaugurated January.

Ministerial Team goes to Brussels
in July to initiate EEC negotia-
tions. Single spokesman.
Caribbean Investment Corporatioi
comes into being August.
Standing Commliltlee of Filmniice
Ministers inaugurated September

Caribbean Connuon Mairkel ('Coun-
cil inaugurated October.
Consultations on tile energy crisis
Standing C'oImumiitee o0 Mjiin'it:st
responsible for Foreign Affai:s
inaugurated November.
Balhama Islands become indepen-




When thisJ journey begins
the hills around my city
are charred brown
are scarred black
where leaping yellow tongues
of flame are licking their way
through screaming tree crowns.
Not a single drop of rain
pierce, that vice tight sky.
No water slakes my thrist.
Not even pundits cajoling
alter this oven void.
My savannah is a dust bowl
Her seared rid skin peeled
Singed dust in a broiling wind.
My skin splits in the day
oozes a feverish secretion
night after stifling day.
Not even desire is fueled.
"I will not survive this drought"
is ihe name of the fear rising
from the depths anchoring this


I _. LI e~i TII1 1~ U


driven r4
voice that rasps u
crackling: r
"This aridity is death'"
But li
slowly d
slowly i
slowly it
without a hint of haste P
a terrible imbalance restores itself. a
One morning a hawk thunders out H
a cerulean high I
feathered wings muscled taut. a
Circling. o
Tightening the cricle to the edge of e
plummeting. 6
Circles once more before gliding: t
an arrow shafting its target. L
Now this journey is sure a
the hills around my city
are flushed green t
are washed clean 1
breathing dewed buttercups f
whose lips are raining s
golden suns s
gilding a flood of Ti Marie r
whose pickered pink pickle flower hums.
Under my naked feet



stand up

TAPIA welcomes with much satisfaction the
unanimous adoption by the Library Associa-
tion of Trinidad and Tobago of a resolution
calling for the "immediate restoration of libra-
ry Services to the Public on Saturdays".
It is particularly pleasing to see a Proiessional
Body taking such a forthright stand on an issue that
conceivably could have led to a restriction of their
professional independence and a curtailment of their
areas of competence.
Too often have professionals in 'rinidad been
content to allow malicious trespassing by all sorts of
people into their areas of competence. Hopefully the
lead given by the Library Association will encourage
other professional groups to do more to forcefully
assert and protect the interests of their members and
the profession as a whole.
The issue of the closing of the libraries on
Saturday however, has other important implications.
As the Association has quite rightly pointed out
instead of curtailment there is need for expanded
library services.
One is astounded that a question of this nature
is argued in terms of the numbers of people who use
the facilities on a given day. Whether or not the
statistics show that extensive use is made of the
libraries is completely irrelevant.
The services that Libraries provide for the
citizens of a country are vital. If people are not making
use of these services this should be cause for ettorts
aimed at generating greater interest and usage not for
closing down the libraries.
But one is really not surprised; For the covey of
materialists in uus government havet.never shownthe
sligntest indication tiat they are aware of the need for
the wide dissemination of information not only to
combat illiteracy and ignorance but also to expand
the minds and spirit of men.
They have been in control of all the avenues of
information in this country and have been content to
use them to purvey the utter mindlessness that we
are subjected to by the Television Station, and to
constantly block any attempts at national discussion
and commentary.
The Government survives on illiteracy, igno-
rance and the impotence these create. Content as
they are to live by messianic diatribe it would be too
much to expect any agony in their quarters over such
a "trivial" thing as the closing of a library.



oots roar
ttering lean saplings
resuscitating gnarled trunks
whose crowns are dripping
'own soaring valleys plunged
n solid bays anchored
n a frothing sea
ound pound pounding
another rejuvenation.
Here, you ask, this journeyleads?
t ain' matter.
equally free in the sluiced heat
f the day
he rain charges wind of the night.
hat long. long long arid tunnel
come to this
flourishing sight
oaked in my island
troked in her colours
reflectingg her pools of resilient light.

