Material Information

Place of Publication:
Tapia House Pub. Co.
Creation Date:
July 30, 1972
completely irregular
Physical Description:
no. : illus. ; 43 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note:
Includes supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tapia House Pub. Co.. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000329131 ( ALEPH )
03123637 ( OCLC )
ABV8695 ( NOTIS )

Full Text



"U O

1 A& UlL



AS SOME would have it, in deciding to take
part in the meetings of the Constitutional
Commission, Tapia has turned its face
around. And they talk as if that is the vilest
sin. Well, if it is indeed a sin, we take the
opportunity here and now to plead guilty
and without the slightest sense of shame.
We plead guilty because if we have
changed our tactics, it is for the simple
reason that we have been listening to the
people and leaving the politicians and the
pundits severely alone. And in doing sp we
've made no change of strategy, and sacri-
ficed no principle. What we have chosen to
do is the only thing which a reasonable citi-
zen who knows the price of blood can do.
Everywhere we've walked across this land of
ours, we've heard a single chorus: either we must
change the old regime in peace or have it changed
one day in war. Those are the choices which the
people see and the Constitution Commission is still
the only choice of peace. It is not the ideal or the
perfect instrument of peace, probably not even the
second best. But it is the only thing we have which
stands a chance of bringing off a general political
debate on what society we want to build. It is the
nearest to a People's Parliament. Tapia would rather
work with that than urge the nation into another
bloody confrontation.
We know that there are some who honestly be-
lieve that the only route to liberation is by way of
people's war. Well, we could not be so boldface as
to say that they are wrong. The ghost that haunts
our land is violence,-we agree. The hunted men who
rule this country have armed themselves with every
means of terror. They have been acting like a
wounded beast, lashing out at every shadow; re-
pression has become their second nature. But is that
not the reason why we the people must strive to
change the style and the place of contest? Why we
must fight them on the ground of thought and free

At the moment the Constitution Commission is
that ground. Tapia has never held that either the
Commission or the Government was "illegal." What
we did say and we still believe is that the Constitu-
tional Commission was illegitimate; that it could
win moral authority to function only if it made
itself a servant of the people.
We argued that the PNM was not a colonial
office, outside the politics of this place. That
Williams was not an Imperial Governor nor a Secre-
tary of State. That the government had been put in
office by the people and it had brought on the crisis
by a betrayal of our trust. That the February Revo-
lution had shown this clearly and had forced a
general election in which the result amounted to a
total repudiation of the State.
The only honest thing the Government could at
that point do, we said, was to summon an assembly
of the people thereby acknowledging who were
sovereign. So when the Governor-General an-
nounced an advisory commission of constitutional
experts instead, Tapia quite naturally withheld sup
If the Commission was to work, it needed to
involve all political interests and to confine its own
work to providing Secretarial guidance. It could
serve its purpose only if people were free to talk not
only about government and politics but about race
and class and bread as wtl.
"If the Chairman and the members under-
stand this they themselves could hasten the
process in a number of ways by demanding

CONT'D ON Page 2
,!]1 __ ^

inside Heoes When

Page 11 of war met PA
PAGE 9 Papa I

GE 4




new pan


prior undertakings from the Government:
widening their own ranks and increasing their
credibility by co-opting representatives of
radical groups; by cancelling the 12-month.
deadline; by submitting drafts for public dis-
cussion instead of a final draft for the Govern-
ment; by meeting in Woodford Square; in
short by offering themselves as an instrument
of the people and not a tool of the old
Those were the conditions we set out in Tapia
No. 18 for the Commission to salvage itself.

Since the time that Tapia took that position, the
scene has undergone a change. For one thi ng, the
Commission-has established a certain independence.
By pointedly, though not unanimously, objecting to
the State of Emergency, they have declined to be a
tool of the government. And for another
thing, the Commission has accepted the principle of
preparing and submitting drafts for discussion.
Indeed, it has been over and over emphasising its
purely Secretarial role. Besides, the 12-month dead-
line has been lifted and we have seen that all the
fundamentals have been accepted as matter for
public discussion. And still more, after the preli-
minary discussions all over the country, the finale is
to be a National Convention.


In short, there are only two important conditions
still to be fulfilled if the Commission is to hold a
successful Constituent Assembly of the popular
interests. The first is that the Report of the Final
National Convention must be binding on the govern-
ment and the country. The second is that the results
of that final convention must have been fashioned
by the collective will of all which means that all
political interests must be fully articulated as the
Commission proceeds with its work.
It is on how to fulfil these two important con-
ditions that Tapia has had to let the country be its
teacher. When we called for the Constituent
Assembly we certainly thought we had safely
abandoned the politics of the old colonial days. We
were to discover that we were as trapped in the old
ways as anybody else.

As we have been around the country people have
been saying that the Constituent Assembly is the
thing but how are we going to call it? When Tapia
said that the Government should call it, one reply
came back over and over again: in the same way as
the government doeS not have the moral authority
to set up up an Advisory Commission of experts, so
also it does not have the political interest in esta-
blishing a Constituent Assembly.
Precisely because the PNM is not the Colonial
Office, when it loses office it has no place to go.
Williams and his men are not going to provoke their
own downfall. And the one thing that is certain to
bring them down, says everybody, is a free dis-
cussion on the state of the country. The thing that
is keeping them in office is the talk of bacchanal,

Page 2 TAPIA




massacre and chaos. If we had a peaceful investi-
gation into their failures and their new offerings, the
country would reject them out of hand. So the
government cannot want any real discussion.
Under conditions of independence we the people
have to call the Constituent Assembly ourselves.
And what better way to give every group an equal
chance than to accept the Constitutional Com-
mission as the secretarial servants of the people?


What the country has been saying to Tapia is
that we can only know the Constitutional Com-
mission by its fruits. It is not enough to protest that
the PNM Government is illegitimate because that is
a neo-colonial posture. As a free people responsible
for our own government and politics we must go
further and insist that only the people and the
people alone have any moral authority to give the
Wooding Commission. The revolutionary position
that Tapia has taken is that we the people made the
issue of sweeping re-organisation of the entire
system; we the people forced the government to
concede basic constitutional reform last year June;
we the people killed the Wooding Commission by
rejecting it out of hand on the government's terms;
and now we the people can resurrect Wooding on
altogether different terms.


The revolutionary thing is that a successful
resurrection of the Commission depends on one
thing and one thing only: on the will of the people
to make their voices heard and on our determi-
nation to silence Caesar forever. If the Report of the
National Convention were to fail to reflect our
dreams then we would have signally failed to har-
ness the Commission as a Secretariat. If the Report
were not made public and binding on the Govern-
ment then we would have failed to mobilise a de-
cisive political strength.
What is at issue now with the Commission
therefore are not the credentials of Wooding and his
colleagues but whether we believe in the ultimate
sovereignty of the people. What will count is not
whether this or that group withholds its support but
whether r the voices of the large multitude will sing.
After our experience with assemblies last year, this
is what Tapia has learnt.


Shortly before the last general election, Tapia
joined the URO Forum. With us were Young Power,
UMROBI, WEA and UNIP and one or two smaller
community groups. And then, in November 1971,
we again joined an Assembly of Free Citizens and
Groups. But on both of these occasions, the DAC.
DLP and the NJAC stayed away. Ofthose who came
in with us, UNIP in particular wanted a united poli-
tical instrument first and agreement on the kind of
society after.
UNIP is therefore quite right to say that they
have advocated opposition unity. Where Tapia has
differed all along has been in giving priority to a
widespread popular discussion of and agreement on
the kind of economy and society which we would
like to build here in Tobago and Trinidad, and in-
deed in the whole Caribbean. We are mortally afraid
of overnight parties after the WFP, the ACDC-DLP
and indeed after the experience of UNIP itself, not
to mention the mirage of the PNM.


But we have not been able to involve the op-
position in any genuine assembly that could
commit them to their ideological stances. For
them to have conceded any such arrangement to
Tapia would have been to give us a political victory.
We will never organise an assembly by this route
because groups seldom put nation before party if it
also means putting some other group first.
Robinson, for example, could conceivably
have joined conventional UNIP or unconventional
NJAC when he left the PNM in 1970- But he valued

his own creation much more highly than he valued
the unity of the opposition forces. NJAC also are
convinced that their strategy of people's war is the
one that is best for the country. Why should we
expect them to give pride of place to Tapia's or any
one else's position? The same holds good for URO
and all the other groups.
As far as Tapia can see therefore, the only
means of bringing the opposition forces together is
through some neutral body like the Constitutional
Commission. In other words, it is not enough for
the Constitutional Commission to be independent
and free of the Government, it must also give no
advantage to any of the opposition groups.
If Wooding is the tool of any one group, then

THE first Tapia speaker to address
the Arima meeting of the Constitution
Commission was Community Relations
Secretary, Ivan Laughlin.
Noting that for the first time the
people of the country were forging a con-
stitution of our own, Laughlin mentioned
the anxiety shared by.many people on the
outcome of the Commission's report.
"The document that comes out of
the national convention, Laughlin in-
sisted, "must be the final word. There
must be no compromise on that."

we are duty bound to repudiate him. Tapia has no
evidence that the Commission is anything but the
freest forum with the chance of evolving into a full-
fledged chorus of the people's varying voices. If ever
we were to find democratic discussion of the funda-
mentals impossible or even just unreasonably cur-
tailed, we would fold our tents and go as in similar
circumstances we did with URO and with the
November Assembly of Citizens.
The response which we have had to our part
cipation since the opening night in Arima has al-
ready vindicated the change in our political tactics.

