Material Information

Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Creation Date:
December 7, 1972
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000329131 ( ALEPH )
03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )

Full Text


OEc ; ;
i* '^ "Y ^ p.,.



WHY DID sugar workers
who were steaming hot with
discontent for the last eight
weeks or so return to their
jobs on November 30? An
answer to this, one is sure,
none of the reporting in the
daily Press can help us find.
Was it, for example, the dis-
missal threat made by Caroni, or
was it simply because the leaders
directed their workers back to
work? For both these things
happened. But to pose the answer
in this simplistic one-sentence
form is merely to beg the ques-


For what happened on that
fateful Wednesday, November
29, requires a much more dis-
criminating appraisal if the fac-
tors which led to so dramatic a
turn of events are to be mean-
ingfully weighted.
Of key significance was the
meeting which was held between
members of the Workers Com-
mittee (among whom were el-
ected branch officials from Usine)
and senior officials of The All

Trinidad Union, and which fi-
nally took place in San Fernando
after two false starts in Brechin
Castle. It was the result of this
meeting which led to circum-
stances which workers found so
hard to swallow.
The outcome was a decision
to accept the Company's position
that workers must resume pro-
ductive activity as a condition
for opening discussions on the
disputed hours.
This concession was made in

the hope that Union officials
would settle in 48 hours a de-
cision that workers be paid a
compromise bonus amounting to
25% of the crop wages, 1972.
But it was an outcome which
was wrung out of a grand scheme
to exclude from the meeting
non-member of the union who
were in factthevoice of the work-
Instead Comrades Mannie, and
Ramoutar were put out. Shakeer
left in disgust. And while Baxter

remained the meeting was not
allowed to proceed with the issue
at hand.
For the workers the conse-
quences were grave. Usine lead-
ers were effectively isolated, and
were soldthe company's position.
This weakened the courage of the
leaders from Brechin Castle, who
clearly underestimating t h e
strength of the support mobilised
over the last couple of weeks felt
that they were not able to go it

-. 1

Usine Sugar Workers Listen To Leaders


For even up to the final hour
workers, had continued to rally
their support. A party from Bre-
chin Castle had been to Usine.
There Baxter disclosed plans to
call on the company to discuss
the issue. Rampartapsing and
others had been caught com-
pletely by surprise, huddled in a
room and frantically trying to
find an answer while the new
leaders of the movement held
their meeting among workers


A few hours after workers
from Usine who had been
with senior Union officials made
it post-haste to Brechin Castle
bringing news of their decision
not to make any agreement
with Rampartapsingh and Emery,
without the full support of their
comrades from Brechin Castle.
What more could be desired of
this show of comaraderie!
Immediately they proceeded
to the factory only to discover
that Emery had not too long be-
fore phoned his branch official
informing him of a meeting to
Cont on Pg 2

Brechin Castle.

A TAPIA research team has
already begun work on a
comprehensive policy for
the mass media in a free
The mass media and
newspapers in particular -
have recently become a
major area of national in-
terest. Developments within
the media, the activities and
statements of journalists
themselves, have made some
of the biggest stories over the
the last two years.
Tapia, however had always
felt that the Press was a critical
factor in shaping opinion and
attitudes, and newspapers in this
country have been a constant
focus of our attention.


THE PRESS, we have
been saying, has bells in
its head. The ding-a-ling
fuss is ringing evidence
of it.
Both radio and news-
paper are making a (ding)
about a foolish song that's
on its way don) (g).
Now the clamour (ing)
about sex, masturbation
and thing has given atten-
tion to a song that's not
worth a pin(g).
But for raising phony
issues the Press is well
known so instead of
reading and listening
ago(n)g, the thing to do
is pay no attention a (toll).

What is Govt



mass media?

In the March 1970 pamphlet
"Black Power and National Re-
construction", we urged jour-
naliststo strike a blow for their
own freedom. That same docu-
ment proposed that the Guardian
should be converted into a Na-
tional Trust.
And as part of our constitu-
tional proposals for National Re-
construction, we said that the
Press should have representation
in a Senate or council of citizens
that we envisaged as a cross-
section of community opinion
Within the daily Press itself,
this new phase of s e 1 f-
examination by journalists ques-
tioning theirroleand that of their
media began with the 1970 Feb-
ruary Revolution.
It was different from the tradi-
tional, periodic agitation about
"freedom of the Press", and the
fears about encroaching govern-
ment interference.
Last week, for example, arti-
cles in both the BOMB and
MOKO showed how the steady
exodus of journalistic staff had
affected the two daily papers -

traditionally the Mecca of journa-
Four years ago the journalists
now in the BOMB, MOKO, The
Catholic News and TAPIA were
staff members of either the Ex-
press or the Guardian.
Which is not the whole story
of the diaspora, for a lot more
have simply gone out of journalism
or taken up pseudo-journalistic
jobs like public relations and


The result of all this for the
daily papers is that staff is des-
perately scarce, and trained staff
even scarcer yet. But what is even
more tragic is the failure of the
dailies to inspire staff to work.
So the nation, ill-served for
information on which to base op-
inion, remains subject to the
early morning terrorism of the
blown-up headline.
All of this has political con-
sequences, and anyone with per-
spectives for the country must

be asking questions about where
it will all lead to and what is to
be done.
Fortunately the Government
is giving no leadership in this di-
Not that we may have missed
much, to judge from Radio 610,
Radio 100, TTT and The Nation.
But the fact is that newspapers
if they are, as they should be,
conceived of as educational
media cannot be left to the
caprice of those who would pol-
lute the reservoir of public in-
The evidence shows that more
people are reading more news-
papers at this time. Weekend
newsstands can offer as many as
eight publications.
Yet all around there are crip-
pling handicaps, decisive limi-
tations on facilities,onequipment
and on financial resources. The
two dailies which boast a total
circulation of over 160,000 at
peak must remain firmly in the
clutches of the advertisers who
would like to dictate the pace in
this capitalist economy.

There is no question that the
Press dught to be subsidized to
some extent in the interest of
providing the public with the
kind of information and analy-
sis to enable people to make sense
of the reality.
And one of the things the
Tapia research team is going to
explore is the possibility of doing
this through the National Ser-
vice plan that Tapia has advo-
The newspapers would be pro-
vided with a supply of appren-
tices who would get training on
the job, and whose presence
would enable the particular paper
to spread the work around more
people, and to use its staff more


Speaking to an UNESCO and
CARIFTA-sponsored seminar in
Guyana on Monday Forbes Burn-
ham articulated the need to make
newspapers serve the interest of
national development,and argued
on this basis that foreign owner-
ship of the media was intolerable.
The media here are perhaps
most in need of localization.
While the foreign-owned media
show a characteristic lack of res-
ponsiveness of local needs, the
locally owned media are still not
sufficiently oriented homewards
in spirit.
Both dailies in any case sub-
scribe to the foreign wire ser-
vices for foreign and even for
Caribbean news, and both feel
bound to spend foreign exchange
on syndicated American cplumn-
ists or comic strips.

Cont on Pg 2

Vol 2 No 10

-~ ---------~--
-II 'I --~-- r rr IIC I I I





After the February



AS THE February Revolu-
tion runs its tortuous course,
the heights of theatre,time
and again surpass themselves.
This week the spotlight fell
on the opposition wing of
the old Afro-Saxon regime.
Seeking desperately to res-
tore the golden age of West-
minster two-party govern-
ment and politics in its
Caribbean colonial version,
the DLP has settled on a new
leader whose programme is a
closing of the ranks.
The zeppo has it that even
improbable long-time DLP
people like Farquhar and
Stephen Maraj are heading
back into the fold.
In the good old days following
the election of 1961, govern-
ment certainly dominated poli-
tics and placed a premium on
seats in the House of Parliament:
race more or less decided party
and made community work super-

And since two Doctor/Mes-
siahs reigned supreme by gentle-
men's agreement, mere leadership
was utterly out of place.
In that -lost world,we the citi-
zens simply kept our tails be-
tween our legs, went ritually to
cast our little ballots, and that,
you bet your bottom dollar, was
We watched them score the
chalks mechanically two to one.
Two for Tweedledum, one for
Tweedledee. It had been settled
by the boundaries.


This is the wonder world of
Lequay's dreams. We'll revert,
his mouthpiece Bajnath says, to
the comfortable times......
When God ready to kill off
bachak he does gie dem wing to
History cannot be reversed
that way. The tranquillity of
the idyllic colonial arrangement

which Williams and Capildeo
worked out in London in 1962
was ominously shattered by the
defections of those fragments
which were to become the Li-
berals and the Party of Workers
and Farmers. It was a sign that
the shoe was pinching hard.
Then between 1968 and 1971
we had the demise of the old re-
gime in earnest, the high point
being the February Revolution
in 1970.


When Black Power revolted
against an African racist party,
it simply demolished the basis of
Afro-Saxon politics and its Indian
racist twin.
When a government which
was the pet hate of the over-
whelming majority of citizens
came to control the entire House
of Representatives the whole sys-
tem of government necessarily
becomes a complete imposture.
But the most relevant develop-
ment of all has been the in-
sensible mobilization of the citi-
zens little by little with every
The University students and
the intellectuals joined the mili-
tant unionists in 1968.

Since then the mobilization
has extended to embrace blacks,
youth, unemployed, soldiers, ru-
ral voters, secondary school stu-
dents, journalists, clergy,doctors,
lawyers, housewives and even
police have been forced to take
position on basic issues.
Now in every corner of the
country, the revolutionary con-
sciousness is growing: in Matelot
and Erin; in Chacachacare and
The day of reckoning is draw-
ing nigh because you can see the
country visibly learning to dis-
card old habits.
In 1968 when the New World
split the citizens did not know
what to judge it. We wanted
change by the only means we
understood: new face, new hope,
new party quick.
The assumptions about our
impotence remained the same.
But in the end we did not buy
that cat in bag to end up with a
fearless paper.
And with the changing scene
we've learnt that our revolution-
ary responsibility is to build.
The workofgenuine citizens
will produce permanent, effec-
tive organization and rounded
competent leadership. But Caroni
cannot be rescued either by Lloyd
Best or by Raffique Shah joining
the battle for the sugar belt.

