Material Information

Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Creation Date:
November 5, 1972
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000329131 ( ALEPH )
03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )

Full Text



Divali Season of Hope







Pages 6 & 7


LLOYD TAYLOR, our advertising man,
showed me a promotion poster for Tapia
weekly last night. Grinning, he said: "I know
this will jar you."
The poster said: "TAPIA THE CON-
Surprisingly to me, it didn't jar or jolt or any-
thing. It just seemed a statement of faicl I is what
we have to "sell".
And typical of the kind of organisation Tapia is,
the times now require a HARD-sell both of the
paper and the politics.
The paper and the politics. My lot over the last
two or three years has been to straddle the distinc-
tion between the two.
The thing about Tapia is that we're all the time
. = 1 _


signed, sealed


CONFLICT within the
sugar belt is slowly being
ground into razor's edge.
This is happening in a
situation which is turning
out to be a rare assertion
of grassroots involvement
since the All Trinidad
Union and the late Baba
cunningly established, and
ruthlessly main tailed a dic-
tatorship throughout the
The controversy now raging
was triggered off by the Com-
pany's refusal to grant retroac-
tive payment as compensation
for extra hours worked in the
1972 part of the last crop sea-
son; and, above all by the
Union's failure to secure these
These disputed hours have
resulted from an apparent
Agreement betv een the Com-
pany and the Union-to reduce
the hours worked per week
from 48 to 44 during crop
And sugar workers are
laying claim to them on the
ground that any new Agree-
ment must come into effect
at the end of the expiry date
of the old December 31,
No wonder then that the
forces pitted against each other
in tois struggle are Caroni Ltd.,
(which includes the Govern-
ment) and the Union's old bri-
gade on one side, and the sugar
workers on the other.
Workers have so far been-
carrying the struggle to their
opponents. The first half of
last month saw them amount
ing, with great skill, a
spirited, on-the-job protest,
which the factory manager at
Brechin Castle was unable to


tti pointing to
cials present sai
men have alre
registered the A
he added, sucl
was being aire
entertained sin
dent would be
That the
said to be sig
came as a tc
workers who w

Workers hearing details of the sell-out at meeting, Tuesday.

define as either a go-slow or a
sit-down, or any of the other
categories designed to outlaw
such protests.
A few minor, but signifi-
cant skirmishes largely bet-
ween disgruntled workers and
union bosses have occurred
at Orange Grove and Usine.
But Brechin Castle has, in
fact, been the main centre
where overt rebellion is taking
Caroni has continued to
hold to the stand that it cannot
afford to make the payments
demanded of it. An official,
Worrel, was reported as saying
that if they knew that the
workers would have made such
claims, a straight 44 hours
only would have been worked.
This position was madb pub-
lic at a meeting organised by
the workers outside the Tractor
Shed at Brechin Castle on
Wednesday October 25.
The meeting, attended by
close to 300 workers, was
called in order to report and
to discuss the results of what
sugar workers subsequently
described as a gigantic "brain-
washing" session held among
officials from the Labour

Ministry, the company, All
Trinidad Union, and represen-
tatives of the workers..
Reports were made by Com-
rades Baxter, Nairdoo, Gowan-
dan and Mannie. Together they
subjected the Union to a severe
tongue-lashing, and spared no
effort in slugging away at its
officials for industrial inepti-
They were 'deeply 'hurt to
know that their representatives
had violated the ,principle of
sifting workers' opinions at
the branch level before making
Agreements with the Com-
Comrade Baxter charged
that the meeting held at the
Ministry was not serious, nor
was it meant to be seriously
He pointed out that no
minutes were written, nor were
any records made.
He accused the Company of
using delaying tactics; and the
Union of making an Agreement
within an Agreement, without
altering the Clauses unfavour-
able to workers.
Workers were informed that
when the issue of retro-active
payments was raised, Mr. Barso-

helping to clarify reality to each other often
without being conscious of doing so.
And so I remember it was Jerry Pierre, who
started in Tapia as a Field Organiser and is now our
paste-up man, who introduced a concept. He was
not, he said, interested in selling PAPERS; what he
was selling was POLITICS.
Yet the two go together. Choko, the Spiritual
Father of an entire school of journalists here, sets
out avowedly (and successfully) to sell papers. But
who denied that the effect if not the intention is to
sell a certain kind of politics as well?
In Tapia's case, we cannot leave it to chance.
The tastes which support -the, kind of papers we
have are the same as those which sustain the kind
of polities and political parties we have.
To make a difference Tapia has had to aim at
changing those tastes. And our efforts have been
variously appraised: as
"splendidly literate"; as
"failing to communicate";
as "something of value"
and as "failing to relate".
For ourselves, we have
called it "the unconven-
tional politics" and "the re-
view of the new politics".
And we have referred to the
"hardwuk" of building a
paper and a political or-
It leaked yesterday in
the little wooden office up
at 82-84 St. Vincent Street,
Tunapuna. The two wooden
offices, set in a corner of
the land behind the Tapia
House, are the physical home
of this paper.
The three-month-old
offices and the three-year-
old Tapia House are part of
the Union offi- what we have tangibly to
d: "You gentle- show as fruits of the "hard-
ady signed and wuk".
Agreement. "And The other part is the
h "grunting" as paper you're now reading -
d could not be now a weekly from being
ce a bad prece- an "occasional", a monthly
set. and recently a fortnightly.
Agreement was And what I've been say-
ned and sealed ing is that it marks a politi-
otal shock to cal as much as a journalistic
ere all the while advance.

under the impression that the
matter was far from being
settled between Company and
The obvious high-handedness
of the Union forced workers to
plumb deeper than the issue of
retroactive payment. Comrade
Nairdoo aptly described it as
nothing short of a total sell
Mannie, at this point,
argued that it was a tactical
blunder to ever at all attend
the "brainwashing" session be-
cause it now meant that the
workers' feet were tied. Bax-
ter argued the opposite making
it quite clear that as far as he
was concerned his feet were
not tied.
He went on to insist that all
struggles have several phases,
and that it was the task of the
sugar workers to regroup them-:
selves now for phase two of
the battle.
Urging them to be engaged
more militantly in defending
their cause he concluded with
two proposals.
The first was that "strong
committees" be set up, and
the second that the workers
struggle "to bring down the
present Executive of All Trini-
dad and institute in its place
people who have the interest
of sugar workers at heart."
To these words workers
lifted their voices in resound-
ing approval.


Last night again Allan
Harris, our Circulation
Manager who takes care of
business at the offices most
of the time, noted that the
stories in the paper were
coming from the community
relations or political work all
over the country.
He should know. It was
he who had come upon the
plight of the Navet dasheen
farmers highlighted in last
Just as Ivan Laughlin and
Ernest Massiah discovered
that the AMOCO gas plant
was a seething issue along
the East Coast and stimu-
lated the research for last
issue's lead story. And Lloyd
Taylor has, as you can see,
been working in the sugar
From Laventille to
Mayaro, to Matelot from
Claxton Bay, it is our politi-
cal "associates" who have
been serving as our own
correspondents. The "staff'
is much larger than can ever
be accommodated in those
two wooden offices.
Which is as it should be.
For the business of the
"unconventional" Press con-
sists in writing up the work
of the movement from
wherever we are. And it's
not just slick semantics to
say: that's JOURNALISM.


Vol. 2 No. 5


HERE, in tropical Trini-
dad, we are all aware of
the sun's power. Many of
us know how it is to
return to a car which was
parked in the sun from
8 a.m. to 12 noon, or to
walk along an asphalt road
at midday.
In Trinidad the sun-
light received over the
course of an average day
is equivalent to about
1,100 horse power per
acre. You may think this
a lot of power until you
realise that you need a
collector covering the acre
before you profitably use
the 1,100 h.p.
For this reason sunlight is
usually described as a low
intensity power source. In
high intensity power sources
you can obtain the same
amount of power from a
much smaller area.
The familiar internal com-
bustion engine which powers
our motor cars has about
5,000 times the power inten-
sity of sunlight, thus the Rolls
Royce Merlin of 1940 pro-
duced about 1100 h.p. from
about 10 square feet of work-
ing surface area.


To be exploited economi-
cally, the sunlight collector
must be cheap. By far the
most conynon collector is the
common or garden leaf of the
green plants which collects sun-
light and uses it to synthesise
food substances.
Unfortunately the plant
does not turn much of the sun-
light it receives into harvestable
food since it uses most of
what it actually collects to
support itself. In spite of this,
agriculture is still the major
means of exploiting solar
energy. Other possibilities exist
and these will now be con-
The simplest man-made
solar collector is the drying
yard. This may be open or
coverable as in cocoa houses,
and the earth may be plain or
covered with concrete or
asphalt (as in drying rice in
the road).


The main problem with
open drying is that the drying
temperature is never very high
so fairly long drying periods
are required. The problem of
exposure to the rain is usually
solved with a movable roof but
this considerably increases
If the crop is totally covered
throughout the drying period
you have in fact built a solar
drier. The covering is usually of
glass on the top to let in the
sunlight and the sides may be
of any suitable or available
With total covering natural
convection, currents can no
longer escape from the system
so the temperature is higher
than in open drying.
A disadvantage is that the


ABOVE: A solar crop drier.

RIGHT: Solar still for
producing pure water.

New 6`2", 7 ==a

f or

S H l .--S-------
. .L_ "~.-- _. -. --'

su:',. ... -. L
*SS "-t^^ 1^ -

wind is no longer available to
remove the moist air from near
the crop so some form of
air circulation system is needed.