We have provoked the reactionary, forces into
showing the world their colours and betraying who
and what they are. Characteristically, Williams has
ordered the PNM into political silence as soon as he
realized they were under open Tapia fire.
The one thing that a gangster party cannot
handle is fair and free discussion. Williams is merely
using the issue of constitutional reform as a smoke-
screen behind which the usual licks-like-fire Voice
will one day just pronounce on who must come and
who must go.


As to the DLP, which is the second fragment
of the old regime, they are simply trying a little
capeech. Proportional representation is the watch-
word to secure some seats in the House. The DAC is
the other representative of the old PNM-DLP
regime. Robinson is asking this country in the
middle of a political revolution to buy another cat
in bag. Amidst all the transparent theatrics, all he is
proposing is electoral reform and fresh elections to
put the PNM "C" Team in the Cabinet. And then,
he brazenly assures us, we will see whether it comes
out as a boy or a girl.


Well, in the unconventional camp where Tapia
and some others stand, we have seen all these
manoeuvres before. And what we've seen
enough to deter us from forming parties. We know
that it is pointless periodically to assemble crowds
about some personality in the public place when
these crowds represent no discernible social and
economic interest and share no common political
ideal. Being another PNM fragment, the UPP is only
the latest and most ridiculous specimen of these
pick-up-sides in the morning press. They must be
the last of a dying breed.
The February Revolution has spoken, we
must have genuine parties now. They must have
ideology, organisation and plan. That is dictated by
political independence and by the unholy mess
which the PNM has made.
The days of personalities and one-man rule are
over; opportunism and doctor politics are dead.
We must debate the make-up and the consti-
tution of the country so as to bring workable social
and economic ideals and interests together. We are
ready for participatory and party politics because
ironically, the PNM which never fulfilled that
promise of 1956, has made it necessary that we do
so now.


But how can we expose the basic interests
unless there is a free discussion? Can we for
example, accept the creed that the opposition
unions must remain outside of politics? Both
Robinson and Williams wish to keep us mum on this
one because they have both warned the unions off.
They are trying to sell us a Messiah and an atrocious
carbon copy.
But as the February Revolution approaches its
climax, every bitch and he brother is going to stand
up and be counted in politics. Every farmer, every
worker, every lawyer, every union, every party,
every group. And in that process every institution
will split into two. Every Church, every Party, every
Union; the Army, the Police and the University; the
Business world, the Public Service and already the
Judges have been showing who is free and who is


Two distinct political camps are already
emerging. Those who cherish freedom for the
people plump for discussion, debate and smooth
transition. Those who wish to keep us still in bond-
age urge obscurantism, confusion and theatrics.
We in Tapia have no doubt about where the
large majority of the people stand. We will get our-
selves together to insist on sweeping but peaceful
reform; and we are giving Wooding the chance. We
are emphatic that the Report of the National Con-
vention must be published and must be binding on
the government. If Williams chooses to stand in the
way of the people, he would leave us with one last
choice. And if we were ever to come to that, Tapia's
blood would not have any price.

I -' --~- I I ---

- -- I


Tapia Page 3


UNITED NATIONS -- BURUNDI has just suffered one of those
tragedies which the Western press attributes to "tribal conflict." Officially
the government of Col. Michel Micomberi places the casualties at 50,000.
Others estimate the number to be more than 100,000.
It would be easy for one unfamiliar with the history of Burundi to lay
the whole thing to "tribal warfare."
But the origin of the conflict in Burundi dates from the 1962 election to choose a
government to lead the independent nation. A surprise victor in these elections was the
Uprona (National Unity and Progress Party) over the Christian Democratic Party.





The Uprona adopted a programme
that was considerably left of centre. It
supported the "Casablanca Group" of
African countries which at that time
was led by the then President of Ghana,
Kwame Nkrumah; supported the
struggle against racist minority regimes,
and generally took an anti-Western

Prince Louis Rwagasore, a son of the
King, became prime minister. But two
weeks after the elections this Tutsi
prince, who had a Hutu wife, was
assassinated. His assassin was a Greek in
the hire of two or more Tutsi leaders of
the Christian Democratic Party. Prince
Jean-Baptiste Ntidenderesa and Joseph
Biroli were'tried' and executedialong with
the assassin.
Following the death of Prince
Rwagasore, there was a split in the
Uprona. One faction was led by Andre

Afro-World Associates
Muhirwa and the other by Paul
Mirerekano, a Hutu. The Muhirwa
faction was anti-Belgian, anti-clerical
and anti-Western. It accused the
Belgians and the clergy of supporting
the monarchy and the old feudal


This was a strange way for a Tutsi
prince to act. So if we are to believe
those who talk of tribal war in Burundi,
we must accept that Tutsi prince,
Muhirwa, was for abolishing the
institution of the monarchy, while
Mirerekano, a Hutu, was for bringing it
The King tried to smooth over this
basic conflict by restricting the powers
of the government. He dissolved the
Muhirwa Government in 1963 and





MILK/, we have been taught, is the per-
fect food. But in the modern world of
the advertising jingle, some brands of
milk are made out to be more perfect
than others.
And in today's Trinidad where
shopping for foodstuffs has become a
perilous game of chance, getting reason-
able milk value for money is like
dipping in a bran tub and hoping for the
Over the past months milk has been
subject to price revisions, price hikes,
price controls and artificial shortages in
a three way tug-of-war between the
Government, local milk interests and a
shadowy entity called the consumer.


Needless to say, with milk as with
other commodities similarly affected,
the consumer has come out at the sour
end. And it is the recognition of this
which has brought onto the scene a cla-
morously vocal interest group the or-
ganised housewives.
HATT, the Housewives Association
of Trinidad and Tobago, recently found
itself exposing as fraud a statement by
the Ministry of Industry and Commerce
which claimed that an official settle-
ment of milk prices meant lowering
prices in one case, "moderate" increases
in other cases and retention of the old
prices in yet other brands.
The housewives sought to introduce
some rationality into the issue by
making a study to discover how much is
paid for what. By reducing the "new"
figures to the common denominator of
price per pound, they were able to show
that there were actually increases in all
brands, not just in some.

Their most remarkable discovery
however, was the simple way consumers
could be gypped into believing that they
were getting milk cheaper while in fact
paying more for less.
Caught as we are in a twilight zone
between the imperial and the metric
systems, consumers will be increasingly
confused in trying to relate the new
measures to the old and computing the
relative prices.

What HATT have done is to show up
the need for an agency to provide the
kind of service they are now providing.
Bland Government statements and
equally bland commercials leave the
consumer in a vacuum of uncertainty.
HATT researchers revealed that one
manufacturer made a killing by packing
a smaller quantity of milk powder
weighted on the metric scale into a tin
of the same size, then charging a
"lower" price than what obtained for
the tin weighed in pounds and ounces.
But the price was in fact higher when
worked out on the basis of price per


It led the housewives to issue press
statements and make posters detailing
the relative price per pound of different
brands of powdered milk; to encourage
housewives to scrutinize labels carefully
when buying.
But this would still not be enough tc
liberate housewives from the illusion
that some milk is more perfect than
So HATT released at the same time a
"FACTS ABOUT MILK" bulletin which
provided comparative valuations for the
different brands and kinds of milk pre-
parations on the basis of the price we
actually pay per pound, pet litre, per
fluid ounce or per pint as the case may
In addition the bulletin it gave the
following bits of housewifely wisdom:
* Protein, fat and carbohydrate
ingredients in milk are available in
other foodstuffs. This enlightens
us as to what to look for in milk
preparations vis-a-vis other foods
so as to get a balanced diet.
* Skim milk is cheaper because it
has most of the fat removed. It is
also the most nutritious as it con-
tains more protein. To combat the
taste factor skim milk can be
mixed with full cream milk on a
fifty-fifty basis.
* The price of tinned skim mim.
nearly 50% higher than packaged
milk because YOU ARE PAYING
* Since there is no important nutri-
tional difference between brands
of full cream powdered milk, buy
the cheapest. You can choose to

named Pierre Ngendandumwe, a Hutu,
prime minister. Ngendandumwe was a
member of the "Monrovia" group,
meaning he was pro-West. He failed to
form a government, and the King was
forced to turn to the "Casablanca"
group, naming Albin Nyamoya prime
minister. This was 1964.
In June 1965, King Mwambutsa
dismissed Nyamoya and reappointed
Ngendandumwe prime minister out of
fear of a coup. He expelled the Chinese
Embassy and arrested a number of
members of the "Casablanca" group. He
also suspended the Federation of
Burundi Workers and the youth wing of
Uprona, the Rwagasore Nationalist
Ngendandumwe was subsequently
assassinated. Again over the issue of
"Casablanca" versus the "Monrovia"

There was nothing tribal in any of
these moves. There were Tutsi princes
and Hutu politicians fighting on issues
that had nothing to do with dominance
of the one group over the other.
Then when the King high-handedly
refused to accept a candidate for prime
minister in 1965 and instead named his
personal secretary, Leopold Biha, there
was a rising. Biha was seriously
wounded and the King fled across the
border to the Congo (now Zaire).
Captain Michel Micomberi led the loyal
forces which put the rebellion down.
The King had had enough. After his
return to Burundi, he left for Europe
never to return. Crown Prince Charles
Ndizeye, on July 8, 1966, announced
his father's abdication and assumed the
throne as King Ntare V. He dismissed
the Biha Government and named
Captain Micomberi his prime minister.
About five months later, while the

King was on a visit to the Congo
(Kinshasa), Micomberi -announced the
end of the monarchy, established a
republic and named a 13-man National
Revolutionary Council.