Raoul Pantin






Dennis Pan tin

BRUCE LEE is not
a Fist of Fury; he is a
Fist of adolescent anger:
arrogant because he has
not channeled that anger,
and irresponsible because
he does not consider the
damage resulting from his
personal anger.
Malcolm Buggeridge,
writing last week, failed
to note this point in his
- review of Lee's latest film
Fist of Fury.
Undoubtedly, these are two
of the attractions and possibly
the main reasons for Lee's
Buggeridge sees the popu-
larity of Bruce Lee's films
in our love for body contact
the master of hand fight -
and our love for style.
However, Fist of Fury has
other lessons for revolutiona-
ries and rebels in the Carib-
bean today.
The story centres on Chen
(Lee) who is grieved on the
death ot his Teacher of the
Martial Arts since he suspects
that the Teacher was murdered
The place is early 20th Cen-
tury China in an "international
quarter" controlled by the
Imperial Japanese.


Holding a ceremony to
mark their Teacher's death,
members of the martial arts
school are interrupted by the
entrance of two Japanese mar-
tial arts .experts and their
Chifiese interpreter who tries
to get members of the school
to take basket to fight.
The new Teacher restrains
the members but Chen cannot
take that. Next day he: goes:
to the Japanese training camp
and snares out blows. The
Japanese return the visit in
Chen's absence and repay the
Meanwhile Chen finds out
that two Japanese posing as
cooks had poisoned Teacher.
'He kills dem and hangs dem
from a post in the street. He
also. kills the Chinese inter-
preter and a few other mem-
bers of the Japanese school.
In the meantime, the Japs
invade Teacher's school and
kill everything moving.
A few of Teacher's stu-
dents who -were out, return
to find this massacre and the
*Japanese Consul and Chinese
Inspector who demand Chen

or the school will be closed.
Chen, entering the building
from the back, hears this and
offers himself to the Chinese
Inspector on the promise
that the school will be left
alone. The Inspector naturally
Leaving the building, Chen
faces a firing squad of Japan-
ese. He leaps through the air
defiantly as the bullets rip
through his body.

In the end, Chen is dead.
Most of Teacher's martial arts
students are dead. A few Japs
are dead but the Japanese
imperial might remains. The
entrance to the local Japanese
imperial palace is still marked
with the sign "No Dogs or
Chinese Allowed".
The point is that personal
bravery and overflowing anger
are important qualities to over-


throw the imperial power.
But if this is not matched
by some cool assessment of
the comparative resources for
open confrontation, then it
only leads to greater repres-
sion, disillusionment and frus--
Another result is the death
of imprisonment or so many
who would be more useful on
the outside as organizers.
The Chinese in the street
cheer Chen when he pulls
down the offence sign outside
Japanese Palace and "kung-
fues" some guards.
But until this cheering sup-
port can bechanneled into a
working force or organisation
then Chen's act remains one
of defiance which we all can
applaud; but it is the defiance
of a lonely rebel, not a revo-

Minor leagues:

How wrong can

Lequay be?

Alloy Lequay should
not give up trying. He-
should begin trying. Try-
ing to understand Sports
-that is.
He may understand in-
surance, does not under-
stand politics and has em-
barassed himself with his
statements in politics and
sports.. .
First politics. Lequay
will be remembered for
issuing a statement con-
gratulating the police for
their good work following
the Trou Macaque, Laven-
tille shoot-out, which left
four young men dead.
Not even the Prime
Minister or the Commis-
sioner of Police have been
so apolitical as to issue
similar congratulations
However, Lequay has been
better-known for his role in
Sports, particularly Table Ten-
nis, and as organiser of the
Prime Minister's Better Village
How Lequay has "severely
lambasted" the Minor Leagues
to quote the Express, before
the Commission of Enquiry
probing Cricket.