Why sugar workers went back to jobs

The idea of messianic deliver-
ance from above is nothing short
of an illusion.
The hopesof the DLP cannot
be fulfilledby a change of leader
unless the party becomes organi-
sed for work and to become or-
ganised forworkis a matter which
requires time.
And while that party has been
adding and substractingfragments,
the country has been toiling in
the night.


must have

SUGAR MUST be reorganised
so that farmers and workers
would at long last get control of
the industry. This point was
stressed by Tapia Secretary, Lloyd
Best, during a "last-wicket" ad-
dress which he gave to the public
meeting at Balmain last week
Friday evening.
Other speakers at the meeting
were Ivan Laughlin as Chairman,
Syl Lowhar, Brinsley Samaroo
and LloydTaylor. Samaroo dwelt
on the plight of the rural popu-
lation in the face of a totally
emasculated system of Local Go-
vernment and reminded the aud-
ience of the long tradition of
Panchayats on which Indians
were privileged to draw.

Cont from pg 1
be held among union officials
only. Luckily Usine leaders had
arrived before, to ensure that
members of the Workers Com-
mittee at Brechin Castle were
fully represented at the meeting.
Thus it was this bid to further
hoodwink sugar workers was
thwarted by workers themselves.
Yet all that was not enough
to save the day for workers,
The leadership had built unity

over the last few weeks. But
clearly too that was not enough.
At the most crucial hour they
failed to stand firm. Usine con-
cluded on behalf of the others.
What they lacked was a plan,
clear and detailed enough to anti-
cipate the guile andthe intriguing
of both the company and the
union, and to inform action as
well. An unprepared group of
leaders failed the workers who
like disgruntled men returned
grudgingly back to work.




Your mutual

company. All profits

go to policy holders

74 Independence Square, P.O.S.
19 30 High St., San Fernando, (Trinidad, W.I.)




~-~-; cr
,*'f"ar ;:


I ( -,-


Cont from pg 1

In fact, TAPIA is the only
newspaper which has been able to
make connections with services
that report news from a Third
World standpoint. In securing,
the servicesofPRENSA LATINA,
the official Cuban news agency,
we have long anticipated the
moves for closer economic and
diplomatic ties with Cuba.
area of interest is Latin America,
while our other foreign news
source, Afro-World-Associates,
emphasise African countries.
The Heads of Government con-
ference in October resolved "that
efforts be'made to'accelerate the

introduction of training
grammes in the field of J
ism and Mass Communicat
Typically, the Caribbe
vernments want to start th
way around. A school ofj
ism can only be built
starting at the level of the I
lar medium integration
with study, and building
there to the final evolut
a school of practical and tl
cal training.
But clearly the gove
does not have the vision
to appreciate the fullness
problem or to prescribe f

Lloyd Taylor recounted the
:.., heartaches he had shared with
sugar workers over the last few
agonising weeks of struggle when
he had been in the midst of the
fight reporting on developments
for TAPIA. He said that "the
buckets of tears would not be in
Best said that even in the
time of Butler we failed to get
properly organised in sugar. We
have had much too much pulling
and tugging between Africans
and Indians, between workers
and farmers, between cultivation
and factory.
p. Within the factory the junior
S staff was divided between Staff
Association, boilermen,and other
workers. "We cannot go on
like this."
"It is time for a change",
Best continued, "And the change
has beencoming since the 1960's.
But, in 1963 Williams brought
Bhadase back into All-Trinidad
"to hold up production."


"Now the way is clear, ISA,
IRA, or any kind of A. The
g pro- workers mustnow establish a new
ournal- kind of Union one from be-
tions". low not dominated by some per-
ean go- sonality at the top. The recent
e other struggle has shown that we are
ournal- ready for a genuine workers'
up by Union to confront the Govern-
particu- ment, the Company and the All-
g work Trinidad, all three wearing one
up from mask."
tion of "The farmers were tired of see-
heoreti- ing all prices rise except the
price of cane. The workers were
rnment fed up with wages only one-
either third of wages in oil. If getting
of the ourselves together in sugar de-
feasible mands our lives, then it is our
lives that we must give."



. -



ON SATURDAY November 25 both the Guardian and
the Express carried front page stories on Minister of Na-
tional Security Basil Pitt's disclosure relating to the high in-
cidence of crime in Trinidad.
In giving the "causes" of the increased spate of robberies and
rape cases, the Minister displayed the total lack of judgment which
so characterises the regime to which he belongs.
In the Guardian article the "causes" of crime were given the
reluctance of people to give evidence because of fear or reprisal,
the abuse of bail, the quantity of arms in circulation; availability of
motor vehicles for criminal purposes and the movement of large

sums of money.
In the Express report an
additional cause was listed
for the increase of rape: the
use of narcotics.
The minister announced
the intention of the Govern-
ment to stop crime by the es-
tablishment of a police Rob-
bery Squad, the setting up of
road blocks and searches of
vehicles. Also indicated in this
respect was the creation of
facilities to enable banks and
business places to notify the
police about the movement of
payrolls and large sums of


Pitt was reported as ap--
pealing for co-operation from
all "responsible, respectable
and law-abiding citizens for
the love of country and their
own security."
This very limited analysis
of the problem and the equally
short-sighted belief in the ef-
fectiveness of punishment will
never solve the problem. What
the minister failed to do was
to ask himself more funda-
mental questions:
Why is it that so many
Trinidadians have, during the
last few years, turned in-
creasingly to a life of crime?
And the government must
.- face up to the--fact-that as-
unemployment has spiralled
so too has the incidence of
crime. The government has
not bothered to consider as
usual the daily increase in the
cost of living which has made
ekeing out an existence al-
most unbearable for the poorer
members of the society.


In the third place it is
under the very noses of this
government that foreign and
local business is being allowed
to pursue an unrestricted ad-
vertising campaign through
Press, radio and TV, which
recreating in the minds of the
population, taste patterns and
living habits that cannot be
fulfilled on the pittance that
so many receive as wages.
In fact the personal life
style of members of Parlia-
ment the Belmonts or the
Benzes, the mansions, the im-
peccable European attire -
sets an example to the rest
of the population of a life
that only MPs can afford.
So that there is a revolu-
tion of rising expectations
that is fast creating an ex-
pectation of rising revolutions.




come better

than that, Mr. Pitt

,,hich O&ld Ird Ibo opl
airo.tM hatebe Oenrm- '0
,nombL mtisfactory. ne,
-ie. -Ap 11~ u;7
,I f the o I rbbe. ti.he O- It, b 6 0(6.
,,nitd i Ie~-d in mu* Iii t e Ptpbea.. 0f

There are additional rea- praedial larceny would in-
sons for the increasing ten- crease.
_-.Aency-towards rimeR T-WTef-a----nnftertliffow many
government practises crime new patrols are set up, those
through ostensibly legal who steal would find means of
methods like giving Better evasion;desperatepeople have
Village and Special Project to live by their wits. And as
jobs only to PNM card holders the police increases,, so too
what moral authority does it will the forces of those who
possess to punish for other are on the other side.
crimes? There are many, however,
How can we blame the who argue that Pitt is fully
teenager who takes to crime aware of the shallowness of
because neither can he get his argument but that he has
into a secondary school be-
cause there is no place, nor
can he get a job because he
has no skill. He too has to
eat, but he is caught in a
vicious circle of all-round re-


Nor should we forget the
distressing effect of such con-
stant rejection.
Instead of enquiring into
the real dispossession under W eIe
which the majority of the na- r t
tion's people are labouring,
our "learned friend" skims
over the surface and then de- We at Kirpalani's knc
cares war on these unfor- a park for your car ir
tunates. Christmas Shopping.
But Pitt would soon realise For your convenience
the futility of this war. Arms Kirpalani's have oper
would continue to be
smuggled; more cars stolen; a Free Car Park next

to give reasons for the in-
creased expenditure on the
security services. As political
opposition builds up, more
Special Branch police will
have to be recruited in order
to take notes and generally
to scare the people.
As former lieutenants of
the regime are now deserting
the sinking ship, Mr. Smith
needs spies to keep an eye on,
how they're makingit to shore.
And he needs, too, paramili-


tary bodies like the SSS bat-
talion equipped with expen-
sive American arms.
All this requires money
and the "respectable law-
abiding citizens" will have to
supply it. They must there-
fore be given reasons for the
When the Minister says
that a cause of crime is the
reluctance of people to give
evidence, is he not condemn-
ing the police service for its in-
ability to protect those who
give evidence? How then can
this be a source of crime?
Pitt must come better next


By this unfortunate analy-
sis the government has set two
very damaging tendencies in
motion. In the first place,
they have driven another
wedge into the already in-
creasing gap of antagonism
that now exists between the
haves and the have-nots.
By formally condemning
a substantial section of the
population as criminals it has
placed these unfortunate
people outside the pale of ac-
ceptance as decent citizens.
Now they will have far more
reason to retaliate against
those who have rejected and
condemned them.