There was no mention of "tribal"
warfare in connection with any of these
developments. But there were signs that
tribal politics were injected from the
outside among some peasants. In 1965
the American ambassador was expelled
and there were strained relations with
Belgium which lasted for some time for
alleged implication in the conspiracy.
The Micomberi Government
Government set out to politicize the
masses: political events and political
discussion were carreid to the villages;
the labour movement was merged into
the Federation of Burundi Workers; the
youth and women organized into one
national group. The door was slammed
against the "Monrovia" faction ever
plotting their pro-Western coups. That is
why they had to organize their forces
outside -- on the territory of Zaire and
Tanzania, with the aid of Congo

The plot failed, though it cost
Burundi some of its best sons and
daughters among the peasantry.
Burundi Ambassador to the United
Nations, Nzanse Terence, has pointed
out that 60 per cent of Burundi's
population is a mixture of Tutsi and
Hutu through inter-marriage, and 40 per
cent is equally divided.
"When the correspondents talk of
Hutu-Tutsi enmity, they are not talking
of Burundi at all (which is unique in its
common civilization) but of another
country", Mr. Terence said.



Page 4 Tapia

THE coffin-lid creaks open,
slowly, while eerie music fills the
room. In blue-tinged faces, eyes
glow with horror-stricken expect-
ancy as the eyes in the coffin
blink, then stare fixedly. From its
darkened corner, the television's
one blue eyel, stares at its captive
After sweeping across Barbados.
"Barney-mania" has finally hit Trinidad.
What is "Bamey-mania"?lt is what the
Merrymen's latest) tune is about, the
subject of so many letters in the daily
press. Housewives, students, children all
haggle over viewing time fixed at 10.
Appearing five times weekly, the Dan
Curtis production of "Dark Shadows"
has literally brought horror into the
home. "Dark Shadows" first appeared
as a serial in the comic section of the
Sunday Express. Judging from the mild
wave of protest when the serial was
withdrawn, "Dark Shadows" had al-
ready caught the popular interest. The
screen version then drew sell-out crowds
at the cinemas, paving the way for the
sure success of the television series. With
a new twist, the television serial pro-
vided advertisement for the film "The
House of Dark Shadows", on a re-run.
double with "Night of Dark Shadows."
The vampire Barnabas Collins is the
anti-hero of The Dark Shadows Series.
Chained up in a coffin for nearly two
hundred years, he is finally released by
Willy, a thief, who never suspected what
really lay in the coffin he was about to
pilfer. The sleepy town of Collinsport
awoke to a night of horrors as Barnabas.
sleeping the sleep of the undead by day.
emerges after sundown to quench his
blood-thirst, supping at the victim's


PRICI $10.80


people I




with ...,

<, ir(

Generally,|horror films have managed,
strangely enough, to draw packed
houses. Even more strangely, except
perhaps to the psychiatrist, the greater
part of these audiences are women.
The macabre murders, the heart-
sit ling dliama. the bat-like fangs
dijppmin wnll blood are accepted with a
delight matched-only by' that otf 17th
century England Elizabethan theatre
audiences who thrilled to shows of
other-worldly demons.

Love-,stories. westerns, detectives.
thrillers, ,Ir suspense dramas all either
pamper ihe sentiments or excitethe in-
telec'i in some way. Just what is the
particular ilppl)eal of horror films? -They
certainly tln not relieve tension. Rather
I he% hiave anid almost masochistic fla-
vour.i g and add a twisted dimension to
the figure of death. Besides, for theI
superstitious, vampirism is rich in it,
folklore. The charms, the do's and
don't to observe when dealing with a
vampire would widen the eyes of any
obeah lman.
Another aspect of the appeal of these
films may lie, deep-seated, in religion.
The shining symbol of the crucifix is
used as a charm, the only protection
against the vampire. It burns deep on
touching him: hecannot look at it, the

symbol of a grace he can never e
keeps him at bay until the
driven through his heart. Relie
then, after the tension of the d
the assurance that good will
triumph over evil.
But m rnodii pioducCis take
cynical view of the idea of gi

evil. The films no longer re-create the
semi-medieval world of the earlier
Count Dracula pictures where monk
battled vampire, and good triumphed.
The settings are more modern, 20th
century, real. Evil wins, there is no
divine intervention, no relief from the
tension .. rather they end in a piercing
scream that echoes through the night as
you try to sleep. Superb examples of
this uneasy technique are "Brides of
Dracula" and "Night of the Living


Even the vampires are becoming
more "human." Barnabas Collins is at
this phase of the evolution. His condi-
tion is the result of a curse. He had only
good intentions towards Maggie Evans
who bore a startling resemblance to his
would-have-been bride, Josette Dupres.
The possibility of a second chance at


njoy. It happiness could not be allowed to pass
stave is by.
f comes As time goes on, he presents the
rama, in picture of a tortured man, bitterly re-
always senting his inhuman state, longing for
the peace of a true death. In the comic
serial he was depicted a hero, who
placed his super-human cunning and
a more peculiar position in the spirit-world at
ood and the service of others.

Jonathan Frid's portrayal of
Barnabas Collins places him among the
ranks of the vampire greats, Christopher
Lee, and Peter Cushing. Never forgetting
his role, his acting is powerful smooth,
shedding a harsh light on the per-
formance of the less experienced
Alexandra Moltke who plays the
heroine Vicky Winters. Kathryn Lee
Scott as Maggie Evans, smiling a bit less
would be more convincing.
So another character joins the
ghostly pantheon of local super-
stition. With the television taking the
place of the old raconteur, Barnabas
looms alongside the Lagahoo and the
Headless Horror currently roaming
Morvant and Laventille. And the song

"For when you bite Barnabas
I feel alright Barnabas
Oh hold me tight Barnabas
Till broad daylight... "


Barnabas meets

Papa Bois

111 Frederick St., & Campus 'St. Augustine


Cookeen Golden Ray Blueband
Vim Sqezy Drive Breeze
Sunlight Lux Lifebuoy Fiesta


- -

- ---f~l
------_ c


TWO machines, one
to husk coconuts and
the other to harvest
pigeon peas have
come out of a joint
project between the
agriculture and en-
gineering depart-
ments of the Univer-
sity of the West
Indies, St. Augustine.
University personnel
feel that the coconut-
husker will solve one of
the major bottlenecks in
the coconut industry not
only in the Caribbean
but wherever in the
world coconuts are pro-
In the past the
industry has suffered
from a scarcity of la-
bourers willing to work
at the tedious and time

lAn4 rage

Machine to aid pigeon pea harvesting
-= "; "r
4A ..

consuming task of
husking by hand the
thousands of coconuts
needed to make the in-
dustry profitable. Within
the next three or four
months, however, a full
scale husker will be on
view. Already a crude
laboratory model has

been designed that has
"practical commercial
Engineering and agri-
cultural collaboration
which grew in intensity
over the last two years
because of a personal
friendship between Mr.
Ron Dennis, lecturer in

The 'Butter Oil' Scheme

Every skin-teeth is not a laugh.
And soon we may be saying cheese
only to get another kick in the teeth -
with higher prices, more wasted taxes
and a further dislocated dairy industry
to add insult to injury.
The chaos of the milk situation over
the past months has been anything but a
laughing matter. But we may be in for
even grimmer stretch to get butter and
cheese before too long. That is if the
IDC big boys are allowed to have their
way and invite another "industry" to
continue the milking of our much-
sucked national resources.
"Butter oil" is the new scheme.
"Clarified" butter (that is, with water,
curd salt etc. removed) is to be im-
ported, then to be blended locally with
yater, emulsifier, flavouring, milk etc,
then to be packaged and sold locally as
reconstituted butter. Made in Trinidad!

As such it would qualify for duty
free importation of raw materials and
machinery and for tax concessions.
Negative Listing of butter imports
would come when the plant promoter
assures the Government that he can
supply enough of the reconstituted stuff
to butter local bread.
To the smug honourable minister
blandly hailing the arrival of a new "in-
dustry" and pointing to the few factory
jobs created, it will not matter so much
that we\ would be losing import dury
and income tax revenue, and gaining
higher prices to boot.
Nor would he appreciate the patent
stupidity of making butter, rendering it
into ghee (which is effectively what
butter oil is), then locally replacing the
previously removed water, curd, salt etc.
- just so that we can have a new "local

mechanical engineering
and Dr. P. Campbell,
agricultural engineer, has
resulted not only in a pea
harvester but in a new
kind of pigeon pea plant.
How this came about
is a fascinating example
of how different disci-
plines can influence each
other: mechanised pea
harvesting in the past was
difficult because pods
grew willy-nilly along the
stalk, and any machine
invented would have to
select pea from stalk and
leaves and the like. The
men of science tackled
the problem the other
way around in that a
strain of pea plant was
developed to accom-
modate the machine.
These plants have all
their fruit growing at the
top. Along comes the
machine, slices off the
tops, which fallon a con-
veyor bell which then
whisks them off to a
trailer and then to the
factory for canning or

the domestic market
places for selling.
Including a pea-shellei
on the machine is not a
particularly difficult pro-
blem, but because un-
shelled peas only have a
life of some six to eight
hours before they begin
to ferment, a decision to
include the sheller on the
machine has not yet been
Obviously such a deci-
sion cannot be taken
until the system of
pigeon-pea marketing in
the country is studied.
How long for instance, it
will take the Central
Market to dispose of peas
collected? If the pigeon
pea factory is in a posi-
tion to can peas hours
after it was collected and
so on.
Perhaps the answer
lies in developing a type
of pea which does not;
have such a relatively
short period of uncon-
taminated life.
The harvester, itself,
was the work of UWI
final year student Keith

Critchlow, who de-
veloped the machine as
part of the requirements
for his engineering
degree. The basic idea
came from a large but
not really satisfactory
machine which is at pre-
sent operating at Inter-
national Foods. Part of
the money -for research
in the project also came
by way of an Interna-
tional Foods grant.


