Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Form of application for member...
 Meeting June 11, 1922
 Proceedings of the executive...
 The annual reports of all...
 The Hebrew Union College
 Report of the board of delegates...
 Department of synagog and school...
 Report of the National Federation...
 Program of the twenty-eighth...
 Proceedings of the twenty-eighth...
 Special meeting of the Executive...
 Meeting January 26, 1923
 Boards and commissions of...
 Register of congregations
 Alphabetical list of rabbis
 Memorial records
 Executive board for 1921

Group Title: Proceedings of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations ...
Title: Annual report of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072104/00003
 Material Information
Title: Annual report of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations
Alternate Title: Annual report, <197475>
Physical Description: v. : ; 21-26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Union of American Hebrew Congregations
Publisher: May & Kreidler
Place of Publication: Cincinnati Ohio
Publication Date: 1892-
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Reform Judaism -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: 19th (1892)-
General Note: Vols. for 1891/92-<, 1921/22> include Proceedings of the 7th-<28th> biennial council.
General Note: Imprint varies.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072104
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: The Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica
Holding Location: The Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 04750396
lccn - 06007872
issn - 8755-0652
 Related Items
Preceded by: Proceedings of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Form of application for membership
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
    Meeting June 11, 1922
        Page 9111
        Page 9112
        Page 9113
        Page 9114
        Page 9115
        Page 9116
        Page 9117
        Page 9118
        Page 9119
        Page 9120
        Page 9121
        Page 9122
    Proceedings of the executive board
        Unnumbered ( 18 )
        Meeting January 22, 1923
            Page 9123
            Page 9124
            Page 9125
            Page 9126
            Page 9127
            Page 9128
            Page 9129
            Page 9130
    The annual reports of all departments
        Page 9131
        Page 9132
        The secretary's report
            Page 9133
            Page 9134
            Page 9135
            Page 9136
            Page 9137
            Page 9138
            Page 9139
            Page 9140
            Page 9141
            Page 9142
            Page 9143
            Page 9144
            Page 9145
            Page 9146
            Page 9147
            Page 9148
            Page 9149
            Page 9150
            Page 9151
        Report of public accountants
            Page 9152
    The Hebrew Union College
        Page 9153
        Page 9154
        Annual report of the Board of Governors Hebrew Union College
            Page 9155
            Page 9156
            Page 9157
            Page 9158
            Page 9159
            Page 9160
            Page 9161
        The alumni
            Page 9162
            Page 9163
            Page 9164
            Page 9165
        Register of students
            Page 9166
        Degrees conferred
            Page 9167
            Page 9168
    Report of the board of delegates on civil rights
        Page 9169
        Page 9170
        Page 9171
        Page 9172
        Page 9173
        Page 9174
        Page 9175
        Page 9176
        Page 9177
        Page 9178
        Page 9179
        Page 9180
        Page 9181
        Page 9182
        Page 9183
        Page 9184
        Page 9185
        Page 9186
        Page 9187
        Page 9188
        Page 9189
        Page 9190
        Page 9191
        Page 9192
        Page 9193
        Page 9194
    Department of synagog and school extension
        Page 9195
        Page 9196
        Report of board of managers
            Page 9197
            Page 9198
            Page 9199
            Page 9200
            Page 9201
        Directors' report on synagog extension
            Page 9202
            Page 9203
            Page 9204
        Directors' report on school extension
            Page 9205
            Page 9206
        Report of New York committee for school extension
            Page 9207
            Page 9208
            Page 9209
        Report of commission on Jewish religious educational literature
            Page 9210
        Report of tract commission
            Page 9211
        Chaplaincy report of Dr. Abraham Cronbach
            Page 9212
            Page 9213
            Page 9214
            Page 9215
            Page 9216
    Report of the National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods
        Page 9217
        Page 9218
        Page 9219
        Page 9220
    Program of the twenty-eighth council
        Page 9221
        Page 9222
        Page 9223
        Page 9224
        Page 9225
        Page 9226
        Page 9227
        Page 9228
        Page 9229
        Page 9230
        Page 9231
        Page 9232
        Page 9233
        Page 9234
        Page 9235
        Page 9236
        Page 9237
    Proceedings of the twenty-eighth council
        Page 9238
        Page 9239
        Page 9240
        Page 9241
        Page 9242
        Page 9243
        Page 9244
        Page 9245
        Page 9246
        Page 9247
        Page 9248
        Page 9249
        Page 9250
        Page 9251
        Page 9252
        Page 9253
        Page 9254
        Page 9255
        Page 9256
        Page 9257
        Page 9258
        Page 9259
        Page 9260
        Page 9261
        Page 9262
        Page 9263
        Page 9264
        Page 9265
        Page 9266
        Page 9267
        Page 9268
        Page 9269
        Page 9270
        Page 9271
        Page 9272
        Page 9273
        Page 9274
        Page 9275
        Page 9276
        Page 9277
        Page 9278
        Page 9279
        Page 9280
        Page 9281
        Page 9282
        Page 9283
        Page 9284
        Page 9285
        Page 9286
        Page 9287
        Page 9288
        Page 9289
        Page 9290
        Page 9291
        Page 9292
        Page 9293
        Page 9294
        Page 9295
        Page 9296
        Page 9297
        Page 9298
        Page 9299
        Page 9300
        Page 9301
        Page 9302
        Page 9303
        Page 9304
        Page 9305
        Page 9306
        Page 9307
        Page 9308
        Page 9309
        Page 9310
        Page 9311
        Page 9312
        Page 9313
        Page 9314
        Page 9315
        Page 9316
        Page 9317
        Page 9318
        Page 9319
        Page 9320
        Page 9321
        Page 9322
        Page 9323
        Page 9324
        Page 9325
        Page 9326
        Page 9327
        Page 9328
        Page 9329
        Page 9330
        Page 9331
        Page 9332
        Page 9333
        Page 9334
        Page 9335
        Page 9336
        Page 9337
        Page 9338
        Page 9339
    Special meeting of the Executive Board
        Page 9340
    Meeting January 26, 1923
        Page 9341
        Page 9342
    Boards and commissions of the union
        Page 9343
        Page 9344
        Page 9345
        Page 9346
        Page 9347
        Page 9348
        Page 9349
        Page 9350
        Page 9351
        Page 9352
        Page 9353
        Page 9354
        Page 9355
        Page 9356
        Page 9357
        Page 9358
        Page 9359
        Page 9360
    Register of congregations
        Page 9361
        Page 9362
        Page 9363
        Page 9364
        Page 9365
        Page 9366
        Page 9367
        Page 9368
    Alphabetical list of rabbis
        Page 9369
        Page 9370
        Page 9371
        Page 9372
    Memorial records
        Page 9373
        Page 9374
        Page 9375
        Page 9376
        Page 9377
        Page 9378
        Page 9379
    Executive board for 1921
        Page 9380
        Page 9381
Full Text


I -. ~ ~ I. n-





MAY, 19




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ainion of American



-fortp=_int) Annual Report
0obenmber 1, 1921, to Octoberr 31, 1922
EtuentpV=igbtb j2iennial Council
lanuarp 22=26, 1923

MAY, 1923

Table of Contents


M meeting June 11, 1922 ......... .............
Meeting January 22, 1923 ........... .....
Special Meeting January 26. 1923 .............
M meeting January 26, 1923 .....................

. ... .. .. .. 9 3 4 1


Report of Secretary. ............................................
Report of Public Accountant. .......................................


Report of Board of Governors ......................................
T he A lum ni .... ..................................................
R register of S tuden ts .............................................
D degrees Conferred ...............................................


Report of Board of Managers. .................

...... 9197

Directors' Report on Synagog Extension .............................
Directors' Report on School Extension. ..............................
Report of New York Committee for School Extension.................
Report of Commission on Jewish Religious Educational Literature......
Report of Tract Com m mission. ................ ............. ........
Chaplaincy Report of Dr. Abraham Cronbach .......................




BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS OF THE UNION ..............................

REGISTER OF CONGREGATIONS .................. .....................

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF RABBIS .......................................

MEMORIAL RECORDS ................... ..............................

IN D E X ...... . . . .. .... . . . . . . . . . .















.~~~. ...........