S Lequay, representing the
South Trinidad Cricket Coun-
/cil charged that most of the
Minor Leagues.are really one-
man organizations which left
Much to be desired as far as:.
proper functions and 'organ-
isation are concerned.
This is true of several of
the Minor Leagues without
But; what Lequay fails to
realise if the Express report is
faithful t- his statement
which is another story is
that one-manship is not some-
thing that is peculiar to Minor
Leagues. It is a national dis-
ease, which begins with the
Head of Government. What
Tapia calls Doctor Politics.
The administration of cric-
ket itself at the national level
remains in the hands of a
"white oligarchy" which con-
tinues to claim privileges from
Queen Victoria.
In the face of official
neglect, people have been for-
ced to form their own group-
ings, many times, also in the
face of direct hostility by the
establishment bodies.
This is true of Cricket,
Football, Athletics, you name
it. The QPCC's, TCA's and
'NAA's continue to frustrate

SContinued on Page 11



Lawrence of


The new






IN THE 20's it was Challenor and St. Hill, in the 30's
Headley, the three W's in the 50's, Sobers, Kanhai and
.Nurse in the 60's. Now, the 1970's is the decade of Rowe,
and Kallicharan.
In the 60's we argued who was the better bat,
Kanhai or Sobers? Now the question is still being asked
not about the ageing greats but about these young stars.
Among a superlative cast of batsmen including
Gary Sobers, Rohan Kanhai, Clive Lloyd, Roy Frede-
ricks and Bernard Julien they have been predominant. It
really staggers the mind that in an innings where Sobers,
Kanhai, Lloyd andJulien all failed,, the West Indies still
managed to score in excess of five hundred runs.
When a player dominates
a series towards the end of it, Ruthvcn Baptiste
.._Jt is quite easy to overlook
those who brought sterling-- ----.
performances in the earlier and nineties. Even if we elimi-
part. This has been the case nate the instances of sheer bad
with Kalli and Rowe. Kalli luck surely the regularity of
took the honours in the first such occurrences suggest
half and Rowe the latter. room for tightening.
If and when (as if often
DECISIVE the case) he gets to his cen-
tury, he seems to say to him-
After Rowe's triple cen- self "it is time for someone
tury at Bridgetown followed else to bat". Then he gets
by his breathtaking century himself out after a flurry of
at the Oval in the final test explosive strokeplay.
(which to my mind was a bet- In this regard, Rowe's
ter performance) we may only horizons have been far wider
vaguely remember Kallicha- on the evidence so far.
ran's 158 at the Oval, his 119 He never looks like getting
at Kensington and a ninety- out even early in his inmngs.
something at Sabina. Nothing the opposition does
Even with the adl of hind- seems capable of rattling him.
sight, it is difficult to say what Of course he has been
is the most decisive single rattled but not by the oppo-
event that led to a team's sition. The old principle that
victory or defeat. Yet in the underlies so many romantic
first test I would say Kalli's songs to the point of nausea -
158 was decisive and every- it is only those close to you
thing else was mere support. can hurt you. Rowe's first
That masterly innings test appearance outside his
initiated him unreservedly native Jamaica was here at the

into that rare breed of great
batsmen. In addition to that
explosive quality that has
earned him the title of "Killer
Kalli" he has rounded with a
tight defence. In defence par-
ticularly, the influence of his
mentor, Rohan Kanhai, is un-
mistakably clear.His footwork
and balance at the crease is
the equal of Kanhai's. He is a
completee batsmen.
Kalli is a virtual replica
and like the grey haired mas-
ter he has inherited his vices
(at a similar age) along with
his virtues. Kanhai used to be
guilty of making up his mind
about the shot he was going
to play before the bowler
Like Kanhai he has gotten
out quite often in the eighties

Oval in 1972. WI vs New

Gary Sobers won the toss
and sent in New Zealand to
bat. Rowe, having scored a
double century and a century
on his debut, created great
expectations in the minds of
the Trinidad public.
Rowe had also created for
himself a reputation for being
a fine slip fieldsman for Ja-
maica He dropped three
catches in that position. The
crowd made its displeasure
felt in that insensitive way of
ours. That barracking must
have had a profound effect on

Fortunately, he has re-
covered quite quickly. Unlike
Lloyd and Kallicharan to
whom the lables "Killer" and
"Lasher"have been attached,
Rowe is beyond such simple
categorizations, we can only
extol his charm, rhythm, cool
and discretion.