Mr. Dennis feels that
agricultural engineering is
one of the major areas
through which his de-
partment can make a
contribution relevant to
the needs of the area. He
is all for more efficient
methods of production
and for reducing the
tediousness of some agri-
cultural work.
The plan is to set up a
major agricultural-
engineering programme
in the not-too-distant






Photo Contest


No Entrance Fee. Entry Forms Available At Kirpalani's

Deadline For Entries July31

$2,000 To The Overall Winner

$1,000 For The Second Overall Winner

Five $500 Prizes Fc

Two Categories:

)ur $250 Prizes

People, Environment

The Independence Photo Contest is designed to mark Trinidad & Tobago's 10th Anniversary of
This competition is open to all photographers Amateurs and Professionals.
You may enter as many times as you wish using any type of photograph, black and white, colour prints or
Pictures from this contest will be exhibited throughout Trinidad and Tobago.
All pictures are eligible. They need not be linked in any way with Independence.

Fifty $25 Prizes

Page 6 TAPIA








PROBLEM: Plans take up too much space.
SOLUTION: Make them larger.
EXPLANA TION: One 29" guitar pan takes up less space
than the conventional double guitar (twice 22").

making steelpans the size
of which you have never
seen. Twenty-nine inches
in diameter, they dwarf
the conventional pans so
much so that you
wouldn't believe the extra
seven inches make all that
Large as they are, however,
they have been designed to
beat what is, perhaps, pan's
biggest problem as ; commer-
cial proposition tieii cum-
bersome bulkiness.
With typical ingenuity,
Tony has arrived at a solution
that is simplicity itself: make
the pans of varying sizes and fit
them into each other like
glasses thus cutting down on
the tremendous transport bill
that cripples steelbandsmen in
their attempts to make fete,
concert and tour playing
financially worthwhile.

$60 A DROP

For example it costs a steel-
band anything between $150 -
$200 for transport from Port-
of-Spain to Arima The
shortest "drop" will not cost
less than $60 and many Port-
of-Spain steelbands will never
play in the South because few
impresarios want to pay the
cost of transport and their fees
for the night.. The problem is,
of course, that moving a steel-
band involves not one trip by
the truck-driver but a number
of trips.
As Tony sees it, if pans are
made in decreasing sizes with
the high-tenor being the
largest, the instruments will
take up less space on trucks
and more significantly less
space on aircraft when the time
comes for playing abroad.


The man's thinking doesn't
stop there. Already on the
drawing board are plans to
make the sides of the bass pans
(about four inches down from
the rim) out of a lighter collap-
sible material enabling panmen
to fold up their bass as it were.
And to the purists who will
worry that the sound 'will be
affected, the North Stars
captain has a ready answer.
Not only do larger ping-pongs
(high tenors) give a better
sounding note, but space is
provided to groove in more
notes as well, thus extending
the pan's musical range.
Innovation as this is, it will,
however, mean that the high
tenor will be going back to
what it was before. As the man
who has, perhaps, the most
practical head in the pan world
put it:
"Long ago high tenors had a
range of notes starting from B.

Today they drop out some five
notes and start from E. All this
because we had to drop out
notes to give us more space to
groove in the notes that we
considered essential. So we
acquired better sounding notes
but at the expense of a wider
note range."
Less notes have meant less
skilful players. Not that the
talent is not inherently there,
but the smaller pans do not
make the same demands on the
younger panmen'as the earlier
larger pans did during the
vintage year of pan soloing,
Then, menl like Cobo Jack,
Patsy Haynes (Casablanca) and
Theo Stevens (Southern All
Stars) enthralled the widening
steelband world with their
stick gymnastics.

So far, so good. But the
question that must be on
everybody's lips of course if
how is it possible to make pans
larger when steel-drums come
in a given size. In Tony's make-
shift laboratory next to his
home in Nepaul Street, St.
James, lies the answer.
Barebacked, muscles
bulging, Tony is surveying long

sheets of steel which he has
bought at the factory at $16
each. These he puts on a mould
and beats into the circular pan
shape. Once made circular, the
sheets are placed atop the usual
drum and there you have it
- a much larger playing sur-
The problem of time and
cost arises. And it is one that
Tony recognizes. The need for
sophisticated machinery to go
into pan manufacturing as
Tony conceives it is getting
more acute every day.
But Williams, like Bertie
Marshall, another steelband in-
novator, is a poor man. Thus
while the creativity is there,
funds are lacking. Meanwhile
nothing has been heard of the
Prime Minister's promise to
plunge $120,000 into pan re-
In his yard Tony has the be-
ginnings of a pan-sinking
machine. He knows what is to
be done. Hydraulic pressure is
the principle but nobody has
manufactured the machine.
Some 15 years ago Tony tried
it but because the walls of the
average steeldrum are thin,
pressure applied to the surface
caused the sides to crush. Now
that he has found a way tc

make the surface and then put
on the sides the hydraulic
machine idea has been revived.
But, no money.


It takes only a little vision
to see what can be done using
Tony's methods. Double
guitars and double seconds can
be combined so that instead of
two pans in each set one pan
with all the notes will suffice.
With no intervening space to
cross over panmen will be able
to achieve greater dexterity on
the single instrument.
Indeed, imagination boggles
at the thought of what can be
done. Separate shaping of the
surface means that the shape of
the pan is not limited to the
shape of the steeldrum. A pan
can be square, oblong, triangu-
lar or more sensibly, elliptical.


As captain of what was once
the greatest steelband, Tony's
is a dual role. After a tempo-
rary crash last year the band
was revived in January this
year. As it is the band had to
start from scratch that is if
any band with Tony Williams
as captain can be said to be
starting from scratch.
The band has the use of a
supporter's yard, but that is
hardly satisfactory when you
consider that from 1965 to
around 1970 the band saved
some $20,000 with the aim of
establishing a Pan Theatre on a
piece of land promised them
by the Government. They
never got the land and
disgruntled members soon
withdrew their contributions,
savings dwindled, and the band
is almost bankrupt.


Although the grand plans
for a theatre have been shelved
for the moment the band is
alive and well. To assure sup-
porters of this, North Stars
plan a Queen's Hall concert for
August-September, and the
releasing of an LP to follow the
two LP's made over the years.
Tony has not closed his
mind to electronics. He feel
that if the right type of elec-

tronic equipment is made pans
in time may break into the
electronic field in a move
pioneered by Highlanderis'
Bertie Marshall. So far he has
steadfastly refused to leave
Trinidad and Tobago despite
the many tempting offers of
work and funds for his research
that have come his way.


"I feel that I have to stay
here and try," was his wry re-
joinder to the question. Even if
it means, as it does, a fight to
keep his band afloat at a time
when steelbands have come a
long way from the Clarence
Curvan Dutchy Brothers
days when it was almost im-
possible to hold a fete without
a steelband. Today a steelband
in a fete is a relative rarity.
But Tony Williams feels that
steelbands can lick this chal-
lenge. By innovating, by
creating, he said. And we might
add, by the central authority
recognizing that in men like
Tony Williams Trinidad and
Tobago has first-class talent
and that in the steelband we
have not a curious novelty but
a genuine music form whose
development is being stunted
by the fact that it is an expres-
sion of the poor.

MORE than 10 years ago,
pan-man sculptor, Samuel
Raphael did a series of clay
figures showing his concept of
pan's future development. His
predictions were remarkably
correct. Indeed one of his
studies show pans of varying
sizes (see story), the use of
electronics (which Bertie
Marshall introduced seven
years ago in 1965.
The last stage (picture
above) according to Raphael, is
a fully electronic pan that can
be played by ONE man. Al-
ready as this story shows Tony
Williams has begun merging
two pans into one. Raphael
who comes from East Dry
River left Trinidad some years
ago to study art in Mexico.

look like much. Board and
mud houses, the occa-
sional surprise of concrete,
four stand-pipes down on
the flat to serve thousands
of people who live on the
hill Matter of fact the
place looks like nutten at
Cynics will say the place has
improved. It started as an even
more piddling thing. Former
leper patients put up shanties
on the Crown's land and as the
hustle in the land became
harder the small islands and the
resident poor followed to form
the sprawling equivalent to
Quarry Street's backyards.
Walcott would emasculate it
with his pen. Naipaul would
rape it.
But the houses that stick
out of the hills, in irregular
patterns, like knobs on a
draught board lying down
vikey-vie have been put up by
people working hard with
materials that have been sca-
venged or stolen or bought of
of the nutten that their labour
brings on the odd occasions
that anybody wants to buy
their labour.
Not even night can soften
Waterhole. It only blurs the
houses and the green that
would have been a beautiful
background elsewhere only
puts the visual wrtechedness of
the place in bright and sour re-
lief. And the dreamers will find
no comfort in gambolling
children either. Here children
don't gambol. They run under-
foot, hungry except in the
rainy mango season, or if they
win a ten-cent off some other
kid as hungry as themselves.
But if black people know
how to ketch hell, they know

Keith Smith




more how to survive. By toting
four bricks .on the head up a
slope that shoots up at an angle
of 35 and 45 degrees. House
taking long time to build. But
woman and perhaps, a man,
but certainly children walking
up the hill toting brick and
water to make house that poets
will call hovel.
And in one of these hovels
live Ma 13 to a room. She
survives that. As she survive all
the other pressure over the
years. Not that there is any-
thing exceptional about Ma in
Waterhole. Everybody there
strong enough to survive.
The young too. Must be
about 80% young people here,
living on nutten but strong.