Secondly, by the govern-
ment's commitment to the
use of force as a solution it
has descended into the pit to
dobattle with those who need
to be reformed, given hope,
and provided with jobs.
Let us hope that Pitt's res-
pectable and 1 a w-abiding
citizens do not get in the way
of the combatants. One won-
ders whether Dennis Mahabir
wasn't right when he wrote a
fortnight ago that every coun-
try gets the criminals it



Andrew Salkey
A book for all Republicans $3.95
111 Frederick Street & Campus St. Augustine





AT 71, Ramjohn is as fit as a fiddle. Bright and early
Saturday, December 2, 1972, he came walking up the
hill in search of the Tapia House, top of Tnnapuna
Road. He found me on the verandah. Only the dart-
ing eyes betrayed the indignant motivation of the
morning mission and disturbed the beak-nosed Ghandian
calm of the unmistakably Hindu face.

I come to tell my story
about Caroni and Rampartap
and them because I hear TAPIA
go gie them the full shaft.
These bitches at Caroni paying
me $20 a month pension after
I waste a whole life of labour
on them. And the union not
doing one thing. I run behind
them till I tired."
Ramjohn spent 54 years of
his life as a worker with Caroni
Limited He was born some-
where along the Guaico-Cuna-
ripo Road, not too far from
Sangre Grande. It was Decem-
ber 12, 1901. It seems that
since then he has remembered
practically everything. When he
was 10, his father died; he had
to go to work.


In 1912, I get a job as a
yard-boy in the Overseers'
Quarters at Caroni Estate. Ten
cents a day. Then in 1916, I
move to the Locomotive
Division as a Coupler. Fifty-
five cents."
I asked him whether he
remembered Cipriani and if
they had had riots at Caroni
in 1919?
I remember Butler, is he
wey make the people get lil


more money. There was a big
riot in the estate yard between
the factory and the cultivation
office. Is the Manager name
Gilbert who cause it. He use a
bad word to a woman and thing
start. The men and them take
up stone and start to mash up
building and thing. And then
one of the bosses, a white man,
come out with a gun and
shoot in the air. People start
to scatter leaving fork, hoe,
bowlie, and everything helter-
-That'was in 1937, no?"
It was the same year
Charlie King get kill. I did
leave Caroni for a few months
just before that. I take out a
conductor badge with Ramdine
Bus Company but it didn't
work out too good. I went
back as a cutlash man in the
Transport Department. Then in
the end, I was a gate man,
living right dey in Kelly Village
and getting $4.56 a day when
I leave. Tell me how I could
live on $20 a month now with
family and thing?"
Ramjohn took his complaint
to the Union. Emery, he says,
told him that, were it not for



Woes of a

sugar worker

a telephone call he had to
make that day in the office,
he would not have been there
to listen to that stupidness.
I en' have no time with
you, Ramjohn!"
Well, you could talk so,
but what about my Union dues
you and Bhadase and Rampar-
tapsingh collecting all these
years? All a all you bathe in
the same river. Six years now
I running up and down behind
all you. Bhadase did promise
we more money. But all you
en' demanding nutten for the
3,500 pensioners at Caroni.
Those who en' qualify getting
10 and 15 dollars a month.
Because I qualify with 54 years
,of slavery.. I getting 20. No
gratuity, no severance pay.
The leaders of the All-Trinidad
Estate and Factory Workers
is Directors of Orange Grove
and Caroni now. Master bull,
master cow."
Ramjohn also took his case
to the Caroni Office of the
Pensions Department. He was
told that he already had a
pension from Caroni Limited.
The most he would get is $5
a month.

If I did pass a envelope
under the table, I might get
the whole $18, though!"
-Who tell you say that?"
The Pensions Officer jumped
into her new car and drove off.
When Ramjohn went to see
Frank Barsotti, he was shunted
aside to Sam Worrell.
-What Worrell could tell
me? Is only more dancing
around the bush because they
put black dey to eat black.
I write three letters to Gordon
Maingot. Not a line from him.
Is highway robbery; everybody
pay raise up, police civil ser-
vants, judges, the ministers.
The Prime Minister making over
$3,000 a month. I should be
getting at least $80 a month
pension, about half the salary
I was getting in 1966 when
I retire."
Trim from years of unrelent-
ing labour, Ramjohn stood up
to go. He was ramrod straight.
I went to the papers with
the story but no satisfaction!
Theymake the story, short,
short, you know! They thought
I was a stupid man from
Caroni. I only read one book
in 1906 but people who know


me does think I read the whole
He was gesticulating now,
for the first time. His wrinkled
sunburnt forearms were even
more eloquent than his tongue.
I may be hungry and
starving but I give everything
I have to this country. Rum
kill my father at age 29, but
I don't drink and I doesn't
smoke. I does go to the rice
field and work and sometime
I come home all 12 o'clock in
the night and go and bathe.
I fraid rain."
It was drizzling now but he
was pressing on in spite of my
invitation to him to wait a
while and shelter.
-When my father dead he
leave 129 acres of land but
me and my brother we lost all.
We en' get a chain because
my aunt mortgage it. We lost
the whole thing for only $550.
Is highway robbery in this
country for poor people. But
we go have to do something...
one of these days!


GOVERNMENT by emergency, government by secrecy.
Now is Government by Commission of Enquiry. Where it cannot
intimidate, bribe or cook up private deals as with AMOCO, the PNM
regime is prepared to play for time by setting up Commission of
Enquiry after Commission of Enquiry.
The latest is a Commission of Enquiry into community centres
in Trinidad and Tobago.
Accordingto a report in one of the dailies, Government wants to
find out why more than 50 per cent of the centres are due for

repairs, and why a comparable
broken down.
Refrigerators, sewing
machines and other equipment
are all due for repairs or
replacement. Cabinet has there-
fore appointed a five-man team
to survey the centres and
hand-in another report.
It is in fact easy money for
the probers: they don't have'
to go around to the centres or
make trips to Europe, Africa
and Asia to find out how
community development is
organised; all they have to do
is to listen to the people, to
understand 1970 and to read
what Tapia has been saying.
The destruction of equipment
in community centres is not a
"technical" question, nor is it
a police matter; it is essentially
a political question.
The core of the matter is the
conception which the regime
has of Community Develop-
ment and which has to do
with its view of people.
Change from the top has
always been the philosophy of
the PNM regime.
Waving his magic wand, the
Doctor was only to say
"Community Development"
and immediately he "met the
This was followed by the
construction of many Commu-
nity Centres A-type, and
Community Centres, B-type.
Now there is nothing wrong
with building large community
centres, or any centres costing
thousands of dollars. The
regime, however, has raised to
the level of a fetish a concept
of "development" in terms of
money spent and of literally
concrete evidence of this
Even if one concedes that
the expenditure on the Com-
munity Centres was justified
one has to question what
happened after the construc-


It is true that Community
Organisation has been neglected
before the time of the PNM
and that the "Meet the
People" tour was an attempt
to understand the problems of
the people in addition to getting
votes of course.
But, knowing the people,
has alwr.ys meant for- the
Doctor thriving on our weak-
nesses and leaving our potential
The people in the villages
were no doubt hopeful that
after the Doctor visited them
and they had aired their
grievances, better was to
They were soon to learn
There has been a constant
quarrel between young and
old, PNM and non-PNM over
the control of the Commu-
nity Centres. Instead of
bringing the people of the
villages together, the Commu-
nity Centre has served to divide
the villages.
There are many facilities in
the centres which the people
of the communities would like

percentage of their equipment has


to utilise.
However, a small group, in
most cases party hacks, has
gained control of the centres
and they use every diversionary
tactic in the book to avoid real
participation in the centres.
Susan Craig, writing in TAPIA,
Christmas last year, related her
experiences in the Erin area.
Having been actively involved
in the project to "develop"
Erin and the surrounding area
as a "model" district, Susan saw
the operations of the Central
Government at first hand.
"Community Development by
Community life in Erin was
controlled by a few local poli-
ticians who are well-placed by
theirparty contacts "to dispense
favours and to act as inter-
mediary between the people
of the village and a remote




and impersonal administration."
As such Community Organi-
sation, plays the role of
increasing membership in the
party as villagers take out
party cards to get a "five-
days". In return they give up
some of their independence and
their initiative.
People therefore have no
respect for the Central Govern-
ment, nor for its property.
If we do not identify with
the aims of the Central Govern-
ment then its property can
be vandalised wherever and
whenever possible.
This is not a justification







of such action, it is only to
explain why more than 50 per
cent of the centres are due for
repairs, and why a comparable
percentage of their equipment
has broken down.
The only people who can
develop the community are
those in the communities
themselves. The role of the
Government in such a situation
should be that of giving
technical advice and providing
the framework within which
people can innovate without
fear of victimisation.
It is no use building elaborate
structures to be shut-up and

guarded like a police station;
the people in the localities
must organise themselves to
build their own centres. Such
community co-operation can
only bring the people closer
You can be sure also that
anyone who is caught destroy-
ing building or equipment
which villagers have sweated
to build, he will be given a
royal cut-ass there and then.
The results of the probe can
therefore only be marginal with
suggestions of better auditing
or more guards or caretakers;
to deal with the crux of the
matter is to deal with the PNM
and this is a task which a
Civil Servant probe team can-
not achieve even if it wants.
For the people of the commu-
nities, there may continue to
be conflicts between young
and old, party and non-party
The only help that the people
,can depend on is themselves
and their joint efforts to
better the conm unity and not
to indulge in petty quarrels.
Remote villages like Cedros
and Matelot have shown what
community organisation can
And this is the task of the
next round which has already