While Kallicharan explodes-
Rowe comes on like a gentle
wind; a man in perfect har-
mony with the Universe.
In an article in the
Guardian August 16 last year,
Sobers acclaimed him as one
of the WI's greatest batsmen.
He described him as a
combination of Weekes and
Worrell. I haven't seen much
of Weekes of whom my recol-
lection is vague. But to my
way of seeing, he is a com-
bination of Worrell and
His very late, late (almost
posthumous) cuts take your
breath away. It is the stroke
most reminiscent of Frank

SWith Sobers past his athle-
tic prime (though he is so
sound in temperament and
technique he needs only. the
minimum of athletic prowess
to bring off brilliant perform-
ances), Rowe is the most
skillful player off the back-
foot if not off the front as
well in the game today.
Yet I would not categorize
him as a backfoot player.
We may be lured into thinking
that the cut and the sweep
are his favourite strokes. It is
simply that conditions at the
Oval in the final test demanded
that he score his runs behind
the wicket.
Though not obvious, that
rocking chair gait of Sobers is
evident in Rowe. Both are
such good players off both
front and back foot that on
going onto the back, in mid-
stream, they can switch
smoothly to the front. That
is the movement which adds
the touch of elegance and
grace to their exceptional batt-
ing skill.
Like the genuine artist,
whatever his art-form, Rowe's

artistry reflectshis personality
He seems to have settled all
those fundamental questions
youth asks itself. He knows
what he wants, where he is

Rowe has risen above that
magic-seeking culture of the
Caribbean which continues to
prevent our people from dis-
covering their true selves.

His patience and discipline,
are incredible. Youth, -par-
ticularly Caribbean Youth,
rarely displays such qualities
in such abundance. He is a
model for the rest of us.
Lawrence Rowe repre-
sents the new Caribbean man
in cricket. Soon that quality
man will make .its presence
felt in other areas of Caribbean

~'-** *-I.A.

Look out for :

Kali -another prince



NAME ------------------------


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RETURN TO: Tapia House Publishing Co. Ltd.,
91 Tunapuna Rd. Tunapuna, Phone; 662-5126.
Trinidad and Tobago.

Research Institute for
Study of Man,
162, East 78th Street,
NEU YORK, i'.Y. 10021 ,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448,
U S.S ...


Lequay Wrong Again

From Page 10

the efforts of the ordinary
sportsman toincreasehlis skill.
A series of black-jacketed
officials, hold on to the reins
of power, for their own per-
sonal ambitions.
Even the few national
Sports administrators who
work for the development of
Sports, consciously or not,
prow re the Big Leagues -
-, tajor sporting arena as
to ..c ,Iglct of the out-
parishes, the local areas over-
fl-o'iig v-ith talent.
:0 res ia to this1
void taaI t!ie MOinor Leagues
have p!rung uip. Admittedly

petty dictauirs. But it is hyper-
critical of Lequay to be cast-
ing stone at those Minor
Lea tucs w. l,:i ih Big Leagues
hi Sports :ii.d elsewhere strive
on the egs of petty dynasts.
Leq'lay's conception of
Spoi ing organisation and de-
velopment as a whole is re-
vealed in his contemptuous
statement that Minor Leagues
fill the gap as a form of
recreation to thousands, who
iust play cricket for the fun of

it, and with no real desire to
reach any National or Inter-
national standard. (Express).
It says something that the
man who helped organise the
P.M.'s Best Village Programme
intended, at least in theory to
sprout Minor Leagues in the
cultural arena, could show
such a patronising and con-
temptuous attitude towards
the country areas.
But for every College play-
er discovered there are five
Inshan Ali's or Everard Cum-
mings, scrunting in Caroni or
Sangre Grande without fields.
without coaches, or equip-

