Material Information

Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Creation Date:
November 19, 1972
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000329131 ( ALEPH )
03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )

Full Text






THE opposition must
unite...the opposition must
The familiar chant is
the conventional wisdom
about the solution to the
political crisis here. And
so many of us, having
uttered this invocation like
a prayer, consider that we
have made our contribu-
For thine is the king-
dom and the power and
the glory...indeed. You
have only to get together,
and the political kingdom
awaits you.
This exhortation -
made by an overwhelming
72 per cent of the popula-
tion has so fired opposi-
tion political minds that
even when the prospect
of office seemed to recede,
unity has remained a bright


Sometimes it seems that
from being a tactical stage,
opposition unity has been
elevated to.the status of an
end in itself, and invested
with an almost religious signi-
It is customary, for
example, for editorial writers
in the daily Press to take
swipes, with more or less
casualness, at the "various
fragments" and "fractions'
thrashing about in apparently
ineffectual opposition.
The feeling has persisted
that "the politicians" have
somehow made a mess of

things. At the time of the
Sedition Bill one year ago the
editor of one national news-
paper noted resentfully "the
dismal surrender of political
It is remarkable, though,
that this so-called surrender
led him as he saw it to
take up the banner himself
and fight for freedom.
But it hasn't always
worked out that way. It is
doubtful in any case whether
any of the national papers
as now equipped has the capa-
city for long-term struggle for
anything at all.


And in turn the effect
has been to make opposition
politicians more desperate,
more anxious for their success,
and less confident in what they
The fetish that "unity"
among the opposition became
in the hands of some wh(
evidently had nothing else to
say just indicates the lack of
basic confidence in the possi-
bilities of the individual
By one of the more
curious twists of history some
opposition groups have found
themselves sharing common
ground with the Establishment
defenders who as late as 1970
felt that the system could
work; all that was needed was
strong opposition.
And it is precisely this
difference in political percep-
tion which divides the opposi-
For the country really
divides along the basic lines
of those whose perspectives

accept the old system of govern-
ment and politics and those
who look to a new order of
things. The commonly shared
desire to dislodge the PNM
by itself just doesn't define a
new camp.
Where do people really
stand? The field must resolve
into two clear camps. And this
requires a forum on which
people ,cantbe free to express
themselves on the fundamentals

of the society.
The manifest futility of
rushing to weld disparate
strands into a single, implau-
sible entity is part of our ex-
perience of the recent past.
In the unconventional
camp there have been at least
two initiatives in which
Tapia has taken part. In 1971
we joined the Union of
Revolutionary Organisations
with the clear intention of

maintaining a forum of free
discussion of issues a pre-
requisite to finding a firm basis
of unity.
We held the position that
such discussion had to precede
unity, and when it became
clear that .the essential con-
versation could not take place
then there was clearly no scope
for our participation in such a
union of groups.
The Assembly of Free
Citizens which Tapia was in-
strumental in summoning in
November last year at thetime
of the Sedition Bill perhaps
more clearly exemplifies the
haste with which some groups
and individuals felt opposition
forces should be united.


The Tapia position came
to be represented as pre-
ferring "talk" to "positive
action". But the history of
mergers and splits shows all too'
clearly how much effective
action is possible from pre-
mature unity, now-for-now
mergers and all...
With an election being
suspected, the ferment in the
political field is understand-
able.The scramble for positions
equally takes the form of self-
projecting assertions all round
and casting about for new
tactical alliances aswell.
But the final resolution
still awaits a convention of all
the interests in the country
to talk and take positions that
will distinguish one group from
-another on clear grounds, and
provide the basis for real



- PG. 2



PG. 3.

PGS. 5, 6 & 11.

PG. 10



"He said the Democratic Action Congress emerged as the
popular choice throughout the country... in the last 18
months the domestic political scene has been radically trans-
ferred (sic). The DAC during this time emerged as the only
political movement with a genuinely popular following in
every part of the country, Mr. Robinson stated. (Guardian
Nov. 13).
"A recently completed independent public opinion survey has
revealed that the United National Independence Party is the
strongest political party in Trinidad and Tobago... (and) that
James Millette is popularly regarded as thenext Prime Minister...
UNIP (has emerged) as the clear choice of the people in a field
cluttered with political parties of one type or another."
(MOKONOV. 10).
"Tapia is on an altogether different scene. We're young, we're
strong, we are competent and organised for sustained and solid
effort. We are in fact the only prospect for an authentic
political party in this country...Now everything we touch these
days is gold. Every Tapia face is beaming with excitement; our
morale is higher than a mountain. We trust ourselves and
people trust us. We are ready now for anything." (Lloyd
Best in TAPIA NOV. 10).
"I couldn't care less whether we use voting machine or sewing
machine or computer, ballot box or Indian ballot box, show
of hands or voice vote or acclamation. As far as I am con-
cerned, all same khaki pants... we go eat them raw. "
(Eric Williams to PNM Convention Sept. 29)


Vol. 2 No. 7




an election has at least
one entirely predictable
response. Factions, frag-
ments, fractions, pieces
and paper parties all
scramble in indecent haste
to present a facade of
opposition unity in an
opportunistic bid to wrest
office from the PMM.
Old war-horses,
others not so old and the
old in young frames enact
the traditional rituals with
a grease-like fluency mel-
lowed by age and long
years of practice. None of
them can resist the call of
the political wild.
They and their or-
ganisations live for elec-
tions and elections alone;
it is what sustains them.
In the last few days the
conventional political animals
have caught the scentof an
early election and are licking
their chops in hasty anticipa-
tion. So we have mergers and
splits, rumours of mergers and
splits and even ambassadors
from the east coming, unlike
the wise men of old, to heigh-
ten the bacchanal.


But who would enjoy
the role of political leader in
this fusion of fissures? And
on what criteria would this
most coveted mantle be
Surely these are ques-
tions that will tax the mind of
the most perceptive soothsayer.
Undaunted, they stake
their claims, each showing
himself to be the most popular
of the popular forces to be
reckoned with.
Moko gets into the act
with a secret, "independent"
poll. What else can one ex-
pect? Especially when time is
running out and U.N.I.P.'s
popularity is not so easily
And as everyone rightly
expected Moko's survey shows
that U.N.I.P. is the people's
choice and Millette, its political
leader, the favourite for the
Prime Ministership. Ably sup-
ported by the black Indian
and African masses, and black
businessmen too, he polls an
easy 59.2 percent.
Next...candidate Robin-
son mounts a party Conven-
tion one Sunday ago. The re-
sult is a roaring success story
of the Seventies.
One thousand delegates
from 36 constituencies. Twice
as many as were anticipated.




And you know what that
means? That within the last
18 months D.A.C.has "emerged
as the only political movement
with a genuinely popular follow-
ing in every part of the coun-
Who could win the
coveted prize from him?
The rest. Bhadase's
Democratic Liberation Party
in the hands of Dr. Ram-
charan makes an almost earth-
shaking' resurrection from the
dead to advertise some old
party hacks in an effort to
show viability and win a shred
of political credibility.


He walks around with
Bhadase's torch. We hope only
that he gets enough light to
see his way through the dark.
And Jamadar caught in
tha trap of the old order
works over one of Williams'
favourite stunts. Like a recurr-
ing decimal he promises to re-
construct the D.L.P., or that
which remains of it.
His troubles are those of
a man stalked by the spirit of
the deceased scientist. To his
troubles there'll be no end.
,All of it is pure guffing
up; each wanting the other
to believe that he has some-
thing of substance to offer in
any projected merger. This, in
fact is at the root of the pre-
sent split in the perennially
splitting D.L.P.
All those in the paper
opposition parties, in addition
to some in no party now, see
the opportunity for political

office in terms of making a
quick merger.
Without a conception of
solid building, Flash Gordon
enjoys widest currency.
They know that the
country is fed up of Williams
and is shopping around for an
alternative. Their mistake is to
believe that merely getting to-
gether to throw a party is
sufficient to remove him.
For even to decide who
would be top bull in this
cow pen is beset with its own
special set of problems. They
have first to examine the horns
once they get on deck. But
long before they must have the
stables cleaned free of all gobal.
What a gigantic task!
You might find it strange
that in this biggest now-for-
now quest for unity Jamadar's
horns are suspect. But if we
look at the past why this is so
would be easily appreciated.


He once offered a torch
to Millette who gamely romped
around leaving the offer open.
Not satisfied with a single
offer, he later implanted the
three torches firmly in Robin-
son's lap. The move proved
abortive and the merger fell
Viewed from within and
without Jamadar is thus a
failure. How can he be de-
pended upon to work in the
new union.
The ploy, therefore, is to
prompt forces with the D.L.P.
to overthrow Jamadar. That


having been accomplished, the
first of the mergers will take
After three and a half
years the two DLP's will be
Speculators have it that
the next logical merger is be-
tween Millette and Robinson.
The latter has openly dis-
avowed merger plans. Maybe it
is that he is simply playing
hard to get to strengthen his
bargaining position. Can he
resist a union with a Millette
but without a Jamadar at the


Millette himself may well
be playing a similar game. He
understands two things. First,
that he has no political party
and is really a political lia-
bility. That is precisely why he
has not put on a bold front.
Yet he can sell himself with-
out his party.
Second, after his 1970
fall out with Jamadar, the
overall merger cannot take
place unless the DLP has new
leadership. Some of us may
remember his attacks on Robin-
son in 1970. He saw Robinson
as not being serviceable. Politi
cally, mind you. After all they
are both given to mannishness.
But Millette has never
been noted for his consistency.
Feeling that Robinson is a good
nag on whose back to ride, he
is likely to feel prepared to
chance it.
His hopes may well be
higher. He knows that Jamadar
and Robinson are not likely to


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91, Tunapuna Road, Tunapuna,
Trinidad & Tobago.

be able to work together with
the distrust of 1971 fresh in
their minds. More than that
Millette remains the one horse
who has not yet ridden. Why
can he not be the compromise
candidate were a struggle for
leadership to develop?
The final step is the com-
ing together of the two mer-
gers into one unhappy family
in the hope of an early elec-
tion. They all hope that this
final merger would be tangible
evidence of the -opposition
unity which large numbers of
people have called for.
And they hope that the
country will exercise no dis-
crimination and buy old wine
in a new bottle. We don't
know about that.