Executive Board

1314 First Nat'l Bank Bldg.,
Cincinnati, Ohio.


Term Ex

BEN ALTHEIMER, 25 Broad Street.......................... ....New York, N. Y.
N. HENRY BECKMAN, 320 Walnut St .............................. Cincinnati, Ohio
ISAAC W. BERNHEIM, VICE-PRESIDENT, 626 W. MIain St .. .............. Louisville, Ky.
DAVID A. BROWN, 6iS Lawrence Ave. ............................ ... Detroit, Mich.
EDGAR M. CAHN, 716 Hibernia Bank Bldg.,................... .... New Orleans, La.
ALFRED MI. COHEN, o5 Electric Bldg. .......................... ... Cincinnati, Ohio
JUDGE JOSIAH COHEN, Court House ................................. ..Pittsburgh, Pa
DR. DAVID W. EDELMAN, 402 Brockman Bldg. ........................ Los Angeles, Cal.
GUSTAVE A. EFROYMSON, c/o II. P. Wasson Co.. ................... .Indianapolis, Ind.
ARNOLD FALK, 336 Chartres St........ ............................. New Orleans, La.
JULIUS W. FREIBERG, c/O Ideal Concrete Machinery Co ................. Cincinnati, Ohio
ISAAC GOLDBERG, 69 Seward Ave................................... Detroit, Mich.
ROBERT P. GOLDMAN, Citizen's Bank Bldg...... ................. Cincinnati, Ohio
HON. DANIEL P. HAYS, 15 Broadway .............................. .New York, N. Y.
SIMEON M. JOHNSON, 64 Wiggins Block ........................... Cincinnati, Ohio
ADOLF KRAUS, 1226 Tribune Bldg ................... .................. Chicago, 1ll.
ALBERT L. LEVI, 70 Prospect Park West ............................. Brooklyn, N. Y.
BENJAMIN .OWENSTEIN, c/o The Landesman-Hirschheimer Co ........... Cleveland, Ohio
JACOB W. MACK, TREASURER, 984 Burton Ave ...................... Cincinnati, Ohio
HENRY L. MAYER, 3750 Clay St .................................. San Francisco, Cal.
EDWIN B. MEISSNER, S000 N. Broadway ........................ .... St. Louis, Mo.
HENRY IMORGENTHAU, 3o E. Forty-second St ........... ............ New York, N. Y.
ADOLPH I. NEW.MAN, 1624 E. ii5th St..................... ........ Cleveland, Ohio
ADOLPH S. OCHS, "The Times". .................................. New York, N. Y.
HERBERT C. OETTINGER, Sth and Walnut Sts .. ................... .. Cincinnati, Ohio
HENRY OPPENHEIMER, c/o Hutler Bros. Co.................... .... Baltimore, Md.
\VILLIAM ORNSTEIN, 13 West Third St......................... ..... Cincinnati, Ohio
HON. A. C. RATSHESKY, United Stales Trust Co... .. ..... ..... .... Boston, Mass.
MARCUs RAUH, VICE-PRESIDENT, 95 Penn Ave. ......................... Pittsburgh, Pa.
MAURICE D. ROSENBERG, VICE-PRESIDENT, Commerce and Savings Bldg..Washington, D. C.
HON. SIMON W. ROSENDALE, 57 State St ............................. Albany, N. Y.
JULIUS ROSENWALD, c/o Sears, Roebuck & Co.................. ..........Chicago, Ill.
MORRIS H. ROTHSCHILD, 993 Park Ave .................. ..........New York, N Y.
A. L. SALTZSTEIN, First IVisconsin National Bank Bdg......... ...... Milwaukee, Wis.
Louis SCHLESINGER, 31 Clinton St................... ............... Newark, N. J.
IsAAc SCHOEN, 323 Decatur St ............... ....................Atlanta, Ga.
CHARLES SHOIIL, PRESIDENT, 1314 First National Bank Bldg...... .... Cincinnati, Ohio
HON. HORACE STERN, 1520 N. 17th St............................ Philadelphia, Pa.
SAMUEL STRAUS, Traction Bldg ..................................... Cincinnati, Ohio
I. NEWTON TRAGER, 209 East Sixth St.......... .. ........ ...Cincinnati, Ohio
ISAAC M. ULLMAN, 55S Whitney Ave .................. ......... New Haven, Conn.
LUDWIG VOGELSTEIN, VICE-PRESIDENT, 61 Broadway. ................. New York, N. Y.
FELIX VORENBERG, 417 :i .. St................ ........... .. Boston, Mass.
AARON WALDIEIM, I2lh and Olive Sts .................... ............ St. Louis, Mo.
A. LEO WEIL, S22 Frick Bldg ................. ................... Pittsburgh, Pa.
JOSEPH WIESENFELD, 300 W. Baltimore St. ...................... .. Baltimore, Md.
HERMAN WILE, Ellicott, Cor. Carroll Sts................ ...... .. .... Buffalo, N. Y.
ALBERT \VOLF, 330 N. Twelfth St. ......................... .......... Philadelphia, Pa.
ADOLPHE WOLFE, c /o Lipman Wlolfe & Co. ............................. Portland, Ore.
W ILLIAM B. W OOLNER, C/O The Woolner Co....... ......................... Peoria, Ill.
GEORGE ZEPIN, Secretary,
JACOB D. SCHWARz, Assistant Secretary,
Merchants Bldg.,
Cincinnati, Ohio.

Form of Application for Membership

(Date) ................................

To the Executive Board of the Union of American Hebrew Congrega-

Congregation .........................................

of .................................. ...... hereby makes
application to be admitted to membership in the Union of Ameri-
can Hebrew Congregations.

........................ P resident.

.......... ........................ Secretary

The above application, under seal of the Congregation, can be sent to the Secretary of the
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Cincinnati, Ohio. No membership fee is required.

Form of Bequest

I give and bequeath to the Union of American Hebrew Con-

gregations, for the support of its institutions, the sum of..........

................................................... Dollars.

Proceedings of the Executive Board

Hebrew Union College,
Cincinnati, June 11, 1922.
The regular semi-annual meeting of the
Executive Board was held at the above place
and date at 10 A. M. There were present
Messrs. Ben Altheimer, N. Henry Beckman,
Alfred M. Cohen, Julius W. Freiberg, Isaac
Goldberg, Daniel P. Hays, Simeon M. John-
son, Jacob W. Mack, Herbert C. Oettinger,
Henry Oppenheimer, William Ornstein,
Maurice D. Rosenberg, Julius Rosenwald,
Charles Shohl, Samuel Straus, I. Newton
Trager, A. Leo Well, Herman Wile.
Mr. Shohl, President, occupied the chair.
He extended a hearty welcome to the mem-
bers of the Board and reviewed briefly the
outstanding events in the progress of the
Union of American Hebrew Congregations
during the past six months. Rabbi George
Zepin, Secretary, recorded the minutes.

Letters were presented from the follow-
ing members of the Board who were un-
able to attend the meeting: Messrs. Isaac
W. Bernheim, Fred E. Bruml, Edgar M.
Cahn, Josiah Cohen, David W. Edelman,
Gustave A. Efroymson, Albert L. Levi, Ed-
win B. Meissner, Henry Morgenthau, Adolph
S. Ochs, A. C. Ratshesky, Marcus Rauh,
Simon W. Rosendale, Morris H. Rothschild,
A. L. Saltzstein, Louis Schlesinger, Jacob
W. Schnadig, Isaac Schoen, Horace Stern,
Isaac M. Ullman, Ludwig Vogenstein, Aaron
Waldheim, Joseph Wiesenfeld, Albert Wolf,
William B. Woolner.
The Secretary acquainted the Board with
the fact that since the last meeting two
members of the Board had died, Mr. Jacob
R. Morse, of Boston, Mass., fifth Vice-
President, and Mr. Sigmund Kohlmann,
New Orleans, La., and added that ap-
propriate action expressing regret had been
promptly taken.

The resignations of the following mem-
bers of the Executive Board were presented:
Mr. Baruch Mahler, Cleveland, Ohio, Mr.
Mortimer Fleishhacker, San Francisco, Cal.,
Mr. Sigmund Rheinstrom, Cincinnati, Ohio,
first Vice-President.
It was moved and duly carried that the
resignation of Mr. Baruch Mahler from the
Executive Board be accepted with regret.
It was moved and duly carried that the
resignation of Mr. Mortimer Fleishhacker
from the Executive Board be accepted with
It was moved and duly carried that the
resignation of Mr. Sigmund Rheinstrom
from the Executive Board, Board of Gov-
ernors, and Board of Managers be ac-
cepted with regret.
Upon motion, the President appointed a
committee to suggest nominees for the
vacancies on the Executive Board as well
as for first and fifth Vice-President. The
President appointed as such Committee,
Messrs. Julius W. Freiberg, N. Henry Beck-
man, Samuel Straus, Herbert C. Oettinger,
Herman Wile, Daniel P. Hays, A. Leo Weil.
The committee retired and subsequently
reported the following nominations to fill
vacancies in the Executive Board:
Mr. Felix Vorenberg, of Boston, Mass., to
take the place of Mr. Jacob R. Morse, of
Boston, Mass., term expiring 1923.'
Mr. Arnold Falk, of New Orleans, La., to
take the place of Mr. Sigmund Kohlmann,
of New Orleans, La., term expiring 1923.
Mr. Ben Lowenstein, of Cleveland, Ohio,
to take the place of Mr. Baruch Mahler, of
Cleveland, Ohio, term expiring 1925.
The Committee requested further time to
determine upon suitable candidates for the
other vacancies and for the two vice-presi-
dencies. It was moved and duly carried
that the report of the Committee be adopted.
On motion Messrs. Ben Lowenstein, Arnold
Falk and Felix Vorenberg were duly elected
members of the Executive Board.



The following resolution was offered and

RESOLVED: That in the absence of the
President of the Union, the authority to
sign checks be vested in any Vice-President
of the Union.

The appointment by President Shohl of
Mr. Ben Altheimer, of New York City, to
take the place of Mr. Felix Warburg, of
New York City, who was unable to serve,
on the Executive Board, on motion, was
It was moved and duly carried that the
appointment of Mr. Meier Steinbrink, of
Brooklyn, N. Y., as successor to Judge
Jacob Brenner, deceased, late of Brooklyn,
N. Y., on the New York Executive Com-
mittee, made by the President be approved.


The resignation of Dr. Emil G. Hirsch,
of Chicago, from the Board of Governors
was presented. It was moved and duly
carried that the resignation of Dr. Hirsch
be accepted with regret.
The resignation of Mr. Adolph S. Lewi-
sohn, of New York City, from the Board
of Managers was presented. It was moved
and duly carried that Mr. Ben Altheimer
be appointed a committee of one to call
upon Mr. Lewisohn for the purpose of en-
deavoring to obtain a withdrawal of his


Upon motion duly carried, the President
was authorized to appoint nominating com-
mittees. The President made the following
Nominating Committee for vacancies on
the Board of Governors: Messrs. Alfred M.
Cohen, Chairman, Herbert C. Oettinger,
Samuel Straus, I. Newton Trager, Simeon
M. Johnson, Isaac Goldberg, Julius Rosen-
wald, Maurice D. Rosenberg.
Nominating Committee for vacancies on
the Board of Managers: Messrs. Wm.
Ornstein, Chairman, Jacob W. Mack, Julius
W. Freiberg, Herman Wile, Daniel P. Hays.