This is the
one really serious drawback of
conventional solar driers.
Most farmers in the coun-
tryside are not going to be able
to afford a power operated
dryer even if they have the
power source to run it, which is
unlikely. On an isolated farm
with no electric power a farm
tractor is normally used to
drive machinery, but its use has
to be intermittent and a con-
ventional dryer requires con-
tinuous power. In very windy
areas one can, of course, use
wind driven generators and
batteries as a power source, but
this increases costs still further.
For the above reason, we
have concentrated our research
on natural convection solar


driers. In such a drier the sun
does all the work. It heats the
air which removes the water
from the crop, and the system
.is so designed that the wet air
passes into a dehumidifier
where it sheds its water before
being reheated and passed back
over the crop. You therefore
get water at one end and dry
crop at the other.
The sun provides heat for
drying and also drives the air
circulation system. This drier
was exhibited at the recent
National Agricultural Exhibi-
tion at Marabella and has so
far been used for drying yams,
potatoes, grass, nIutmeg, coco-
nut and ripe bananas.
We are currently engaged
in development work to pro-
duce a cheap device for drying
yams and other root crops in
large quantities. The Root
Crop Programme, Faculty of
Agriculture, U.W.I. has com-
missioned us to build a large
drier for drying roots crops
during January-March 1973.
These dried root-crops can then
be stored without sigii':'int
deterioration and can later be
incorporated into animal feed
or made into flour for human
A grass drier is also being
developed for use ,during the
rainy season. With proper seal-
ing and insulation the dryer
stays hot enough during inter-
mittent rain showers to enable

it to dry grass throughout the
year. This is especially im-
portant for grass grows during
the rainy season and several
crops may be harvested, dried
and stored for use during the
dry season when growth is
very slow or non-existent.
A very important feature
of these natural convection
solar driers is that they require
little or no maintenance. Since
there are no power require-
ments, operation costs are ex-
tremely low.
They are therefore ideally
suited for use by isolated
farmers.For this reason one of
our main development objec-
tives is to reduce their cost as
much as possible so that
poorer farmers could afford
At the moment an 18' by
8' solar drier based on our
prototype would cost between
S2,500 and S3,500 depending
on the material used in its con-
struction. It is possible to re-
duce costs still further by using
cheap materials but this might
prove to be more expensive in
the long run since the unit
would i '1ve to be replaced
much sooner.
At the present state of dc-
velopment the prototype drier
will dry grass in about four
hours in bright sunlight. Under
similar conditions, sliced yam
or sweet potato can be dried int
one and a half to two days.

During the rainy season, ripe
bananas can be dried in about
four days.
The larger drier might im-
prove on this performance
since its heat storage capacity
will be greater and it will lose
heat more slowly.
We first became interested in
using solar energy to produce
distilled water for use in
secondary schools by means of
solar stills. A solar still is a de
vice which uses the energy of
the sun to purify water by
heating it, evaporating it and
condensing it. The entire pro-
cess is called solar distillation.
If the still is fed salt water it
produces fresh water. This was
first done by the Chileans in
1872 when they desalted water
for use as drinking water for
If an alternative source of
fresh water is available solar
stills are uneconomic for fresh
water production. In an island
with adequate rainfall, it is
much cheaper to build ade-
quate catchment areas and
storage reservoirs than to de-
salt sea water. If. however, a
community is small and iso-
lated and there is no alterna-
tive source, solar stills become
very attractive (e.g. the Five
Considerable quantities of
distilled water are used in teach
ing science and in industry in
*Turn to Page 10






E.M. Road, Sangre Grande,

- --I


Special Branch snooping on students

A YOUNG janitor em-
,ployed by UWI Students
Guild was last week offered
$100 per month by a
government agent for
copies of all Guild docu-
ments including minutes of
Guild Council meetings.
The man making the
offer said he was a former
bodyguard of the Prime
Minister but had got fed
up with that kind of work
and was now doing a
course at the university.
Students remembered his
as one of the many new faces
appearing on the campus since
the beginning of term. And as
it's impossible to maintain any
kind of strict who's who,
anxieties arose among Guild
officers and others who heard
of the offer but the likelihood
of, "security" agents mingling
with and posing as bona fide
students and seeking to recruit
informers for pay.

Last week's incident was at
least the third to come to light
over the last year. In every
case they involved members
of the Police Special Branch
offering cash or "scholarship"
bribes in return for an assur-
ance to get specified informa-
Both previous bribe
approaches were made in the
first term when many students
are unsettled about supporting
themselves with things like
bursaries, scholarships and liv-
ing accommodation still hang-
ing in the balance.
Just about this time lasi
year one girl was invited to ,
day-time rendez-vous in the
car of a Special Branch man.
She didn't, object as she knew
him as a cousin, and she knew
too that he was "one of those
fellers always around the Prime
Minister or something".
The agent used both family
ties and the knowledge that

Govt agent

offers bribe to


the girl was in some financial
difficulties to induce her to
serve as an informer. He hinted
vaguely about his ability to
"get help" for her after asking
if she was on a scholarship.
.But the girl refused. As did
another girl student who was
visited regularly at her home
by another government agent
pretending he was attempting
a "probe". He didn't get
through, either for love or for
money, and the girl eventually
shooed him away by threaten-
ing to tell her mother.
But last week when the
news spread, many students
were surprised and mildly
flattered to learn that the go-
vernment and its mouth-pieces
actually believed their own
propaganda about "subversion"
on the campus.
For long radical paranoia
had seen a potential spy in
every unfamiliar face hanging
around the Students Union
and a CIA plant in every new
North American lecturer.
But then it is abundantly
clear to anyone who spends a
little time there that the uni-
versity is one of the few
places and perhaps the only
place where people can hold
free opinion.


And, despite the ulcers it
gives to the campus' own
security chiefs, the university
is still a very open place
where most anybody can come
and go and see as they wish.
The Guild Office, the nerve
center of student activity is a
marketplace which remains
open till late at night with
many students liming around
and rummaging for files and
stationery, unsupervised.

In fact, it had been the
policy to publish the minutes
of Guild Council meetings in
the cyclostyled weekly
"Embryo". But though this is
democratically desirable, it is
a drag, journalistically for
Council meetings often run for
several hours and a detailed
report would mean acres of
dense typescript.
So the practice ceased, and
instead only a short summary
is published every week.

Little did anyone guess,
however, how that simple
decision affected the work of
Special Branch librarians.
And now that the govern-
ment has to resort to such
means as bribing students and
well-placed employees to steel
documents for use in indicting
unfortunates before Review
Tribunals or Mbanefo Com-
missions into Subversive Acti-
vities just illustrates the des-
parate anxiety to "prove" that
"subversion" is taking place.
Unable to win that kind of
support among students and
the populations at large which
would make secret service
snooping on such a scale and
by such means unnecessary,
the government must perforce
buy "information".
And from the looks of
things, not even the perennially
hard-up are willing to sell their
souls and their support to a
government that can't even
organise an efficient espionage
system. to ensure its own

The Special Branch can
only Operate as it does be-
cause many people are not
attuned to be concerned about
invasions of their privacy, and
because there is no system
that provides institutional re-
dress to a person so violated.
Were any of the detainees
in 1970 allowed to challenge
the sources of the information
brought against them to the
Review Tribunal? Could the)
legally demand that the in-
formers and, the methods used
be revealed to them?
Can the university reply in
any way to the slander of
Williams who in 1970 told the
nation that university students
and lecturers were involved in
the attempted violent over-
throw of the government?
Were Bill Riviere, Pat. Em-
manuel and Carl Blackwood
allowed to challenge in court
the reasons for their exclusion?
The dice are too heavily
loaded in favour of the State.
But the nation is not taking
the security forces' word for
it. Not when their means of
getting information are not
open to scrutiny, and when
their methods are discovered,
they prove to be undemocra-
tic in spirit and often illegal
in fact.
The point is, though, that
an unpopular government so
needs the existence of "sub-
versives" and trouble-makers"
to justify the, measures taken
to continue its own survival,
that where there is no evi-
dence of such activity, it may
very well have to be invented.

If I_/ U I tjqW ilTHE ARCADE


* was $16.95
NOW $8.95 per Yd.

was $4.95
NOW 2.95

per Yd.

was $8.95
NOW $4.50 per Yd.
was ;$3.95
N'OW s1.98 per Yd.
Was A 91 2 Q T-l, N O 1 9



per yd.
60" POLYESTER was $ 6.95
NOW $3.95
50" SHARKSKIN ,, 3,95
NOW $1.95
TO $2.50 and $1.98 per yd.

and Wide Range of CURTAIN
* $1.25 per yd.
Belts, Costume Jewellery, Hand-
bags, Sunshades & Women's Hair

was .s N W $15- a.95a. Brushes.

You always get more in value and yet you save more


i ^ _. _. ^ . .. _ _ __ __ _______________- ^ f



I I -






AFTER THREE YEARS of learning and preparation, your
Taiia.Review graduates this week into a weekly newspaper.
The new subscription rate is $9TT for 52 issues. For resi-
dents, this rate will not come into effect until December 1st
when our Introductory Offer, repeated on page 8 of this
Issue, will finally be withdrawn. Below are given the postage
paid subscriptions, all overseas deliveries being air-mail.


$12.00 TT
$18.00 WI
$12.50 US
$15.00 US
s8 Sterling
b10 Sterling
s12 Sterling
Ml2 Sterling
M12 Sterling
115.5.0 Sterling
=115.50 Sterling

Return to: Tapia House Publishing Co Ltd,
91, Tunapuna Road, Tunapuna,
-Trinidad & Tobago.