If we need an enquiry
into Cricket or other Sports
we also need most of all, an
enquiry into the values and
attitudes of sporting officials.
To democratise Minor and
Major Leagues is fundamental.
With it must be banished this
attitude in Sport, as in cluture
or politics, that people out-
side of the urban area are
not serious, are not talented,
but are only iindulgingin





SUPT. Randolph Bur-
roughs and his "Flying
Squad" took time off
from their Guerrilla hunts
and Marijuana raids on
Tuesday last week to
make a pre-dawn search
of the home of Michael
Sagar at Freeling St in
Sagar is the star witness in
the "Bomb murder case", in
which the former publisher
of the Bomb newspaper
Ajodha-Singhhas been charged
with the r-irder of Fitzroy
Mitchell one of the employees.
Sagar himself a former
employee of the Bomb, was
clearly very upset by the
raid on his home. Speaking

to a Tapia reporter at his
home afterwards Sagar ex-
.pressed himself baffled as to
the reason for the raid.
The Police he said told
him that they were 'searching
for narcotics. They failed to
produce any Search Warrant
and proceeded to make a mess
of his home. In addition, Sagar
said, they took away some of
his valuable possession includ-
ing a gold bracelet, three
gold rings and a cigarette
When Sagar asked the
Search Party for a receipt
che items they had taken
one Cpl. Carrington told him
they were not selling anything
so they not giving any receipt.

Fevlrr e L

NJAC Women's Rally

THE women of NJAC are Spain rally as we feel that the new woman Present posi-
holding the second in their papers presented are import- tion and projection for the
series of nation-wide rallies and in building a groundwork new society; and 3) Black
at the Palms Club in San of consciousness among black Women in the struggle those
Fernando on Sunday, April women in Trinago. women who are now dead.
7 at 3.30 p.m. Basically the The papers are 1) Black but whose contribution to
programme will be-the same WomeninHistory-i.e.Slavery fighting for their people make
as at the previous Port of and Indentureship; 2) The them live on.



Power to the People -.25
Tapia' New World .25
TAPIA Back Numbers .25
Tapia Constitution .25
Democracy or Oligarchy? C.V. Gocking .25
Reform of the Public Service Denis Solomon .25
Foreign Investment In T and T Mc Intyre & Watson $ 3.60
Central Banking C. Y. Thomas 4.80
Non-Bank Financial Institutions --M. Odle 6.00
Foreign Capital in Jamaica Norman Girvan 8.40
Post War Economic Development
of Jamaica O. Jefferson 8.40
Underdevelopment and
Dependence ed Norman Girvan) 7.20
Persistent Poverty George Beckford 6.00
Readings in The Political Economy
of the Caribbean N. Girvan & O. Jefferson 7.20
Political Economy of the English
Speaking Caribbean W. Demas .75
The Dynamics of W.I. Economic
Integration Brewster & Thomas $14.40
The Adjustment'of Displaced
Workers In A Labour Surplus
Economy Roy Thomas 6.00


$20.0 0

;'"~D~""~g~"rr~"~~"~~"~ ~~-'---


At home at the time of
the raid were Sagar's Father
and brother. Sagar stated
thathis mother was not there.
She is at present on vacation
in Canada.

Not content to admit that
they had wasted their time
the Police proceeded to lay
two charges against Sagar
before they left. They charged
him with being in possession
of a Flick Knife.
Sagar appeared in Court
on Thursday and the case was
put off until 18 of this month,
but not before they had stick
another charge on him of
"intent to commit a Felony".
The Bomb murder case
has been sent to the High
Court and is expected to come
up for hearing within the
next month.