Nominating Committee for vacancies on
the Board of Delegates: Messrs. Simeon
M. Johnson, Chairman, N. Henry Beckman,
Ben Altheimer, Henry Oppenheimer.
The Committees retired and subsequently
presented the names of the following per-
sons who were duly elected members of
the following Boards:

Board of Governors
Mr. Jacob M. Loeb to fill the unexpired
term of Dr. Emil G. Hirsch, ending January
1st, 1923.
For a term of three years beginning
with January 1st, 1923: Messrs. Alfred M.
Cohen, Cincinnati, O., Harry M. Hoffheimer,
Cincinnati, O., Alfred M. Klein, Philadel-
phia, Pa., Dr. Max Landsberg, Rochester,
N. Y., Jacob M. Loeb, Chicago, ill., Ralph
W. Mack, Cincinnati, O., Emil Pollak, Cin-
cinnati, 0., Carl E. Pritz, Cincinnati, O.,
Dr. Wm. Rosenau, Baltimore, Md., Rabbi
Louis Wolsey, Cleveland, O.
Board of Managers
For a term of three years beginning with
January 1st, 1923: Messrs. David M.
Bressler, New York, N. Y., Benjamin M.
Engelhard, Chicago, Ill., Daniel B. Freed-
man, New York, N. Y., Philip J. Goodhart,
New York, N. Y., Abraham Lewenthal,
Cleveland, O., Adolph Lewisohn, New York,
N. Y., Judge Julius M. Mayer, New York,
N. Y., Moses Rothschild, Baltimore, Md.,
Max L. Schallek, New York, N. Y.,
Joseph Schonthal, Columbus, O., Albert
Steindler, Chicago, Ill., Abraham J. Sun-
stein, Pittsburgh, Pa., Henry M. Toch, New
York, N. Y., Ludwig Vogelstein, New York,
N. Y.
Board of Delegates
The Nominating Committee requested
further time to present names to fill the
vacancies on the Board of Delegates, which
was granted.

A handsomely illumined volume contain-
ing resolutions adopted by a number of
organizations in memory of Mr. J. Walter
Freiberg was exhibited to the Board. It
was moved and duly carried that the
President be authorized, on behalf of the
Executive Board, to present the same to
Mrs. J. Walter Freiberg.



The following letter from Mrs. J. Walter
Freiberg offering to build and equip a
gymnasium on the Hebrew Union College
grounds in memory of her departed hus-
ban'd, was presented.

Cincinnati, Ohio,
June 5, 1922.
Mr. Chas. Shohl,
President, Union of American Hebrew
My dear Mr. Shohl:
The Union of American Hebrew Congre-
gations and the Hebrew Union College were
foremost among the organizations in which
my dear husband was always vitally inter-
ested. He was a firm believer in the
thought that a healthy body is a great
asset to a student.

Following this thought and belief of his
and in his memory, I desire to offer to the
Executive Board of the Union a Gymnasium
Building, completely equipped, to be erected
on the College grounds. This building is

to harmonize in architecture with the pres-
ent buildings and with the new dormitory
which is to be erected.
Sincerely yours,

(Mrs. J. Walter)

It was moved and duly carried that the
offer be accepted and that the grateful
thanks of the Executive Board be tendered
to Mrs. J. Walter Freiberg.

Upon receipt of the news of the death
of Mr. Sigmund Kohlmann, member of the
Executive Board, Mr. Shohl appointed the
following committee to draft resolutions ex-
pressing the sentiments of the members of
the Board: Mr. Edgar M. Cahn, Chairman,
Mr. Sam Straus, Mr. Herman Wile, and
Mr. Wm. Ornstein.
The Committee presented the following
resolutions which were unanimously adopted
and a copy ordered forwarded to the family
of the deceased:



3n lenmoriam

DIED MARCH 6, 1922

In the passing of Sigmund Kohlmann, member of the Executive Board
of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, the Union "has sustained
a serious loss; and as a tribute to his memory desires to express an appre-
ciation of his services to the Sacred Cause of Judaism.

For many years as a loyal Director of Touro Synagogue of New Orleans,
and recently as efficient President of that Congregation, he made extra-
ordinary sacrifices to further the interests of Israel's faith.

He lent name and energy to the work of the Union because he believed
in the future of progressive Judaism with the faith of a forward looking man.

His sterling character, his outstanding manhood, his love of Judaism and
its Institutions, made him an ideal representative of this Community to the

May these sentiments spread upon the minutes of the Executive Board,
attest to our esteem of his service, and may their expression bring to the
heart of his dear ones as full a measure of solace as a sincerely spoken
tribute may bring.
By Order of the Executive Board of the Union
of American Hebrew Congregations.

GEORGE ZEPIN, Secretary.

_ __



The following appropriations for the
fiscal year beginning November 1st, 1922,
were then voted:
For Direct Expenses of Executive
Board ..................... $ 48,318
For Hebrew Union College........ 141,300
For Dept. of Synagog and School
Extension ................... 65,462
For Board of Delegates on Civil
Rights ...................... 3,600
For National Federation of Temple
Sisterhoods .................. 27,662
For The Union Bulletin........... 24,862
For Activities in New York City:
New York Executive
Committee ............ $10,050
New York School
Committee ............ 23,243 33,293
For School Extension in Chicago.. 19,200
For National Federation of Temple
Brotherhoods ................ 6,000

It was moved and duly carried that a
detailed statement of the budget be printed
and sent to every member of the Executive
Board at least two weeks in advance of the
June meetings.
The following report was presented by
Mr. Alfred M. Cohen, Chairman of the
Hebrew Union College Dormitory Building

June 9, 1922.
To the Executive Board of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations.
At the last meeting of the Executive
Board held December 18th, 1921, a Com-
mittee on Hebrew Union College Dormitory
Building was appointed "to secure architec-
tural plans and building estimates and to
report back to this Board."
Your Committee held a number of meet-
ings for the purpose of determining the
size and character of the building to be
constructed. After deciding upon the guid-
ing principles such as location, number of
floors, number of students to be accom-
modated, etc., etc., Mr. A. Lincoln Fech-

heimer, architect, was called into consul-
tation. Mr. Fechheimer subsequently sub-
mitted a drawing of plans which was
further changed upon recommendations by
the Committee. The plans, in this amended
form, are now presented to you.
A brief description of the building is as
follows: The Dormitory is to be a four
story building, without basement, divided
into three units. The main building, fac-
ing the east, to consist of two units; the
third unit to be in the shape of an "L", on
the south side of the building. The Dormi-
tory is to be placed on the south and west
of the Administration Building. Heat is to
be supplied from the central plant which is
located in the basement of the administra-
tion building. The exterior of the building
is to be designed to harmonize with the
present buildings, but has purposely been
made irregular in its composition in order
to give it a more homelike and informal
character. It is to be fireproof in construc-
tion with the exterior walls of brick, and
with terra cotta trimmings, similar to the
present style. The floors in the corridors,
toilet rooms, bathrooms and kitchen are to
be finished in cement or composition floor-
ing. The floors in the bedrooms, living
room and dining room are to be of wood.
The interior finish such as doors, base
boards, etc., are to be of yellow pine,
The first floor is to contain in addition
to bedrooms for eighteen students, a din-
ing room and a kitchen, also a suite of
rooms for the superintendent. The re-
mainder of the building is to consist of
bedrooms. Eight of these are to be
double rooms for the accommodation of
two students each. The remaining rooms
are to be single rooms. There are to be
four rooms with private baths for the use
of proctors.
The four floors are to accommodate 119
students, and if only three floors are
finished they will accommodate 94 students.
These plans were subsequently changed so
as to include a basement .under the portion
of the building occupied by the dining room
and kitchen for the accommodation of a
laundry and two storage rooms.
Estimates for constructing the building
and furnishing the equipment are herewith
given in brief form and are supported by



the separate reports and estimates which ac-
company this report of the Committee.
Cost of Dormitory Building ...... $175,000
Architect's and Engineer's fees, 6% 10,500
Painting ......................... 5,000
Furnishings ............ ........ 42,546
Lighting Fixtures ................. 1,500

Total ................... ..... .. 234,546
In submitting this report the Committee
wishes to add that this estimate is quite
conservative. The Committee is aware that
in the construction of large buildings it is
often necessary to make changes and addi-
tions which are not contemplated in the
The Committee recommends that the
Executive Board adopt these' plans with
whatever changes they see fit, and that
after adoption of these plans, the Executive
Board appoint a Building Committee with
full powers to construct and equip a Dormi-
tory for the Hebrew Union College.
Respectfully submitted,
ALFRED M. COHEN, Chairman,
CHARLES SHOHL (ex officio),
Mr. Maurice J. Freiberg, Chairman of a
Sub-Committee of the Dormitory Committee
who had secured the various estimates, and
the architect, Mr. A. Lincoln Fechheimer,
were present at the meeting and explained
details in connection with the sketches for
the Dormitory which were presented.
At the conclusion of these statements, it
was moved that the plans presented by the
Building Committee be adopted and that
the President of .the Union be authorized
to appoint a committee to carry out these
plans with such changes as they may find
necessary and to expend thereon a sum not
to exceed $250,000.
The President appointed the following
committee to carry out the plans as au-


thorized above: Mr. Alfred M. Cohen,
Chairman, Mr. Isaac W. Bernheim, Mr.
Oscar Berman, Mrs. J. Walter Freiberg,
Mr. Julius W. Freiberg, Mr. Maurice J.
Freiberg, Dr. Julian Morgenstern, Mr. Emil
A. Pollak, Mrs. Abram Simon, Mr. I. New-
ton Trager, Mrs. Joseph Wiesenfeld.