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I --



1970 WAS the Year of Revolution; all of you remember that. But I am sure
I have to remind you that 1969 was Agriculture Year. That is how bad the
situation is.
Still, I think that the issues in Agricultural Policy in this country and in all the
countries in the Caribbean are fairly clear because they are very old. I can give you
some very simple examples of them. It does not require any special degree of education
or understanding of economics.
One of the most damaging indictments of the Agricultural sector and there-
fore of government policy in that field is that, contrary to what economic theory leads
us to expect, those who make money in Agriculture leave it.
You will find a man who is doing well in Agriculture and ask him what he wants
his son to be. He would say: a teacher, or a doctor, or a lawyer, because he does not be-
lieve that the future of that industry has anything to offer.
Equallyinteresting,most of the experts in this country, who know about farm-
ing, do not farm.They tell other people howto farm. If you come outof the University
with a Degree in Agriculture you do not go and start a farm; you go to the Ministry of
Agriculture. Something is bound to be wrong about this.
You walk around this country at any time and see 30% or 40% or 50% of the
output of tree corps on the ground, and we are importing $100 million worth of food.
The University of the West Indies, on which the Government is spending a lot
of money, cannot get students to come into the Faculty of Agriculture. We have more
places than there are applicants, and of those who come into the University, very few
actually do practical training in Agriculture.
I practical farm management and there are f o u r
people in it. In other words, we are in real trouble.
The Government has no policy whatsoever in Agriculture. It has high sounding
platitudes drawn from a lot of text books while the problems are practical, specific and
concrete, and we have to begin by stating them simply and clearly one by one.
The first thing is that the Agricultural sector, like all the other sectors of the
economy is not underdeveloped. It is highly developed for poverty. It has been here for
150 years. The mechanisms are deeply implanted, deeply enrooted in the soil of this
country and I think we have to abandon this formulation that disguises the intractable
nature of the problem.
If we take this view, we have to look i w
very hard to see what are the manifesta- Oil workers mak
tions of this highly developed system of
keeping our population backward. And What farm
the first manifestation is the one that in most places.
everybody talks about. Obviously, we are It is simply that these resources are 1
importing too much. Imported supply is not being mobilised and channelled in the
much too high both of raw materials right directions.
and of final consumer goods. Even those resources that we are activi- s
Agricultural prices are too high in rela- ting are sadly misallocated. Fertile Dia- (
tion to the incomes of the people. In mond Vale is under concrete, Sandy
spite of high prices, incomes in Agricul- Waller Field under cultivation. Land is c
ture are too low. going to the wrong activities, as well as c
Let us look at the median incomes. On to the wrong people. s
the basis of 1965, manufacturing was The extension service is spread too t
$109; petroleum $254; construction thinly. They are running about the t
$148; transport and communication country bemused by the problems, un-
$172; commerce $140 and agriculture able to settle down to anything specific t
only $67. and concrete. There are no marching c
orders, no strategy, no direction, no p
LUCKY BREAK purpose, s
Management exists, potential and
This gives you an idea of what people actual, but it is not going into Agricul- I
in Agriculture are making, which explains ture and there must be reasons for this s
why people do not want to go back which we have to uncover, and it is not
into Agriculture if they happen to get a enough to say simply that the Govern-
lucky break. ment is bad, though it is more than bad,
Agriculture employs 22% of the labour it's wicked.
force and it generates 8% of the product. I think that there are two reasons, one 2
That is another indicator of how bad the of which has to do with policy and the 1
situation is.So prices, are too high and other with institutions, and the second is h
incomes are too low. much more important than the first. o
Agricultural resources obviously are Even if a Tapia Government changed
undermobilised. We have technology the policy, we would have to deal with h
that we have not used. There is a big the structures which we have inherited o
backlog of things that we know how to from the past and which are systemati- t
do, that are written down and available cally frustrating the possibilities open to o
and we are not using. the people of this country, and indeed

A successful farmer wants his son
to leave agriculture

At the University, in spite of its history
as a service for export crops, Jolly did
a lot of research at one stage in small
farming. And yet we have hardly been
able to translate any of this into opera-
Land is lying idle. Labour is lying idle.
50,000 people (up to 15% of the labour
force) are idle. Our entrepreneurship is
entirely neglected. Menof worth, insight,
energy, who are not going into Agricul-
Land, labour, capital, entrepreneurship
they are everywhere undermobilised.
I think we have to stop thinking that this
is a poor country.
Trinidad and Tobago is not a poor
country by any standards. In terms of
human resources, in terms of skills
available, we are exporting people.
In terms of land and capital; our in-
come level is high; the personal savings
rate is as high here as anywhere else.
Company savings rate is higher here than

the people of this region .
The Second 5-Year Development Plan
speaks for itself. The plan talks about
"dual agriculture".
It states, "peasant agriculture is charac-
terised by under-capitalisation, low
yields and lack of application of science
and technology. Plantation agriculture
uses relatively large inputs of capital, and
has relatively high productivity per acre
as a result of the organised application of
scientific research."
So you have large plantations which
dispose of management, capital, infra-
structure of every kind, which monopo-
lise most of the best land, but which are
specialised in exporting staples to the
rest of the world.
We have to tackle both sectors. The
Government has already moved in one
direction in taking over Tate & Lyle. The
small farms are too small in relation to
the knowledge, the techniques ,and the
capital that are available to them.





e three times
ers make.
They are diversified, and David
Edwards wrote some years ago that much
of the management practices on the small
farms are highly rational, given the re-
lource base for which the farms are
operating .
It is not that our small farmers are not
:ompetent; it is simply that they are
operatingg in a situation in which there is
o much risk in the Agricultural business
hat they have to plant "every little
thing "
This is because they never know what
he returns are going to be on any parti-
:ular crop, and it is perfectly rational for
peoplee to diversify their risks in case
something happens.
So it is not the irrationality or incom-
)etence of the small farmer, it is the
situation in which they find themselves.


The figures are very clear. We have
26,000 holdings in this country under
0 acres, out of no more than 36,000
holdings in all. Only eighteen per cent
of the land is under 10 acres.
0.1% of the holdings on the other
and, account for 25% of the land. 57%
of the land is Company owned. Half of
he acreage is held in only 510 holdings
over 100 acres.

This shows the extremely restricted
situation in which the bulk of the farm-
ng population has got to live. So we have
o get behind that and do something
bout it.
Yet public policy in this context is
totally misconceived. For one thing, it
places agricultural development on the

same level as industrial development and
I think that is a mistake. This comes
clean out of a discussion which took
place in the West Indies in the late
The Colonial Office then used to argue
that these territories should remain in
Agriculture, but the Colonial Office had
in mind mainly staple export Agricul-
ture. The local theorists who emerged
out of that discussion took what was
considered to be a revolutionary line in
that they advocated industrialisation.
To some extent it was a revolutionary
break and I think it is true that they were
not advocating industrialisation as an
alternative to agriculture. They said they
wanted both and perhaps both were
necessary. But I think they were wrong
in giving them equal status, because of
the kind of industrialisation they had in
Industrialisation, they thought, would
be adjoined to the old sugar economy
They did not see industrialisation as
emerging organically from the possibili-
ties of the place.
If you take the organic view of deve-
lopment, then agriculture has got to
come first. And you have to trust that
the internal working of the agricultural
economy will force industrialisation by
producing surpluses of all types of agri-
cultural commodities and forcing people
to find ways of using them.

That is how industry emerges and if
four industrial programmes are not solving
the problem it is precisely because these
programmes have no relationship with
So that the first thing wrong with eco-
nomic policy here is that it has to revise
priorities and begin with the land, not
with manufacturing industry.
And then expenditures per farm are
too high. The Government is now spend-
ing something like $58 million on the
farm programme in five years. You have
26,000 holdings under 10 acres, you
have a few hundred extension officers
and what happens in this context is that
1,600 farms are getting all the gravy.
Too much is being spent on show-
pieces, in fact,because the Government
has not thought through the problem
in its entirety. It has no general concep-
tion of how it is going to resolve the pro-
blems of agriculture.
It has headlines and banners, which is
not surprising in a context where the
Civil Service is not working as it should.
Everything is disrupted. You have a
a handful of civil servants who are doing
nearly nothing. The Government of the
day is not a country-based but a town-








based Government (though it does not
now have popular support even in the
urban areas).
They are certainly not going to under-
take radical programmes for agricultural
So that, when one looks at the whole
situation of public policy, one sees a
series of disconnected statements which
lack purposefulness and urgency, which
-are devoid of any sense of sequence,
strategy, clarity or coherence.
The Government lacks any intuitive feel
for the problems. They cannot activate
the country to work.
The main faculty you need for policy
is that you have to have an intellectual
command of the whole story. You see
bright technocrats writing crystal clear
statements on different parts of the pro-
blem, but they do not hang together as a
series of operations likely to move the
engine as a whole.
Kt .. ....


We have to start by taking a position
onland use. You cannot have agricultu-
ral policy unless you have some notion
of what you are going to use your land
for and how much land you are going to
use for what. This means zoning.
I am proposing specifically that we
have to decide to limit the area under
sugar. We can keep Usine and Orange
Grove insugar and release the whole of
the Northern Caroni Plain for something
else (fruit crops of various kinds, live-
stock etc.)
We must have some systematic plan for
the valleys. Anyone who has any sense
of "natural law" could see that all of the
valleys have a certain structure and a
potential for developing certain kinds of
There must be land allocation between
crops. You have to have some notion of
what scale you are aiming at for each

particular crop and we should think now
of ceasing to be exporters of minor
staples like citrus and cocoa and coffee.
We should produce citrus for home
consumption; we could produce just
enough cocoa and coffee for home con-
sumption and phase out all extra output.
We should make that part of the opera-
tion which can supply home consump-
tion efficient and the rest of the re-
sources we should switch to other
Perhaps Trinidad and Tobago should
also aim to produce enough sugar for the
West Indies and allow our other produ-
cers to meet foreign quotas that we can
get. We should phase out and release
quotas to the other West, Indian terri-
tories so that we could switch to some-
thing else.
We should see what degree of self suffi-
ciency we are aiming at and therefore
what degree of "closure" of the economy
becomes necessary. We are now import-
ing over $100 million worth of food and
we have to go through that list and
identify the things that we think we can
produce here or for which we can pro-
duec duce substitutes.
We are going to make mistakes and we
shall find out that there are things we
cannot do, but we have to begin with a
plan of what we intend to do.
We have to recognize that the whole of
the operation has to be fitted into some
kind of social framework. The economy
is there to provide the society with goods
and services.
In practical economic terms, that
means more equality and more income
and more employment and we have to
see how the closing off of imports can
contribute to that.
I am arguing that we have to close off
a substantial proportion of the imports
and allow price to rise.
It is true that prices are too high in
relation to incomes. But if you close, two
things are going to happen. Prices are
going to rise but incomes are going to
rise faster.
What is more, the terms of exchange

too, is an advantage. All parts of the
country are accessible. The whole opera-
tion can be computerised if necessary.
These are real advantages.
Close, allow prices to rise and then you
can selectively allocate public resources.
The price signals vill tell you where
there are shortages and difficulties and
the system is small enough to allow
Government to act to deal with them.
One consequence of this is that it is
going to create a lot more employment.
The unemployment problem is entirely
So much for the general strategy. It in-
volves certain specific adjustments.