Enough to battle hunger and
the cursing and the envy and
distrust that poor people
bound to have among each
other. Like Gransaul who used
to be one of the 13 living with
Ma until he got a room for he,
his girl and his child. Three to a
In Waterhole they tell the
story of Wilbert who pains-
takingly saved $150 bo buy a
donkey in Tobago. He bought
the donkey and began
operating a local ferry carrying
the villagers' baskets, lumber
and the like up the steep
slopes. He was in business for
about two weeks and then the
donkey got entangled in the
tether rope, hung himself and

died. Donkeyless, Wilbert is
saving again.
I remember the first time I
saw Ma. She was sitting in
front of the one room in the
shack. A hefty strong woman,
after 13 children. She was
fretting about one of her sons.
He hadn't come home to the
shack of 13 people for about
four days and Ma was saying:
"That boy is only trouble.
He 'ent remember he have a
mother. But he know if is the
last cent I have and he in
trouble he getting it. And if ah
have to go and take a man by
the corer to get money to get
him out of trouble, ah doing
it." Money to get somebody
out of trouble. It is the con-
stant preoccupation of Water-
hole mothers. Law is law and
the statute books don't take
into account 13 people living
in a room.

Sociologists talk about the
charity of the poor unto the
poor. But Waterhole too poor
for that. Every man for himself
and the man that manages to
lift himself up a few inches is
regarded with at best, envy, at
worst, dislike, for his advance
reinforces in the minds of the
rest the baseness of their posi-
There are the drums, how-
ever. Sometimes in the
mornings and sometimes in the
evenings and sometimes even
under the wrack of the torrid
Waterhole sun' the drums echo
out. Young fellers, barebacked,
beat out rhythms in competent
displays of calypso and ritual
drumming. Mansa is their
Sometimes they beat way
beyond the lunch hour. For

IArIA rage /
meals are not the taken-for-
granted things that they are
elsewhere. Still, it takes
searching questioning to find
out all these things. There is no
litany of complaining. The
shouting and the mama-guy are
as spirited. There is much
laughter and much dancing and
to converse with the fellers is
to be reminded once again of
the intelligence of the people.
Only now in addition to this
inherent intelligence, there is
an articulateness born of
rappings on the block, of
Fanon, Cleaver Nunez said
this and Weekes said that.
Waterhole wakes up with
alacrity. Tumbling out its
joiners and its masons, small
skilled men who go out looking
for work. Young men who
join the throng looking for
casual labour on the docks and
the many, who recognizing the
odds against them getting any-
thing just stay on the comer
and lime.
STo lime is to talk. About
the community dust bin which
:sited yards away from the
:standpipe urges the populace
to keep Waterhole clean. Some
make the effort. The realists
:know that it is not possible to
meet the request; to talk about
people who are not to be
trusted and to wonder whether
the fellers on the hills wil
make it.
To talk matter-of-factly
about the 14-year old girl
making fares for a living and
the fact that AMOCO AND
BASRA paying "good bread."
To talk about the nothing
that is being done in Waterhole
but to talk as well about plans
for the future. Here going away
is too much of a rarity to be a
real prospect. So talk about the
future is about the future here.
And if the fellers in Waterhole
want anything bad is that.

cor. duncan street and independence square port-of-spain phone 5371-5



We offer the most attractive interest rates
on all deposits

...the bank that understands

the workers' bank

Page 8 TAPIA



is dead;

Long live



WHEN Rafael Leonidas Trujillo
was gunned down on May 31,
1961, many people thought a
new chapter would open in the
history of the Dominican people.
But 11 years after the dictator's
death a man in the same mould still
holds the presidency: Joaquin Balaguer,
a political veteran who has been des-
cribed as more of a Trujillo man than
Trujillo himself.

In his six years of rule, Balaguer has
used the same tactics of terror and cor-
ruption as those which earned Trujillo's
regime notoriety as one of the most
hated dictatorships in Lain America.
While the CIA and US State Depart-
ment brought about the execution of
Trujillo, they failed to wipe out his
henchmen in the army, police and ruling
The very same people wh o worked
with Trujillo continue to fill top jobs in
the Armed Forces, government
ministries and diplomatic services. What
is more they have won back their confis-
cated property.

Opposition leaders say the Balaguer
government has stepped over its own
bounds by the placing of ever-increasing
dictatorial power in the hands of the
The government has distinguished
itself by an almost unbroken chain of
abuses, political murders, disappear-
ances, searches, arrests and massive pea-
sant evictions.
Dominican lawyers have described
these acts as systematic violation of
human rights, the people rate it Trujillo-
type behaviour. But Balaguer maintains
he heads a democratic government
threatened by subversive extremists.


Let the facts speak for themselves. A
few will suffice. The Dominican Re-
public has a 50 percent unemployment
rate. Meanwhile American companies
enjoy rich pickings from ultra-generous
The Gulf and Western companies,
who have been exempt from taxes for
20 years, rule almost the entire eastern
region of the country. And they have
big holdings in some of the country's
basic industries, such as tobacco.
Major industrial and commercial
companies have been placed in the
hands of American investors. The South
Puerto Rico Sugar Corporation owns
the giant Romana sugar mill complex.
In another such complex Gulf has esta-
blished a virtual mini-state, with its own
administration, police and legal system.
Licences for the construction of
casinos and beach motels have been
granted to prominent mahfa leaders.


Profits from the increased rate of
foreign investment have served to enrich
regime supporters and business leaders
who maintain close links with their
American counterparts. But the invest-
ment bonanza has not helped to solve
the country's major economic pro-
blems: a decrease in agricultural pro-
duction, a major jump in imports parti-

cularly of luxury goods, and a drop in
The overseas debt has risen to $400
million. And instead of solving the eco-
nomic troubles, the Balaguer govern-
ment is concentrating its efforts on the
biggest wave of terror unleashed since
Trujillo held power.
Balaguer has given public backing to

rightwing thugs carrying out a violence
campaign in the Santo Domingo slums
which backed the constitutional revo-
lution of colonel Francisco Caamano in
An armed group known as La Banda
carry out day and night house searches,
kidnaps and murders of opposition
leaders. They have the support of police

The majority of La Banda's members
are recruited by police from among the
hordes of unemployed who snatch any
opportunity for work.
Many are former leftwing sympa-
thisers -lrI infiltrators who hunt down
their former comrades in a skilful plan
devised by CIA experts.
The 1965 revolution, besides demon-
strating the people's willingness to fight
for their rights, also did the security
men a great service. Now they know the
left militants and the process of wiping

them out is that much easier.
Now the hard-pressed Dominican left
seems unable to make an effective reply
to the imperialist plan to make the
Dominican Republic a strategic
strongpoint for colonialism. Puerto Rico
There are more than ten leftwing
groups each of which accuses the others
of complicity with the CIA and engages
in nothing more active than polemics.


Meanwhile, Balaguer has stated that
he may run for the presidency again. If
he wins it will be his third term in office
since 1966 when by means of fraud,
police terror, and Organisation of
American States diplomacy, he first was
placed in what he calls the hot seat.
And it looks as though the heat is
affecting him. He already has told his
supporters to put forward his applica-
tion for the 1974 elections.
By openly entering the lists, Balaguer
has increased political tension on the
eve of the seventh anniversary of the
1965 revolution.
In 1972, the Dominican Republic
finds that time has stood still for four
backward decades. But things have
changed in Latin America after Cuba,
Peru and Chile.
The Balaguer government, with
massive United States backing, claims it
is enjoying "unprecedented prosperity."
But grave contradictions lie beneath
the surface of Dominican society. Seven
years ago they came suddenly to the
surface, and all the Americas were dis-
turbed by the shock waves.


"GENTLEMEN, we have arrived at a decision," said the President.
At which point you could hear a card drop in the Fabulous Recreation
Centre on Piccadilly Street.
"Before us," he continued," there are two protests.. ."
But over at the Solo Waterfront Recreation Club on Nelson Street,
"Bunkans," his huge bulk lolling over a chair, licked his lips and with
fitting reverence reminisced over the "All Fours" greats he knew:

Tapia Page 9



"Roodal from Concorde, Daniel
Beharry from the bus company, Seekan
Singh from San Juan, Grant from
There's rhythm in the man's voice
and he literally sings the five-line victory
chorus of "Shellane Sheikers," the most
Musical All Fours side in the land:
"Over to your sports commentator."
"Raffle Knowles!"
"What table?"
"Number four mark it don't
talk it."
Yes, for all its troubles on tne
national level," "All Fours" remains
pure theatre and pure Trinidad
theatre at that.
Affording as it does ample opport-
unity for camaraderie, swash-buckling
sharp talk, it is not surprising that "All
Fours" is as popular in the country as it
Indeed, James Skeete, the 1st Vice
President of the National All Fours
Association makes large claims for All
Fours and Trinidad. He claims we in-
vented it. Maybe, maybe not. For like
all card games All Fours origins are lost
in the past.
According to the Association, how-
ever, the Caribs and Arawaks played All
Fours with smooth stones on which
were depicted pictures and numbers to
determine points.

And according to oral history,
matches used to be played against the
various villages "and great were the
festivities with goats, pigs (wild ones)
and fowls being eaten with strong home
Yet another story is that the game
was brought here by the Spaniards who
passed it on.
No matter.;The game is here. In Port-
of-Spain alone there are some four -or-
ganised competitions. In Curepe,
Tacarigua, Penal there are also organised
competitions and the National All Fours
Association's Competition includes
Tobago as well.
Of course, the bulk of "All Fours"
matches is played in galleries and back-
yards, but over the last few years a
curious development has taken place.
On practically every day of the week
men and women, most in their forties,
some in their fifties (there is even a 70
year old All Fours player) tramp up-
stairs to one or the other of the
numerous recreation clubs that proli-
ferate all over the country.
There, locked in their own sanctums,
and surrounded by blaring juke-boxes
and youngsters doing the "Penguin" or
whatever dance that is occupying
youth's fancy at the moment, fathers
and mothers peer intently at cards,
planning and playing, hanging jacks,
their delirious "HEROES OF WAR!"
breaking into Sparrow's "Drunk and
Disorderly" or James Brown's
"Escapism." Beaming clubowners, glad
for the patronage, come up with
trophies and the games go on.