It was moved and duly carried that the
congratulations of the Union of American
Hebrew Congregations be extended to the
officers and members of the National Fed-
eration of Temple Sisterhoods for the re-
markable assistance rendered by them to
the cause of Judaism in the conduct of the
campaign to raise money for a dormitory
for the Hebrew Union College and to ex-
press tie hope that this campaign will be
carried to a speedy conclusion so that the
building can be erected without delay.
Mr. Daniel P. Hays, presented the fol-
lowing report for the committee of which he
is Chairman.

New York, N. Y.
June 9, 1922.
To the Executive Board of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations.
The undersigned, the Committee ap-
pointed at a meeting of the Executive Board
held in Buffalo, in May, 1921, to confer
with the Reverend Doctor Stephen S. Wise
and the officers or committee of the Free
Synagogue, with reference to the subject
matter of the letter addressed by them to
the Executive Board of the Union, setting
forth their purpose to establish in New
York the Jewish Institute of Religion for
the training of men for the Liberal Jewish
Ministry, and suggesting that the Union
cooperate in carrying out these plans, beg
to report:
That the Secretary of the Free Syna-
gogue was notified of the appointment of


this Committee shortly thereafter, but the
conference was delayed, owing first, to the
illness of Dr. Wise and then to the illness
of Mr. Elkus, the President of the Free
Synagogue, whom Dr. Wise desired to be
present, until December of 1921.
The purpose of the Committee, as we
understood it from what took place at the
meeting at which it was appointed, was to
endeavor to dissuade Dr. Wise and his
committee from carrying out their pro-
gram, for the reason that the Hebrew Union
College is adequately equipped to train all
Jewish young men for the ministry, who
desire to adopt that profession, and be-
cause a division in the ranks of progres-
sive Jews on this subject would not be
furthering the interests of American Juda-
ism, and further to ascertain the ideas of
the Free Synagogue Committee on co-
operation as suggested in the letter above
referred to.
At our first conference we endeavored to
dissuade Dr. Wise and the Committee of
the Free Synagogue from proceeding with
the project, as stated in the letter of the
Chairman of this Committee dated March
29, 1922, written to Dr. Lee K. Frankel,
Chairman of the Committee of the Free
Synagogue. As some information was re-
quested with reference to the Hebrew Union
College, which the Committee was unable
to furnish, it was suggested that Mr. Shohl,
the President of the Union and Mr. Cohen,
the Chairman of the Board of Governors,
be invited to New York to take part in
the conference. Such an invitation was
extended to them by the New York Com-
mittee, but they were unable to visit New
York at the time requested. Later Mr.
Cohen came to New York, but it was im-
possible at that time to arrange a confer-
Shortly prior to March 8th, a letter was
received from the Committee of the Free
Synagogue, stating that a meeting of the
new institution would be held on the 14th
day of March to perfect its plans, and
feeling that it was our duty to obtain an
expression of the views of the Free Syna-
gogue on the question of cooperation as
expressed in their letter, we arranged a
conference which was held on March 8th at
which we stated that inasmuch as our en-
deavors to dissuade Dr. Wise and the Com-

mittee of the Free Synagogue from carry-
ing our their proposed plan were unsuc-
cessful and in view of the letter written by
Dr. Wise suggesting a plan of cooperation,
such plan of cooperation should be sub-
mitted to our Committee so that we could
take it up with the Executive Board in
Cincinnati. This was finally agreed to,
and it was understood that suggestions
would be formulated after the Institute met
on the 14th and submitted to us.
We met again on the 17th, at which time
the suggestions of Dr. Wise and his Com-
mittee, which are incorporated in the letter
of the Committee dated April 6, 1922, and
submitted herewith, were read to the New
York Committee.
We had been advised that on the 17th
of March Dr. Wise expected to open the
new Institute in the fall and that the
plans had so far matured that he proposed
to make a tour of the country for the
purpose of raising funds for it, and that he
would like to know the attitude of the
Union before the 15th of April, that he
expected to be in Cincinnati during the
seeking ending April 1st and would meet
our Committee there.
We stated that some of our Committee
would go to Cincinnati and meet Dr. Wise
and present the matter to the Executive
Board of the Union on April 2d.
We received these suggestions in writing
on March 20th. We fixed on April 2d, as
we understood there was then to be a
meeting of the Executive Board of the
Union to discuss the plans for the new
Dormitory. This meeting was postponed
because plans were nor in final shape, but
we informed the Free Synagogue Committee
that we would nevertheless go to Cincinnati
and get an expression of opinion from the
executive officers of the College and the
Union and from such other members of the
Executive Board as we could gather to-

gether at the conference. We invited some
members of the Committee of the Free
Synagogue to go with us and attend this
conference, but they declined for the rea-
son that it would not be an official meet-
ing. Dr. Wise had previously stated that
he would be in the Middle West during the
week ending April 1st and would be willing
to meet the New York Committee in Cin-
cinnati. We gladly accepted this sugges-



tion but were later notified that he would
not be in Cincinnati but that a Committee
of the Free Synagogue would attend in
his place.
This communication, however, was made
before the knowledge had reached us that
there would be no official meeting in Cin-
cinnati on the date named. We neverthe-
less endeavored to persuade Dr. Frankel
and some other members of his Committee
to go with us to Cincinnati, so that an
opinion expressing the sentiments of the
Union might be -arrived at. This they de-
clined to do for the reasons above stated.
Nevertheless we were informed both by Dr.
Wise and by Dr. Frankel that there was a
necessity for hastening our conclusion, in-
asmuch as the plans of the Institute had
matured sufficiently that it was expected to
open in the Fall, that a part of the funds
for this purpose was available and that
the balance must be raised by Dr. Wise
between April 15th and the time he was to
leave for Europe in June, and that if no
agreement was reached between the Free
Synagogue and the Union, Dr. Wise would
make his tour in the West, commencing on
April 15th, for the purpose of raising
money for his proposed new Institute of
Religion; but that if an agreement was
arrived at, he would make his campaign on
behalf of the Union and his proposed new
Institute of Religion.
In view of the urgency of the matter,
which was thus presented to us, and for the
reason that the New York Committee had
no power to accept any proposed plan or
give any expression as to how the Union
would receive the suggestion of the Free
Synagogue Committee, all of which ap-
pears in the correspondence between the
Chairman of this Committee and Dr. Lee K.
Frankel, Chairman of the Committee of the
Free Synagogue, which correspondence is
herewith submitted, we considered it our
duty to present the so-called basis of dis-
cussion to the officers of the Union and the
College and obtain the views of as many
members of the Union and the College as
we could gather together at the conference
in Cincinnati. We therefore, went to :Cin-
cinnati and met with ,a group of fifteen
gentlemen, consisting of members of the
Executive Board of the Union and members
of the Board of Governors of the Hebrew
Union College.

The unanimous sentiment of the confer-
ence .is expressed in the aforesaid letter of
April 6, 1922, which we submit as the re-
port of the New York Committee.
The basic principles underlying the pro-
posed plan were such that the conference
felt that it would not be made the basis
for any further discussion, and inasmuch as
we had been impressed with the urgency of
a decision upon the matter, in order to
enable Dr. Wise to carry out his plan in
regard to his proposed tour to solicit funds
for the proposed Institute of Religion, it
was the opinion of the conference and the
New York members of the Committee, that
an immediate reply should be made setting
forth the conclusions reached upon the plan
In accordance with that decision, the
Chairman of the New York Committee ad-
dressed the letter to Dr. Frankel on the
6th of April, 1922, which has been here-
tofore referred to, and in which it is
stated that the declaration of the confer-
ence would be made the basis of our re-
port to the Executive Board at its next
regular meeting in June.
We therefore present the conclusions set
forth in such letter as our report.
DANIEL P. HAYS, Chairman,

Letter of Mr. Daniel P. Hays to
Dr. Lee K. Frankel
New York, N. Y.
April 6, 1922.
Dr. Lee K. Frankel, Chairman,
Free Synagogue Committee,
1 Madison Ave,
New York, N. Y.
Dear Dr. Frankel:
In accordance with my last letter to you,
dated March 29, Mr. Ludwig Vogelstein and
I, representing our Committee, went to Cin-
cinnati for the purpose of consulting the
governing bodies of the Union of Ameri-
can Hebrew Congregations and the Hebrew
Union College, regarding your plan of
opening a Rabbinical College in New York
City, and your proposal for cooperation.