MANY of the people who are now
employed would have to shift from
goods to services. The people who are
newly employed are going in the first
instance to pick upthe slack and produce
more output (all the fruits that are fall-
ing on the ground etc.).
So, to some extent, the supply of goods
will increase as a result of fuller employ-
ment. But even when you have done
that, much of the employment will have
to be in the provision of services and the
means that the people who are now en-
joying goods will have to shift somewhat
from consuming goods to consuming

tain will have to be shared among a
larger number of people. At the moment
the unemployed are not able to com-
mand very much foreign exchange.

THIS kind of programme could be
undertaken only in the context of some
kind of sweeping institutional reorgani-
sation which would break the barrier be-
tween the large plantation sector and the
small farming sector.
It is now necessary to give the sugar
estates back the power of local Govern-
ment and the same time to give the
people full control of the sugar estates.
You do not have to create new indus-
trial estates. There are thousands of very
good roads all leading to the sugar fac-
tory. Management and technical skills are
There are machine shops that lie idle
for half the year. There is the most
modern technology in the machine
shops. There arelabs inevery sugar fac-
tory and people have to go to St.
Mary's College to learn Chemistry.

Public policy is totally misconceived

and trade between agriculture and indus-
try and between town and country are
going to change. That is why a town-
based Government like the PNM, cannot
afford to do this they have not got the
imagination to create new relations be-
tween Africans and Indians.
Close off certain imports, let prices rise,
let incomes rise, and allow the frustra-
tions of the people to explode, not into
political violence'but, into greater crea-
tive activity.
The country is small and that is an
advantage. The country is young and that

So you have to make the sugar factory
the centre for the agro-industrial opera-
tion which should embrace not only
sugar but all the other things. Instead of
breaking up the sugar estate, make it
bigger. Let the population own it, let the
unions own it, let the Government parti-
cipate and let it embrace a lot of other
I think this is a more practical and
cheaper operation than what we are try-
ing to do with the Crown Lands Schemes.
Cont. Pg. 11


.'. -~

Ste hens

ER 10, 1972




IF YOU were returning home from the San Fernando
market one of the roads you might use to pass would be
the Lower Mucurapo Street. And it's likely that in walking
by you would observe a group of brothers assembled in
an old, dilapidated wooden house, artistically painted with
the images of Black Power, and written over with slogans
and axioms of Rastafarian philosophy.
A small player in the house would likely be producing some
sounds, This scene may well crowd your mind with different images,
depending of course on precisely who you are in the society.
merely someone unable to per-
ceive his own social reality, you -
are likely to reject what you see,
to brand it as madness or as
simply intolerable.

In your haste you may not
even look across the street and
ask yourself how is it that a sup
posedly just and equitable so-
cial system could allow one man,
in the name of property rights
to run families from their dingy
homes out into the streets so
that he could extend his garden,
and fence the place to keep out
the "undesirables"?


Unless you were from around
the area you would probably
not be aware that it was children
from this street who were sold
poisonous chicken from the cafe
on the corner, a story that made
headlines in the papers recently.
In any sense of the word,
Lowe, Mucurapo is an excep-
tional place.Foi the unemployed
nme! who gather on that block,
facing the daily oppresion, life
is a constant struggle for sur-
S1l the spirit of comrad-
shi. !:at has developed out of
ii : .ovides the paid defenders
if ..i -system, with the first
goin ls for wanting to get rid of
thei-. The brothers are likely to
forv, a core of resistance in the
coiinqg confrontation.
T:ien, their niere existence -
iheir ;ives, living conditions and
experiences reveal poignantly
the fEilure of the distorted eco-
nomic and social system, to
maintain its population and ex-
pose the society stripped of all
its camouflaging lies, absolving
itself of its own injustice.


I:-other Duff livesin that di-
lapd:ited house. Born 29 years
ag: i, a Port-of-Spain slum. Duff
;::i'-d from an early age the
techniques of survival. Both his
mother and father were strangers
to him and he passed his early
childhood shuttling between an
,oiphnage and a wary grand-
m other .
Society always seems tohave
s .. thing prepared for these
"i::,frrtuhate deliquents", and
;. i52 Duff had his real first
: of a home for the under-
p:iv':eged, the "Dodge"(Boys
industrial School) now known
as tih St. Michael School for
The place was in fact a jail.
Boys of eight and nine were
handed treatment usually re-
served for convicted criminals.
The slave driver of the institution
at the time used to take the
boys from school and put them
to break river stones, supposedly

to laythe foundation for pitching
a certain area of the compound.
It stayed so for years and
when the boys weren't being
beaten with wood they were
made to run barefoot on the
sharp rocks as a "corrective"
measure. In 1959 Duff was in-
volved in a protest strike in
Woodford Square against the
conditions ofthe place and at the
age of 15, three years before his
time was up, he was released
with the record as a "bad seed".
As a "home" the Dodge of-
fered nothing. The natural di-
rection for anyone leaving there
was a life of crime. Before his
sixteenth birthday. Duff was
back inside this time the YTC
serving two four-year sentences
for larceny.


Awaiting appeal he served
six months solitary confinement.
Released after two and a half
years for "good behaviour", he
spent ninemonths on the outside
before returning to serve the bal-
a Ice of the sentence as he. had
broken tne terms of his parole.
YTC conditions were no bet-
ter. The experience of the Dodge
had made the adjustment some-
what easier. It was just another
jail masquerading as a Rehabili-
tation Centre.
Vegetable, pepper and to-
matoes were grown on the com-
pound, but the 300 odd boys
were never allowedto taste them.
Christmas special one year was
bhaji floating in rice.
Old cutlasses were given out
to cut the grass. The rivets of
the broken handles would gash
their hands, but complaints were
not tolerated. You were charged
with "inciting inmates" and
locked away with bread and
Rev. Hunte came to get him
the second time around. Duff had
been told once about this man,
from a friend and written to
him for assistance. The Rev-
erend took him to Jamaica to
study art, but a year later, largely
for financial reasons, they were

forced to return home. Duff was
soon back in business.
From here on he was in and
out of the big prisons. The cell
conditions inthe Royal Jail were
the worst he had ever
One posy per cell of nine
nine men. At three every after-
noon the prisoners were given
hot tea in aluminium pans and
were thrust into the hot cells,
to remain there till six the next
At times the men had to
tear pieces of their blankets to

found him inside, but the spirit
had reached him and he began to
entertain hope where before there
was none.
The present victimization of
Duff by the police and other
people has much to do with this
change within him. In their eyes
he is now politically andcrimin-
ally dangerous.
The police harassment, the
result of all the brothers' in-
volvement in the politics of so-
cial change, is continuous. In
many ways the block is just an
extension of the jail system.

; -- ;~~~
:, c
*I -"c~'
3' 7'

shit in, while others would use
their tea pans. The stench was
Nothing was provided to oc-
cupy a man's mind. The books
were old' and in pieces. The
most constructive trade was the
making of coffins for the hang-
In Golden Grove the fresh
fruit and provisions that the of-
ficers didn't take home used to
go rotten in the storeroom, while
peppers fell from' trees in abun-
dance and dried up on the
ground. The bread resembled
coconut sweetbread as the wee-
vils formed part of the texture
like coconut gratings.
Day in day out, the same
inhuman conditions,and all com-
plaints were dealt with in the
same way bread and water.
The YTC and Golden ,Grove
prison occupy almost the same
compound. The oppression and
the harsh restrictions, the beat-
ings and the food conditions en-
sured that if you didn't wind up
in St. Ann's you would be back
to take your place in the "sen-
ior" institution.


The trades were reserved for
those who had someone on the
outside to pass money for
prisoners with long sentences.
There comes a time in some
men's lives when they recog-
nize the futility of the course
they are pursuing, and even when
the odds are stacked high against
their changing.
When Brother Duff emerged
from the Royal Jail in 1971 he
had already decided to join the
struggle to change the structures
of the society which until then
had served only to )punish, him.
He returned to the block
determined tostay out of prison,
and to devote his energies to the
organization of his people. All
in all, he had spent about 15
years in one institution or an-
The' 1970 'revolution had

Duff himself is insistent that
they are not going to get the
chance to send him up again. He
has had enough of the Criminal
Courts. On so many occasions
he was persuaded to plead guilty,
As one adviser told him
early in the game: "Look boy
the Magistrate done know you
in dis ting. You have no legal
advice; if you plead not guilty
they go send your case upstairs
and bust a big jail on you."
But they want him back in-
side. One Saturday two months
ago, a squad car cruised down
the block looking for him. He
was wanted for questioning in
connection with a raid.
As he was held only for
questioning, Duff was not placed
in a cell. Instead he was hand-
cuffed to a chair and put to sit
on a nearby bench.
The law says that after 48
hours a man must be released or
charged. The police officers
flagrantly disregarded this. In-
stead, they lied to friends who
came to enquire and said that he
had already been released.
For the two and a half days
that he was handcuffed to that
chair he was insulted, prevented

him from smoking and they
would not even release the hand-
cuff to allow him to go to the
He was forced to listen to
them openly expressing their
desire to kill people like him.
The ID parade proved fruitless
for thepolice.Duffwas nowhere
near the scene and no one could
identify him. He was released
the Monday night.
The defenders of the pre-
sent political system are doing
their best to disrupt the com-
,munity spirit the brothers of
Mucurapo are attempting to
build, to nail charges on Duff
and put him away for good.
They would prefer to shoot
him and many others on the
block, but for that they haveto
await an opportunity. In the
meantime the harassment con-
The occupants of that
wooden house with its symbols
of revolution and determination
in the struggle, have recently
been given notice.