TAPIA has agreed to meet the Constitution Commission on
Saturday November 4th, 1972. A delegation of seven mem-
bers of the Group will present proposals for the following
reforms of the system of government and politics.
An entirely new framework of Local Government.
Home Rule for Tobago.
A House of Representatives to be elected every five
years by "first-past-the-post".
d A Senate appointed neither by party leaders nor by the
Head of State but exclusively by groups and organisa-
tions enjoying the right of recall.
Senate control of the Elections and Boundaries Com-
Senate appointment of the Head of State and the
Auditor General.
Senate Veto over certain appointments to be made by
the Prime Minister (e.g. Chief Justice).
Senate supervision of the State's interest in Radio, TV
and Newspapers.
Senate responsibility for National- Commissions of
Enquiry including annual national wage bargaining.
A National Panchayat (Congress of both Houses of
Parliament) to debate all Bills before final decision, on

the second reading, is taken by the elected House of
* A Head of Government who will be the Leader of the
majority party in the House of Representatives.
* A ceremonial Head of State to be elected by the Senate
to replace the English Monarch.
* A West Indian Court of Appeal to replace the Privy Coun
* Lowering of the Voting Age.
SRadio and TV time for political opposition.
* A Constituent Assembly (National Convention) of
citizens and political groups to debate competing propo-
sals for constitutional reform with extensive radio and
television coverage. This Assembly must be held in the
middle of 1973 with the Constitutional Commission as.
Elections at /the end of 1973 retaining the first-past-the-
post system but with the Constitutional Commission
providing the services of the Elections and Boundaries

27th October 1972.

,dP.r ;



0n teh0M0o I

Your very own moon, the one you see from it depends on you, your assets, your earning
a bedroom window, or from a mango tree, when capacity in short your money-worth, we
things are right with your world. As they may even be able to arrange a mortgage
say the moon belongs to everyone and the enabling you to start building right away.
best things in life are free, but to enjoy When you have something to call your own
these things takes both money like your own home, your own mango tree,
and peace of mind. For the money visit the your own moon, the peace of mind quickly
National Commercial Bank's Land Loan Dept., follows, particularly when you realize that
we can finance you up to 80% of the purchase by owning land you are now worth more...
price of the piece of land you have in mind, just think about it.


Live a better life rRINIDAD TOBAGOLTD) Bank in your bank
60 Independence Square

-- --------- -- --- ---

. .



DIWALI is a charming festival of lights of the
Hindus in honour of goddess Lakshmi. It .also
marks the anniversary of the return by Pushpak
Viman (aeroplane) of Rama, the most important
incarnation of Lord Vishnu, the preserver of the
world, to his capital Ayodhya in the Faizabad
district of Uttar Pradesh (North India) after his
victory over Ravana, the wicked demon king of
Lanka (Ceylon).
Diwali also commemorates the victory of
Krishna, another popular incarnation of Vishnu,
over the demon Narakasura of Pragjyotishapur
in Assam in North-east India.


Celebrated on the darkest night of the
month of Kartik, it marks the onset of winter in
India and ushers in the harvesting of rice and sugar
cane, thus ending the monotony and unpleasant-
ness of the rainy season. Wooden or clay figures
of Lakshmi are put in the fields and even sugar
mills and cash boxes are painted with vermilion

auspicious marks.
Diwali or Deepavali
means a garland or row of
lights. As a symbol of the
triumph of good over evil it
inspires the Hindus to lead a
pious life and to keep away
from the law of the jungle.
In North India Diwaliis a
five-day festival. On the 13th
day of the month of Kartik of
the Hindu calendar (October
or November) there is Dhan...
Trayodasi (Dhan Teras)or wor-
ship- of wealth, as well as of
Dhanvantari, the legendary
doctor of the gods.
People buy new utensils
on this day. In the Hindi
drama of "Satya Harish-
chandra" of Bharatendu Harish-
chandra there is a reference to
this part of the Diwali festival.
On the 14th day of that
month is the Narak-Chatur-
dashi in hohour of Krishna's
triumph over Narakasura who
was a terror to men as well as


The 15th day of the
monih (the darkest night or
"amavasya") goddess Lakshmi,
the consort of Lord Vishnu and
the malevolent and benevolent
form of Shakti is worshipped.
The Arya Samaj celebrates the
death anniversary ("rishi
nirvana divas") of Swami Daya-
nand Saraswati on this day.
On the next day Bali who
gave away his all to Vamana,
the dwarf incarnation of Lord
Vishnu, is remembered for his
unprecedented "dana" (alms).
In Maharashtra fruits and
flowers are offered to the
images of Bali and people wish
that all troubles should go and
Bali's kingdom return.
People also perform
Govardhan puja; the cows are
worshipped and given special
herbal-mixtures. Special sweet
preparations ("Annakuta") are
also made.
On the last day Jama-
divitiya ("Jamadutiya") or
Bhratridwitiya ("Bhai-duja")
is celebrated. The God of death

(yam) is sought to be pro-
pitiated on this day and the
sisters wish a long life to their
brothers and put tilakk" (special
marks of sandal paste and
vermillion) on their foreheads
as Subhadra did to Krishna on
his victory over Narakasura.
The brothers give special gifts
to sisters.
In fact, the month of
Kartik is a special month of
festivities for the Hindus. Lord
Vishnu who is. supposed to be
asleep during the four months
of the rainy season "chatur-
masya" or the 1'lth of the
bright half of the month of
Asarh (June-July) until the
corresponding period in Kartik
(October-November)] is re-
quested to arise on the
"Devottham Ekadashi" day be-
cause "the clouds are dispersed,
the full moon will soon appear
in perfect brightness".
Along with the incanta-
tions fresh fruits of the season
are offered to him. The har-
vesting of paddy and sugar-
cane begins at this time and
people celebrate the' festival
of "Navanna" (new corn) by
offering the new corn to the
fire and other gods.

Other important festivals
of the month are the worship
of Surya, the sungod on the
occasion of "chhath" and the
"Kartik Snana" (Katik-Ke-
nahan) or the special purifi-
catory bath in the Ganges or
any other river..
Diwali, however, is the
gayest and most colourful
festival of the season. Every
house is cleaned and white-
washed and new curtains are
hpng up because goddess
Lakshmi is believed to come

to such houses only. Rice flour
designs (alpana)'are made on
the doorsteps to welcome
Before the coming of
the electricity and wax candles
only the diyas with ghee or
mustard oil were lit. Now-
kerosine and gas lamps, wax
candle and multi-coloured blubs
illumine the houses and their


However, the. warm,
golden, intimate light of a
million oil-fed cotton.wicks in
their shallow earthen lamps
can be seen in the same
pattern as in the days of Ram.
They seem to tell us from
small or big houses alike,
"Look! this is the home.
where love really resides."
Children look forward
to this festival with, longing.
They are dressed in their best
outfit and play with sparklers,
firecrackers, rockets, catherine
wheels, etc. The adults also
try to enter the magic world of
children on this occasion and
bring sweets and toys for the
young ones.
Diwali is indeed an occa-
sion of family get together, an
occasion to meet with relations
and friends. It is bigger than
the Guy Fawkes Day in Eng-
land because of its close con-
nection with tradition, with
the soil, and harvest and the
The religious and mytho-
logical roots of Diwali can be
traced -to the Vedas, the
Puranas and the epics. It is
said that Rama, Sita and
Lakshman were-welcomed by
the people. of Ayodhya by.
lighting up their houses with

earthen lamps. Since then the
reunification of the whole
family and the restoration of
the rule -of law (restoration of
Rama to his legal throne) are
the lessons of the Diwali.
The Aryan diety Lakshmi
or Shri was an Indian counter-
part of the Latin Ceres in the
most ancient scriptures, con-
nected with the harvest or
corn as well as with beauty,
pleasure, wealth, victory and
general well-being. She can be
compared to Aphrodite because
she appeared in her full beauty
-at the churning of the primeval
ocean ("Kshira-sagara") by the
gods and demons.
She was greeted by a
heavenly choir and theheavenly
elephants poured sacred water
on her. The sea of milk pre-
sented her with a wealth of
unfolding flowers, especially]
lotus which she carries, in her
hand, and the gods adorned her
with ornaments. She is also
known as Padma and Kamala.