We met with a group of fifteen gentle-
men, consisting of members of the Execu-
tive Board of the Union and members of
the Board of Governors of the Hebrew
Union College, as many as could be sum-
moned upon such short notice. We went
over the whole situation. We reviewed the
ground covered at the several joint meet-
ings of our two Committees.
We explained to the gentlemen with
whom we conferred in Cincinnati that our
Committee had met with the Committee of
the Free Synagogue of which you are the
Chairman, and that our Committee had en-
deavored to dissuade you from establish-
ing such an Institute of Religion. We re-
peated to them the grounds upon which we
made this request of you.
First, that the Hebrew Union College
fulfills all the needs of the situation, its
training being adequate, its faculty dis-
tinguished, its location ideal.
Secondly, the Hebrew Union College is
now an historical institution; its graduates
number over two hundred occupying the
vast majority of the leading Jewish pulpits
of America; its claim to the gratitude of
American Israel is based on achievements
not to be set aside easily nor to be dis-
posed of lightly; the institution founded by
Dr. Isaac M. Wise has an inalienable claim
not only upon the allegiance of every
alumnus of the College, but upon every
congregation belonging to the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations, and up-
on every man in the Liberal Jewish minis-
try; in short, that it is absolutely neces-
sary to unite all efforts in the support of
the Hebrew Union College.
Further, we made clear to them that we
had pointed out to your Committee that the
College represents a large financial invest-
ment in excellently equipped college build-
ings, an unequalled library, and that it
would soon have a dormitory. All of these
are necessary features of a college, and
are the results of many years of pains-
taking effort and immeasurable sacrifice.
We stated to the meeting that seemingly
all of our arguments had failed to in-
fluence your Committee from proceeding
with its plans, but that you had expressed
the hope and desire that the situation still
permitted some form of cooperation and as

a basis of such cooperation, you submitted
the following proposal:
"1. The Jewish Institution of Re-
ligion, a school for training for the
Jewish ministry, established by the Free
Synagogue, is to become an activity of
the Union of American Hebrew Congre-
gations coordinate with the Hebrew
Union College of Cincinnati.
"2. The Jewish Institute of Religion
shall be an independent and autonom-
ous institution and no arrangement or
agreement of any kind shall qualify its
independence or limit its autonomy.
"3. The Board of Trustees (in num-
ber from five to twenty-five) of the
Jewish Institute of Religion which, be-
ing created by the Free Synagogue,
shall thereafter remain a self-perpetu-
ating body; shall include representation
of not more than 20% of its number
to be appointed or elected by the Union
of American Hebrew Congregations.
"4. There shall be such interchange
of Professors, Students and arrange-
ments of student credits as may be
deemed desirable by the governing
bodies of the Jewish Institute of Re-
ligion and the Hebrew Union College,
or the faculties thereof if so em-
"5. The Union of American Hebrew
Congregations shall make necessary
budgetary provision for the Jewish In-
stitute of Religion for the first three
years of this agreement, the budget
shall be the minimum sum of $45,000.00
per annum. At the expiration of three
years there shall be a re-appraisal of
the budgetary needs of the Institute.
"6. The officers of the Institute, in-
cluding its President, Dr. Wise, shall,
upon the acceptance of the plan herein
proposed, place themselves at the dis-
posal of the officers of the Union for
the purpose of securing funds for the
maintenance of the Hebrew Union Col-
lege and the Jewish Institute of Re-
ligion, all funds by them secured to be
credited to a joint College and In-
stitute Fund."

This proposal for cooperation as well as
its underlying principles were fully and
carefully considered. The opinion of the



conference is summed up in
declaration which was unanimi
as the sense of those present:
"The best interest of Ame
ism will be conserved not b
a new institution, but by sti
the present support of th
Union College.
"Should it become necess
time in the future to establi
institution for the training
such institution in order to
activity of the Union of Am
brew Congregations, coord
the Hebrew Union College'
the words of the proposal o
Synagogue Committee), couli
circumstances be under th
petuating control of a single
tion, but, as is the Hebrew
lege, would necessarily be
by the Union of America
Congregations, composed of
two hundred congregations r
and speaking for Liberal J
Our Committee will make
tion of the conference the bas
port to the Executive Board
regular meeting in June. As
our Committee was appointed b
tive Board of the Union last M
body received a communicate
Executive Council of the Free
containing the information th
Synagogue contemplated the
of a Jewish Institute of Reli,
training of men for the Lii
With the consent of the ott
of our Committee I am tran
expression of our opinion to
time, so that there may be n
standing on the part of your
bearing in mind your apprisa
your letters of March 28th an
Dr. Stephen S. Wise contempt
a tour of the country during A]
for the purpose of raising fu
proposed College in New Yorl
With assurances of my high
beg to remain
Very sincerely your

the following
ously adopted

rican Juda-
y founding
ie Hebrew

ary at any

Alfred M. Cohen and Ludwig Vogelstein
were present at the conference and concur
in the above.
We, the undersigned, members of the
Committee, who were unable to attend the
conference in Cincinnati, have read the
foregoing and fully concur therein.

sn another At 12:30 the Board recessed for lunch
of Rabbis and re-convened at 2:30 P. M. The Presi-
become 'an dent, Mr. Charles Shohl, assumed the chair
erican He- and introduced Judge Julian W. Mack, who
inate with addressed the meeting. In introducing
(these are Judge Mack, Mr. Shohl stated that he 'had
f the Free received a letter from the Free Synagogue
d under no requesting permission to send a Committee
e self-per- to meet with the Executive Board of the
congrega- Union for the purpose of presenting the
Union Col- position of the Free Synagogue in the mat-
controlled ter of the proposed Institute of Religion.
n Hebrew Upon receipt of this letter Mr. Shohl had
more than invited the Free Synagog to send repre-
epresenting sentatives.
*udaism in Judge Julian W. Mack, of New York ap-
peared before the Executive Board for this
this declara- purpose. Judge Mack stated the posi-
is of its re- tion of the Free Synagog in the matter of
at its next establishing the Institute of Religion and
s you know, the correspondence which had passed be-
y the Execu- tween the officers of the Union and the
ay when that officers of the Free Synagog, and the send-
on from the ing out of printed copies of the committee's
e Synagogue, letter. He expressed a hope that coopera-
at the Free tion in the matter of exchanging Professors,
establishment and matters of a like nature might be
gion for the brought about.
beral Jewish The discussion was participated in by a
number of those present including the
her members chairman of the special committee of the
emitting this Union appointed to meet with the commit-
you, at this tee of the Free Synagog, and the President
1o misunder- of the Union, after which Judge Mack
Committee, retired.
Il to me in The report of the special committee was
Id 30th, that then taken up for action and the follow-
ated making ing resolution was unanimously adopted.
pril and May RESOLVED, That the action of the
rnds for the conference of the Cincinnati members of
k City. the Executive Board and of the Board of
est esteem I Governors held on April 2d, 1922, and the
letter written by the Special Committee to
s, Dr. Lee K. Frankel be approved and that
HAYS, the report of the Special Committee be ac-
Chairman. cepted and spread upon the minutes.



A communication was presented from the
Board of Governors requesting authority to
extend the work of the Teachers' Institute
in New York City. The following resolu-
tion was thereupon adopted:
RESOLVED, That authority be granted
to the Board of Governors to appoint a
Committee which shall, if possible, in con-
junction with the New York Executive Com-
mittee of the Union and with representa-
tives of the Association of Reform Rabbis
of New York formulate a plan for the
proper conduct of a Teachers' Institute in
New York City. Such plans to be reported
back to the Board of Governors for final
A communication was presented from Dr.
Jacob Z. Lauterbach, Professor at the He-
brew Union College, strongly advising the
publication of an English translation of a
pamphlet dealing with classic accusations
made against the Jews, written by Dr. Her-
man Strack, Professor of Christian Theology
at the University of Berlin. Dr. Lauter-
bach urged the translation of this pamphlet,
stating that it would be the only thorough-
going and authoritative statement in Eng-
lish on the subject with the exception of a
paper written by himself. Dr. Lauterbach
made an offer on behalf of himself and Dr.
Freehof, Professor at the Hebrew Union
College to translate the pamphlet into Eng-
lish without charge.
It was moved and duly carried that the
sum of $300 be appropriated for this pur-
The following report was presented by
Mr. Wm. Ornstein, Chairman of the Com-
mittee on Insuring Securities of the Union
of American Hebrew Congregations.

Cincinnati, Ohio,
June 11, 1922.
To the Executive Board of the
Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
This Committee, appointed in pursuance
of action taken at the last meeting of the

Executive Board, has inquired into the
cost as well as the practice of insuring
securities held in the Safe Deposit Vaults
of banks.
Two large companies furnished the fol-
lowing rates: The Ocean Accident and
Guarantee Corporation of London, Eng.,
$.504 per thousand for burglary, $.729 per
thousand for robbery and 10% additional
on the total of the above for Riot and
Strike clause, making a total of $1.356 per
thousand. It would therefore cost us
$1,170 a year to insure our present securi-
Another company, The Fidelity & Cas-
ualty Co., of New York, asked $.63 per
thousand for burglary, $1.125 per thousand
for robbery and an additional 10% over
and above the total for Riot and Strike
clause, making a total of $1.93 per thou-
sand. The total cost of insurance in this
company would therefore be $1,732 a year.
We are, however, advised by Cincinnati
bankers and business men that it would
be a superflous precaution to insure these
securities. Some of the securities are
kept in the Safe Deposit Vault of the
First National Bank and others in the
Safe Deposit Vault of the Central Trust
Co. Both vaults are very substantially
built and are equipped with time locks and
electric burglar alarms. During office hours
when entrance can be obtained they are
protected by guards who take the usual
precautions required under the circum-
Your Committee is therefore of the
opinion that no such insurance is neces-
sary and recommends to the Executive
Board that no further action be taken in
this matter.
Respectfully submitted,
WM. ORNSTEIN, Chairman,
It was moved and duly carried that the
report of the Committee be adopted.
The following report was presented by
Mr. Alfred M. Cohen, Chairman of the
Committee on Making a Permanent Record
of All Trust Funds.