The Sanitation people are
now doing their thing. Sud-
denly the house is not fit to live
in and they ategoing to break it
The people who live there
will, in the normal course of
things, be turned out into the
Duff it is hoped will be
enticed back into crime, and a
community whose foundations
are built on resistance to the
present order will be destroyed.
Two birds with one stone. The
way things are going they make
take Duff before them.
Eli from High Street who
had been an observer on the ID
parade called Duff into his store
to talk to him. The man had not
been able to identify anyone
on the parade, but in front of
the people in the store, he ac-
cused Duff of the crime and
threatened to kill him next time.
Since then, he has driven
past theblock purposely to point
out Duff to many of his capital-
ist friends.
Now all it will take is a nod
of the head in one of these
parades, and Duff will be put
away foranother five years. With
his record what magistrate
in this country will believe other-


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Cuban facilities for baseball are, according to PRENSA LA TINA, comparable
with if not better than most in the USA, the home of the sport. As with athletics,
Cuba shows in baseball what can be done for the development of sport -- even with
the limited means of an "underdeveloped" country.
In picture: the Latin American Stadium in Havana, during the National Series.

Does Cuba have


for us?

( t~

S*i -


IN THE Munich Olym-
pics Cuba showed the
world how much she had
advanced in sport. The
world sat up and took
notice. Cuba, like Trini-
dad, suffers from a lack
of facilities.
Like Trinidad she has no
tartan track for her athletes.
As a result her athletes did
not do as well as expected,
yet for all that she managed

to carry off eight Olympic
medals including three golds,
to take 14th place among the
122 competing nations.
How did she do it?
The answer lies in the
Cuban attitude, and in parti-
cular the attitude of the Cuban
Government towards sport. It
is not as it is here treated
like a kind of side activity.
Conscious that Cubans are
mad about their sports (the
same is true of Trinidadians),

the Cuban Government has
encouraged mass sports par-
ticipation at all levels.
Beginning from primary
school, Cuban children are
encouraged to take part in a
variety of sports as if this
activity is as important to the
Cuban development as agri-
culture, technology which
in fact it is.
It is not the intention here
to over-do the compraison
between Trinidad and Cuba.
Cuba after all has 8,000,000
inhabitants, and inadequate as
they are, herfacilities are still
better than those we have.
For all this, however, Cuba
is agonised rather than per-
functory over the facilities that
she lacks since to use the
words of the President of her
Olympic Committee, Gonzalez
Guerra "we've got to spend
money otherwise we'll be
walking backwards."
Take a sport like swimming
for instance. In an interview
with Prensa Latina, Gonzalez
pointed out .. to make it
in swimming petitions on
international h vel, the sea was
not enough.
You need pools and coaches,
he said, and in the old days


TRIPOLI (AWA) LIBYA has defined
the conditions by which it plans to parti-
cipate in the control of oil companies
operating within its territories. Comment-
ing on a recent agreement between Persian
Gulf oil producing states and foreign oil
companies, the Libyan oil and mineral
resources minister, Izz ad Din al-Mabruuk,
lauded their settlement as "a step forward
in the oil industry."
However, al-Mabruuk said Libya would seek
three objectives that were absent from the
settlement involving the four Gulf states.
"The first is to increase exploration opera-
tions," he said. "At present, the companies
are content with exhausting the producing


field without attempting to invest in exploring
new fields."
Secondly, Libya would "have a say in the
adoption of technical and administrative deci-
sions," according to the Libyan minister.
The third objective would be to give back
some of the oil that is being exploited. al-
Mabruuk put it this way:
"It is strange that we, the Arab states, who
are considered the biggest oil producing states
in the world, cannot obtain any quantities of
the oil produced in our territories by virtue
of the provisions of the agreements now in


the only people who went in
for swimming were the boys
who could afford to go to the
aristocratic clubs. We are
fighting against this lack of
pools and coaches as well and
in about four to five years we
hope to be good at swimming
at least by Latin American
Take another sport bas-
ketball. For many people the
Cuban bronze in basketball
came as a big surprise, but
Gonzalez ascribes this success
to one reason new courts
were laid down in Havana
giving Cuban youngsters oppor-
tunities for playing that they
didn't have two years ago.


One wonders whether our
own government is aware that
there are hundreds of young-
sters in this country itching
to play basketball note the
number of makeshift basket-
ball courts that are being set
up on the side-roads and lanes
with lamposts and even trees
being used for the erection of
And while the Parliamentary
Secretary for Sport here
might argue that the land for
laying down football fields is
not available (the truth of
course is that because sports is
not regarded here as a real
activity, the planners have never
even considered how to free
land for it), there are in-
numerable small plots of land
in Laventille, Tunapuna, Mor-
vant, Caroni, Princess Town
etc that could be acquired for
b-ball courts in an effort to.
give our bored youth some-
thing to do.


Take yet another sport -
football. In Cuba, unlike Trini-
dad, football is now the
national sport (it is time some-
body gave the lie to this
cricket myth) yet Gonzalez is
confident that the game has
a big future in his country.
Indeed the Cubans have already
shown real ability. They haven't
the goal-scoring ability of the
top teams but their defence is

good. It's hard to score against
a Cuban team.
Here where thousands of
our youth grow up kicking
ball in the road, football
struggles along from year to
year what with the TFA
frustrating the best efforts of
our coaches (Michael Laing)
was a case in point) and a
League set-up that offers no
motivation to the players, and
with the TFA regarding the
Minor Leagues as some sort of
an enemy camp rather than
the nursery of our football
talent which historically
they have been.
Perhaps what we should be
doing is tapping the Cubans
a little. So far Cuba has
helped Chile, Panama and Peru.
And Gonzalez says that Cuba
is going to establish sport
exchange with the countries
of Latin America this year
(Dr. Felice Castillo, the Vene-
zuelan Director General of
Sports visited Cuba recently).
Stressed Gonzalez:
"We are Latin Americans
and we always defend the
prestige of Latin America.
When Cuba is represented,
Latin America is represented."

Finally Prensa Latina wanted
to find out from Gonzalez
whether he thought the new
Olympic President would bring
a new outlook to the IOC. He
replied that there was going
to be a congress in Sofia
next year when the whole
Olympic system would be
looked at "because the world
had changed from Brundage's
1896 vision of it and because
there hadn't been an Olympic
Congress since 1930."
"I think",' said Gonzalez,
"that it's time now to recog-
nise some things, to make cer-
tain modifications and give
some freedom to sport and
it seems to me that Lord
Killanin is a responsible person
and a man who understands
sport. Andhe seems to have the
will to make changes viable.
Brundage was a real old-timer,
very stubborn, and set in his
ways. He was very fond of
1896 and anything that smelled
of 1896 was okay for him."






SPONSE and "devotion
born of distress and en-
thusiasm" (Weber) Within
this frame, we must begin
the search for that chimera
Charisma. We will ob-
serve that (depending on
the personal choice of the
commentator) leadership,
charismatic leadership and
charisma are terms often
used interchangeably.
This suggests that the
concept of charisma has not
yet and will not for some
time be pinned down to a
tightly formulated "consensus
definition". In fact, what is
interesting to note in the read-
ings are the varying degrees of
emphasis on certain qualities
of leadership, and the differing
concepts of the relationship
between leader and led which
the writers claim add up to

The progenitor of the
concept was Max Weber in his
"Theory of Social and Econo-
mic Organization". The ques-
tions posed by his critics are -
why such a wide application
of the theory i.e. to include
non-religious types? Is it
relevant today? Why, due/ to
its nebulous form, have you
made it so difficult to apply?
Against these attacks,
Robert Tucker firmly defends
Weber's theory asserting that
it is "a highly useful tool of
analysis". Against this back-
ground, let us now consider
certain specifics.
"Charismatic leadership
is specifically salvationist or
messianic in nature." This
assertion is Tucker's add he
defines the charismatic leader
as "one in whom, by virtue of
unusual personal qualities, the
promise of hope of salvation -
deliverance from distress -
appears to be embodied"

From Bolivia comes an
interesting and modem illus-
tration of this socio-religious
facet of charisma:
"In Bolivia it is trad-
itional for markets of
regional fairs to be held
on certain days of the
week in provincial towns
and, on occasion in the
capitals of the depart-
ments. Aside from being
an occasion to buy and
sell goods, they are also
rite and festival, and draw
people from all over the
region who have faith in
magical cures...
"In Valle Grande the
fair falls on Sunday.
Since Guevara's death
the peasants have come
from the most remote
corners of the province
and formed lines to buy
Che's photograph, which
they take to the church
to have blessed A
kind of legend has al-
ready grown up around
the miracles of "Saint
Che", whose portrait can
be found in peasant huts
in the midst of Catholic
images. Many people have
even had masses said in
his memory".