But All Fours is serious business.
Away from the blare of the clubs the
organizers of the various Competitions
- Imperial Manshop's Old Oaks', and
the National Competition itself, sit
down late into nights, arranging
schedules and programmes and above all
officiating over disputes.
If anything "All Fours" is a game of
disputes. Disputes that arise over the
fact that there are no standard rules for
the game, and from district to district,
from club to club, rules differ hence the
need for dispute settlers.
Thus in the" Fabulous Recreation
Club, the President of the Imperial Man-
shop's All Fours Competition, Orman
Holder is saying that the Executive
Committee has arrived at a decision re-
garding the dispute between Singing
Guns and Coca-Cola Sunbeam. The
meeting is orderly, the Committee's
ruling is final.

The protest?
Argue Singing Guns: 'The match was
played at the Singing Guns playing
place. The match started at 7.45 p.m. It
continued without a dispute up to half-
time which was taken at 9.30 p.m. Play
resumed at 7.45 p.m. and continued
until 11 p.m. The scoreboard read 32 -
28 in favour of the Guns. Time was
called at 11 p.m. by the captain of the
Guns who pointed out that it was a
three hour game: with one and a three
quarter hours being played in the first
half and one and a quarter in the


"As such," argued Singing Guns,
"the] opposing captain had a right to sign
the score card."
"Not so," argue Sunbeam. According
to them, the rules call for two playing
periods divided into an hour and a half
each. Sunbeam, conceded, however,
that it was a genuine mistake on the
part of both teams in that neither
realized until too late that the first half

IN LINE with a policy of "national
recovery" the Haitian regime of Jean-
Claude Duvalier has granted the US
Wendalls-Phillips petroleum company a
concession to prospect for oil in Haitian
According to Realite Haitienne, a
Haitian exile paper, the Wendalls-
Phillips company is now virtually a state
within a state in Haiti.
The contract stipulates that the
government must put the entire country
at the company's disposal so it can
utilize resources correctly, set up
businesses there and allow these
businesses to operate efficiently.
Meantime, the dictatorship is con-
tinuing to expropriate all the land it can

had gone over the stipulated one and a
half hours.
The decision?
"The Committee feels that when a
match is not played by the rules such a
match should be abandoned with both
teams losing the points. But taking into
consideration the reputation and con-
duct of the two teams (there was no
dispute during the match and no team
attempted to lie in its protest) and the
fact that it was a genuine mistake and
that no team attempted to break the
rules for its own sake, we have decided
that the match be replayed under the
supervision of a representative of the
Scenes like this take place repeatedly
and are the backbone of the
competitions, hence the order that is an
integral part of all the competitions.
The trouble is, however, that all these
competitions take place without any
connection with each other. And
therein lies the Number One trauma of
the National All Fours Competition.
The Association feels that the
interest of All Fours in the country

Haiti sells

out to oil


give to the US monopolies. The re-
sulting dispossession of the peasant
population is facilitated by the fact that
the contract gives the oil companies the
right to acquire any land backed up
the state's, ultimate power of explo-

would be better served were there a
cohesive All Fours body with all the
'minor' competitions affiliated to the
'major' Association. Only then, the
Association feels, would the Govern-
ment be willing to view the game as a
national sport.
So far, however, none of the minor
competitions has shown any interest in
affiliating with the Association. One
feels that each competition wants to do
its own thing and that, the price to pay
for the Government's support is too
much, since it could mean losing their
own identity.


Nevertheless, the National Sports
Council has recommended some kind of
unity, so much so that the National All
Fours Association attempted to link up
with the Bridge Association. Nothing
came of this and the Association feels
that this was because of "class."
"Well," said the Association's
treasurer, Wilfred McClean, "you know
that the people who play Bridge belong
to high society and we got the im-
pression that they really didn't want to
have anything to do with we All Fours
players. All Fours has a stigma, you
While one can censure the pettiness
of the bridge players, one cannot help
feeling that a marriage between All
Fours and Bridge is somewhat ludicrous.
To say that they belong together
because they are both card games is like
saying that Tapia and the United Pro-
gressive Party should get together
merely because they are both opposi-
tion groups.
Meanwhile, the game continues. And
what was once a backyard game is or-
ganised into minor competitions
throughout the country (the National
All Fours Association has some 80
teams within its ambit, each team
having some 30 players).


At one time the type of All Fours
that found the most favour was
"Jellico" trump and play anything.
But the swing has been to the "Jack
Johnson" game trump and follow
suit, a longer game, more excitement,
with players determined to save their
jacks from hanging at any cost.
And the players, continue their gun-
talk. Up in the Solo Waterfront All
Fours Club, Bunkans raises his huge self
off the chair and with a triumphant
head-thrown-back stance he cries:
"This is Wyatt Earp and Calamity
Jane riding into Tombstone."
To the uninitiated this is meaningless.
But to those in the know, and in this
case to those at the receiving end, the
message is clear. Bunkans has a bulls-
The cry goes up from his member-
tables, in varying cadences, a stress, now
on this syllable, now on that:
"Heroes of War!"

Thus anyone is liable to loss of his
land, and displaced peasants are now
swelling the ranks of the already large
urban unemployed.
Nevertheless, the regime is selling the
line that this industrialization by invita-
tion in its most brutal form is providing
for the economic betterment of Haiti,
and helping to eliminate unemployment.

The full effect of policies of
economic neo-colonialism and dicta-
torial repression is to force Haitian
patriots to look to violent overthrow
of the Duvalier oligarchy as the only
way to really "recover" the country
from the grip of American imperialism.

d- I I

I P I I I I, d~i -- L

rage iu iapla









"Quicksilver" Savary collected
cleanly, spun around on des-
perately thin legs, raised his head
and passed perfectly to his winger
sprinting down on the right. All in
a second. And the church clock,
adjoining the Tacarigua ground
chimed, acknowledging, as it were,
that football in Trinidad was alive
and kicking.
Lost as I was, watching nine, 12 and
14-year olds collecting, dribbling and
passing with convincing precision, it was
left to the seasoned Eddie Hart to intro-
duce a note of reality. It was a sour one.
"Boys like Chris will grow up, go
into town, lured by the chances of press
coverage and national publicity, they
will join one of the big clubs. They will
play for a while. And then the daily
scramble for the dollar to go into town
will begin to tell, they will give up, their
game will peter off and they will join
the ranks of the ex-big-time footballers.
I know. I have seen it and I have ex-
perienced it."
Coming from him, these were pessi-
mistic words indeed. For a man who in
1967 organised what he thought, then,
would be a small league but saw it
mushroom into a league that takes in
some 1,500 players and 50 officials
giving freely and voluntarily of their
free time, he didn't seem to think that
football was alive and kicking.
In spite of the visible brilliance of the
footballers taking part in his League, in
spite of the artistry witnessed in the
streets when youngsters with no
grounds on which to play dance around
pot-holes and rubbish cans, passing
pedestrians and passing cars, Eddie felt
football was in serious trouble.
It was this concern over the game
that led him to organise the League in
1967 a League which almost over-
night became a key centre of football in
the country attracting the star players in
the game until the TFA revived the old
rule No. 19 under which members
playing in affiliate clubs of the TFA
were forbidden to play in the Minor
Argued Eddie and his Committee in a
memo to the then Parliamentary Secre-
tary for Sport, Frank Stephens: "Any
rule which seeks to keep the 'stars' in
any particular sport aloof from the
underprivileged but talented is a hind-
rance to the meaningful fraternity to
which our nation aspires football
must not be for the privileged only be
it player, spectator or organiser. Foot-
ball is for all. It must not be restricted
to one or two, or just a few particular
'Meccas.' It must be played in all fields
throughout Trinidad and Tobago."
Former ace Trinidad forward, Alvin
Corneal, concedes that there might be
case for the T.F.A.'s ruling in that:
(1) the Minor Leagues do not offer

A ring of spectators took in this bit of concentrated action in a match last year between.
two top Minor League Teams, Blackpool and Glamour Girls at Aranguez Savannah.