In the 'Vedas Lakshmi is
connected with something aus-
picious and is also sometimes
associated with a fortunate
woman. One of the early
legends mentions her as a
daughter of Prajapati and as
the wife of Aditya. Another
legend makes her a daughter of
sage Bhrigu who cursed her
and she took shelter in the pri-
,meval waters from where she
came out during the churning
of the ocean, floating in the
dew of a lotus flower. In all
later legends, however, she is
said to be the wife of Lord
Lakshmi as the goddess
of fortune and prosperity is

supposed to be "chanchala"
(fickle-minded) and therefore
special pujas are performed by
the business class on the
occasion of Diwali to propi-
tiate her. Old accounts are
closed and new accounts


The lights of Diwali are
placed to guide the travellers
home. In the Hindu homes the
night of lights brings the at-
mosphere of Christmas of the
Christians. Hindus believe that
the lights of Diwali not only.
remove darkness from the
homes and streets but also the
ignorance, hatred, etc., from
their hearts and they repeat the
following from "Vrihad[ran-..
Sakoparnshad": and --they
A'aio ma iadgama.a
Tamaso majyouirgjmia .
Mrito ma amrita gamaya
(From appearance lead me to
From darkness lead me to light;
From death lead me to Immor-
By emphasising the need
for family reunion and good
neighbourly relationship, the
festival of Diwali inspires us ..
.to take stock of our credit and
debit for the whole year as
well as to forget and forgive
the misdeeds of others. It-
brings a new light of hope for
the future. This is signified by
the wearing of new clothes, pre-
paring for a life of virtue and
The people of North
Bihar, Bengal, Orissa, Assam
and few other areas in India
q Cont'd on Page 8


_ __


HOW CAN foreign-based West
Indians make a contribution to the
Caribbean movement for change?
This question faced a group
of young West Indians mainly
Jamaicans living in North
America, who have shared with
their brothers and sisters through-
out the region the dream of a New
Caribbean, a New Jamaica.
They have concluded that
though disadvantaged by living
abroad, they could still make a

contribution to the education
Accordingly, they have
formed the New Jamaica Study
Group to research and discuss the
issues of change in Jamaica and
the Caribbean and to formulate
ideas and plans in the process for
the New Jamaica. The group
further aims to publish their work
and make contact with similarly
disposed West Indians at home
and abroad.
With the invitation, "Let us

think together about the New
Jamaica", the Group launched a
series of pamphlets written by one
of its members Dennis Forsythe.
With the consent of the New
Jamaica Study Group TAPIA
publishes these pamphlets, starting
in this issue with a study of West
Indian leadership abroad.
Coming features in this
series: "Charismatic Leadership in
the West Indies" and "Repression,
Radicalism and Change in the
West Indies".



THE West Indian presence in America has not
only conspicuously manifested itself in the
ranks of high achievers and in radical politics,
but has displayed itself at the leadership level
in American society.
In the political, economic and religious
spheres,West Indians have excelled, thus laying
undisputable claim to leadership. They have,
however, not only been leading men, but
leaders of men.
In politics they have played a distinctively non-
conformist or protest role as leaders, often glittering
as exemplary characters. In all the major black protest
movements in America, from the 18th century tothe
present time, West Indians have occupied prominent
positions: slave rebellions, the Abolition Movement,
Back-to-Africa, Civil Rights, the Negro History Move-
ment, the Harlem Renaissance, Pan-Africanism, CORE,
SNCC, Urban League, the Black Jews (Commandment
Keepers), the Labour Movement, the Socialist Move-
ment and Black Studies.


The earliest and most comprehensive study of
black leaders conducted in 1887, catalogued some
178 "eminent, progressive and rising" leaders, none of
whom were clearly West Indians. This figure represents
5.5% of the total leadership, and when one considers
that West Indians at that time represented only 4% of
the total black population in America, this proportion
is very high indeed.
Starting on the premise that a black leader is
one who by his "actions and ideas have moved the

centuries and changed or influenced the destiny of the
black world, and the world at large," and more recent
study of black leaders, came up with 12 such leaders,
five of whom are West Indian-born and another two of
West Indian parentage.
We will focus essentially on the Political leader-
ship role performed by West Indians in North America,
with the aim of.pinpointing the general nature of this
leadership, its bases, how it is generated and the
different types of such leaders.


An adequate treatment of this subject should,
of course, begin with a clear definition of leadership
"Leaders," according to one study, "are more often
than not 'the tongue of the people...' A leader must
"fill the group needs and requirements ina particular
situation or set of circumstances."
Because they are able to express most accurately
the feelings of blacks, it follows that such leaders are
able to influence large numbers of blacks on important
From this definition of leadership, it is possible
to differentiate West Indian leaders according to the
size of the constituencies or base in which they make
their primary appeal.
We may designate as (1) Civic leaders those who
make their appeal to blacks in America with the aim
of dealing with the immediate pragmatic issues; (2)
Island leaders as those who primarily agitate on behalf
of the West Indies as a whole, or on behalf of a
particular island; (3) Pan-Africanist leaders as those
who champion the cause of blacks wherever they are
found, and (4) Internationalist leaders as those who
make especial appeal to all forces in the society who
have something to gain from changes of the society.


From our definition of leadership, it follows
that in order to understand and explain the emergence
and prominence of West Indian leadership in America,
we will have to focus on (1) their leadership traits and
(2) the needs and requirements of the various black
constituencies that called for such leadership. It will be
shown here that* the proliferation of West Indians in
leadership positions was due to the remarkable conver-
Sgence of the "need for leadership" and the availability
of West Indians with the required leadership traits.
By observation of successful black leadership in
America, it is possible to derive a set of psychological
and sociological predispositions which we can take to
be the necessary traits of successful black leadership in
a dynamic context.
Whatever the type of West Indian leaders, certain
tIaits stand out in common. They are superbly confi-

dent ard notoriously ambitious. They display a high
degree of organisational ability and self discipline which
often takes on puritanical rigiour. They are knowledge-
able about the world to the point of being "intellectual".
Theyare authoritative, purposive and zealous in pursuit
of their goals.
They have unrelenting drive, energy alrl persis-
tence; this quality of "never-giving-up" of having
"staying power" appears to some as stubbornnessand
pushiness, but to others it appears as dedication. They
are bold, assertive, defiant and sufficiently aggressive
and adventurous to take risks on behalf of their
principles and the "cause." They are imbued with an
unusually high degree of persuasive power by their
masterly use of both the written and spoken words.
It was their magnanimous expressiveness and
oratorical effectiveness which caused the transfixed

Frederick Douglass to complimer two West Indians in
glowing and historic terms:
Upon sight and hearing of this man (Robert
Brown Elliott), I was chained to the- spot with
admiration and a feeling.akin to wonder...From
his dark brow there blazed an intellect worthy
of a place in the highest legislature hall of the
nation. I have known but one other black man to
be compared with Elliott and that-was Samuel
R. Ward.
West Indians have proven to be master propa-
gandists. Over 80% of the political leaders noted in this
study were; at one time or other, either a founder,
editor or leading contributor to one or more news-
papers or journals. -The West Indian stress on writing,
journalism and persuasion is a marked feature of their
West Indian tradition.
That it takes on messianic proportion was brought
home to me when, in an interview, a West Indian

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radical of the older generation, found Biblical sanction
for his exaggerated emphasis on words: "in the
beginning," he told me, "was the word, and the word
was God." All of the West Indians noted as radicals,
have been showered with high and glowing praises
concerning their persuasive powers.
These are the qualities that predispose West,
Indians and qualify them for leadership position. These
qualities set them apart from others so as to register
their claim to leadership and, later on, help in main-
taining a degree of inspiration and awe necessary to
maintain their claim to leadership.


Their one shortcoming was their lack of a racial
consciousness, but this is soon corrected upon migrating.
One participant of the 1924 U.N.I.A. Conven-
tion in New York unmistakably pulled, together the
various socio-psychological factors that set off Afro-
Americans apart from West Indians, and predispose the
latter to the type of leadership required at the period.
William Sherill declared:
I am an American Negro, born and raised under the
Southern psychology: I know what that psychology is
its peculiar oppressive effect. And I tell you...that if
the Negro was ever to have a real, energetic, courageous
Negro leader, able' to tell his people to be men and
to look the world straight in the face that if our
people were ever to have such a leader...he would have
to come from somewhere else than in the U.S.A. The
Negro of America raised under such conditions finds it
difficult to develop the qualities of leadership. The fine
material that is fit to lead the race is killed in the
American environment. Here the Negro from childhood
is jim-crowed, lynched, kicked about, cursed and made
to conduct himself as an inferior until he has not grit
enough left to be a leader. The West Indian Negro, on
the other hand, from the cradle up, develops a certain
independence and self-reliance that the American Negro
never has the courage to exercise. The British Govern-
ment is bound to allow the development of some
initiative among individual Negroes, for her positioning
Jamaica in such that she has to use certain types of
Negroes to exercise authority over the Jamaica
there is a different psychology that permits some men of
independent spirit and self-reliance to develop.


The New York Times of the period, upon ob-
serving Garvey in action, similarly concluded that
"Garvey's oigin probably explains he Empire scope of
his ambitions the quality of his "nerve". All through
the West Indies the Jamaican Negro has a reputation
for thinking well of himself, and his self-esteem, it must
be admitted, is not without excuse. Between him and
the Barbadian Negro, honours are about even, when it
comes to capacity for racial leadership."
George Padmore, who became a popular student
leader, first in Nashville and then at Howard University,
and who, by the age of twenty-six was the leading

black Communist with a vision and knowledge sur-
passed by few, was dissected by Dr. Metz Lochhard,
then professor at Howard, as having "much more drive
than most American Negroes" because he was a
product of the "British system which did not com-
pletely silence their grievances at home."
The proposition that there was a crying need for
black leadership may be deduced from the types of
strains and problems experienced not only by West
Indian migrants but also by Afro-Americans generally.
But where were such leaders to come from? To begin
with Afro-Americans were not encouraged to develop
leadership traits.
All the various traits which we find characterising
West Indian leaders were strongly proscribed by the
caste system of race relations in America. and could
bring death (as was usually the case) to their Negro
possessors. Then again, middle class Afro-Americans
were a very small minority who had historically
neglected their leadership responsibilities not only by
succumbing to overt coercion but, more important,
through the subtler attraction of tokenism and inte-

There was thus a large gap in leadership,
especially of the "independent" type. Shirley Chisholm's
election to Congress provides a good illustration. She
had already established a reputation as a hardworking,
hard-hitting, uncompromising, non-conformist, a wo-
man of the people, who had broken rules of the
political game many times by failing to go along with
the local political machine. On this basis she began to
win the affection of the local people who were looking
for independent leadership.
The citizens of Bedford-Stuyvesant formed
themselves into a committee to nominate someone for
Congress (rather than accepting the nomination of the
local party). Mrs. Chisholm explains: "Above every-
thing, they wanted someone who would have the
independence to refuse to be run by the machine. I
did not go tothem with hatin hand, and that was what
they liked." Her campaign slogans were "End boss-
ruled Plantation Politics," and "Fighting Shirley
Chisholm Unbought and Unbossed." Granted, in
addition, her great drive, fluency in Spanish, oratorical
powers and dynamism, it is no wonder that she won
the election against James Farmer, a former national
chairman of CORE, who had been-nominated by the
Republican Party to go down to the Negro quarters to
represent the people down there. Despite his superior
organisational resources, he lost; this case emphasises
that where the people have choices, and if they are
convinced about the seriousness of the more indepen-
dent candidate, they will elect the latter.
West Indians, therefore, provided the type of
leadership necessitated by the structure of the time
and situation. They fulfilled the need for aggressive
self-assertion which so many desired but so many feared
to express.