The facet of charisma
should definitely not be under-
valued in a critical exploration
of the subject. For example it
appears in the Hoffmans' view
of Charles de Gaulle. There
were "religious overtones" in
his conception of the leader.
He saw himself as a "missionary
of a national cause"', and they
-quote de Gaulle describing him-
self as "destiny's instrument".
In pursuing the defini-
tion of charismatic leadership,

World War 1 "had produced
such misery among masses of
Russians that substantial
numbers of them became
responsive to Lenin's revolu-
Distress is a determinant
of charismatic response; it may
emerge at certain historical
moments e.g. when people be-
come "charisma-hungry", to
use Erik Erikson's phrase.
When distress is present,
declares Tucker, "the presence

we seek to emphasize that
there is a fundamental differ-
ence between the salvationist
- messianic classification and
more nebulous categories such
as "inspired leadership or
heroic leadership". This dif-
ference lies in distress. It was
Weber, he points out, who
stated that charisma inspires
its followers with "a devotion
born of distress and en-
thusiasm": and that charisma-
tic leaders have been the
natural leaders "in time of
psychic, physical, economic,
ethical, religious, political
Once again we must turn
to de Gaulle for a sensitive
recognition of this nexus be-
tween distress and salvation,
presenting an opportunity to
be grasped by the charismatic
leader. Foreshadowing his
election in December 1958 as
President of the Republic,
Charles de Gaulle said publicly
in May of that year :
In the past, the nation
has made me feel that in
the depth of its soul it
trusted me to lead it
to salvation. Today,
facing the ordeals ..
the country knows that
I am prepared to assume
the powers of the
To demonstrate a re-
sponse to charisma arising from
distress, Tucker offers a
contrast of Lenin's following
before 1914 ("quite small and
limited almost exclusively to
members of the radical intelli-
gentsia") with that of 1917.
He submits that by then

or absence of 'a genuinely
charismatic leader-personality-
may be a critical historical
variable". There is a need how-
ever ofr deeper analysis of the
psychology of distress and in
this regard, he mentions three
forms that Erikson identified
as salvation-responsive: "fear,
anxiety and existential dread".
Continuing our explora-
tion, we are afforded another
insight by the Hoffmans who
state that ". .. charisma is
not only a gift, it is also a form
of authority, a link between a
certain type of ruler and the


Personality ... authority
.. what is the extra-ordinary
alcherrly that produces that
"gift of grace" in the leader
that causes him to be regarded
as saviour? What impels people
to follow him and to obey
with enthusiasm? From whence
springs this non-secular aura of
authority? By what primordial
means of transfer is he vested
with the "legitimacy" of the
State, or conceded the power
to override existing norms and
One part of the answer
is embedded in the distress
response relationship; but the
other lies within the man
himself and the nature of the
forces that have shaped him or
that in a given situation make
him into a Collective Being
greater than his private self.
As Tucker points out, he
must have extraordinary
powers Qf vision and be

eminently able to communicate
that vision particularly when
it signals the way out of
situational distress. He must
believe in himself as "the
chosen instrument" and believe
in the mission to which he was
mystically appointed. At the
same moment he must trans-
mit to his following that faith
and confidence in the mission's
Ideally he might be both
prophet and practical leader,
although often one of these
qualities is more prominent
than the other in his personali-
ty. By definition, he must be
effective his followers need
"proof" of his authority thus
he must perform secular
miracles. In his way he estab-
lishes his "charismatic author-
ity" by virtue of which (Weber.
explains) "he is set apart from
ordinary men and treated as
endowed with supernatural,
superhuman, or at least specifi-
cally exceptional powers or

In one recent example,
that of Charles de Gaulle,
primordial transfer of legiti-
macy metamorphoses through
the uniqueness of the actor
into an incarnation of the
State, into the Collective Being
"France that's me". And
as the great tree is nourished
from its mother earth, so does
the leader de Gaulle draw his
strength and sustenance from
"the personal equation" (his
own phrase) existing between
his beloved "Francaises, Fran-
cais.. ." and himself.
"The personal equation"
was first mentioned by him at
a press conference on April 11,
1961 when he raised the
possibility of electing the
President of the Republic by
universal suffrage. He used it
publicly again on January 31,
It was more than a
phrase. De Gaulle needed the
direct contact with the masses
in order, as Mauriac affirms,
"to charge himself as a battery
is charged", in order that he
might be constantly confirmed
in "his providential mission."
In his speech to the French
people on January 6, 1961
asking them to approve Al-
gerian self-determination, after
reminding them that "it is to

me you will be answering" he
".. .I turn to you, over
the heads of any and all
intermediaries. In truth
as everyone knows -
the matter is between
each of you and myself".
We have a clear ray of
light on the relationship be-
tween this embodiment of
France and his followers: De
Gaulle is each one of them
It might prove useful to
examine this view in depth,
since there appears to be a-
bundant evidence available to
support a correlation between
the waxing and waning of de
Gaulle's career and the
"warmth" or "cold" of France
towards him at the relative
times. If it is likened to a
relationship between lovers,
then we understand at once
what M. Pompidou meant
when, upon the death of the
General, he said to the nation,
"De Gaulle is dead. France
is a widow."
We have engaged, within
a given frame, in the search for
sign-posts that might lead to-
ward a definition of Charisma.
We have taken care to mention
derived and established 'cha
rismatic authority", and we
have identified the relatively
under-explored factor of
"the personal equation" -
which definitely calls for
further study.

We have offered no an-
swer to the question how
does a leader become charisma-
tic, or is charisma a character-
istic that can be acquired or
In any discussion of
leadership, one should avoid
the indiscriminate application
of the term Charisma -
particularly when describing
"heroic'' leaders of nationalist
movements who have been
instrumental in the foundation
of new states.
Since Charisma connotes
such a' special dimension of
leadership, its boundaries must
be rigidly drawn and its
accolade most carefully be-
stowed. It is not merely
"charm and popularity" and
it is more substantial than
"temporary enthusiasm for
personalized leaders".



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The changing face of

I'm afraid that in this last
chapter I have to get some-
what technical. I start off
on this slightly apologetic
note because in the course
of the explanations which
I must give I will from time
to timesoundlike a teacher
in a class-room.
But one of the advantages
of unfolding this history, week
by week, chapter by chapter,
is that I am constantly before
your scrutiny. And some of you
have been kind enough to draw
to my attention areas of defi-
And one of these areas it
appears has to do with the tech-
nical aspects of the develop-
ment of pan, particularly the
contributions that I, myself,
have made. I plead guilty to
the charge and offer as very
unsatisfactory excuse the fact
that I was so eagerly drawing a
picture of the personalities in
pan that I put too little stress
on the physical development
of the instrument, itself.


In passing, however, may
I say that the fact that I have
been called upon to elaborate
more on this aspect, is to me a
fillip since it means that con-
trary to what I believed there
are many people who are in-
terested enough in pan to go
into technicalities.
So that if now I have to
postpone the proposed discus-
sion on the social progress made
by pan-men from the days of
being outcasts the present
time, it is in an attempt to deal
here with some of the techni-
calities. It is my hope that the
"panatics" who already know
it all will have the charity to
hold strainfor the benefit of the
less knowledgeable brothers
who have indicated that they
want to know.


Let me pinpoint some in-
adequacies in the steelbandlong
ago. They are:
(1) The tone of the earlier
steelband was poor. One of the
reasons for this was that a note,
say Middle 'C', was smaller
than the larger version that I
was subsequently to introduce
via the double-tenor. They say
that inventing is a logical, step
by step process and my work
is evidence that it is.
S Because in making, say, the
Middle 'C'the pioneers in pan
were forced to make it small
simply because they had to
cram so many notes on one
pan. I saw that a bigger note
size was needed so what to
do? -make two pans to do the
work that the early single pan
was trying to do.
(2) The range, too, was
limited. Remember that the



THE Bertie Marshall Story
will be published in paper-
back by TAPIA for
Carnival 1973.

single pan, the tenor for that
time was trying to do what
steelbands today are using two
pans to do. With the double-
tenor I was able to get a wider
note range in that the early
tenor pan started from 'B' be-
low 'Middle C', up to a mere
two octaves above, that is up
to 'B'.
With the double-tenor,
however, I was able to start
from 'F' below Middle 'C' and
go right up to 'B' flat which is
two octaves above. All this, as
I apologizedearlier, sounds very
technical, but what it meant
in simple language was that I
started six notes below them
and went right up to merely
half a note below them: Which
meant, then that I was able to
give to the steelband world
greater depth in the treble i.e.
the tenor section.


(3) There was now depth,
but because I had ended my
range half a note below the
early tenor it meant that the
early tenor was slightly higher
than the double-tenor I devised.
But the early tenor, itself was a
limiting factor as regards achiev-
ing a greater range simply be-
cause it was, itself, not high
Clearly, then, the double-
tenor could not simply replace
the early tenor, since while it
had given depth it had fallen
short in heights another pan
was needed to fill this hole.
Enter the soprano pan which
did not have the depth of the
early tenor. It didn't have to,
since the double-tenor was per-
forming the depth-giving func-
tion better than that early
tenor. On the 'Soprano pan'
therefore, I concentrated on
The soprano pan, as I de
vised it, ran from 'E' flat
above Middle 'C' up to "G",
two octaves above. Again
musical jargon threatens to
stifle down the discussion but
again what this meant in
simple language was that
steelbands no longer had to
use a low note to fulfill the
part of the correct high note
that simply was not there.
Remember, that if the search
was for a low note, the double-
tenor was there to fulfill that
(4) As a result of making

the notes large I solved another
problem that plagued the pan
at that time and this was
in as basic a matter as volume.
The pans simply were not loud
enough. Larger notes meant
more sound, or to put it
another way, more volume.
With its range thus extended,
pan was able to meet other
instruments on an equal level
in that harmonic principles
were being applied (we will
return to this particular aspect
later on in the story).