@1-*"0 1 I:A: 29U -- -r-
Success village's "Slush" Le Ben, Arthur Small and Courtney Bruce (from left) with the
trophy they won in the Progressive Movement Football League last year. The three are mem-
bers of Paramount Sports and Cultural Club, the club that made a tremendous showing in its
first outing in the League although like the rest of clubs in Laventille they do not have a single

ground on which to practise.
any protection from injury, and injury
is always possible since the up and
coming players are out to "get" the
(2) the big-boys by playing on a
team deny up and coming youngsters a
chance to make the side.
At the same time, however, Alvin
also concedes that the Minor Leagues
afford the players a tremendous
around of joy in that they bring out
the home crowds and players are able to
get recognition that for one reason or
the other might be denied them playing
in the major leagues organised by the
Making a round of past and present
footballers it was clear that that they
felt that players from the small clubs
were discriminated against with key
positions on representative bodies going
to members of the big clubs. Malvern,
Maple, Paragon, Regiment (now the De-
fence Forces) as against clubs like
Midvale, Colts, Dynamos and the rest.
What everybody seemed to be
arguing was the case for a new football
structure with the pinnacle being a pro-
fessional League. The TFA, for all that
it has written into its Constitution does
not organise football throughout the
length and breadth of Trinidad and
Tobago hence the need for the Minor
Leagues to fill the breach.
As Eddie put it:
"There's tremendous talent all over

the country. In Toco there are good
players but what happens they play
for a while, then end up in the village
rum shop, frustrated with nowhere to
go and the country loses a possible star
player." In stressing that football should
not be organised on any one or two
"Meccas" Eddie put his finger on what
was wrong with Trinidad's football.
Again it is a question of the over-
The signs are pointing to the need for
Community Leagues, incorporating the
Minor Leagues into the major structure,
with players bringing off their best
where they live, thus getting away from
the daily scramble to get that -dollar
to go into town. While it is not possible
for the country to support every foot-
ball player, players would be willing to
make the sacrifice if they felt that their
ability could lead them to the top of the
football ladder where they could be
paid for their skills and for their contri-
bution to the game.
Organisation from this point of view
seems a tall order. And it is in the
present context of TFA organisation.
But if local government authorities were
made more meaningful in that they
were given control over their area,
organising not only the maintenance of
roads, sanitation but sports in the area
as well, then the workload would be
considerably lessened.
More important, the top community-
team in the country would come about
not simply as a result of the skill and
dedication of the players but of the

ability of the community to organise as
well. As such it would be the com-
munity and not simply the team that
would emerge champions.
After years of talk the country still
does not have a Professional League.
Everybody opposing it argues that it is
too costly. But they ignore the fact that
while it is costly in the context of the
game today where the only revenue
collected is at the few "Meccas", people
in Trinidad and Tobago will pay to see
football and that they will be even more
prepared to pay if they know that
revenue collected will go to assist
players, more likely than not friends of
theirs, and to maintain existing grounds
and even set up new grounds where
To embark on such a programme,
however, the TFA must approach foot-
ball not as an extra-curricular activity in
the country but as what it is a form
of recreation that means a tremendous
amount to a huge section of the popula-
tion. It cannot, of course. Amazingly,
the players that I met mentioned the
one word in connection with football:
By that was meant not the inter-
vention of a political party though
this was argued to be the case in the
National Sports Council but a manner
of procedure: selecting people not on
merit but on connections: friends
standing up for each other and paying
no attention to the real issue under dis-
Take the case of the proposed
National Football League which was
suddenly and mysteriously scrapped.
Efforts to find the real reason for
scrapping the League revealed that again
it was the petty interests of officials
whose first allegiance was to the teams
they represented.
To my mind, it is more than that for
any attempt to fit a Professional League
into the present football structure
simply cannot work. Jealousies are
bound to arise since the thing would not
have grownorganically but would
merely be an imposition that has come
about, not because the officials see any
real value in it, but as a concession to
footballers, many of whom are unem-
Like so many things here, the only
answer is a radical approach. Either that
or football will continue to stagger
along from year to year. Indeed, if we
are to judge from the fewness of players
who turned up at the pre-season prac-
tice matches of the various clubs
(imagine a club like Malvern scrambling
to get players, Malvern who have been
dubbed the "glamour side" of the land)
the fears of the football officials that
the minor leagues will become the real
centres of local football will come to


The TFA would do well to look
around and see with which current the
people are moving. Things have changed
during Eric James' 30-odd year tenure.
It can hardly be an accident that the
best players find themselves in Police
and the Defence Forces and let us not
fool ourselves: they are brought into
these units because of their football
ability, either through direct represent-
ation from police and army boys or
because the path to joining is made
easier for them because of their known
prowess. They are in fact being paid to
Hopefully, Eddie will yet be proven
wrong. And "Quicksilver" Chris may
have a football future after all. The
point is if the TFA is too set in its ways
to provide for that future then we
will have to ridithe sport of them and
this time with no hypocritical plaudits

TAPIA Page 11




A SOLID steel arch has
recently been constructed
at the entrance to St.
James Barracks. Topped
by a large neon emblem of
the Police Service the
star of David, the arch
announces that the former
British Army barracks is
now the Trinidad and
Tobago Police Training
College. At either foot
of the arch is a large photo
of a model graduate of the
College a saluting dress-
uniformed policeman and
a policewoman.
With charity, you could
call it an initiative at
public relations, awkward
and uninspired, notwith-
But it is an initiative coming
from police authorities whose
perspectives for the Service can
be summed up simply: more
spit and more polish on the
Star of David silver buttons.
To say that Commissioner
Bernard and the whole clutch
of police officialdom show a
stark lack of rap is only to con-
cede the obvious that they
belong in an essential sense to
what we call the PNM regime.
And this, for the moment, is
altogether apart from the fact
that they have acquiesced in
the use of the police for PNM
political purposes.
What really distinguishes
the PNM regime is not mem-
bership in the party or holding
of government office but the
fact that they share a complex
of assumptions, values and
ideas about the society, about
law, about the economy and
social behaviour, which are
hopelessly out of touch with
the rest of us.

Let us consider the case of
the police woman who got
pregnant and ended up by
being suspended from her job
when a 'marriage with the
policeman child-father-to-be
could not be arranged.
The case came to public
knowledge at the time when
pressure was being brought to
bear on the couple to get
married or else face punish-
ment transfer to a distant
station for the man and suspen-
sion for the girl. Here was
the lawyer-Police Com-
missioner seeing himself in loco
parents and starring in an un-
believable soap-operatic farce.
He actually asked the young
man: "What are your in-
And according to the
newspaper report the young
man replied, like most young
men in the same position, that
he had not made up his mind
and could not give an answer as
Nowadays, when not even
Catholic bigots would easily
contemplate forcing a marriage
in that way, the Police Com-
missioner was holding an SLR
to heads of the unfortunate

It didn't work. For this is
not the Police IFore of the
days when Commissioner
Bernard worked his way up
through the lower ranks.
The SLR wedding didn't
come off because despite
everything, the young police-
men and women in the Service
are part of the young in this
society who have rejected the
authoritarian culture in which
the ethos of the Police Force
was moulded.

Rather than hush-up the
whole thing and settle up
socially with a traumatic
marriage, the young policeman
and police woman chose to bear
punishment and let the whole
issue be thrown open to the
And what could be more
apt at a time like this when we
are engaged in considering the
kind of society in which we
want to live? The law normally
buttresses and expresses such
assumptions about social order
and personal conduct as are
generally shared in the society.
But the fact is that in our
society today the moral found-
ation of the laws by which we
rule ourselves are and have
been under question. It is what
expresses a constitutional
The letter of suspension
from Commissioner Bernard
copies straight out of a
Naipaullian satire.
"Sometime between the
months of December, 1971
and April 1972 (the police-
woman) %did commit an act
against discipline to wit. Being
an unmarried member of the
Woman Police Branch of the
Trinidad and Tobago Police
Service without reasonable ex-
cuse, did become pregnant -
an act tending to bring dis-
credit on the reputation of the

This would otherwise be
screamingly funny. But these
days there is something chil-
lingly cynical about seeing a
love affair between two police
officers as producing "an acl
against discipline."
A pregnancy resulting from
an affair between an unmarried
couple is seen as a punishable
act against discipline. But so
far no disciplinary action is
heard about an Inspector
Babb's perjury against Brian
Chen or for that matter the dis-
closure than an Assistant Com-
missioner swore a false oath to
get out a search warrant.
Indeed it is thunderous
official stupidity of this kind
which brings more discredit on
the reputation of the Police
Service. What is a "reasonable
excuse" for getting pregnant?
And assuming there can be
some rational conception of
what is a reasonable excuse,
what would Commissioner
Bernard have done if the girl is
unmarried? Order an abortion?
What with the growing con-
sciousness among women
today, this is certain to be a big
issue. Indeed as one Tunapuna
housewife noted "they send
him to Toco where he could do
his own thing again and no-
body can't see."

As the policeman could not
possibly be charged for a
breach of discipline "to wit ...
becoming pregnant," undeni-
ably the woman has borne a
greater share of the blame .in a
situation for which they ought
to be equally responsible.
And the inescapable conclu-
sion that this is simply because
she is a woman will not be lost
on other women. Clearly, the
weight of social opinion is
against that kind of victimi-


station of an unwed mother and
her child. Women police will
not fail to note the male-
chauvinistic attitude under-
lying the response of the police
authorities to what is a normal,
human problem.
Once again authoritarian
obtuseness has simply played
into the hands of elements of a
rising consciousness. In 1969
when Donald Pierre mounted a
moral high horse to expel three
schoolgirls for smoking mari-
juana, that single act had the
effect not only of exposing the
heavy-handed insensitivity of
the regime, but also of pro-
viding with an issue a
burgeoning army of young dis-
senters thereby sharpened with
a rich insight into the system
that needed to be displaced.
Months after that, the
regime proving itself con-
genitally incapable of learning
anything, moved with fatal
effect to arrest and charge
young demonstrators for oc-
cupying the cathedral. Even
when the Archibiship, the per-
sonification of the offended
party thought to extend a be-
nign hand of forgiveness.
Both that case and the steel-
bandsmen who were arrested at
Christmas 1970 for playing
"noisy instruments" in the
streets demonstrated as well
the anachronism in a lot of the
laws still on the statute books.
That the law is even more
of an ass in the hands of the
hopelessly hard-backed is
proven by the recent case of
the young policeman charged
by Commissioner Bernard for
saying something like, "what
the arse wrong with this man."
Bernard lost the case; that
couldn't be obscene language,
the magistrate ruled.
Policewomen by their very
presence in increasing numbers
of late have done more than

anything else to humanize the
image of the Service. The
severe black, white, grey and
navy blue tones of the Police
image are still unrelieved by
anything representing light,
youth, wit and humour, beauty
and a kind of zestful engage-
ment with living.
It is not surprising that one
high police officer humour-
lessly denied before the Clarke
enquiry that he could conceive
of any conversation carried out
in the dark. "Every man to his
own order," the cross-
examining lawyer commented.