We are not one of those
now-for-now political organisa-
tions interested in a bucaneer-
ing raid on the ,state: and
political office.
We are interested in
political unity, but we will
have no part of political pro-
miscuity; we leave that to the
political pirates.
Moreover, we know the
history of mergers and at-
tempted mergers over the years
- the open invitation to Mil-
lette in April 1968 to take
over the DLP, the WFP -
Liberals merger of 1969, the
attempted UNIP-DLP merger
of mid-1970 and the crowning
abortion of the ACDC-DLP
merger of Xmas 1970.
We know, too, why they
failed. And we know only too
well that the country is not
willing to buy such a package.
We have been talking with
people all over this land. They
are much too sophisticated to
fall for mathematical copula-
tions, hastymergers and shot-
gun marriages.
None of the groups in-
volved is a serious organisation
having clear, elevated perspec-
tives for the nation at this
critical juncture. None of them
is ideologically or operationally
different from the PNM. They
are all poor imitations of that
movement, 16 years too late.


They are all still mes-
merised by the past doctor
magic of Williams. Their con-
ception of leadership is pre-
cisely the same as his; it admits
of no genuine collaboration
and discussion. That is why
these mergers are so leader-
oriented and why theirleader-
ship is based not on serious
political work but on declara-
tions of intent.
Political leadership in
serious politics won neither
in a lottery nor by donation.
It is achieved only by hard,
patient work.
Yes, let them rush along
the inevitable path of suicide.
Williams would like nothing
better. They are playing right
into his hands. It is they who
are the real alliesof the PNM.
We in Tapia will continue
to work in the local communi-
ties, building genuine political
organisation, working out our
plans in conjunction with the
people and attempting to cle
vate the perspectives of 'h.
entire nation. We have always
insisted that it is a long haul.
We will in time found a
political party with genuine
roots in the community,
with concrete plans for change,
with men and women capable
of carrying out those changes
and with authentic organisa-
tion. We shall go to the altar
virgin. That is what the coun-
try wants; not ah lil bit ah dis
and ah lil bit ah dat.
Such an organisation as
we hope to found will be the
real alternative to the PNM
and all its carbon copies.


Tapia House Publishing Company Limited,
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the bi

FROM HOME in Guyana, a brief spell as actress-
protegee of famed film producer-director Federico
Fellini, death by suicide in a cheap Italian board-
ing house.
This is the brief and tragic career of Tiffany
Hoyweld (right) who went to Italy five years ago to
find fame and fortune.
Tall, slim, shapely, and with the most excitingly
free-swinging walk, Tiffany attracted Fellini's attention.
She was perfect for the part of concubine-slave in his cur
rent film "The Satirist".

Fellini extracted from the girl the most she could
put into the little part, promising to show her around the
artistic and film people in Rome, and to organise the
right connections to help her budding film career.
Instead, Fellini just dropped the girl. Waiting in
vain for him to offer a contract or recommend her to a
producer, she was forced to take on striptease or
modelling jobs. An attractive black girl without protec-
tion or sponsorship, she was at the mercy of agents who
offered all kinds of undesirable propositions like posing

Tragedy of





Massa eefyou whip me,
Aye, aye, aye, canne brulee!

THE flame-bearing dancers
rushed up from amidst
the audience onto the
miniature stage and then
carefully picked their way
in the candle-glow. The
rage and urgency in the
singer's robust voice were
belied by the tame move-
ments of the dancers.
After successful per-
formances in New York,
London and Grenada,
Ambakaila was back in
Trinidad playing to a capa-
city audience at the JFK
auditorium, UWl,last week.
When the Aubrey
Adams' production first
appeared at Queen's Hall
the reception was good,
but modestly so. Then
came Press reports of


grand acclaim at the Royal
Albert Hall, and Ambakaila
becomes a sensation.
But it is evident why
Ambakaila was a hit abroad.
Adams and his, team presented
a "cultural package", a collec-
tion of sample items making
up a hamper of exotic "cul-
tural" goodies.
So the audience got
slices of our history in dance.
Through slavery, the white-
clad, 'whip-wielding figure of
the slave master dominating
the scene. Then through the
idyllic period of the Caribs
and Arawaks, before the com-
ing of Christopher.
The male dancers here
were superbly graceful, yet
strong, virile. It is at this point
that Ambakaila reaches the
heights of folk ballet.
The seventeenth century
French have left their indelible
mark on the folk dance tradi-
tion. Out of the bele, pique,
influenced by the modern pop
dance, came the Can-Can Creole.
Here the female dancers had

a chance to prove themselves
and to make this expertly
choreographed sequence one
of the most enjoyable.
Pat Flores skilfully ex-
ploited the richness of tones
and the piquant quality of the
West Indian folk voice.
In John Agitation there
has been an interesting develop-
ment. I remembered him as a
joker, hanging about the stage
while a delirious audience had
its laugh.
At Ambakaila I found a
more poised artiste who has
adopted the stance of the I-ent-
makin-no-joke saga boy of the
fifties. He is better able to
manipulate his audience; with
his hands he subsides the
laughter and takes his stance
for the next joke. There is less
of the characteristic "well
Ambakaila certainly
came out on a massive "sell
Trinago" campaign from the
short snatches of history
through to spectacular present
day Carnival.






In the songs, some as
obvious as Kitchener's "Come
to Tobago" and Sniper's old
"Portrait of Trinidad" both
sung by Singing Francine,

Adams was clearly out of show
off Trinago as best he could.
And here I believe a problem
Because of our wide
background of cultural in-
fluences, presentation of a
"package" would, being practi-
cal, mean exercising some

measure of choice.


Besides the obvious
African, an Indian dance of
festivity was staged. While this
dance sequence may have been
technically correct, and the
choreography pleasing, the basit
feel and approach was, to say
the least, contemptuous and
grated against the sensibilities.
Inherent in oriental
dance is a quiet grace and in-
tricate artistry. The jolting hips
and noisy feet of Aubrey
Adams' dancers reduced the
sequence,even if unintentional-
ly, to a studied parody, lacking
a touch you might call sim-
In this age of a state-
sponsored inundation of "folk
culture" Ambakaila is part of
an all too familiar vein. So
many times are we made to see
in the dance these historical
excursions: the French-
influenced dances and the
shango rituals.
Though I must say that
the calculated frenzy of the
one in Ambakaila had the power
of rousing to life the dancer
who had previously sluggishly
performed the king of the
Arawaks and the king of the
And the jambalassie
brought back all the childhood
terror; the fancy sailors nos-
talgia for the earlier, less so-
phisticated Carnivals.
The fact is that Am
bakaila is export or tourist
material. I watched the show,
was pleased, yet dissatisfied.
Maybe I expected more -
or something different. Or may-
be I am looking from the stand-
point of one too anxious to
nudge on the wheel of evolu-
tion in the folk dance tradition.

----~ ----- --



111 Frederick Street & Campus St. Augustine

rain drain Or

Fellini's fall-girl

for pornographic magazines.
Meantime she kept on writing Fellini, or sending
messages to him at his Roman home. No reply. And as a
last resort Tiffany accepted a short-term dancing job
with an American company doing "Hair" whose lead dan
cer had fallen ill.
Talented Tiffany easily filled the part.
But one day the usually punctual girl did not ap-
pear at the theatre. Two days passed. Then came a
message from the police. In the shabbiest apartment of
a cheap boarding house Tiffany was found, dead. In her
stiffened hands a half-written letter to Fellini.
"Tiffany by Fellini" the producer announces as
his next film. Those who know him doubt he will keep
this promise. The Italian authorities however, less sensi-
tive but more practical than Fellini, are initiating legisla-
tion so that girls like Tiffany could be returned home in
case fortune did not smile on them in Rome.




NAIROBI (AWA) THE Secretary-
General of the East African Community,
Charles Maina, has announced the Com-
munity's intention to meet in two months'
time to consider applications for member-
jhip from variousapplicant countries.
Zambia, Burundi and Somalia are
among the countries who have applied to
join the East African Community.
Mr. Maina said that the recent dis-
turbances on the Uganda-Tanzania border



will have no effect on the future of the
East African Community. He added that
the Community was an economic institu-
tion and not a political body, even though
it is politically governed.
Nations is heading up an international
operation to assist Asians of unde
termined nationality in leaving Uganda.