The daring Garvey told them that for him
"leadership means everything pain, blood, and
death." He encouraged them to "talk big," to "walk
big" and to feel like somebody thereby satisfying a
basic psychological need.
SWhen Claude McKay published his poem, "If we
must Die," in the 1920's, he himself was amazed at
how this touched a responsive chordin blacks.Twenty
years later, McKay recalled: "It forced its way into
the Negro pulpit... Ministers ended their sermons with
it, and the congregations responded, Amen. It was
repeated in Negro clubs and Negro schools and at Negro
mass meetings...I myself was amazed at the general
sentiment for the poem...I was not aware, at the
moment of writing, that I was transformed into a
medium to express a mass sentiment."
This quality, then, of being equipped psycholo-
gically to express, translate and articulate public
sentiments is crucial. This is to say that like the Biblical
sower, his seeds must fall on fertile ground for them to
fruition. This explains why earlier militant expressions
had not been so popularly received as McKay's. Charles
L. Reason, for instance, had earlier expressed a defiant
mood in almost identical style and mood of McKay,
and yet did not .reap much public acclaim. In a 94 line
poem written in 1841, called The Spirit Voice, Reason
Come! rouse ye brothers,. rouse! a peal now breaks
From lowest island to our gallant lakes:
'tis summoning you, who long in bonds have lain,

To stand up manful on the battle plain,
Each as a warrior, with his armour bright,
Prepared to battle in a bloodless fight.
There is substantial evidence to suggest that in
the early days of the stirring of Negro radicalism in
America, West Indians were in great demand, on or off
campus, because of their electrifying personalities,
oratory skills, daring qualities and vast knowledge. Men
like George Padmore and C.L.R. James rose, very
quickly inthe international left; they were actually
sought after both by white radicals and black com-
munities alike.


That West Indian leadership fulfilled a basic need
amongst blacks in America may be verified by looking
at some of the reasons for the conversion of some
individuals to Garveyism. James H. Robinson, an old
time Garveyite explains his conversion: "I remember
as a lad in Cleveland, Ohio, during the hungry days of
1921, standing on Central Avenue, watching a parade
one Sunday afternoon when thousands of Garvey
Legionnaires, resplendent in their uniforms marched
by. When Garvey rode by in his plumed hat, I got an
emotional uplift which swept me up above the poverty
and the prejudice by which my life was limited."
William Sherrill explains that he was a successful
business and family man and a member of a church
and a lodge, but that he did not join anything else
until he heard Garvey "in a voice like thunder from
heaven" speak at a meeting. Sherrill confessed: "I
stood there like one in a trance, every sentence ringing
in my ears and finding an echo in my heart. When-I
walked out of that church, I was a different man."
Marie Duchaterlier, a Haitian immigrant, explains
the role of Garveyism: "I am convinced that it is the
outpouring of the pent-up feelings of generations of his
ancestors who have borne with oppression and injustice
of the white man for centuries. The cry has come
ringing down the ages, and he is giving voice to the
cumulative agonies our people have suffered during
their slavery and since their emancipation." One
Southern black woman admitted that "Garvey is giving
my people backbones where they had wishbones."
The best statement of the need fulfilled by
Garveyism for blacks was given at the time of Garvey's
trial by his black attorney who retorted in his defense:
"If every Negro could have put every penny into the
sea, and if he might get in exchange the knowledge that
he was somebody, that he meant something in the
world, he would gladly do it...The Black Star Line was
a loss in money, but a gain in soul."


For all the foregoing reasons, West Indians rose
to leadership positions. There was no one marked
avenue or method by which this feat was accomplished.
They often worked in and through existing organisa-
tions, institutions or movements. They sometimes
created new organizations and movements where these
were lacking. In some cases, they worked as individuals
outside of any structure, but nevertheless agitating for
the cause as individuals, usually through writing and
street-corner harangues.
The only constants in the various approaches
was the dynamic West Indian personality, which
formed the basic springboard to their fame, success and
militance within the context of facilitating conditions

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aGuinea-Bissau to proclaim

independence from Portugal

THE leader of one of
Africa's most successful
liberation fronts has an-
nounced his country's in-
tention to proclaim its
independence, from Portu-
Amilcar Cabral, leader
of the African revolutionaries
of Guinea-Bissau on Africa's
western coast, made that an-
nouncement on October 16,
before a session of the General
Assembly's Committee of Trust
and Non-Self-Governing Ter-
Cabral, who is secretary-
general of the revolutionary
African Party for the Indepen-
dence of Guinea and the Cape
Verde Islands (PAIGC), told
the Committee that "we will
proclaim the existence of our
state" by the end of this year
or the beginning of next year.


As such, Guinea-Bissau
will become the first of the
countries on the continent
still under colonial and
minority rule to reach such a
stage. In Angola,. Namibia,
Mozambique, Azania (South
Africa) and Zimbabwe, armed
African guerillas are also
opposing colonial and minority
regimes with armed struggle.
Cabral also informed the.
-, UN body that in order to


Cont'd from Page 5.

call the Diwali night, 'Kali
ratri', the most dreaded of
nights and they worship the
clay -images of goddess Kali,
the terrible form of Shakti, in
the tantric way. It is believed
that she protects her devotees
and the lights keep the evil
spirits away from homes.
There is also a bonfire
near the entrance of the house
and some lighted sticks
(lukathis) are pointed to the
sky with certain incantations
to show the right path to the
souls which have gone astray.
Some people put candles on
the bamboo tops near their
house for the same purpose.
After the evening puja
(worship) people pay visits to
the homes of. their relations
and friends and exchange gifts.


Then musical performances are
arranged at convenient places.
The bursts of laughter, fanfare
and fireworks suggest that all
elements of sorrow have gone
away. An atmosphere of
supreme happiness, bliss, amity
and understanding reigns all
over the Indian homes.
There are some lighter
aspects of the Diwali festival
also. In some areas of India
people keep awake at night
and enjoy gambling and other
sports and pastimes. Thieves
believe that if they succeed in
their attempt at theft on this
night, they will reap a great
harvest throughout the year.

legitimize the proclamation, a
national assembly has been
formed. "We have had universal
and secret suffrage, in all the
liberated areas to set up re-
gional governments. Our first
national assembly has 120 re-
presentatives, of which 80 are
elected from the masses and
40 among the party."
The African revolutionary
explained that the move was an
inevitable one because "our
people are free and sovereign
-over the greater part of our
national territory." He revealed
that the forces of PAIGC have
liberated about three-quarters
of Guinea-Bissau, of which they
have "effective control" over


Consequently, "our
situation has, for some time,
been that of an independent
state, one part of whose
national territory, particular the
urban centers are occupied by
foreign military forces," he
S"To defend and preserve
the sovereignty Cabral further
noted, "we have not only our
armed forces, but also all the
instruments which define a
"Over the greater part of
our country, our people have a
solid political organization
which is that of our party and
administration, a judicial or-
ganization, a new economic
organization which has no ex-
ploitation of the population,
various social and cultural ser-
vices and other ways of affirm-
ing our personality and our
capacity for taking in hand our
own destiny and for running
our own lives."
Important achievements
in education amid the 800,000
Africans of the territory but-
tressed Cabral's assertion. At
present, after 10 years of
armed struggle, "we have 86
university graduates and about
86 students studying in Europe,
while 15,000 students are in
primary and secondary schools
(in Guinea-Bissau) where the
instruction is given by 251


He also mentioned other
achievements such as the
hospitals and health centers
where our peasants are using
medicines which they never had
a chance to use before; our
People's Stores, which supply
increasingly the population;
the qualitative improvement of
agricultural production (des-
pite the extensive use of her-
bicides by the Portuguese); the
beauty, pride and dignity of our
children and our wives, who
are among the most exploited
human beings in our country."
"These are the greatest
pride of our people and the
greatest victory of our people
because this is a victory over
ignorance, fear and disease -
scorches imposed on our people
by Portuguese colonialism," he'
However, a major deterent
to the total victory of the
PAIGC has been the support
given Portugal by .its allies,
"particularly certain of the
principal powers in NATO,"
Cabral pointed out.