Or that two policemen
could with straight faces take a
girl before the court because
her hot pants had prints of
pictures they considered
indecent. The high point of
this of course, was in the mid-
60's when the notorious In-
spector Tobias took an artist to
court for exhibiting paintings
of nudes in Woodford Square.
In 1970 police were busy
shaving people's Afros, ha-
rassing young men in dashikis
and confiscating Afro combs!
And always they are sup-
pressing marijuana. It is not
as if I for one am happy
about everything that is hip
But the instinctive revulsion
against, or at best patronizing
attitude to certain social
changes especially as they ma-
nifest themselves in young
people is a decisive charac-
teristic of the culture of joy-
lessness and spiritual deadness
that is the PNM regime.

To understand what causes
this lack of empathy with the
throb of a society on the move,
of young people embracing the
new perhaps too iridiscrim-
inately in a rejection of the
values of the past, we need to
go back to "t. James Barracks.
There, the rusted cannons
still guard the embattled gar-
rison of colonialism. The Police
Training College, under the
control of the PNM regime irre-
deemably estranged from what
.the people of this country are
saying, doing and feeling,
serves as the primary agency to
alienate the young recruit from
his origins and connections
with the impulses of the
But the press of change
moves inexorably to tear down
the steel pike fences and claim
the police service for the




and Available in
16 Henry St., P.O.S.

new world NOW ON SALE Tapia House
91 Tunapuna Rd.




WORK has begun in
Laventille on a $40,000
metal workshop. Man be-
hind it is a 29-year old lan
Glasgow, but young men
in the area are helping
with the workshop on the
assurance that they will
have first lien on employ-
The shop, to be called
Glasgow and Edmund
Welding Construction is a
six year dream of
Glasgow's. When com-
pleted it will be another
phase in the development
of an unofficial welding
school that has flourished
in Laventille's Erica Street
over the last 10 years.
Glasgow points out that
over the last 6 years the
"School" has sent out
some 15 skilled welders
who are now earning well
paid jobs in the country.
Others who have not
acquired the complete
skills that Glasgow de-
mands are managing to
hold down jobs with
various construction firms,
And Glasgow boasts that
only three youths have
dropped out of the class
over the last six years.

Money for the initial con-
struction came from savings
put aside by Glasgow and his
two brothers .Oliver and
Ferdinand Edmund. As a
matter of fact all three
brothers are at present doing
supplementary welding jobs to
maintain their family and to
gain even further savings for
ploughing back in the shop.
In addition to the help given
by the youths in the area -
notably Trevor Dick, Anthony
Villaroel, and Ralph Andrews
- Highlanders' captain Bertie
Marshall supplied some of the
metal needed at no cost.
Also construction en-
gineer, Bert Roxborough,
aware of the ambitions of the
three brothers, kept them
supplied with a regular quota
of construction jobs all over
the country over the years.


At present the brothers do
not have all the capital
necessary but Glasgow has de-
cided to go ahead since he is
confident tht he will get
Government's help after he has
shown he has made the
initial investment.
In addition to continuing
his training of apprentices,


Glasgow is determined to go
into' other construction(fields
- like the making of
nuts and bolts, wheelbarrows
"There is absolutely no
reason, once we have the
equipment why we cannot
manufacture these things here
since we have the necessary
skills," he stressed.
Glasgow himself has been in
the welding business for the
past 12 years. His work has
taken him to Antigua, Guyana,
Grenada, St. Martin, St.
Thomas, Martinique and the
United States and he em-
phasizes that he was hired from
Trinidad to do work in these


Because he and the men
helping him have to work at
their other jobs, Glasgow does
not expect his shop to be
opened before next year. That,
however, will have no effect on
the school. It will continue in
the makeshift workshop that
Glasgow and his brothers have
set up underneath the house
that they have painstakingly
built over the years.
"We are taking sometime
but we feel it is better to do
this rather than rush into it and
collapse half way along the
Accounts for the shop will
be kept by young Oliver
Glasgow who has learnt the
fundamentals of proper ac-
counting by his own efforts
over the years.


With Bertie Marshall con-
tinuing his steelband experi-
ments on the lower end of the
street and the brothers setting
up their welding shop on the
upped end, Erica Street has
emerged as the ONLY pro-
ductive area in the sprawl of
mud and potholes that is
Success Village, Laventille.
Nor are the two completely
separate. For steelband owes to
no other trade what it does to
welding. Bertie, himse If, was a
welder before he went into pan
tuning and the realisation of
his dream the setting up of a
Pan Shop will depend to a
large extent on the assistance
given him by the shop that is
already under construction by
the youths of Upper Erica


The brainchild of Tony
Slater, Bertie's protege, the
'Pan Shop' is another exciting
prospect to come out of the

head of a Laventille panman.
And when it is established it
will satisfy a real need in the
steelband world. As we pointed
out in Tapia No. 7 "there are

less to cope with further de-
mands, local or foreign. The
situation is further aggravated
by the fact that several of our
top tuners are now abroad
where the money is, and there
is every likelihood that others
wi 11 join the "brain drain."
We argued in that issue that
what was required was a
system "which would keep our
top tuners and innovators in
the land, allow them the time,
facilities, scientific assistance
to experiment further, en-
courage them to exchange their
ideas and pool their resources,
train young apprentices in the
technique of tuning to ensure
continuity. We further argued
that to set up such a system we
need capital lots of money -
and the co-operation of all per-
sons and organisation, (in-
cluding the Government).
Bertie Marshall sees his Pan
Shop as the corer-stone of
such a complex. Because at
present he has no staff and no

assembly line he has had to
turn down jobs brought by
other steelbands and also re-
fuse people who have come
from the other Caribbean
islands. The situation is aggra-
vated by the fact that Bertie is
one of the, perhaps, two really
first class tuners left. As a re-
sult not only does he lose
possible income but many
bands have to resort to third-
rate tuners with the result that
the standard of pan-tuning in
the country is falling.


Like the Welding Shop,
Bertie's 'Pan Shop' is to be a
school for tuners in addition to
manufacturing pans for general
sale. And in addition to pans,
the plan is to go into handi-
craft and novelty items as well.
Bertie even talks about a pan-
shaped jewel box that plays
one of the many famous rendi-
tions of tunes Starflift's "I
Feel Pretty" or Highlanders'
"Engagement Ring," for
example when opened.
Echoing Glasgow, Bertie in-
sists: "We have the skills. We
know how to organise the

shop, there are engineers in the
University and can you imagine
what it will mean to the de-
velopment of pan if a feller
knows that sinking or grooving
a pan is regarded asa real job
by people."


Both Bertie and Glasgow
stress two things: first class
work matched by first class
promotion Said Bertie:
"We have writers in the area
and even the people who don't
write can use words. All the
catchy phrases that ever sc
often become popular in the
country come not from the
advertising experts who simply
use them but from the ordi-
nary fellers in the street -
"Look it here ah have it,"
"Yuh think it easy," and so on.
Highlanders' sponsor, Reed
Trinidad and Reed Briton
Limited are enthusiastic about
the scheme and they are pre-
pared to make a financial con-
tribution. Any serious govern-
ment can ill-afford not to lend
its support and people in the
area have pledged their support
Again like Glasgow, Bertie is
moving slowly. The task at
hand is to find a suitable piece
of land in the Success Village
area. Government has given the
steelband a piece of land, but it
is outside the boundaries of
Success Village so in an effort
to have the shop physically
sited in the Success Village
area, members are seeking out
landowners in the community
who might be prepared to lease
or sell.


So, if you have the time, it
will be worth your while to
drop into Erica Street any
Sunday. There you will hear
either the "ping ping" of Bertie
experimenting with his pans or
the "clang clang" of the
Edmund brothers putting up
their metal shop. Indeed, you
may find yourself invited to
lend a hand for at these times
'limers' are unceremoniously
thrown out. Not in anger, for
as Ian put it:
"Anybody who takes of-
fence at what we are doing is
not really for the community.
If we don't skylark it is not
because we do not enjoy sky-
larking as much as anybody.
But there is work to be done
and either somebody is helping
us to do it together or not
helping us at all."
A stone's throw away from
Glasgow's yard, stands a small
but thriving welding shop. The
grating throb of the machines
bear out Glasgow's words. It is
owned by Emmanuel Stanis-
laus who 12 years ago was
Glasgow's first apprentice. But
there is no competition -
Glasgow is in construction
welding. Stanislaus' main
business is in repair work of al
kinds cars, boats and general

Printed by Vanguard Publishing Co. Ltd., San Fernando, for the Tapia House Publishing Co. Ltd. Ttinapuna


Land of promises


Galloping cost of living
Vanishing agriculture
Bell-boy tourism
S Land speculation
S Loss of best-people to Trinidad
S Administrative delays
Alien Government
S Promises, promises


S Public conveniences
S New Market
S Cemeteries
S Bus terminal
Recreation Grounds
S Car Parks
Adult Education Centre
S Home Economics Centre
S Catering School

S Community Centres
S Police Stations
S Fire Station

Coming soon in TAPIA: "Tobago, Land of Pro-
mises" matching the reality of Tobago today
with the promises of the last 16 years for 14
years of which a 'favourite son' politician held high
government office. Look out also for: 'Pan is mih
gyul', the Bertie Marshall story of a life and love of