In co-operation with the International
Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) and
the Inter-Governmental Committee for
European Migration (ICEM), and at the
request of the government of Uganda, pro-
cedures have been set in motion to tend to
the 5,000 stateless Asians.
Agreement on the specifics of the
undertaking were reached with the

Ugandan Ministry of Foreign Affairs on
Tuesday and Wednesday, Oct. 24and 25.
Financing of the costs of care
maintenanceand transportation will be
provided by the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees, who has
already raised nearly $2 million from
donor governments for this purpose.
(An official UN source notes that the
government of Uganda "has been most
co-operative in working out arrangements
with the United Nations officials involved

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Commission 5 Cents

STAPIA HOUSE Publishing Co., Ltd.,


91, Tunapuna Road, Tunapuna, Trinidad and Tobago.


call 662-5 172

I ~______




THE MORE industrialized
a society becomes, the
severer is the distance that
seems to be established
between itself and its past.
The reason is that the heat
of change is continuously
dissolving old relationships,
disrupting traditional struc-
tures, wearing down the
sense of continuity.
In Western societies, it is
this devotion to change which
establishes the need for the
museum and the passionate
devotion to academic historical
reconstruction. The document,
the literary work, monuments,
not living memory, are the
material basis by which a link
with the past must be relent-
lessly pursued. Archeology and
anthropology are vital modern


Of course guarding the past
in Western societies serves a
variety of purposes. With the
growth of colonialist expan-
sionism for example, Western
scholarship and Western ethno-
graphy have been relentlessly
used as an ideological tool
against the "inferior" peoples
who inhabited the unknown
world into which the con-
quistador penetrated.
SNineteenth century positiv-
ism established a scale in
which the presence or absence
of monuments, written records
and sophisticated ruling classes
determined a peoples' place on
the ladder of civilization.,
An absence of monuments,
the absence of ruins was taken
as an indication that the people
there present had lived in a
state of pure negativity. This
is the index of primitivism
under Western eyes.
Within the compulsive code
of its judgment system, positiv-
ism devalued both the oral
tradition in general, as well as
its beliefs and value orienta-
tions. Folk material provided
the necessary evidence of de-
viance from the norms of

This is the perspective one
finds, for example, in the early
work of the great Cuban scholar
Fernando Ortiz. Two of his
studies on black Cubans have
the general title, "Hampa Afro-
cubaia", or "Afrocuban Va-
His view was that "la sociedad
cubana se desarrolla psiquica-
mente por una gradacion insen.
sible desde el blanco, cuyos
dotes lo colocan al nivel del
hombre refinadamente civiliza-
do, hasta el negro africanque i
restituido a su pais natal reanu-

daria sus libaciones ep el craneo
mondo de un enemigo".:
(("Cuban society develops
spiritually by an imperceptible
gradation from the white, whose
gifts place him on the level of re-
fined. and civilised humanity, to
the African negro, who, if he were
returned to his country of origin,
would recommence his' ritual
drinking from the empty skull of
his enemy.")


While Ortiz was particularly
concerned to establish the
criminality of the Cuban obeah-
man, he also emphasizes that
the basic structure of the black
Cuban's folks beliefs must be re-
garded as antisocial in nature:
"En Cuba toda una raza entro
en la mala vida. .no como
caidos de un piano superior de
moralidad, sino como ineptos...
Sus relaciones sexuales y
familiaries, su religion, su
political, sus normas morales en
in eran (tan) deficientes...
("In cuba, an entire race fell
into evil ways...not by falling from
a higher moral plane, but through
unfitness for anything else...Its
sexual and family relations, its
religion, -its politics, its moral
standards were simply deficient...")
In his scholarly woik of this


The Si lent

Voice of

Afro- Cuba

genocidal intentions and he re-
fers to a bloody night in a
place called Trinidad which
came to be known ,as "the
whitening of Trinidad", "La
blanquizacion de Trinidad".
This hostility on the part of
the dominant white society led
blacks to take careful account
of their vulnerable minority

position. Some Negro mem-
bers of the Cuban Communist
Party in fact aired the view that
a Negro state ought to be
'establishedin Oriente province.
But the general result was that
black politicians, as Hugh Tho-
mas notes in his book "Cuba or
The, Pursuit of Freedom"
(London 1969) always took.
care to give a multiracial con-
text to their protests and state-
The fact is that the intel-
lectual hostility to the Negro
is notable well into the twen-
ties. A curious example of this
can be found in the famous
essay by the Mexican Jose Vas-
concelos, "La raza Cosmica",
originally published in 1925.

In this essay, Vasconcelos
made the case for a new
civilisation in Latin America
based on physical and cultural
mestizaje. His one reservation
was in respect of the black man
on whom he wished a kind of
sexual genocide, since the Afri-
can type was aesthetically un-
satisfactory: "y en unas cuantas
decades de eugenesia estetica
podria desaparecer el negro
junto con los tipos que el libre
instinto de hermosura vaya
senalando como fundamental-
mente recesivos, e indignos, por
lo mismo de perpetuacion.
("and in a decade or two of
esthetic eugenics, the negro could
be eliminated, together with those
types which are indicated by the
free instinct of beauty as being
fundamentally recessive and un-
worthy, for that reason, of per-
Alberto Lamar Schweyer, a
controversial Cuban intellectual
in the twenties, inhis book
"Biologia de la democracia"

period, Ortiz was certainly
reinforcing hostile stereotyped
images of the Negro in circula-
tion at the time. In 1907, a
blackCuban politician, Evaristo
Estenoz, founded a black
Power Party, El Partido In-
dependiente de Color, which
was based on the claim that
although blacks had contri-
buted so much to the Indepen-
dence struggle, they continued
to be treated as odd men out in
Cuban society, earning at best
a grudging acceptance.
Estenoz's failure to win a
sympathetic hearing led to an
uprising in 1912 which pro-
voked quite brutal reprisals
against Cuban negroes. A re-
ward of five pesos was offered
for every dead Negro. After
this there were periodic out-
breaks of anti-Negro hostility.
Writing in the thirties, Al-
berto Arredondo notes in his
book "El Negro en Cuba" that
Negroes were not allowed in
parks, clubs or theatres, and
that in 1934 in the period of
euphoria after the fall of the
dictator Machado, blacks were
openly attacked in the streets
even by the police, without pro-
vocation of any sort.
These attacks', Arredondo
suggests,were not exempt from

Tapia PAGE 5

(Havana, 1927), rejected Vas-
concelos'theory,and reaffirmed
the 19th century view that
hybrid types are genetically
regressive. Mestizaje in Latin
America, he argued, makes
autocratic and authoritarian
government necessary, and re-
ferring to the Negro, he stated.
that his contribution to Ameri-
can psychology was his ances-
tral slave mentality: "...vienen
a surar su desorientado es-
piritu de esclavos ancestrales a
la psicologia americana."
"They add to the American
psychology their disoriented
mentality of hereditary slaves"),
Within this context of socio-
cultural hostility, the Afro-
cuban vogue in verse is truly a
tribute to the power and in-
fluence of European cultural
fads, in this case the cult of
primitivism which gained im-
etus after the First World


The spectacle of white
Cuban intellectuals drooling
ecstatically about the Negro
as a subject, of Cuban verse is
not a little revolting, part of
the problem of the twisted
liberal conscience: "Aqui el
negro es tuetano y raiz, aliento
de pueblo...Puede ser, en estos
tiempos de transit, el quilate
rey de neustro poesia".
("Here the Negro is the very
marrow, the root, the breath of
life of peoples...perhaps, in these
times of transition, the unalloyed
gold of our poetry.")
Continued on Page 8



_ __ __. __ ~I


THE WHOLE question of West Indian leader-
ship may be approached in detail from the
angle of a discussion of charismatic leaders.
Since a large number of West Indians leaders
were unmistakably "charismatic" and others
manifested many charismatic traits, it may be
useful to discuss the charismatic leader so as to
highlight his making, his rise to power, his
behaviour pattern and certain potentials and
dangers inherent to this type of leadership.
(Marcus Garvey and Eric Williams are taken
here to approach closest this ideal-type).
This exercise will allow us to explore further the
effects of many social structuralcausal variables and
their effects ort leadership. It also provides us the
unique opportunity of gaining some theoretical insights
into the making of charismatic leaders an area which
is completely unexplored; it will illustrate, lastly, the
"personality" approach to the study of leadership
over and against an approach dealing with the ideolo-
gies of leaders.


To understand leadership in its totality, it is
insufficient to focus on their ideologies, even if they
are avowed revolutionaries.
Different periods and ,different cultural systems stress
different bases for charisma. In some contexts it is physical
dexterity, in others it is intellectual superiority, while in
others it is emotional and temperamental prowess.
A charismatic leader must establish a distance in any
one or more of these areas between himself and the mass; he
must out-distance others, he must be ahead of the masses; he
must be exceptional, so that he can stand apart and above
the masses in a word, he must become an outsider.
West Indian charismatic leaders overwhelmingly base
their leadership claims on superior intelligence, on "know-
ledgism." They see themselves as educational oracles, "walking
encyclopaedias," as "scholar-princes," and as "philosopher-
Objectively speaking, they are often men whose breadth
and range of knowledge and universalism clearly differentiate
them from the masses and from traditional cultists (like Bed-
ward of Jamaica), and give them the appearance of "omnipo-
tent administrators."
In exploring the origin of such leaders, then, the first
proposition asserted here is that the Caribbean social structure
has deliberately sponsored and laid the foundation for the
emergence of such leaders in a direct way ( and not-just in the
general way as expressed in the truism that "everything de.
pends on society").
West Indian societies execute an educational policy
which. aimed at the training of exceptional Africans. We will
now take the opportunity here to deal with the West Indian
educational system, in contrast tothat of the American, vis-a-
vis blacks.
A thorough, but elitist, system of education was
developed, in the-West.Indies by their European masters.
In 1841, the Governor of Trinidad sent a despatch to the
Secretary of State for the colonies, in which he pointed out
the absolute necessity of educating British subjects so that
they could be able to read the laws by which they were