Cincinnati, Ohio.
May 19, 1922.
To the Executive Board of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations.
The undersigned Committee appointed
pursuant to a resolution adopted at the
last meeting of your Board to make a
complete list and permanent record of each
Trust administered by the Union of Amer-
ican Hebrew Congregations, together with
the terms and conditions thereof, and
also to provide a plan for the continuation
of such record, beg leave to report that
they have arranged with the Secretary of
the Union of American Hebrew Congrega-
tions to enter into a permanent record all
Trust Funds received by the Union. This
record will be a book, a page thereof to
be devoted to each Trust Fund. The page
will contain the name of the donor, the
terms of the Trust and the amount re-
ceived, also the manner in which the same
is now invested, with space reserved where-
in to enter re-investments thereof.
The complete preparation of this record
will entail labor that will extend over quite
a period of time.
Your Committee, after making the fore-
going statement, reports progress and asks
further time in which to complete its task.
Very truly yours,
ALFRED M. COHEN, Chairman,
It was moved and duly carried that the
above report be adopted.
The following communication received
from Congregation K. K. B'nai Jeshurun,
of Cincinnati, proposing an amendment to
the Constitution was then presented.
Cincinnati, Ohio.
March 31, 1922.
Rabbi George Zepin, Secretary,
Union of American Hebrew Congregations,
Merchants Building, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Dear Sir:
At a meeting of our Congregational

Board which took place March 27, I was
authorized to present the following pro-
posal for a change in the Constitution of
the Union of American Hebrew Congrega-
tions for presentation to the XXVIII Bien-
nial Council which is to be held in New
York City during January of 1923.
Yours truly,

Proposal for Change of Constitution of the
Union of American Hebrew Congregations
It is proposed to strike out the word
"December" in Section 10 of the Constitu-
tion and substitute therefore the word "Jan-
The section governing the semi-annual
meetings of the Executive Board now reads
as follows:
Section 10. The Executive Board shall
meet and organize by the election of such
officers as they may deem proper imme-
diately after the Council which elected them
adjourns sine die, at the place where the
Council held its session. They shall meet
semi-annually thereafter in the months of
June and December at such time and place
as the President shall designate. The De-
cember meeting immediately preceding the
biennial meetings of the Council shall not
be required, but in place thereof the Board
shall hold a meeting on the day preceding
the meeting of the Council. Special meet-
ings of the Board shall be held on the
written request of ten of the members
thereof and also when the President shall

The Same Section After Amendment
Will Read. as Follows:

Section 10. The Executive Board shall
meet and organize by the election of such
officers as they may deem proper, imme-
diately after the Council which elected them
adjourns sine die, at the place where the
Council held its session. They shall meet
semi-annually thereafter in the months of
June and January at such time and place
as the President shall designate. The Jan-
uary meeting immediately preceding the
biennial meetings of the Council shall not
be required, but in place thereof the Board


of the
Executive Board

June 11, 1922
January 22, 1923
January 26, 1923


shall hold a meeting on the day preceding
the meeting of the Council. Special meet-
ings of the Board shall be held on the
written request of ten of the members
thereof and also when the President shall
It was moved and duly carried that this
communication be referred to the XXVIII
Council of the Union with the approval
of the Executive Board.


It was moved and duly carried that the
President be authorized to appoint a Com-
mittee on Revision of Constitution to re-
port to the next meeting of the Execu-
tive Board.

It was moved and duly carried that the
consideration of the report on Synagog
Pension Plans be postponed until the next
meeting of the Board.
In view of the approaching 80th birthday
of the Hon. Simon W. Rosendale, it was
moved and duly carried that the President
be authorized to extend the best wishes of
the members of the Board to Judge Rosen-
dale on this occasion.
The foregoing minutes were read and
approved. Adjourned.

Proceedings of the Executive Board

Hotel Astor,
New York, N. Y., Jan. 22, 1923.
The regular semi-annual meeting of the
Executive Board was held at the above
place and date at 2 p. m.
There were present Messrs. Ben Alt-
heimer, Daniel P. Hays, Morris H. Roth-
schild and Ludwig Vogelstein, of New York
City; N. Henry Beckman, Alfred M. Cohen,
Julius W. Freiberg, Jacob W. Mack, Her-
bert C. Oettinger, Wi. Ornstein, Charles
Shohl, Samuel Straus and I. Newton Trager,
of Cincinnati, Ohio; Fred E. Bruml and
Benj. Lowenstein, of Cleveland, Ohio; Ed-
gar M. Cahn, of New Orleans, La.; Marcus
Rauh and Judge Josiah Cohen, of Pitts-
burgh, Pa.; Dr. David W. Edelman, of Los
Angeles, Cal.; Gustave A. Efroymson, of
Indianapolis, Ind.; Isaac Goldberg, of De-
troit, Mich.; Albert L. Levi, of Brooklyn,
N. Y.; Henry Oppenheimer and Joseph
Wiesenfeld, of Baltimore, Md.; A. C. Rat-
shesky and Felix Vorenberg, of Boston,
Mass.; Maurice D. Rosenberg, of Washing-
ton, D. C.; Julius Rosenwald, of Chicago,
Ill.; A. L. Saltzstein, of Milwaukee, Wis.;
Louis Schlesinger, of Newark, N. J.; Isaac
M. Ullman, of New Haven, Conn.; A. Leo
Weil, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Herman Wile, of

Buffalo, N. Y.; and Albert Wolf, of Phila-
delphia, Pa.
Mr. Charles Shohl, President, occupied the
chair. The minutes were recorded by
Rabbi George Zepin, Secretary.

Letters were presented from the follow-
ing members of the Board who were unable
to attend the meeting: Messrs. Isaac W.
Bernheim, of Louisville, Ky.; Robert P.
Goldman and Simeon M. Johnson, of Cin-
cinnati, O.; Edwin B. Meissner and Aaron
Waldheim, of St. Louis, Mo.; Adolph S.
Ochs, of New York City; Simon W. Rosen-
dale, of Albany, N. Y.; Jacob Schnadig, of
Chicago, Ill.; Isaac Schoen, of Atlanta, Ga.;
Horace Stern, of Philadelphia, Pa., and
Wm. B. Woolner, of Peoria, Ill.

The following annual reports were then
presented and upon motion duly carried, and
were ordered to be transmitted to the
XXVIII Council of the Union:

b-Public Accountants.



c-Board of Governors of the Hebrew
Union College.
d-Board of Delegates on Civil Rights.
e-Board of Managers of Synagog and
School Extension.
f-National Federation of Temple Sister-

Mr. Joseph Fried, representing Temple
Israel of Far Rockaway, New York, re-
quested permission to appear before the
Executive Board and to present a proposal
for a change in the Constitution affecting
the method of raising funds for the Union
of American Hebrew Congregations. Mr.
Fried was invited to address the meeting,
and at the close of his remarks it was
moved and duly carried to receive his pro-
posal for amending the Constitution, and to
consider the same under the proper order of

The reading of the Secretary's Report
was upon motion called for.
It was moved and duly carried that the
following resignations from the Board of
Governors be accepted:
Mr. Morris Westheimer, of Cincinnati, O.
Mr. Alfred M.. Klein, of Philadelphia, Pa.
The President appointed the following
Committee to nominate members to fill
three vacancies on the Board of Governors:
Mr. Alfred M. Cohen, Chairman, Mr. Jacob
W. Mack, Mr. Samuel Straus, Mr. Gustave
A. Efroymson, Mr. Isaac Goldberg, Mr.
Julius Rosenwald, Mr. Maurice D. Rosen-
It was further moved and carried that
this Committee report its recommendations
to the incoming Executive Board.
It was moved and duly carried that the
following interim appointments made by
Mr. Charles Shohl, President, be approved:
On the Executive Board, Mr. Henry L.
Mayer, of San Francisco, Cal., to take the
place of Mr. Mortimer Fleischhacker, of
San Francisco, Cal., resigned; and Mr.
Robert P. Goldman, of Cincinnati, Ohio, to
take the place of Mr. Sigmund Rheinstrom,
of Cincinnati, Ohio, resigned.
On the Board of Governors, Mr. Berthold
Guggenhime, of San Francisco, Gal., to take

the place of Mr. Harris Weinstock, of San
Francisco, Cal., deceased.
On the Board of Managers, Mr. Meier
Steinbrink, of Brooklyn, N. Y., and Mr.
Henry S. Manheim, of San Francisco, Cal.,
the latter to take the place of Mr. Henry
L. Mayer, of San Francisco, Cal., resigned.
On the New York Committee for School
Extension, Mr. Meier Steinbrink, of Brook-
lyn, N. Y.
Mr. Ludwig Vogelstein, Chairman of the
Sub-Committee, presented the following re-

1. Since the last report was compiled it
has developed that the Insurance Com-
panies are not writing any more policies
covering disability without medical exam-
ination. Mr. Lee K. Frankel thinks, how-
ever, that such policy might be revived un-
der certain conditions. Inasmuch as we are
not in a position to submit concrete plans
we have to assurle for the time being that
medical examination is going to be required.
2. The rates given in my report of De-
cember 11th, were approximate; the cor-
rect rates subdividing the 3 risks are given
below and special attention is called to the
fact that these rates are given for ages at
5 years interval without giving schedule for
each age.
Schedule of Considerations
Consideration for each $1,000 of Salary to

Provide Annuity

S g

25 $ 25.00
30 32.82
35 43.89
40 60.17
45 85.51
50 128.20
55 209.72
60 405.87
65 1,290.11


- g

'0 0


^fc "
g g
h Q^3
"* M a i
a'-ssn s
^*ae .m
is s'is


$ 88.89



Subject to Change
The arguments produced in previous re-
ports are fully sustained by further study
of the subject that it will be impossible to
introduce a plan which will satisfy at once
every requirement; an attempt is made,
however, to give every Rabbi an oppor-
tunity to join at a price.

3. The plan also contemplates calling up-
on the Union only during the period of
transition say for about 25 years with a con-
stantly decreasing obligation- and relieving
the Union after 20 years of any new obliga-

4. In case of discontinuance of insur-
ance by any individual Rabbi or Congrega-
tion the amount so far paid is preserved
for the benefit of the insured in the form
of a "paid-up policy", giving the insured the
privilege of continuing the insurance at his
own expense after he left the Rabbinate.