He continued: "During
the recent years, the Portuguese
government has received from
them the most important part
of its war material heli-
copters, jet planes, scout cars
and other types of equipment.
This very year the Portuguese

received financial assistance of
about $500 million from one of
its NATO allies." (This was an
allusion to the agreement
between Portugal and the US
for the American rental of the
Portuguese naval base in the
Azores Islands.)

Cabral questioned hw
states that called themselves
champions of liberty and
democracy and defenders of
the "free world" could continue
to give assistance to "the most
retrograde colonialist country
on the planet."
But he assured the Com-
mittee that no such Power
could prevent them from attain-
ing their complete liberation,
from protecting the sovereignty
of their people and from de-
veloping the "new life" they
have begun to build in the
liberated zones.
"It is still a very difficult
life indeed," he said, "but it is a
life full of beauty because the
depth of work is being carried
out in liberty, democracy and
the happiness of our people."

A "Tapia-House" discussion Centre in Lae, New Guinea.

PANGU reports on Best in New Guinea

ACCORDING to a report
in the paper of the govern-
ing PANGU Party, Lloyd
Best "has introduced a
revolutionary concept"
into the constitutional
discussion now going on
in Papua & New Guinea.
As terms and conditions
for independence from Aus-
tralia in 1973 or '74 are being
threshed out, the country has
been weighing the merits of
the Westminister system in the
light of experience elsewhere.


While on a lecture tour
in the Pacific earlier this year,
Best was invited by student
groups to speak on issues in
constitutional independence. In
New Guinea he proposed strong
local government and citizens'
participation in Parliament
alongside the professional
Best said that the many
groupings which made up
Papua & New Guinea were a
source of strength because the
central administration had to
be seen as a coalition of local
interests. The absence of any
one dominant group could be
the country's best asset for
stable constitutional develop-

The Tapia Secretary
added that since the coloniser
had been kept on the fringes of
the society New Guinea had
retained a basis for self-
confidence and self respect in
its own traditional values,
languages, art and way of life.
It was coming to inde-
pendence far better placed

than the West Indies "where
colonialism had left us neither
fish nor fowl" and where our
leaders "straddled the ground
between our people and their
colonial masters."
According to PANGU
Party News, this interpreta-
tion "has revolutionised at
least some student thinking."

Tapia House Publishing Company Limited,
91, Tunapuna Road, Tunapuna.

Please send TAPIA to me as checked:
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When I cultivated the bad-john image and so got to be called

IT WAS around the late 50's early 60's, that I began
to earn the nickname 'The Madman.' Maybe it was be-
cause people were unable to reconcile the two halves of
my personality, maybe it was because of my unconven-
tional approach to pan, or maybe it was because my
friends put too much emphasis on my so-called eccentrici-
In those days I had a
liking for sharp clothes (a lik-
ing, incidentally, that persists
up to this day). Still working I

dollars' to spend. Boxing shoes, D
fat cap, hair slicked to a
smokey-black frizz that was
Bertie, living every day with
Zachary by the barber shop on
Charlotte street, and following
Fitz Vaughn, Dutchy Brothers,
Clarence Curvan and the rest
of the big bands all over the


By this time the steel-
band crowd was beginning to
notice me. To begin with I was
with the right lime the
barber shop lime. And while
the Base was paying me, I was
tuning pans for City Symphony
and introducing a whole new
sound into steelband.
From the very beginning
of my steelband career I was
obsessed with the lack of a
harmonic line in steelband. I
felt the form was severely
limited, so after years of pound-
ing outside my home in Laven-
tille, I came up with the
soprano pan and the double-
Many a night coming
from the Base, the army truck
would drop us at Green Corner
and I would walk home with
my pan in my hands to the
jeers of the fellers liming by
that corner who nick-named
the 'Soprano' the 'basin' pan
because ofits shape.
Anyway City Symphony
came on the road that Carnival
playing Sparrow's 'Rose' on
my pan. In no time at all the
other steelbands were hiring
me to tune their pans Silver
Stars, All Stars, Casablanca,
Ebonites practically every
known steelband in the city
at the time.
I cultivated my bad-john
image. One time I was paid
$45 to shoot the brother of
Mano Benjamin. But my bad-
johnism was a pose really, so
Mano's brother never got shot.
Not by me, anyway, Still, it
was necessary to cultivate the
image. And I managed to do
this yet at the same time keep-

ing my hands clean except
for a couple of gambling cases
which were no big thing, really.
But the image was an
important thing in those days. I
remember in the early days of
Laventille there was revolution
in the band...A certain section of
the band wanted the band to
be run by committee. I insisted
that the band had to be run my
way or not at all. The discus-
sion became heated, and I de-
cided to fall into my badjohn
I was living with a girl
at the time. In the middle of
the argument I shouted:
"All yuh go see who is
boss today."
With that, I shouted the
girl's name,"Judy,Judy!"As she
came outside to ask me what I
wanted I ripped down the
front of her dress, snatched
up two stones and broke two
of the glass-windows in the
"We going to the police.
Dem fellers now try to beat
up me and you and they want

How South got past

THE LAST North/South
stuck faithfully to the pat-
tern of recent years with
the better team losing. The
only difference this time
was that the southerners
North's linkmen, Lewis
and Headley were particularly
superb. They outplayed their
counterparts,Spann andAugus-
tine at every turn and this was
the biggest single season for
north's domination of the
game. South certainly missed
Muhammed Saleem and Augus-
tine was not his usual hard-
working self.
What accounted for
South's victory was Spooner's
(North's rightback) outmoded
defence technique, and the
overall fault in local football
of underating the importance
of the wing back position.
The pattern in our foot-
ball is ..that a newcomer makes
his entry into a team as a wing-
back and if he makes good he
is shifted to link or stopper

Two classic examples
were Tyrone De Labastide and
Jimmy Springer, both excep-
tional wingbacks for Maple.
The net result at the national
level is that there is a glut of
talented stoppers and a dearth
of good wingbacks.
In the matching question,
North was pressing South's left.
back. Pierre joined the attack
leaving an enormous gap in his
defence. South's Augustine
picked up a loose ball, and
slipped it through for the
nippy Steve Khan to collect.
The pass was so welltimed and
placed, it left -the two stoppers
out of position with only
Spooner on the right flank to
cut across and intercept.
But Spooner is a wild
player so that instead of simply
trying to position himself
between ball and goal to delay'
his opponent and allow his
colleagues to re-group, Spooner
ran willy-nilly into Khan who
only had to change direction
to leave Spooner hopelessly



--i _-

to mash up myhouse," I cried
at her as she stood watching
me in shock.
The fellers in the band
stood stupefied, certain that
I had gone stark raving mad.
Things cooled down after a
while, but I had shown them.
that I was capable of anything.
Looking back now, I feel that
it was quite likely I was a bit
mad in those days.
Down at the Base, the
Yankees were muttering about
the noises Williams was making
about the Base. One time a
marine came up to me and
"Bertie,: aren't you mak-
ing a living here,"
"Yes," I answered truth-
"Well what does that man
wart. We give him everything
he asks for, yet he still wants
more. What the hell that man

want?" he asked.
"To kill the goose that
laid the golden egg," I
answered, thinking it was quite
a smart answer at the time.
Not that I.'was all that
worried. I was in demand both
as a player and as a tuner. I
remember when I was beating
in City Symphony, about 10-
12 young fellers would fight to
pull mypan. Women for so,
but still I was not satisfied.
Even then I was arguing
with people who insisted that
I was changing pan and that I
should leave it as I found it
'natural.' I argued back that
the instrument was under-
developed and that we were
fooling ourselves if we thought
that pan as it then was could
become a recognized instru-
There were fellers in the
steelband movement who
understood. Curtis Pierre for
one.Junior Pouchet for another
It became so that there was no
middle ground. People were
on my side or they were not.
Some said I was dynamising
pan. Others that I was playing
'chiney music'. I kept on and
in 1960 my band was adjudged
the best beating band on the


The more progressive
steelband leaders were anxious
to get me in their band. One of
them carried, me on an all-
expenses-paid trip to Tobago.
He had no qualms about it. He'
was from one of the better
areas in Port-of-Spain so he was
in a position to buy me. But to
go into his band would have
meant having to lose my
identity, I felt, so I kept
plugging on with the band I
had begun fashioning from the
pans I had. saved when 'Metro-
nomes' mash up. We still had
to thief pans from the
Coconut Growers Association'
(CGA) and other companies
in the area.
Then, as now, I had prob-
lems with membership. I
wanted to rule with an iron
band and some of the fellers
resisted. I kept insisting at the
time that it was impossible to
run a steelband democratically.
Besides the band would fold



o anmi

room air conditioners

without me. I was the strength
of the band, so they had to
accept my weaknesses as well.
In addition, Melody by
asking me to play solo in his
recording of Pat Castagne's 'Ice
Man' had given me a projection
that was to lead to other
calypsonians asking me to make
recordings with them. Most of
the money I got I poured it
back into experimenting, hav-
ing long realized that I would
get no help from officials in the
government even though
Donald Granado, at whose
early meetings we used to be
such a drawing card was now
Minister of Labour in the
nationalist government.