( West Indian charismatic lea

claims on superior intellig

They see themselves as

"walking encyclopaedia

In the reply,-the Secretary of State wholeheartedly
approved an episode which showed the prevailing attitude
to education. Several commissions were appointed to investi-
gate and improve educational conditions on the islands.
In 1869, Patrick Keenan was appointed by the Governor
of Trinidad to investigate public schools.
The honesty of this report is startling: on the minus
side it described seventeen of the buildings as things "which
would bring discredit upon any country that recognizes
civilisation as a principle of Government," that Trinidadian
content was sadly lacking, and that blacks and coloureds were
greatly underrepresented in the schools; on the credit side he
found the reading materials salutary:
For elegance of style; for correctness of information; for
acquaintance with the best prose and poetical composi-
tions of the English language; for a general course of
useful and interesting knowledge; for the high manly,
and moral tone of the selections, and for the didactic
skill exhibited in the arrangement of the lessons, no set
of primary school books ever previously published in
the English language could surpass, or even equal
By 1880 there were, in Trinidad, a total of 96 schools,
including three secondary schools. Schoolteachers have com-
mented on the exaggerated interest in using high-sounding
phrases and big words. This laid the linguistic foundation for
the communication of political ideas; as it were, it prepared
them to be political vessels.
However the elitist norm endemic to this type of educa-
tional system fostered thrdevelopment of exceptional scholars.
This norm was expressed openly to a Select Committee
of the Legislative Council of Trinidad in 1926 by Mr. E.A.
Robinson, who instructed:
...educate only the bright ones; not the whole mass. If
you educate the whole mass of the agricultural popula-
tion, you will be deliberately ruining the country...give
the bright ones a chance to win as many scholarships as
they can; give the others three hours education a day.
By opening the outer courts of knowledge to all and by
displaying its treasures to all, the sponsors then proceeded to

select and reward the few to whom truth was revealed. This was
precisely the role played by the "exhibition-scholarships"
offered to bright West Indian children, instituted in the latter
half of the nineteenth century. These offered the only chance
of upward mobility an opportunity which bright West
Indians grabbed with the enthusiasm of a religious zealot.
A Trinidadian child had altogether eight chances of
getting an exhibition. Elementary school teachers would look
for bright boys who they could train for this examination,
knowing full well that any such success would bring credit to
themselves as teachers.
Children are started in their training at an early age by
being given private tuition and special incentives. C.L.R.
James recalls: "On the day of the examination a hundred boys
were brought from all parts of the island like so many
fighting cocks." James hirhself was brought at the earliest age
just "to get him accustomed to the atmosphere."
Getting one of these rare prizes meant that one's course
was already mapped out, one that spiralled inexplorably up-
wards to greatness, West Indian style. This is what Eric Williams
meant when he said: "Greatness...was thrust upon me from the
There is indeed impressive record of the great number of
West Indians of high literary attainments who were products of
the West Indian education system. The nineteenth and early
twentieth century witnessed quite an impressive array of "men
of letters."
Barbados produced Chief Justice Sir William Conrad
Reeves, Solicitor General H. Walter Reece, Samuel Prescod, Sir
drantley Adams, Hugh Springer, Dr. H.G. Cummins.
Jamaica produced Francis Williams (a Cambridge educated
poet and journalist who was exemplified by Blyden for his
brilliance), Richard Hill (the most prolific West Indian
scientist), Honourable Edward Jordon (who, was knighted by
Queen Victoria), Robert Campbell (who later became an
African explorer with Martin Delaney), Rev. A.A. Barclay and
Dunbar Wint.


Trinidad produced such "Island Scholars" as Sir Henry
Pierre, Sir Courtney Hannays and Sir Hugh Wooding, in addition
to the reputable nineteenth century philologist J.J. Thomas;
British Guiana (now Guyana) may boast of Mortimer Duke
and Dr. Milliard, and Nevis of Cleghorn.
West Indian "men of letters" or intellectuals were not
only produced in the British West Indian colonies but also in
the Spanish and French. In all of these areas the systems of
education were merely extensions of the European systems.
Cuba may boast of such reputable "sons" as Varela, Saco,
Menendez, Antonio Medina, Placido, Manzano, Brindis de Solas,
Nicholas Guillen, Alberto Pena.
The French West Indians may boast equally of their en-
lightened products, outstanding personages who have enhanced
the cultural life of their homelands men like Jean Price Mars
and Jacques Roumain. Julien Raimond of St. Dominique
migrated to Paris late in the eighteenth century and made sub-
stantial contributions to the antislavery movement through his
Melvil Bloncourt of Guadeloupe whose book, "La
France Parliamentaire", was banned by Louis Napoleon, was
described as "one of the men who best uphold our country's
(France's) intellectual and philosophical tradition."
Daniel Thaly of Martinique has published eight volumes
of verse since 1900 which has won him high praise. Rene
Maran, also of Martinique, has been noted as an outstanding
literary and militant figure in the early twentieth century.
These are just a few of the several hundreds of possible
names that could be adduced to attest to the literary merits of

ders base their leadership

ience, on"knowledgism".

educational oracles,

i... as scholar-princes. )

the West Indian Educational systems. Dr. Eric Williams has
given a graphic illustration of the potency of the educational
system developed in Trinidad:
The secondary curriculum was indistinguishable from
that of an English public school. The standard of work
in classics and mathematics came in for high praise in
1911...The colony's secondary schools were the first
colonial institutions to participate in the external
examinations of Oxford and Cambridge. Thus identical
criteria of performance was established for the local
scholars, whose work was thereby ranked and locally
acclaimed in an inter-Empire educational system...One of
the island scholars was placed first among 57 candidates
in the British Empire in Agricultural Science...He gained
distinction in 5 subjects; so did 4 other students in the-
Empire...Of the 83 candidates who gained distinction in
history, 4 were from Trinidad...At the 1910 elections
one (Trinidadian) island scholar...was placed first in the
Senior Cambridge examinations throughout the Empire,
while another topped the candidates in the entrance
examinations to St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London.
W.J. Locke, island scholar for 1879 became a successful
novelist; another scholar for 1884, became Sir Robert
Falconer, President of the University of Toronto.
So advanced was the educational system during the
nineteenth century that literally thousands of trained teachers
left the West Indies for America, Africa and Europe.
In contrast, the American segregated education system
operated on the principle that, so far as the black man was
concerned, "before the temple of knowledge swing the gates
of toil." One thing a white Southener could not stand and
that was an "educated nigger."
While in 1898 Trinidad alone could boast of some
25,000 students enrolled in its.schools, there were only 23,000
students enrolled in the "Negro Colleges" of Americain 1932.
In 1916, the United States Office of Education considered
only three of the Negro schools worthy of the name"college"
owing to poor facilities and very low standard. Negro colleges
suffered from certain deep-seated .weaknesses.


The fact that its principal had to be a Minister of the
Gospel led to religious dogmatism. Its president had to be
white, and'since no young and scholarly and alert white man
would take this job, it fell upon those looking for a "retirement
job". Its Board of Trustees was anair-tight, self-perpetuating
oligarchy which controlled the college and controlled the
limited finance in order to ensure that the money would be
spent on the "practical" education of Negroes, along Tuskegee
Negro colleges therefore failed to produce men of
outstanding intellect. W.E.B. DuBois has mentioned that
though he knew several hundred Negro graduates they did not
impress him as having "that culture of manner which we
instinctively associate with University men." DuBois was very
much for the elitist system of education as was developed in
the West Indies, a fact which explains his bitter tirade against
Booker T. Washington's stress on practical vocational training.


We will now proceed to analyse the dynamics of
this, by first looking at the way in which the West
Indian educational system has fostered the ego-
expansion of certain individuals through a process
which I choose to call the "best nigger syndrome"
FIRST, as a result of certain qualities instilled
early age these aspiring scholars experienced a number of
successes at an early age, become convinced of their superiority
as a result and begin to see visions of greatness, and might
even begin the rehearsal for such a role.
Toussaint L'Ouverture, the leader of the Haitian Revolu-
tion, had a relatively happy childhood, and later occupied a
privileged position as steward of all the livestock on an estate
a post which gave him some experience in administration,
education and authority. He read Caesar's Commentaries from
which he derived some military and political ideas. His
biographer commented: "Knowing his superiority he never had
the slightest doubt that his destiny was to be their leader."

Marcus Garcey went to several secondary schools, had
private tuition and had abundant reading material at his dis-
posal. He depicts his progress: "At age 14 I had enough in-
telligence and experience to manage men I was strong and
manly, and I made them (school children) respect me...I was
never whipped by any, but made them respect the strength in
my arms. At 18 I had an excellent position as a manager of a


uest of "recognition" and development. Claude McKay's "The
heart of a Constab" expresses this alienation vividly:
'Tis grievous to think dat, while toilin' on here,
My people won't love me again,
My people, me owna black skin -
Dewretched thought gives me such pain.
Marcus Garvey experienced similar conflicts. C.L.R.
James depicts his lack of fit thus: "A British intellectual
before I was ten, already an alien in myown environment
among my own people, even my own family." On leaving
school, the simple question of getting into one of the first
class cricket clubs, James says, "plunged me into a social
and moral crisis which had a profound effect onmy whole fu-
ture life."
The THIRD phase usually occurs abroad, but may begin
at home, when the individual confronts "significant other"
who not only refuse to give him recriprocal hospitality and
accommodation, but refuse to give him the validating recogni-
tion he craves for. This perpetuates his restlessness and drives
him back towards his people. The dynamics of this confronta-
tion is very interesting.
Fanon has analysed the West Indian psyche as a restive
individual constantly seeking to "make an appearance" by
getting validation of' significant other."
He argued that the West Indian Negro "does not com-
pare himself with the white man qua father, leader, God; he
compares himself with, his fellow against the pattern of the
white man."
But suppose, we may ask, that through a thorough
elitist training one collects ample proof that one is first among
unequals, that one is a "superior soul" and that one can do
anything that "significant other" does? It is most likely that
this individual would attempt to replace "significant other"
(or become an extension of him where this is possible).
This explains why officers amongst Toussaint's army
and amongst the maroons called themselves "generals," "cap-
tains" and "marshals," and decorated themselves in scraps of
uniforms used by the enemy ("significant other"). Garvey's