5. The premiums for widow's pension
depend on the wife's age; therefore the
premiums mentioned above are based on
assumptions subject to correction in each

6. In order to avoid further delay, the
proposed plan provides-

Without Examination
a. A life rent for the Rabbi after he
he has reached the age 68-
such rent or pension to be equal
to 1 of his last salary but not
to exceed $2,500-per annum.
b. A pension to his widow equal to
V4 of his salary but not to ex-
ceed $1,250-per annum.

Subject to Examination
c. A pension equivalent to "A" in
case of disability.
7. According to resolution of the Execu-
tive Board, the attached plan if approved
should be submitted to the corresponding
Committee of the "Rabbinical" body and
if approved by them a questionnaire might
be sent to the Congregations to ascertain
how many are going to join.
Eligible, all Rabbis and ministers (defini-
tion to be approved by Central Conference

of American Rabbis) whose Congregations
belong to Union of American Hebrew Con-
gregations or who are members of Central

A. For all those joining during the year
1. If below age 45 Congregation (or
Rabbi) pays the entrie pre-
mium no payment from Union.
2. If Rabbi at age 45 or above Un-
ion pays part premium.
(a) If Rabbi above 45 but not
above 55 Union pays entire
excess over age 45 rate.
(b) If Rabbi above 55 Union pays
excess premium over age
45 rate, but not exceeding
$850-per annum in each

B. For all those joining after 1923 but
no later than December 31, 1927.
1. If below age 50 Congregation (or
Rabbi) pays entire premium.
2. If Rabbi above 50 but not above
55 Union pays entire excess
over age 50 rate.
3. If Rabbi over 55 Union pays ex-
cess premium over age 50 rate
but not to exceed $850-per
annum in each case.

C. For those joining after January 1,
1928, but not later than December 31, 1932.
1. If below age 55 Congregation
pays entire premium.
2. If above age 55 Union pays ex-
cess premium over age 55 rate
but not to exceed $850-per
annum in each case.

D. For those joining after January 1,
1933, but not later than December 31, 1937.
1. If Rabbi below age 60 Congrega-
tion pays entire premium.
2. If Rabbi above age 60 Union pays
excess premium over age 60
rate but not to exceed $850-
per annum in each case.

E. After January 1, 1938, Union does
not assume any obligation for those joining
the system, but continues to pay part of
premiums for those who joined previously.



Rabbi Joining First Period
(Disability premium included)
Pension $2,000-Widow $1,000.
A. 2. a. Rabbi age 50 Salary, $4,000

Total premium $ 960
of which Congregation
pays............ $723
Union pays........ 237 $ 960


A. 2. b. Rabbi age 60

Salary, $4,000

Total premium $2,367
of which Congregation
pays........... .$723
Union pays........ 850 $1,573
$ 794
Congregation has choice either to pay
additional $794 to complete premium or to
reduce pension in proportion, approximately
to $1,300-for Rabbi and $650-for Widow.

Rabbi Joining Third Period
C. 2. Rabbi age 60 Salary, $4,000

Total premium $2,367
of which Congregation
Union pays.......... 850 $2,238
$ 129

Congregation has choice to pay addi-
tional $129-or pension will be reduced ap-
proximately to $1,890-for Rabbi and $945--
for Widow.
Rabbi Joining Third Period
(Showing Effect on Smaller Salary)
A. 2. b. Rabbi age 60 Salary, $2,000
Pension $1,000. Widow 500

Total premium $1,183
of which Congregation
pays......... $361.50
Union pays..... 821.60 $1,183

The Rabbi is entitled to full pension al-
though the Congregation pays only a small
contribution, but the Union pays nearly the
maximum. This shows the great advantage

for small congregations which are in
greater need of assistance.
(So far as pension to widow is con-
cerned rate above assumes age of husband
and wife to be the same. The younger the
wife, the higher the premium will be.)
Estimate of Financial Burden to Union
Assuming that 250 Rabbis join in 1922-
1923 and further assuming the following
ages (partly estimated from original report)
at or below 45 175
above 45 but below 50 40
above 50 but below 55 15
above 55 but below 60 10
above 60 but below 65 10
Assuming $4,000-insurable salary)
($2,000, Rabbi pension; $1,000, Widow)
40 at age between 45-50 at $150 p. a. $6,000
15 at age between 50-55 at 500 p. a. 7,500'
20 at age above 55 at 850 17,000



While this sum appears to be a heavy
annual burden for the Union it ought to be
borne in mind that the actual requirements
are going to be considerably smaller from
the very beginning because the number of
those who will join, especially of the ad-
vanced ages is sure to be lower.
There is available a pension fund of
Union, a pension fund of the Central Con-
ference and annual contributions from the
Union Treasury. The above estimate of
maximum cost would doubtlessly be re-
duced to a sum between $20,000 to $25,000.
Even at the maximum, however, the burden
would be well within the means of the
Union because the payments would grad-
ually be reduced when the oldest men
reach the age of 68.
As soon as the questionnaire has been
answered and a reasonable indication of
the number of men willing to join and the
date of their ages is available the figure of
the maximum contribution of the Union
could probably be revised upwards.

The discussion during the last few years
has shown that no plan can be carried out
which is going to protect all Rabbis to the
full extent without burdening the Union be-
yond its financial capacity. The present
plan offers protection to all Rabbis with
certain limitations and has the great ad-



vantage of being available immediately up-
on its approval regardless of the number
of Rabbis who are going to join at the be-
ginning. In the course of 15 to 20 years
the pension system would be universally
The present report disregards a number
of subjects which will have to be discussed
with the Committee of the Central Confer-
ence and which are embodied in previous
Sub-Committee reports of the Union.
As soon as this report has been approved
by our Sub-Committee the officers of the
Union should take up the discussion with
the competent committee of the Conference.
This report embodies valuable suggestions
made by Dr. Lee K. Frankel and David
Bressler who have approved of it in sub-
stance and whose cooperation is gratefully
Respectfully submitted,
(signed) Ludwig Vogelstein.
The above report was discussed in-
formally and the following resolution
Resolved, That the report be recommitted
to the Sub-Committee with the request that
a list of the rabbis who would be affected
by the Synagog Pension Fund and their
salaries be tabulated; this supplementary
report to be presented to the next meeting
of the Executive Board.

The Committee on Revision of Constitu-
tion reported progress and requested fur-
ther time for the completion of its report.
It was moved and duly carried that this
be granted.
Mr. N. Henry Beckman, Chairman of the
Committee on Union Bulletin presented the
following report:

To the Executive Board of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations:
Your Committee appointed to look into the
matter of issuing the Union Bulletin on an
advertising basis, begs leave to report as

We have had several meetings and have
considered a number of details preliminary
to solving the fundamental problems un-
derlying this proposition.

1-The first thing that we endeavored
to ascertain was whether it was customary
for high class religious journals to accept
advertising in their pages. We find that
this practice is quite universal in the
American religious daily, weekly and
monthly papers.

2-The question of second class mailing
privilege is very important for a magazine
with a circulation of 65,000. The laws of
the postal department require certain radical
changes in the method of distributing our
publication before we can accept advertis-
ing. This is a question involving a great
many details which it would be useless to
incorporate in a report before we decide
upon the best policy to adopt. There are
several rulings under which we could issue
a magazine of this description. Each has
serious difficulties. We still hope that these
can be overcome.

Your Committee is of the opinion that a
feasible method can be found for accom-
plishing the purposes that we have in mind,
and trust to be able to report finally on the
subject to the next meeting of the Execu-
tive Board.
Respectfully submitted,

It was moved and duly carried that the
report be received and that the Committee
on Union Bulletin be given further time to
complete its investigations.

The Chairman of the Committee on Pro-
gram for the 28th Council, Mr. Alfred M.
Cohen, reported the completion of the la-
bors of the Committee.
It was moved and duly carried that the
Committee be discharged with thanks.



A communication from the Board of
Governors of the Hebrew Union College
was presented, requesting the permission of
the Executive Board to amend the laws gov-
erning the Retired Teachers' Pension Fund
by the addition of a paragraph reading as
"A widow who had been for not less than
ten years the wife of a professor or in-
structor in the Hebrew Union College in
service for at least twenty-five years and
who at the time of his death was not re-
ceiving a retiring allowance under Rule 1
or Rule 2, shall receive during her widow-
hood an annual allowance equal to 20% of
the yearly salary which her husband was
receiving at the time of his death."
It was moved and duly carried that the
above change in the rules should be ap-
proved, and that the paragraph should stand
as Rule 4 of the Retired Teachers' Pension
It was moved and duly carried that this
rule be made retroactive so as to include
the case of the widow of Prof. Gotthard
A communication was presented from the
Board of Governors calling attention to the
advisability of granting pensions to several
persons mentioned therein. The communi-
cation stated further that upon motion the
matter had been referred to the Executive
It was moved and duly carried that the
President appoint a committee of three resi-
dents of Cincinnati with power to investi-
gate this matter and to report to the June
meeting of the Executive Board.
The Chairman appointed the following
Committee: Samuel Straus, Chairman,
Alfred M. Cohen, Herbert C. Oettinger.