These days when my
friends accuse me of never
wanting to go anywhere I'
reply it was because in my
younger days I went every-
where. Man, at one time I was
living in two places. In my
father's house in Laventille,
and with a girl in Charlotte
Street who had a child for
me. My father was ill sugar
so I would come up in the
mornings to give him his insulin
injections and then back down
the road to Charlotte street -
Zachary's barber shop hair
knocked, white cap, boxing
shoes, and a ring on nearly
every finger on my hand.
I was 25 years old,
money in my pocket, popular
enough to forego my badjohn
image who would want to
touch Bertie Marshall! the
Yankees were leaving, but the
rest of the country were be-
ginning to notice what I was
doing, so although I was losing
my major source of income, I
was not particdarly worried.
Therefore I could spurn all the,
deals I got which would have
necessitated my leaving the
"But yuh bor here, yuh
know here, why you can't
leave yuh ent like fame or
what', was the usual argument.
"If I born here, I ent see
why I can't dead here," I would
reply. And they would shake
their heads, calling me a mad-


- No Vibration

-No Disturbing


-Just a quiet

stream of

cool air

fe mOndle ntral nld
the air conditioning people

3-5 Duncan Street, Port-of-Spaln,
Phones: 62-35883 -3 7962

North East Drive, Tarouba Road,
PHones: 65-31910 12

-- ~

_____ __


*From Page 2

Trinidad, e.g. oil industry
laboratories, sugar chemistry
laboratories and most other in-
dustrial control laboratories.
Solar stills produce distilled
water more cheaply and re-
liably than conventional electric
Solar stills are currently
used for producing distilled
water at five teaching institu-
tions in Trinidad. These are at
U.W.I. (in continuous use for
about one and a half years),
St. George's College (about 10
months), San Juan Secondary
School (about eight months),
Trinity College, Moka (about
three months), and St. Bene-
dict's College; La Romain (one


There have also been
several requests from indus-
trial firms for solar stills for
this purpose.
Solar stills are therefore
feasible for distilled water
supply we have received
enquiries about them from
several interested persons not
only in Trinidad and the Carib-
bean but from as far away as


Cyprus, Chile and Australia
Anyone who has faced the
cold water at 6 a.m.,longs for
a water heater. Anyone whose
pipes run above ground for
more than a few feet also
knows that he gets warm water
from his taps at midday.


Solar water heaters are
therefore obvious. They have
in fact been installed in houses
in Florida (where they are
commercially available), Israel,
South Africa, Barbados and In-
dia, to name a few places
The main snag is keeping the
water hot. One needs hot water
most at 6.30 a.m. when the
sun has been set for 12 hours
and when the real heat of the
day was 16 hours before.
The two main problems in
the water heater are therefore
storing the water and keeping it
hot. This requires an insulated
storage tank. Traditionally, the
sunlight collector has been
separate from the tank, but re-
cently some designs have tank
and collector and one unittc

save plumbing and heat.
Secondary problems in a
water heater are in making it
cheap and aesthetically satis-
factory. Its appearance is
especially important as far as
housewives are concerned since
all or part of it has to go on
the roof of the house.
Our work on the water
heater has been on the second-
ary problems, i.e., we would
like to produce a cheap and
beautiful heater. These prob-
lems, though secondary, are by
no means trivial. In terms of
economic success they are of
fundameirtal importance.


Most of the comparisons
made between the solar still
and the electric still can be
made between the solar heater
and the electric gas heater.
Once the'unit is tip that's that.
A colleague in Barbados has
a solar water heater which has
been running for 31 years. All
he does is open the plug once
every few years to drain out
A cheap solar water heater
would bring the comfort of hot

water within the reach of
a large percentage of the popu-
lation. In fact within the reach
of virtually everyone who could
afford running water.
You would also be less at
the mercy of WASA since you
would always have 30 to 50
gallons of water (albeit hot
water) in your storage tank
whenever the water went off.
If the tank is connected to the
house mains, life (can go on;
usual; toilets can be flushed,
hands washed, etc. The every-
day value of this device is there-
fore much greater than that of
either the still or the drier.


Air conditioning is still con-
sidered a luxury by most of the
population. When you consider
that the brain runs much more
smoothly in a cool room than
a hot one and you evaluate the
value of the resultant increase
in output, the luxury image be-
gins to seem a little ridiculous.
Since heat does not spon-
taneously flow uphill, energy
has to be used to cool anything
below room temperature. In a
kerosine fridge, a flame pro-
vides this energy by driving the
refrigerant gas around.
In a normal fridge or air con-
ditioner, compressors do this
job. These are usually electri-
cally driven. It is possible to
use a solar energy collector to
provide some of the energy for
air conditioning and some Aus-
tralians have already done so.
In their system, pumps are
still needed so some other
power source is required. Ideal-
ly a solar air conditioner
should operate in the same
manner as a solar still, i.e., on
sun alone. Considerable re-
search and development will be
needed to achieve this goal,
and it might not be economi-

cally attainable.
Solar energy is abundant in
Trinidad and in most parts of
the Third World. Its exploita-
tion is already economic in cer-
tain areas, e.g. solar stills and
water heaters.


For countries
like ours, it is not enough only
to take stark economic facts
into account; sociological im-
plications are also important.
During the construction of
the solar still on Isle de Gonave
Haiti, Professor Lawand point-
ed out that this was a self-help
project and it organised the
villages for community work.
It also saved on foreign ex-
change and it avoided the im-
pact of high-level foreign tech-
nology on simple village folk as
would have occurred if a more
sophisticated desalination plant
had been imported then in-
stalled and operated by foreign


Solar energy devices, because
of their simplicity, are ideally
suitable for Third World condi-
tions. In spite of their high
capital costs, their long life,
low maintenance costs and
zero fuel costs make them very
attractive in many instances.
We should therefore pay
more attention to the develop-
ment of this resource. Few
metropolitan countries pay
any attention to it since they
stand to profit little from its
This is therefore an area
where the developing countries
can do themselves some good,
it should therefore be investi-
gated much more rigorously
than it is at present.




TAPIA HOUSE Publishing Co., Ltd., 91, Tunapuna Road, Tunapuna, Trinidad and Tobago.

406 RHONDA 3 PCE. LIVING ROOM SUITE Selected Bri- Nylon Fabric Upholstery
Tl :" "h-' '"- "
.,,- .' - :; : ", ,r2

i !




EVER SINCE the beginning
of the century and parti-
cularly since the twenties
American tourism has been
growing in Latin America.
This phenomenon has a logi-
cal explanation: investments,
loans, manufactured products,
and U.S. capital began to ex-
pand in the area denationaliz-
ing or destroying native indus-
tries and supplanting British
It was natural, therefore,
that large groups of people
from the Metropolis should
suddenly awake to the marvels
below the Rio Grande and
start penetrating the region in
successive waves.


American tourists came to
Haiti. Cuba, or Jamaica look-
ing for the exotic or European
version of Caribbean history
(.tree-house living; grass skirt
wearing) or to Mexico in search
of the descendants of Monte-
zuma or Cuauhtemoc; or to
Peru for the Incas still adoring
theirgreat god Inti in fabulous
Machu Pichu.
Despite the socio-political
and economic crisis which the
system underwent after the
1919 "crash", and the growth
of nationalist and anti-imperial-
ist movements which developed
in the area after World War II,
American tourism in Latin
America continued to increase
in the thirties and forties.
Seeking to "civilize" the
natives, Yankee tourists tra-
velled full of dollars (and im-
perialist arrogance) to teach the
"American way of life," feign-
ing a friendship which at the
U.S. government level becan-.:.'
known as Franklin D. Roo..
velt's "good neighbour" policy
The cold-war of the 1950's
unleashed McCarthy's anti-
communist "witch-hunts",
which in turn created the ideal
political atmosphere to embark
in a direct penetration of the
The Central Intelligence
Agency (CIA) and the Federal
Bureau of Investigations (FBI)
became the principal U.S. or-
ganizations responsible for in-
troducing agents through in-
offensive tourist groups.
In the 1960's, Peace Corps
agents and "students" from
various institutions dedicated
themselves to the analysis of
the natural, cultural, and
scientific resources of the
Latin American nations; pro-
jects such as CAMELOT, JOB
ITY, etc., tried to take the
political and revolutionary
"pulse" of the Continent.
Simultaneously, large tourist
agencies emerged in the prin-
cipal U.S. cities (with business
connections with Latin Ameri-
can airlines) offering 'charter"
American tourists, taking
advantage of the low prices
which their consumer society
offered them, began to travel to
Latin America at ridiculously
low prices unaware of the
gigantic economic and political
machinery behind it all.