a "shepherd" that will not make them want. Being weak, their
salvation, as they perceive it, was to find a stronger protector.
They are, at the same time, wary of "false prophets." They
have to be convinced.
An "intellectual" has immense advantages in convincing
the people to follow. In their weakness the people too
strength, assurance and hope from the fact that one of their
own kind has made it to the top.
Eric Williams recalls that "all hell broke loose" when
the Acting Governor of Trinidad introduced him as such: "Dr.
Williams has come home, and he has brought with him scholar-
ship and learningof which anyone, anywhere, however talented,
might be proud! He has passed from the field of study to the
field of action, as Secretary of the Caribbean."
In action these leaders present themselves as Plato's
philosopher-king leading the masses out of their despair and
darkness and showing them light. As Williams puts it, it was "a
revolution of intelligence, for intelligence, by intelligence."
These leaders set aside their elitist proclivities nurtured by their
superior education, applying the reasoning that "to swing the
herd you've got to go along with the stampede," that is, to
become immersed in the mass.
It is important to recognize that leaders differ tremen-
dously in the tactics they use in this phase, in their ruthless-
ness in exploiting this relationship and in their degree of
willingness to enter this fourth phase. Claude McKay preferred
to channel his efforts into poetry rather than politics. DuBois
also refused this role:
My leadership was a leadership of ideas...I despise the
essential demagoguery of personal leadership; of that
hypnotic ascendancy over men which carries out objec-
tives regardless of their value or validity simply by
personal loyalty and admiration. In my case I withdrew
sometimes ostentatiously from the personal nexus, butl
I sought all the more determinedly to force home essen-
tial ideas.
The masses also differ in their receptivity, vulnerability
and need of the messiah. In some cases they may even force
this role upon a reluctant individual.
If a successful rapport is established then the people
delegate the role of "messiah" to their leader. A number of
cases will be cited to show what is expected of such a leader,
and the depth of commitment to such a leader. When Blyden
went to Lagos in 1890, he was proclaimed: "Africa's destiny
lay in night; God said, 'Let Blyden be', and all was light."
Even the Gold Coast intellectual, J.E. Casely Hayford, de
picted Blyden as a messiah:
He was...a God descended upon earth to teachlthe
Ethiopians anew the way of life. He came not in
thunder or with sound, but in the garb of a humble
teacher, a John the Baptist among his brethren, preach-
ing rational and national salvation.From land to land and
shore to shore his message was the self-same one, which,
interpreted in the language of Christ was: 'What shall it
profit a race if it shall gain the whole world and lose its
own soul?'

In colonial societies, people are so powerless that

they long for a shepherd who will not make them

want... Weak,they look for a strong protector. *

large printing establishment, having under my control several
men old enough to be my grandfathers."
By the age of twenty, he had become a master printer
and the youngest foreman printer in Kingston. Mrs. Amy-
Jacques Garvey has given us a picture of theyoung Garvey
hiking into the lonely mountains of Jamaicaand looking out at
sea for hours, meditating on visions of greatness. He would
often sit in front of his mirror rehearsing speeches and
imagining that he was a great statesman.He even studied
elocution with this in mind.
Others close to him have described him as a pensive
boy, alternating between delivering extemporaneous speeches
and being lost in deep contemplation. He himself confessed:
"My young and ambitious mind led me into flights of great
From the time C.L.R. James was eight, he began to win
prizes and compliments for his "fine" and "remarkable"
essays. When he came "first" in an exhibition-scholarship
race, he was the youngest ever to have won that signal'honour.
He commented: "The winning of that prize (a literary com-
petition) so soon after my brilliant performance in the exhibi-
tioners' examination set the seal on me as a future candidate for
the Legislative Council."
Eric Williams' scholastic success at an early age was
equally exceptional: "I became in the words of my teacher, the
best Latin student the College had produced up to that date,
gained distinctions in the subject in the Junior Cambridge and
School Certificate,set a school record by winning the special
prize for Latin in the highest form of the school three years in


He continued: "I had a distinguished record at Q.R.C.,
both in the classroom and on the playing field... My colleagues
indicated their respect for my combination of scholarship and
sport by awarding me the General Doorly Prize."
Williams won the island scholarship, went to Oxford,
scored a brilliant first-class degree and got the commendation
of the Principal as being ''an exceptional man who deserves if
possible exceptional treatment,"
Williams spoke for himself and all the other "scholar-
ship boys" when he said that "the island scholar, around
whom the entire system revolved, regarded himself and was
regarded as 'a superior soul'...cut out to play a superior
role." In their drive to attain these early successes, these in-
dividuals inevitably develop certain traits which are also the
qualities necessary for leadership.
To be a successful competitor in such a contest-
sponsored system of education, one was bound to be dis-
ciplined, purposeful, self-reliant, aggressive, hard-working.and
bright. Self-confidence even egotism creeps in as success in-
The SECOND stage consists of such exceptional in-
dividuals becoming misfits, outsiders, in their small societies, a
disequilibrium which prompts the individual to go abroad in

lordly and academic regalia and his court of African Aristocrats
is similarly indicative.
This explains also why Eric Williams is such an ardent
Oxonian, and why C.L.R. James sports the air of a Victorian
gentleman. That such individuals were motivated to rebel be-
cause their ego was deflated and shattered by "significant
other" may be illustrated by the case of Eric Williams.
In 1944 Williams began working for the Anglo-American
Caribbean Commission, but pressures and obstacles mounted
so much so that in 1954 he wrote Norman Manley of Jamaica a
most revealing letter:
...I have, it seems to me, two alternatives: to bow down
and worship (this I can never do); or to leave things as
they are;...there is a third alternative and this is the one
I am now pursuing: to fight them...I was denied fellow-
ship at Oxford I have always been convinced it was
on racial grounds and every conceivable pressure was
brought to bear on me to leave and return to Trinidad...
I am determined once and for all to put a stop to this
impertinent persecution...I may be out of a job in a year's
time. There are elections here next year and already I
have been asked to come out and join the Independent
Labour Party...If they do not want to deal with me at
the level of an innocuous research worker, perhaps they
prefer to deal with me as a legislator.
It is also an interesting revelation that "on the very day"
Williams received notice of dismissal from the Commission, he
held his first discussion about the formation of a political
party: "The basic strategy...was to reach the public...The
Commission wished a showdown; it would get one."
These leaders were therefore men who had gained cul-
tural advantages from the system they were to attack: up to a
certain point they had had exceptional treatment.
The FOURTH phase consists of a manipulative inter-
play between the leader and the masses, one offering leadership
and hope, and the other deciding whether or not to offer
support. The leader attempts to convince the masses that he is
the "chosen one." Early in his life Toussaint had read a book
of Abbe Raynal prescribing slave rebellion and calling for a Ne-
gro Moses:
A courageous chief is wanted. Where is he, that great.
man whom Nature owes to her vexed, oppressed and
tormented children? He will appear, doubt it or not; he
will come forth and raise the sacred standard of liberty...
Everywhere people will bless the name of the hero who
shall reestablish the rights of the human race; every-
where will they raise trophies in his honour.
In a way Negro messiahs begin by assuming the role of a
messiah. Marcus Garvey, too, upon reading Booker T. Washing-
ton's "Up from Slavery," asked himself and resolved to himself:
Where is the black man's Government? Where is his King
and his Kingdom? Where is his President, his country,
and his ambassador, his navy, his men of big affairs? I
will help to make them!
In all colonial societies, the people have become so
powerless in the face of immense iniquities that they feel that
they must "fly to a rock that is higher than I." They long for

Marcus Garvey was similarly hailed. His followers attest:
We of the U.N.I.A. have all along termed the Hon. Mar-
cus Garvey as our Moses and like the Children of Israel
many of us have rebelled against and discredited him in
the past. Now that he is gone it appears that many who
could not appreciate what he said during his lifetime on
earth have come to realise the true value of the Great
Prophet that was in our midst, hence cannot come to the
realization that he is not dead.


As soon as the Jamaican disturbances of 1938 broke
out, the "Jamaican Standard" called for "a man of high
calibre, with no desire for personal aggrandizement, willing to
come forward and take up this heavy burden of leadership."
Bustamante went forward, put himself at the head of the
working class, and was hailed as "Man of destiny," and
"Father of the Nation."
In 1948 when Grantley Adams went to Barbados from a
trip abroad, crowds greeted him and sang: "Hail to the Lord's
Annointed" At times beautiful sonnets are composed
bestowing the role of messiah on the leader, as may be seen in
this sonnet to Eric Williams:
Thy gift o'vrflows and nourishes our land,
Great genius, scholar, teacher of this age.
The world's your audience, our nation your stage,
Vessel of rare clay moulded by God's hand.
Cease not to share with us thy wealth oh man
Whose knowledge is from God a heritage.
Master builder...historian noble sage,
Damt not they
Daunt not thy pow'r to lead and understand.
Resplendent star, that shines above the rest
Of thy contemporaries; great and small.
Pour out, "dark Moses" louder still thy best
That no more into bondage may we fall,
And never let thy labours seek vain rest.
But in thy wisdom live, and lead us all.
In a more mundane tone, a Calypsonian gives a vivid
picture of the total dependency on Williams:
Annabella stocking want patching
She want de doctah help she wid dat.
Johnson trousers falling; He want de doctah help he wid
Some want a Zephyr motor car; others want piece of
Dorothy loss she man; She want to complain to Doctah
P.N.M. announced during a political rally in San Fer-
nando before the 1961 election: "The Master Couldn't Come
so He Sent Williams." Dr. Rudranath Capildeo was invited
from his teaching job in London to match his "knowledgism"
against Williams', aid became the charismatic leader of the
East Indian Democratic Labour Party.
I To be continued

PAGE 8 Tapia


From Page 5 -

If the image of the Negro
in Afrobuban verse was the
marrow and root of anything,
itmust have been all that the
white bourgeois Cuban hoped
he was not. If we consider the
difference between the typical
verse of Emilio Ballag4s, and
his "poesia negrista", we see
that one style emphasizes a
world of private anguish and
delicate sensitive feelings,
while the other projects an
ambience of crudity and cruel
The Ballagas who wrote
"Soy una verde voz desamparada
que su inocencia busca y solicit"
"I am a green vulnerable voice
seeking, craving innocence",
is clearly less than innocent
in "Maria Belen Chacon" when
recalling a dead, black washer-
woman, he exclaims: ..
"Ya no vere mis instintos
En los espejos redondos y alegres
de tus dos nalgas
Tu constelacion de curvas
Ya no alumbrara jamas el cielo de la
"Nevermore will I behold my in-
stincts in the round and jolly
mirror of.your ass.
Voir constellation of curves will
no more now light up the sandunga


The writer who spelt out
and affirmed the literary
stereotypes most harshly was
the Puerto Rican poet Luis
Pales Matos, whom Wilfred
Cartey in his book "Black,
Images" rather startingly re-
presents as a writer sensitive to
the "black soul". In his Elegy.
to the Duke of Lemonade, he
wrote, for example:
"Ay, there goes the Count of
wearing a red and crumpled

frock coat,
his cruel jaw rigid with epileptic
There he marches, grotesque of
multiplying orangutans
in the mirrors of' Christophe's
The only Cuban poet who
lived the Afrocuban experience
as an adventure and became its
outstandingproponent is Nicolas
Guillen, who developed a sense
of social concern which later
led him to join the Cuban
Communist Party. Ii. recent
times he has been held up as a
man who has always held a
balanced view of race relations
in the Caribbean as against
negritude and Black Power
poets, who reveal the cancer of
inverse racism in their verse.