This is one point in which I
am in total agreement with
Anthony Prospect, conductor
of the Police Band.
Such then, are, the technical
details that you have asked for.
Not as colourful, perhaps, as
my relating about Zachaary
and the Barber-shop, Spree and
the piece of iron or me and
my wife's high heel shoe that I
took for a posy. But, on re-
flection, a vital part of the

V -". .s

-L ''


Such then was the changing
face of pan in the late 50's.
Now the term 'soprano' pan
might be confusing in that it
will be new to many people.
But what I am doing here is
correcting a misnomer the
pan that is today, called a
high tenor is not a tenor at
all, in that it is not in the
range of a tenor. The so-
called 'high tenor' is in fact
a 'soprano' pan.
To use a comparison with
the human voice in an attempt
to make the point clearer: the
range of the so called 'high
tenor' is akin to that of the
soprano singer while the
double-tenor, has its human
counterpart in the tenor singer.


SMEE'S goal-keeper Edu Mitchell leaps but fails to
collect this hard right foot shot from Lennox Knox-
ley of "36 Blues...." (first picture), resulting in shouts
joy from the "36 Blues" players as their forward
Russel Bristol (right inside the net) was able to head
home after Mitch's miss second picture).
These shots were taken during a key match in
Laventille's Liverpool League on Sunday, a league
that attracts scores of players and hundreds of spec-
tators despite the small, uneven ground, make-shift
goal-post and bus-up net.
The match ended in a 2-2 draw.

From P.7

1 4

thing we must have. Every student of the
University in the first year should go to
Orange Grove or Centeno. This would
give them judgement, discrimination,
purpose, urgency all that they lack
The education system is not making
any vital connection with the economy.
The University becomes a place where
you get a degree and leave it exactly as
you came.
So we have to integrate the work and
study in a certain way. I think we have to
start National Service.

recognize that it is foolishness to say that
this country is too small for Local Go-
You have to involve the population be-
cause for 350 years we have hardly
made a decision. Giving power to the
local authorities is not going to weaken
the Central Government.
If you have a large country it becomes
extremely difficult to decentralise be-
cause the act of reintegrating becomes
very costly. But even if we decentralized
and created perhaps 25 Local Govern-
ment Agencies, as Tapia is proposing it
still would not be a big task to bring
them together. So the smaller the coun-
try, the more, not the less, Local Govern-
ment you should have.

WE HAVE to get the Government
out. They have no vision, they have no
competence, they have no dedication.
Everytime the'Prime Minister gets on the

radio for every Throne Speech he has a
new plan.
In 1966 or 67 we had a crisis over the
Finance Act. In 1970 they came back
with virtually the same plan in the hope
that everybody had forgotten.

The national reconstruction which
Tapia has proposed cannot be accom-s
polished unless we have a Government
which commands the respect of the
people, which can generate excitement
among the people, and which has
created organizations up and down the
land to implement these programmes
and translate them into marching orders.
Finally the, main point I am making is
that we are really trying to change the
nature of the civilisation. Nearly all the
problems that I have touched on merely
reduce to one thing: the culture of this
civilisation of ours has what I call a
now-for-now philosophy. Everything is
done quickly, unorganically.


They think you can just add industry
to agriculture and make something called
development. It cannot be done. These
perspectives have arisen out of a civilisa-
tion which managed tomake something
called industrial development by precipi-
tating millions of people out of the rural
areas in Western Europe into the cities
and by transferring a large surplus from
the new world into the old.
Ultimately, what we are trying to re-
assert is a kind of civilisation in which we
would have an organic connection with
the place in which we live. We do not
simply uproot people and put up a fac-
tory on the highway.
We must allow industrial development
to emerge out of the possibilities of the
place, and that can only mean out of the
possibilities of Agriculture.




30 Cipero St. San Fernando
Tel: 65-78927.


! *





- R6 01 872
gr-L y, y Mrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Inst. for the Study of Man, ;
162 East 78th Street,
New York 10021, N.Y., U.S.A.


SINCE their defeat by Tuna-
puna in the Village Olympics
football final, Point Fortin
has made two attempts to take
revenge. On both occasions
victory eluded them.
On the last occasion they
fielded their weakest team.
None of the David brothers
was there, Wilfred Cave and
Muhammad Aleem (formerly
Dick Furlonge) had to repre-
sent the SFL the same day.
The Tunapuna team on the
other hand treated the game
as a fete match and just
played to the gallery with
Jimmy Springer, the former
national player, leading the
display, juggling, dribbling,
and killing the game in the
And so, it
was Egghead, playing for Tuna-
puna for the first time, engi-
neered the first goal. After)
collecting a pass on the left
wing from Jack Valentine, he

dribbled his opposing wing-
back, carried one of the
stoppers to the goalline and
chipped across for Godfrey
Harris to head in the first goal.
The remaining goals in the
match came in the second
half. Point Fortin equalised
with a penalty. Then Springer
sent Tunapuna ahead again
after dribbling two defence-
men and hitting past a bewil-
dered goalkeeper.
Leading once more, Tuna-
puna started to "cha cha cha'
Christopher Pierre the Tuna-
puna stopper attempted to
dribble three opposing for-
wards in his goal area. Seeing
that he was not able to do so
his goalkeeper came to his
Pierre instead of allowing the
keeper to take the ball, pulled
the ball away from him and
in the process pushed the ball
onto the boot of an onrushing
forward who easily scored in
an open goal.



TRINIDAD and Tobago is to get
a new literary magazine. It is
"The New Voices", which is in-
tended to follow in the tradition
of Trinidad, The Beacon and
Editor and Publisher is An
son Gonzalez, poet, teacher and
literary critic. Gonzalez, who
with Victor Questel published
a volume of their own poetry,
"'Score", has some experience
in bringing out literary book-
lets. While a student at St. August
tine, he was the Chairman of the
Publications Committee and also
edited two issues of a campus
literary magazine Themes One
and Two and one issue of the
"Arts Annual".


It is proposed that two issues
of "New Voices" will appear
next year, the first at the end of
February and the second in
For the February issues, the
theme will be Carnival, so that
contributions articles, photo-
graphs, drawings, poems, essays,
episodes, sketches, jokes etc. -
on Carnival will be acceptable.
Articles of a general nature will
also be acceptable.

Deadline for contributions is
January 15, next year.
Payment for contributions
used in the first issue will be In
copies of the magazine. However,
Gonzales hopes that payment for
the second issue will be in cash.
In an introduction to the
new venture, Gonzalez explains
that "NewVoices" hopes to con-
tinue where the other literary
magazines left off, and continue
and continue .."
We wishAnson Gonzalez and
"New Voices" all the luck they
may need in this venture.



there are no streets. Only
drives. Which suggests that
the area was designed. for .
residents who drive ars. T .
But Quarry Drive is not:a .i' *

drive at all. After the first
dozen houses it narrows into
a meandering road where
people walk, most of them
immigrants from the neigh-
bouring islands of Grenada and
St. Vincent who came with
enterprise and courage, deter-
mined to found their homes.
Everywhere in 'the "hole"
as the brothers on the block
call it there is this evidence of
uphill struggle to survive and
Most of the homes are un-
painted, unplastered, unfinish-
ed. But the industry and in-
domitable spirit of the people
stand out.
Two Sundays ago the Quarry
was in uproar. This time it was

Block-o-rama & NJAC Rally

BLOCK-O-RAMA '72 takes place on Sunday December 10 at
Tunapuna E.C. School Ground, Morton St., from 12 noon till 6 p.m.
Taking part will be Fatman George, "Coolman" Clyde,
Funky Jemma, 1,000 Decades in Advance, Gay Flamingoes, Hill
Tones and Savoys.
A fete will be held afterwards at St. Anthony's College from
6 p.m. till?
Also on Sunday, the NJAC will hold "A Day of National
Brotherhood" in the form of a North Cultural Rally.
Venue is the U.W.I. Students' Union Hall, St. Augustine.
The Rally will run from 10 a.m. till midnight.
The all-day activities will involve Arts and Crafts, Paintings,
Sculpture; Woodwork and Leathercraft.
A number of calypsonians including the Mighty Chalkdust,
Stalin, Valentino, Tiger and Maestro will take part.
Other aspects of the Rally will be Steelbands, Indian and Af-
rican Drumming, Dancing, Chanting and poetry.


not the tractors exploiting the
gravel and stone to build
spreads for the well-off.
The noise was caused by a
Block-o-rama, the novel form
of entertainment which
emerged from the blocks in
Tunapuna, and has since been
repeated in nearby Curepe and
St. Joseph.
This contribution to the new
movement has come from
Blackpool in Tunapuna Road,
near the Tapia House. It shows
the ways in which we can use
our imagination to provide for
ourselves those necessary
So that while the Prime
Minister and his cultural jokers
are busy trying to catch up
with Folk Festivals and Village
Olympics, the people have
moved ahead with the Block-o-
Starlift, of Woodbrook, Har
monites of Morvant. Scherzan-
do of Curepe and Echo Dia-

monds of Tunapuna played
music free. D.J's were present
ringing out soul.
Not a policeman was in sight,
and although hundreds of
people, old and young from
the village and its environs
came out to enjoy, there was
no chaos.
Few could have imagined
that the brothers who lime
perpetually on the block on
Mendes Drive, always either
sooting the chicks or rapping
on life, could organise such
a tremendous show!
It indicates what can be done
if we are encouraged to turn
our resources to constructive
effort. But the greatest lesson
of all is that the new society
must be built in such a way as
to release and not suppress,
the drive and energy which
brothers as ordinary as Tony,
Steve and Salem so obviously





34 Pembroke Street P.O.S. Tels 35842 38434.
Printed by Tapia House Printing Co., Ltd., for Tapia House PubTishingCo. Ltd., 91 '