U.S. newspapers and maga-
zines recently advertised, for
example, a round trip from
New York to Caracas for S200
- including room and board
at the Macuto Sheraton or
Hilton Hotels. How is it pos-
sible to offer such luxurious
facilities at such moderate
The answer lies in the con-
stant depreciation of Latin
American currencies: the rate
of exchange of the Venezuelan
bolivar is 4.5 to the dollar.
What about the Venezuelans?
Well, that's another story...
The Sheraton and Hilton
hotels offer rooms at 60 and
120 bolivars a night, NOT in-
cluding food; so in the best of
cases Venezuelans must pay
around 500 bolivars for a week
in those hotels (sans food) F;
while the Yanks get their stay
as a bonus for their round-

How the

Yankee tourism

trip ticket. It is clear how the
Latin Americans themselves are
subsidizing a large part of
Yankee tourism.
And that is not all: the
large hotels advertised in the
"charter" are also Yankee and
belong to hotel chains whose
head offices are in New York
or Washington. For example,
the Sheraton Hotel chain is
owned by the well-known
American industrial corporation
known as International Tele-
phone and Telegraph (ITT).
So it is no coincidence that
the agents of the CIA and of
the Chilean fascist reactionaries
met and plotted the assassina-
tion of the Chief of the Armed
Forces, Rene Schneider, as
well as the economic and
political sabotage of Allende's
election in 1970 in the luxurious
suites of Santiago's Carreras
Hotel and San Cristobal Hilton.
The ITT is also connected
to the Rockefeller financial
empire which has gigantic in-
vestments in Latin America
and particularly in Venezuelan
oil as well as the Morgan
Bank, the World Bank, etc.
It was recently learned that
the ITT also gave S400,000 to
President Nixon's political
campaign: another interesting
fact is that John McCone, ex-
director of the CIA, is now
president of ITT's executive
These conglomerates, cor-
porations, and monopolies
which are all inter-related, in
turn own airline companies,
hotel chains, travel agencies,
and some of the tourists them-
The millions and millions
of dollars which the OAS
politicians claim have poured
into Latin America ever since
they inagurated the so-called

"Year of Tourism in the
Americas" is nothing but
another lie from that inter-
national organization.
While the ITT, W.R. Grace,
Esso, Ford Motor, Union
Carbide, Bethlehem Steel, the
Morgan Bank, and thousands
of other U.S. and international
corporations plunder the
natural and economic resources
of Latin America raking off

billions of dollars from the
Continent, Yankee tourist pro-
motions allow a few crumbs to
return to Latin America.
What's truly incredible is
that if a Latin American wishes
to travel to New York from the
southern tip of the continent
he must put down between
S450 to S600 since the Metro-
polis does not offer reciprocal
"charter" flights to the South

meet so. ,guys

who'll give Ca rnaival,

Public Holidp '

and Sundays at home

to turn on a light

in La Romain


\ ^~-7 *
-;" T '-

\ ---, '-

or anywhere to bring the comforts of
across the length and breadth of modern living to all of
Trinidad & Tobago, day and night. Trinidad & Tobago.
They're a dedicated bunch, It's a big job oven for
our men-and constantly aware the men in the yellow truck.
of the importance of Electricity. But we're working on it
Their objective, and ours day and night.
The men in the Yellow trucks -they're our

American upper classes (the
only ones who could afford
to travel, anyway).
The IATA's statistics reveal
that 45 to 55 percent of the
commercial fights originating
in the U.S. return empty from
Latin America: therefore prices
are hiked for the Latin Ameri-
cans to compensate for the
One thing becomes clear in
all this: .I l. i U.S. tourism
has turned into a subtle weapon
for ideological penetration, and
Latin America is increasingly
financing Yankee tourism.
(Prensa Latina).


op HE NATi f
people working for you.




111 Frederick Street, & Campus St. Augustine

Lations pay for

R6 01 872
- Mrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Inst. for the Study of Man,
162 East 78th Street,
New York 10021, N.Y., U.S.A.


league opens

in Laventille

HUNDREDS of recreation-
starved Laventillians ringed
a miniature football field
over the weekend to cheer
the opening of the only
football league in the area.
For years residents in
the area have been screaming
for a proper playing field. And
for years youngsters have had
to kick ball in the road.
Nothing was forthcoming
from the authorities, so the
residents took matters in their
own hands.

Just off Erica- Street
there is a small piece of land
which was the site of an
abandoned play-ground. Argu-
ing that the rusted, decaying
equipment was a hazard to
children in the area who never
played there anyway young
boys in the district cleared the
land of the rubbish and laid
down a small football field.
It took a lot of hard
work and begging, but by last
weekend the ground was
neatly marked out, complete
with metal goal-posts and nets.
To ensure many
youngsters as possible got a
fair share of the use of the
limited playing space a seven-
a-side football league was
Rules were devised to
meet the particular needs for
the area: for instance teams
are allowed to make three
substitutions in a 50-minute
match. Thus in every game 10
players from each block can
be sure of "getting a run".
Referees from each
match come from the teams
themselves. Argued the founders
of the League "it is no use us
just sitting and saying that the

fellers will thief. We are either
men or little boys. If we are
men we can referee games
between two teams without
The League has drawn
the participation of some of the
best players in the area some
of whom have played at the
level of the national competi-
The field is not the
greatest football field in the
world. There is not a blade of
grass and a fall on the rough
playing surface is almost bound
to result in at least minor
bruises; a concrete canal runs
along the length of one of the
sides of the field so an on-
rushing player always has to
be on the look-out when the
ball is being played on that
side of the field.

However when High-
landers' captain, Bertie Marshall
ran on the field to kick off the
ball one would have thought
that it was the opening of the
football competition in the
Munich Olympics.
And, indeed, the hopes
of the crowd eierejustified. The
first game Paramounts
versus The Rest produced
an exciting, fast moving brand
of football that 'ended with
The Rest winning by a four-
three margin.
Sunday, however, was
the big day. Six matches were
played three in the morning,
beginning at nine o'clock and
three in the afternoon begin-
ning at three o'clock. At both
morning and afternoon sessions,
the people were there to shout
support for their teams.
All the characters were
there Bertie, himself, "Fat-
man" Slater, coaching loudly
and angrily on the sidelines,

S'I i" ,


Keith Smith continuously
walking from one end of the
football field to the other, the
tailor-boys section, Carlo, Mel,
Andy, Kenny, Vomit, Throw-
Up, Cocotte, everybody -
young and old, men and women
glad for this diversion in the
barrenness that is life in Success

Village, Laventille.
Came the match of the
day and Smee International
defeated Furness one goal to
nothing in a match that was
marked by tremendous power-
kicking from Cecil Phillips and
steady saving from Donald
Bain of Furness.


AFTER TWO extravagan-
zas, "Soul Picnic" Jet-set
style has had its day.
True at Perseverance the
crowd was in their thousands
but there was not the creative
zest of '70. Everything was
simply "cool".
Indeed the only remarkable
thing in the whole scene was
that spirited crowd response
came on the two occasions
when performing artistes threw
out the lines "Free the People"
and "Power to the People."
First, it was used by Jackie
Wonder and then by Ameri-
can soul-singer Swamp Dogg
who in Trinidad has such a
radical image that there is a
totally unfounded rumour
that the sale of his records is
banned in the United States.
What was curious about this
is the fact that to many of the
conscious brothers anxious to
push on the struggle "Soul Pic-
nic" was a mischievous diver-


sion, like so many others con-
trived to pacify the people.
Perhaps, if we are to judge
from official willingness to oc-
commodate the "Picnic" it
might have been so construed
by the "powers" but the whole
approach in dress, behaviour
and music was representative
of the very life-style that the
regime is up in arms against.
What might have worried
any perceptive security officer
on the grounds was that with
the exception of Mano Mar-
cellin's insistent calypso-play-
ing and the steelbands the
songs that turned on the crowd
were either sad or protesting in
So that Swamp Dogg as the

Mayaro youths protest unemployment

A GROUP of youths have demanded that the Nariva- Guayaguayare but in Point Lisas.
Mayaro County Council and the Mayaro Village We are concerned about this decision because
Council make representations to the Government of the chronic unemployment which exists in the
concerning chronic unemployment in the Eastern Eastern Counties.
Counties. A meeting at the Mayaro Government
School last week Wednesday evening presented the We would like to know what steps the repre-
County Councillor for Mayaro Mr. Vernon Perez with sentatives of Nariva-Mayaro intend to take about
a four-point memorandum: the siting of the gas plant.
The Mayaro youths have heard that the AMOCO We propose that representation to the Central
Gas Liquefaction Plant is being sited not in Government be made without delay.


At half-time the teams
were dead-locked, but Furness,
playing without a real pointer
were hard pressed by the surg-
ing Smee forward line. Furness'
defence, particularly Leslie
"See-wah-wah" Barton and
Bain in goal balked Smee's
goal-scoring attempts until the
45th minute when Smee was
awarded a free-kick about
eight yards from the goal-post.
As was expected, Cecil
took the kick, but conscious
of his tremendous power-shot
the Furness defence forgot Elie
Paul lurking in the left-wing
position. From Cecil the ball
came to Elie who banged it
into the net. That mistake cost
Furness the game.
The prize trophy of the
competition is a magnificent
shield the "Oliver Edmund
Memorial Trophy" donated by
Victor Forgenie, manager of
the nearby lime-stone factory.
Edmund crashed to his
death while flying an aeroplane
over the Laventille hills a few
weeks ago and among the
teams battling for this trophy
is "Sergeants" who have
adopted Edmund's nick-name
not so much out of capriche
but because the whole team is
made up of his close friends.

newest protest singer and in the
eyes of so many young Trini-
dadians "the baddest" of them
all was so mobbed on stage that
he could sing only four songs.
And while hearing in the
flesh the voice that has filled
so many fetes, in the drag-
talking fashion that Otis Red-
ding left for the soul world, as
it drew an initial "ray" from
the crowd, interest soonpalled.
Because Swamp Dogg is a
rather boring, cliched, artiste.

Those who expected the
spontaneity of '70 found that
those who stayed away sensing
that the exuberance which
followed the '70 Emergency
has by now run stale were
right. And "Soul Picnic" did
in fact never rise above the
level of a large good fete.
Ancil Savary and the rest of
the organizers have shown that
they have real skill in getting
together extravaganzas of this
They might start thinking of
getting together a show that
would project the things that
young musicians are doing in
the Caribbean the many un-
heard or at least unheralded
musicians in Trinidad, in
Jamaica, Guyana, Dominica
who are saying, sometimes in
much more graceful fashion,
what the politicians have been
harping on over these last
years. (Keith Smith)

Commission 5 Cents

TAP/A HOUSE Publishing Co., Ltd., 91, Tunapu

na Road, Tunap


una, Trinidad and Tobago. c alI






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