This view has beef advanced
by Coulthaid in his article
"Nicolas Guillen and West In-
dian negritude" in Caribbean
Quarterly (v. 16 No. 1, March
As an example toulthard
,cites some well known lines
from Aime Cesaire's "Cahiers
d'un retour au pays natal", in
which, in flamboyantly re-
bellious terms,, Cesaire rejects
"European civilization", in the
process of the confrontation
with virulence and aggressive-
ness of assimilationist French
colonial policy: "...we hate
you and your reason and we
turn to the precocious dementia
of flaming madness, of per
sistent cannibalism".
I .want to suggest that even
if we are to take the above
statements at face value,. we
must at least take them in

SFist of all the rejection of
Eitdopean civilization ahd the
talk of fumihg to flaming mad-
ness had been part of Dadaist
arid Surrealist rhetoric in Paris
since the.earl twenties. It is
well known that Cesaire asso-
ciated with the Surrealists.
Secondly, part of the cul-
tural assault against Africans
and blacks in -the Caribbean
has beer thd attribution of can-
nibalistic tendencies to them
by Euroleant propagandists as
ah atavistic tendency. When
Cesaire declares for cannibalism,
h6 is merely fitting on the
mrsk which French colonial-
ismh had designed for his
brothers in order to reject'the
principle of assimilation.
Apatt from this, no one
who kndws of Cesaire's freer
as a French colonial politician
would eer tfr to argue that
he was racist. But Caribbeanists
return to Cesaire's "Cahiers"
because they perceive that in
that poeri is dramatized cer-
taini fundamental metapsycho-
logical and cultural experiences
of the black colonial conscious-


Guillen's writing has been
simpler in every sense of the
We have rioted the tremen-
dous hostility to blacks in
Cuba since Independence.
which has only been truly re-
versed sinte Castro, and with
this in mind, it is easy to
argue that Guillen's advocacy.
of multiracial solidarity, of a
mulatto culture, is'not only
wholesome but the result of
It is clear that for Guillen


the black man in Cuba was
mostly an exploited Cuban,
discriminated against perhaps,
but with no real problem of
identity. His verse therefore
shows no sensitivity to the
notion that blacks in Cuba
have lived in the context of a
Ghetto or minority culture.
The stress and strain were
seen as essentially economic,
deriving largely from the pre-
sence of American imperialist
interests in Cuba. Guillen has
worn the mask of an Afro-
cuban poet as part of his role
as a protest writer:
As I am a Cuban Yoruba
I want my Yoruba sorrow to
rise up in Cuba,
but his verse has not expanded
in any important way since
1934 when he published his
best poem, "West Indies Ltd".
Guillen has often been held
up as the authentic "black"
literary voice from Cuba, but
in reality the Cuban writer who
has offered a negritude view
of things is Alejo Carpentier in
his novels "Ecue Yamba 0"
and "El reino de este mundo"
Particularly in "El reino de
este mundo" which deals with
the slave uprisings in Saint-
Domingue, later Haiti, the
negritude posture is so strongly
asserted that had Carpentier


not been a white Cuban of
European parents, he might
well have been accused of being
a, racist. Such are the contra-
dictions of Caribbean life.
As a movement which
sought to incorporate folk
material in a national poetry,
Afrocubanismo clearly rein-
forced the stereotyped image
of the negro as a primitive,
Advocates of the afrocuban
life style might well be em-
barrassed by the fact that the
dictator Batista was the Cuban
politician who had the greatest
appeal for the black popula-
tion since he allowed them
careers in the army and police
force and acted as patron for
"santeria" and "nanigo" cults.


The Communist Party on
the other hand, according to
Hugh Thomas, took the line
that these neo-African. cult
practices were anti-social. We
ave no evidence either way
about Guillen's feelings on
these matters.
Contrary to the views of
Coulthard and Cartey, we are
still in the position of listening
out for. a "black" voice in
Cuban writing.

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-- L- _I-I


COLON. the city which
was given this name in
honour of the discoverer
of America, is paradoxi-
cally one of the cities
where the Spanish in-
fluence is least evident.
Most of Colon's popula-
tion is of African stock and its
characteristics are more like
those of any town in the
Caribbean than of one on the
mainland of Central America.
Colon is the second city
in importance in Panama.
During the last 20 years it has
practically doubled its popula-
tion and is therefore a good
example ofthe population ex-
plosion in this country, espe-
cially in urban areas.
Colon more perhaps
than any other town in Panama
has been tied up with foreign
investments, both in connexion
with the trans-isthmus railroad
and with the inter-oceanic


In the middle of last cen-
tury when the gold rush was
attracting great numbers to
the western states it became
essential for the US to build a
railway across the isthmus to
cut transport expenses.
The men who first came
to Colon to start work on the
trans-isthmus railroad described
the surroundings as being
"virgin swamps where the air
teems with mosquitoes and
there is great humidity".
With the building of the
railway, Colon, which was the
centre of operations, grew in
size and importance. Thou-
sands of Jamaicans and people
from the other Caribbeanislands
came to Colon to work on the
construction and finally estab-_
._Jlished..themRelves--in-th. tovn.
Fifty years later in 1904
a second invasion of immi-
grants came to Colon when the

Panama has a

West Indian city

WC~' "

-A v

construction of the Panama
Canal was started, which was
only completed in 1914. By
then Colon had assumed some-
thing of its present day
In Colon more than in
Panama the bilingual use of
Spanish and English is evident
in the speech of the people
and in public notices and ad-
The West Indians, who
have long since adopted Pana-
maniarL citizenship, brought
with them some of their own
cultural elements, like music,,
as well as some of their own
customs and ways of expression.

All this has given Colon
its own peculiarand picturesque
To judge Colon's econo-
mic importance is to conclude
from the statisticsthat it is a
busy port-town like any other.
In fact it is quite different.
Colon looks like a big
camp, an -appearance it has
preserved from the days of the
great Canal construction.
6ne can still see around
those wooden two-storeyed
houses that seem more appro-
priate for lodging gangs of
workers than for housing fami-
lies permanently.
Even in its more central

streets one comes across these
temporary-looking dwelling
For instance, last year the
Free Zone, which employs
several thousands of the Colon
population in jobs related to
warehousing, servicesetc., im-
ported transit merchandise
worth $217 million which it re-
exported for $255 million.
Thus warehousing, in-
come taxes, and the services
the government renders to hun-
dreds of firms which are repre-
sented in the Free Zone bring a
considerable revenue to the
Panamanian state and employ-

ment to thousands of Colon's
Already before the Free
Zone started, Colon was
characterized by its odd assort-
ment of nationalities, but since
its creation the city has become
markedly cosmopolitan. One
only has to listen to hear every
language under the sun being
spoken in its streets.

Colon has seen three
boom periods the first,
when the railway was built,
the second lasting from the
time the: plans for the Canal
were first drawn up to the time
it was inaugurated; and the
third, from 1948 onwards
when the Free Zone of Colon
was created with its autono-
mous government.
Now, 24 years since its
foundation, the Free Zone has
come to be, without any
doubt, an economic channel
which brings wealth into the


Someone trying to des-
cribe Colon said that it was like
"a small Hongkong". Although
this comparison is only valid to
a limited extent, it is an in-
teresting one, seeing that
Colon's economy does not de-
pend on industry or agriculture
either, but on services.
Indeed if Panama is a
"servicing country", as some
Panamanian officials have des-
cribed it, then Colon with its
relatively small but intensely
busy coming and going of ships
carrying every type of cargo,
and its enormous population
living for the most part on
trade, is the very heart of this
servicing country.
(Prensa Latina).

How Tunapuna went ahead of Trinidad


to believe that the Village
Olympics will teach the
government anything.
Indeed, from Cuttie Jo-
seph's wild boast that the
Olympics has 'cemented
ties between country and
town" we can be sure that
the government sees it as
another feather in its by
now lopsided cap.
And yet. while the Village
Olympics has demonstrated
the over-powering argument for
playing the building .sports on
a community level, the lesson
is lost on Dr. Joseph, who pre-
fers to applaud a highly ficti-
tious coming together of coun-
try and town.

What is irritating about this
kind of thinking is that it
focuses on everything but the
realities. Or worse, looking at
them from Dr. Joseph's posi-
tion the picture is out 'of focus.
Let us, for example look at
the reality of Tunapuna's vic-
tory. We would marvel that
.they achieved it without any
facilities. Dr. Joseph would say
that the Olympics triumphed
over the lack of facilities.
But when the back-slapping

has come to an end Tunapuna
will have to cope with the fact
that for a large community
such as it is, there is only the
inadequate Constantine


It would be easy to get Dr.
Joseph to agree that more
grounds are needed. But what
it will be impossible to get
from him would be that
Tunapuna deserves better
facilities, not simply because
they have won, but because
the community has shown that
it is able to organise itself even
under adverse circumstances.
To extend the thought in
more positive a fashion: what
a transformation there will be
if the villagers who subverted
the Tunapuna Welfare League
and organised their own team
practices and selections, had a
chance to organise permanently
And again going above the
heads of the party-controlled
League the people in the district
sought and got the services of
George Clarke,. the Olympic
Committee discard, to be able
to laugh over the serious joke
that in having a masseur they
were one better than the
national team.
It is nauseating to think that
Dr. Joseph will not see that the
dynamism achieved by Tuna-
puna for the purpose of the
Olympics will be short-lived if

those who have shown both an
eagerness and ability to or-
ganize are left to return to the
wilderness of the lime.
For Dr. Joseph to admit
these things would be for him
to admit that the people in the
communities are able to handle
themselves and that it was this
that finally triumphed over the
last-minute postponements,
mix-ups and confusion caused
by an over-burdened central
As it was the Village Olym-
pics could unearth but a tenth
of the talent in the country and
once again focus the minds of
the sports-minded in the com-
munity on the desperate at-
tempts, via seven-a-side football
leagues and cricket in the road,
to 'make do'.
The time will have to come
when spectaculars like the Vil-
lage Olympics will be nothing
more than a meeting place for
all the athletes developed by
strong local sporting councils
a kind of gathering of the'
cream from which we could
select those ready for inter-
national competition.
Because as usual, the cart has
been put before the horse this
Olympics cannot, by any
stretch of the imagination,
serve that purpose. Coming
from nothing in the past, it will
give 'us neither athletes nor
organization for the future.


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Tel. 662-4909,4873.




f. -

When we won with "Let Ev'ry Valley"

THERE HAS not been a
single innovation in pan
that has not met wide and
wild opposition from large
sections of the public.
It is as if we are so sur-
prised at our having given the
world something unique that
we are afraid that to develop
it would somehow be to inter-
fere with its uniqueness.
As a matter of fact it is
when it comes to pan that
people are most resistant to
change. People of all shades
of thought. I have had revolu-
tionary brothers arguing with
me that pan should remain
as it is.
Perhaps more than any-
body else I have suffered
from this tendency and I can
sympathize with Ray Holman
over the uproar that greeted
hisdecision to compose his
own tune for Panorama.
When in the earlysixties I
came up with the soprano
pan and the double tenor,
people muttered. And it was
to become a cry of disapproval
when I amplified my tenors
and came on the road in 1965.
I could understand people
finding fault with the method
of application even today
I am not satisfied with the
work I have done with pan and
electronics. My technique is
still imperfect, but being
neither engineer nor electronic
expert, I have to keep plug-
ging away with common-
sense, observation and the
throwing away of pan after
What, however, maddens
me is the fact that people
have criticized the use of am-
plifiers period. As they cri-
ticized the introduction of
covered pans. I remember in
1965, an announcer at the
Savannah complaining that
with the advent of covered
pans she did not know what
steelband was coming to.
What happened is that
today, there is hardly an un-
covered steelband come
Carnival and it is easy to pre-
dict that someday there will
hardly be a steelband NOT
using amplifiers.
In the same way that pan-
men realized that covered
stands were needed to pro-
tect pans from the heat of the
Carnival sun, so too will they
realize that it makes sense,
economically, to reduce the
size of bands thereby making
them more manageable.
That I won in 1965 was
good for me. I had shown by
carrying off the Bomb Com-
petition with "Let Ev'ry
Valley Be Exalted" that the
amplifier was no handicap
when a band is playing sweet
That Jour Ouvert morning
is one of my fondest memories
Thinking about it, my fondest
Carnival memories have to
do with Jour Ouvert. It is a
beautiful time when steel-
bands are on front stage in a
way they will not be for the
rest of the two days.
It is still morning and notes
ring out clearly in the thinness
of the air. In a half-way
house between enjoyment and
working, you talk the sleep
out of the eyes of your
beaters who have been at it
heavily over the weekend,
and take grimacing gulps
from the rum proffered by
supporters come to back-up
their band against the argu-
ments of the many.


After winning on the
Monday of Carnival '65, the
band was destroyed on the
Tuesday. I watched as mem-
bers of both bands went
temporarily crazy. Bottles
zinging past each other in the
air on Charlotte Street and I
begging the members of the
band to stop pelting to be
met with the reply:
"Yuh mad or what, yuh
ent see they mashing up the
band." They pelting but is I
who mad.


It was an unhappy time
that Carnival. I had recently
been married and I remem-
ber crying to my wife when I
arrived home under police
Who started the riot? A
flagman, they say, from either
my band or Fascinators who
rushed through. One man des-
troying the fun of hundreds
of people.
To this day, we have
never really recovered from
that fight. We lost many
supporters that we had won
overthe years with tunes like
"Waltz from Faust", ('62)
"March of the Troubadours"
('63) and "Gypsy Ronda"


Curious how most of the
memorable steelband tunes
have happened during Jour
Ouvert. Invaders'"In a Monas-
tery Garden",Ebonites "Roses
from the South", Starlift's
"I Feel Pretty", Silver Stars'
"Elizabethan Serenade".
For myself, I have always
enjoyed interpreting classical
tunes. I felt when Iwas arrang-
ing a particular classic that I
was imposing myself on the
composer. It was taking the
foundation he had built for his
tune and building an entirely
new house.
Married life was nice these
times. Simetimes, hilarious.
Once during these years, I
remember going home sweet
off a rum. During the night
I woke up to pee, and not



wanting to go out into the
wet latrine that in the night
seems miles from my house, I
searched in the dark for the
family posy. That done, I
went back to bed relieved
and satisfied, only to discover
the next morning that I had



mistakingly peed in my wife's
high-heel shoe.
These were also stormy
times. I and my friends were
always getting away. One
time I had a particularly
furious argument with "Pops"
Harper, Edgar "Spots" Fitz-

gerald and some of the other
big boys in the band. I cannot
remember the cause of the
argument, but it was a morn-
ing and we were due to play
out the following night.
In the heat of the argu-
ment I wentoutside and
pounded all the recently
tuned pans with a huge stone.
By this time, of course,
"Pops", "Spots" and the
others had brought back their
band-shirts, tangible sign that
they were resigning from the
We kept our appointment
to play that night. I had taken
good care to guide the stone
around the notes themselves,
and the boys were not really
serious about leaving the
band. We made up' later in
the fete, but that's steelband.
The year 1965 was also
the year when we played at
Trinity Cathedral. For us and
for the steelband, it was
another first, and Reverend
John Sewell was responsible
for this. Way back in the
50's, Choy Aming had
scoffed at the idea of pan
combining with other musical
instruments to play. Today
the pan has combined with
piano, guitar, organ, trumpets
and saxophones time for
somebody to bring on the

Some members of Highlanders in the roaring days of the sixties.




Jovert 65



THE FIFTH PHASE in the development of
West Indian leadership is charismatic popu-
larity. For a period of varying lengths, the
charismatic leader will enjoy great popularity
and great power. If he occupies a governmental
position, he will stress such qualities as per-
sonal industry, social morality, public education,
civic pride, racial equality and discipline. His
strong position enables him to mobilise people
into unsurpassed unity and effort.
His great confidence and his belief in his
own power and omnipotence, induce& him to
appear bold and adventurous, which further
increases his popularity. Bustamante, for in-
stance, had, a great reputation for courage.
When he led the workers on a march in King-
ston in 1938, he thrust forward his chest
before the soldiers, daring them: "Shoot me
if you dare."


This quality comes out strongly in Toussaint,
Garvey, Padmore and Fanon, men who were all
notoriously unafraid of consequences and often en-
gaged in clandestine activities. The point may even be
reached where they believe that they are indestructible.
This quality is usually coupled with a belief in the
certainty of success, an iron-clad optimism, which is
highly functional in a desperate situation. Blyden's
composure and strength was exactly this: "I know God
is at the helm and guiding the ship and if they (mula-
toes) succeed in killing me they will have to utterly
annihilate the ashes, for out of them will arise a
stronger influence than any they have yet witnessed
in Liberia for'the right whose triumph they dread."
In almost identical words Garvey, in a message to
his followers from Atlanta prison, suggests his personal
blending with, and in a way, control of, cosmic forces:
If I die my work shall then only begin, but I shall live, in
the physical or spiritual to see the day of Africa's glory...
in the new life I shall rise with God's grace and blessing to
lead the millions up the heights of triumph. Look for me
in the whirlwind or storm, look for me all around you,
for, with God's grace, I shall come and bring with me
countless millions of black slaves who have aid
you in the fight for Liberty, Freedom and Life.


At the height of his popularity such a charismatic
leader is likely to approximate this portrait of Toussaint
His presence had that electrifying effect characteristic of
great men of action...He lived with the men and charged at
their head...His extraordinary abilities, his silence, the
sharpness of his tongue when he spoke, kept even the
most trusted officers at a distance. They worshipped
him, but feared rather than loved him.
THE SIXTH STAGE is creeping autocracy. The
extent, of course, varies. It would seem that those who
are most convinced of their superiority have the
greatest potential for development along autocratic
lines. As a result of his popularity, the leader becomes

more and more convinced that he is the "onlie begetter"
and that he has a personal duty to bring salvation.
Blyden came to believe that "God had honoured
him to bear the cross and odium of'helping to save
Africa." In Jamaica, Bustamante formed a Trade Union
cast in his personal mould and named it after himself
- The Bustamante Industrial Trade Union. Marcus
Garvey confidently asserted: "The signal honour of
being Provisional President. of Africa is mine. It is a
political calling for me to redeem Africa. It is like
asking Napoleon to take the world."

In Trinidad, Eric Williams increasingly took on
the appearance of "Mr. Caribbean." He resolved that
"Trinidad and Tobago would proceed under my
leadership to full internal self-government," and that
"as Chief Minister I also took the portfolio of Finance,
Planning and Development, and I appointed myself
Minister of Tobago Affairs." These autocratic develop-
ments mean that politics more and more become an
extension, of the leader's personality.
THE SEVENTH STAGE consists of the degenera-
ting of autocracy and growing disillusionment with
their leadership which inevitably sets in. This results
from technical and psychological aspects. On sheer
technical grounds, autocracy leads to degeneracy in
politics for no one man can run the affairs of a modern
nation state as a one-man concern efficiently.
Dr. Elsa Gouveia's review of Eric Williams'
"British Historians: and the West Indies" points to this:
The combination of omissions and hasty dogmatism
which mars his present book...I cannot help thinking
that it is a most unnecessary and damaging waste ...for Dr.
Williams to spend his limited time doing badly the kind of
detailed monographic work which is being done already by
other scholars with competent professional qualifications..
whether in education or in history, good intentions are not
enough and the road to hell is paved with authoritative half-


DEGENERACY also results from the inevitable
distortions of their personalities. Power corrupts if and
when leaders become convinced of their superiority.
Such leaders become extremely egotistical, they develop
a belief in their infallibility and correspondingly
become very intolerant of opposition. "Gods" are by
definition "very jealous."
The biographer of Blyden described him as a man
who "saw himself in the role of Plato's philosopher
king, owing allegiance to no one section of the com-
munity and expecting no criticisms from citizens who
were not nearly so well qualified as he for the vocation
of governing."
The biographer of Toussaint claims that "his
error was his neglect of his own people. They did not
understand what he was doing or whence he was going.
He took no trouble to explain...Overconfident that he
was only to speak and the masses would follow."
In the case of Marcus Garvey, it was appropriately
said that "Garvey defeated Garvey" because at his trial
he fired his attorney and proceeded to defend himself
in court though he had no legal training. George
Padmore's portrait of Garvey relates to Garvey-the-
man, rather than his role in politics. It is quoted here
because it highlights vividly the degeneracy inherent in
charismatic power:
He was vain, arrogant, and highly sensitive to criticism. He
suffered from a persecution complex and resented advice

from even his closest colleagues...Garvey was unable to
co-operate with anyone who disagreed with him...He was
supremely egotistical. His egotism amounted to megalo-
mania; and so the men surrounding him had to be for the
most part cringing sycophants. His business ventures failed
more from bad management than conscious dishonesty...
He was entirely without tact and diplomacy.
In Jamaica, the "Daily Gleaner" carried a news
report regarding Mr. Bustamante which spotlights the
same danger of autocracy:
'I appeal to Mr. Speaker,' Mr. Bustamante said, 'for the
withdrawal of the word "twist". I refuse to allow anyone
to make an imputation against my irreproachable charac-
ter.' Dr. Lloyd (speaker) ruled that the word was in order.
'Mr. Speaker has ruled that the word "twist" is in order,"
Mr. Bustamante said. 'There is only one twisted person
here. You. Goodbye.' As he left the chamber he called
on every member of his party to leave the House. All mem-
bers of the J.L.P.left the Chamber with exception of the
Minister of Social Welfare, who had to use crutches to walk,
and the Minister of Education. At the door Mr. Bustamante
repeated, 'Come out or leave my party.' The Minister of
Education sprang to his feet, but at, that moment the
Minister of Social Welfare said something to him, and he
sat down back as if to hear better. But .not for long.
'McPherson,' Mr. Bustamante repeated, 'I said come out
or leave my party.' Mr. McPherson gathered his papers
and left the House with Mr. Bustamante.
ALL THE SYMPTOMS of degenerating autocracy
are most clearly visible in Eric Williams' autobiography.
Literally every page of this document is a vindication
of the significant "I". He is always right and always in
control of situations and has the right answer to every-


When independence for Trinidad was near, Wil-
liams thought that it was necessary that Trinidad should
have "a history of its own" (history book, that is). On
reflection he resolved: "If there was to be one, and one
quickly, I alone could write it." It is telling that in this
book, written to celebrate Trinidadian independence,
he should choose out of the blue, to close it with the
quote: "For I will make you a name and a praise among
all people of the earth when I turn your captivity
before your eyes, saith the Lord."
Speaking of a childhood fall which left him
permanently wearing a hearing aid, Williams, the man
who talks so much of Athenian democracy, remarked:
"not that I regret it a hearing aid is a powerful
weapon against an opposition in Parliament; one can
turn it off."


This same predisposition led to his emotional
warning to the "Castroites" during the election agita-
tions of 1966: " hell with Castro...San Fernando
put P.N.M. in power, not Castro...We don't interfere
with Castro's affairs, and Castro has no business setting
up any revolutionary organisation in order to interfere
with and disrupt the normal development of Trinidad
and Tobago."
Though many of us will prefer to overlook
similar autocratic tendencies in C.L.R. James, truth
demands that it be said. James' scholarship and
speeches in recent years (since 1956) are plagued with
a virulent and bombastic egotism. One group, recognis-
ing this, commented:
'We the People', edited by C.L.R. James, might more
appropriate have been called 'I the James' since some of
the issues seemed almost exclusively by, for, or about this
distinguished writer.
The gist of James' speeches and writings since
1956 has unmistakably been: "Like the ancient Greeks,
the West Indian people who are most remarkable people
that has produced such great men like Toussaint, Gar-
vey, Padmore, Fanon and myself, men who have con-
tributed tremendously to world civilisation." Undoub-
tedly so. But it appears that James cannot wait for
historians to document this: he is personally ensuring
that this fact is written indelibly into the pages of
history, and into posterity.


DESPOTISM is the logical end of the type of
charismatic leaders being dealt with. Despositm be-
comes inevitable at the point where the leader has lost
his former support but still, convinced of his superiority
and right to rule, proceeds to institutionalise and fortify
his power at all costs even against the hostile on-
slaughts of his former supporters.
DESPOTISM, medieval style, resulted when
rulers became convinced of their divinity (Duvalier is a
modern instance).
DEMOCRACY has indeed become a new reli-
gion, the legitimising source to men who, at heart, are
convinced of their superiority to that very "source"
(the people), and also to traditional "gods" (but never
to their former white masters).



,,r'cr .;' i'- T rT -tYTE
R6 01 "'872',;, "- -AN
Research sthr the Study of Man,
162 East 78th Street,
New York 10021, N.Y., U.S.A.



"'. 'W FOR DAYS after September
26 when young Oliver Ed-
mund crashed to his death in
a Light Aeroplane Club Cessna,
Laventille reeled from shock
and grief.
Naturally, the cause of
his death led to much specula-
Many in the area who
knew the young welder's gift
for things mechanical found it
#- If hard to believe that he failed
to make the grade as an aero-
plane pilot.
^ 'In Laventille there was
". instant sympathy with the
aspirations of the poor boy who
Sso wanted to be a pilot.
And the reported com-
-ment from Dr. Stephen Blizzard
that Edmond did not seem
Sto be "pilot material" met with
disbelief and went down badly.
Feeling that Keith Smith's
story in TAPIA reporting on
the wave of emotion that swept
the district following the tra-
gedy somehow showed the
LAC in an unfavourable
light, Dr. Blizzard last week
passed to TAPIA a copy of
the Findings of the Civil
Aviation Authority investiga-
The report, quoted be-
". low fully exonerates the Light
SAeroplane Club and the civil

aviation authorities and places
the blame squarely on Edmond
for an "error of judgment"
and for "recklessness and in-
cident of 9Y-TDT. Pilot:-
Oliver Edmon'l Report by
Civil Aviation Authority.
(1) Documentation was
in order and the aircraft pro-
perly maintained.
(2) The aircraft was
correctly loaded and had 4
hours fuel available at take
(3)There was no mechani-
cal failure of the aircraft, the
engine or of any associated
(4) The pilot had not
qualified for solo flight,
neither did he have any recent
flying training.
(5)The aircraft was flown
without permission from the
operator or take off clearance
from Air Traffic Control.
(6) The VHF radio on
,the aircraft was known to be
unserviceable and whilst this
was inconvenient for the Air
Traffic Control Staff in trying
to maintain contact, it had no
direct bearing on the cause of
the accident.
The accident resulted
from an error of judgnment on
the part of the Pilot who
through recklessness and inex-
perience failed to maintain
adequate terrain clearance
under conditions of low alti-
tude manoeuvres.



AS part of the rapid de-
velopment of its fishing
industry, Cuba has done a
lot of work with its turtles.
These are found among
the rocky islets along the
country's north coast and
because both their flesh
and their shell are in de
mand at home and abroad,
turtle fishing in Cuba is
quite a viable industry.
While exploiting this natural
resource, however, the Cuban
government has taken great
care to ensure that the species
is preserved.

Over the last few years the
Government has collaborated
with the Academia de Ciencias
and international organizations
in observing regulations de-
vised to ensure that, unlike in
many other countries, turtles
are not in danger of extermina-
Among the measures that
have been rigorously observed
by the fishermen themselves
are: (1) the prohibition against
the selling of turtle eggs, (2)

the protection of the young
against their natural enemies,
the sea and certain birds, and
(3) the making of the nets in
such a way as to avoidthe cap-
turing of the smaller turtles.
In addition to these mea-
sures, the Cubans are look-
ing into the possibilities of the
use of artificial insemination as
a means of increasing this
highly productive industry.
Becauseof the development
of what in the past was re-
garded in Cuba as a kind of fish-
ing side-activity, turtle fisher-
men today have received econo-
mic and social benefits that are
a far cry from the miserable
situation in which they found
themselves before the advent
of the Castro government.
Nowadays their entire pro-
duction is bought by the State
at a good price and they are
given technical and material
facilities to help make their
hard and often risky work
more pleasant.
Finally, the fact that turtle-
catching is carried out by a
group ofexperiencedfishermen
assisted by young men means
that the skill is passed on to
continuing generations.

Printed by Tapia House Printing Co.. Ltd.. for Tavia House Publishing Co. Ltd., 91, Tunapuna Rd., Tunapuna,


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