Communications were presented from
Messrs. Moses Rothschild, of Baltimore,
Md., Joseph Fried, of Far Rockaway, N. Y.,
and Aaron Waldheim, of St. Louis, Mo.,
suggesting new methods of raising money
for the expenses of the Union. The three
plans had the following things in common:
First, that the quota assigned to each con-

gregation should be based upon the income
of each congregation and the proportion
that it bears to the budgetary needs of the
Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
Second, that this quota should be imposed
upon each congregation in the nature of a
tax, and that failure to pay the same should
be cause for suspension from membership.
The three plans were not unanimous with
reference to the method of collecting the
tax. It was suggested that the same could
either be paid out of the treasury of the
congregation or could be levied in propor-
tionate amounts upon each member of the
congregation, or could be raised by a cam-
paign of subscriptions under the auspices
of the congregation.
Mr. Joseph Fried of Temple Israel, Far
Rockaway, N. Y., presented the following
proposal for a change of Constitution with
reference to the above matter.

Amendment to Section Four, which when
amended will read as follows: "Every con-
gregation, a member of the Union, shall
pay yearly into the treasury thereof such
assessments as may be necessary to pay its
proportionate share of the budget require-
ments as finally determined by the Execu-
tive Board, in equal semi-annual install-
ments, one-half thereof due and payable
September first and the other half on
March first. Each proportion to be ascer-
tained and fixed in the manner provided by
Section Four A hereof:
Section Four A: The assessments against
each congregation shall be based upon its
gross income actually received for congre-
gational purposes during the fiscal year
next preceding, less such amount as may
be necessary to pay interest on any indebt-
edness of such congregation. Each congre-
gation shall receive notice on or before the
first day of August of each year of the
amount of its assessment. The financial
report showing the income of such congre-
gation must be furnished and certified to
by each congregation to the Secretary of
the Executive Board on or before the
fifteenth day of April.
Section Four B: A congregation in ar-
rears for one year's assessment may be




suspended from membership by the Execu-
tive Board which may at any time reinstate
such congregation to membership on such
terms as the Board may prescribe. The
Executive Board may appoint a Committee
to exercise these powers.
Section Fourteen: There shall be ap-
pointed at each bi-annual meeting of the
Union a Committee on Budget consisting of
no less than seven nor more than fifteen
members, whose duty it shall be to report
in writing to a meeting of the Executive
Board held during the month of June of
each year giving the detailed estimated ex-
penditures necessary to carry on the work
of the Union and its several activities.
All parts of the constitution in conflict
with these amendments be and are hereby
in all respects and things repealed.
It was moved and duly carried that the
entire subject be referred to a Committee
of Five, with instructions to report to the
next meeting of the Executive Board.
The Chairman appointed the following
Committee: Mr. Julius Rosenwald, Chair-
man, Mr. Gustave A. Efroymson, Mr. Jacob
W. Mack, Mr. Henry Oppenheimer, Mr.
Albert Wolf.

The Chairman of the Committee on Fi-
nance and Auditing, Mr. Herbert C. Oet-
tinger, presented a communication request-
ing permission to correct an error in book-
keeping made in 1921 involving the trans-
fer of $1,000 given by Mr. Robert Lee
Straus for the creation of the Selma Straus
Prize Fund, from the General Fund to the
Sinking Fund.
It was moved and duly carried that per-
mission be granted to make the necessary

A communication was presented from Mr.
A. S. Gottlieb, suggesting the advisability
of creating a Bureau of Information on
Synagog Architecture, the same to repre-
sent all phases of Jewish thought, and sug-
gesting that the elements of this informa-
tion be imparted at the Rabbinical Semi-

It was moved and duly carried that the
matter be referred to the XXVIII Council.

A communication was presented from
Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver, writing for the
Palestine Development Council, seeking to
arrange an agreement between that or-
ganization and the Union for adopting a
policy of joint participation in the work of
developing Palestine.
It was the sense of those present that the
matter did not come within the scope and
jurisdiction of the Union of American He-
brew Congregations.

A communication was presented from
Rabbi Ephraim Frisch, writing for the
American Pro-Falasha Committee, request-
ing a gift of $250 and cooperation in
raising the sum of $35,000 per annum for
work in Abyssinia.
It was moved and duly carried that in
view of the status of our funds it was in-
advisable to grant a subsidy at this time.

Communications were presented from the
following: (1) Association for promoting
Liberal Judaism in Germany, (2) The Re-
form Congregation of Berlin, (3) Breslau
Seminary; requesting assistance. These
communications were supplemented by let-
ters from Dr. Julian Morgenstern of Cin-
cinnati, from Dr. Ismar Elbogen of Berlin,
and from the Joint Distribution Committee,
giving more detailed information about each
It was moved and duly carried that the
status of our funds made it inadvisable to
grant any appropriation for this purpose at
the present time.
The-Chairman announced unofficially that
anyone present desiring to contribute pri-
vately to such a fund should communicate
with Mr. Ben Altheimer of New York City.

A telegram from Hon. Simon W. Rosen-
dale, of Albany, N. Y., was presented to the
meeting voicing his regret at being unable


to attend the meeting, and announcing his
contribution of $1,000 in memory of his
wife, Helen Cohen Rosendale.
It was moved and duly carried that the
offer be accepted by a rising vote.
A communication was presented from
Prof. Chauncey M. Baldwin of the Univer-
sity of Illinois, dealing with the situation of
Jewish students of that University.
It was moved and duly carried that the
same be referred to the Board of Managers
of Synagog and School Extension.
It was further moved and carried that an
additional grant of $4,500 for the current
year be made to the Board of Managers in
order to cover the expenses of engaging the
services of a man for University Welfare
A communication was presented from the
Secretary of K. K. B'nai Yeshurun Congre-

gation of Cincinnati, Ohio, proposing a
changing in the Constitution of the Union
whereby the Executive Board which now
consist of fifty members would be increased
to fifty-six members.
It was moved and duly carried that it is
the sense of this meeting that such a
change was inadvisable.
Mr. I. Newton Trager of Cincinnati, sug-
gested the advisability of changing the name
of the Union of American Hebrew Congre-
gations to The Union of American Jewish
Congregations, or The American Jewish
Congregational Union.
It was moved and duly carried that the
matter be referred to the Committee on
Revision of Constitution.
c Respectfully submitted,
U\ President.

(Minutes continued on page 9340.)


The Annual Reports
All Departments


The Secretary's Report

To the Executive Board of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations:

Since the last annual meeting of the Executive Board, the Union has admitted
twenty-eight (28) new congregations and has increased its individual membership by
7,366. With these additions the membership of the Union now consists of 262 congre-
gations with an individual membership of 43,562 persons.

Albuquerque, N. M...........Albert*
Brooklyn, N. Y.............Shaarai Zedek*
Brooklyn, N. Y............ Beth Emeth*
Brownsville, Tenn...........Adas Israel
Huntsville, Ala.............. B'nai Scholom
Jackson, Mich..............Temple Beth Israel
Jamaica, N. Y..............Temple Israel
Jonesboro, Ark............ Temple Israel
Lafayette, La...............Jewish Synagog
Long Beach, Cal............Beth El
Marshall, Tex...............Moses Montefiore
New Bern, N. C.............B'nai Scholem
Newburg, N. Y..............Beth Jacob*
New Rochelle, N. Y..........Temple Israel*
New York, N. Y............ Agudath Jeshorim*
New York, N. Y............Shaaray Tefila (West End Synagog)
New York, N. Y.............Tremont Temple (Gates of Mercy)
Parkersburg, W. Va.........B'nai Israel*
Roanoke, Va............... Emanuel*
Rocky Mount, N. IC.........Beth El
Spartanburg, S. C ........... B'nai Israel
Steubenville, Ohio...........Beth El*
Sumter, S.C................Sinai Congregation
Tampa, Fla.................Schaarie Zedek
Trenton, N. J...............Har Sinai
Troy, Ala................ Beth Sholom
Williamson, W. Va.........Temple B'nai Israel
Wilmington, Del............Temple Beth Emeth*

There are three vacancies on the Board of Governors owing to the resignations of
Dr. Emil G. Hirsch of Chicago, Ill., Mr. Morris Westheimer of Cincinnati, Ohio, and
Mr. Alfred M. Klein of Philadelphia, Pa.
There is one vacancy on the Board of Managers owing to the resignation of
Mr. Sigmund Rheinstrom of Cincinnati, Ohio.
There is one vacancy on the Board of Delegates owing to the resignation of
Mr. Sigmund Rheinstrom of Cincinnati, Ohio.


In accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, Mr. Charles Shohl, Presi-
dent, has made the following appointments:
On the Executive Board, Mr. Henry L. Mayer of San Francisco, Cal., to take the
place of Mr. Mortimer Fleishhacker of San Francisco, Cal., resigned, and Mr. Robert
P. Goldman of Cincinnati, Ohio, to take the place of Mr. Sigmund Rheinstrom of
Cincinnati, Ohio, resigned.
On the Board of Governors, Mr. Berthold Guggenhime of San Francisco, Cal., to
take the place of Mr. Harris Weinstock of San Francisco, Cal., deceased.
On the Board of Managers, Mr. Meier Steinbrink of Brooklyn, N. Y., and Mr.
Henry S. Manheim of San Francisco, iCal., the latter to take the place of Mr. Henry
L. Mayer of San Francisco, Cal., resigned.
On the New York Committee for School Extension, Mr. Meier Steinbrink of
Brooklyn, N. Y.


The financial report, which follows, is audited by Richard Smethurst & Company,
Certified Public Accountants. The statement of the accountant is submitted as part
of this report.

* Joined Union after October 31, 1922.





At October 31, 1922

General Fund ..................... Exh. I
Endowment Fund .................Exh. 2
Retired Teachers' Fund............. Exh. 2
Hermine Schonthal Endowment Publication
Fund ........................Exh. 1
Contingent Funds .....................
Total Cash ........................
Investments-Par Value-
General Fund .......................
Endowment Fund .....................
Manny Strauss Fund No. 1 and No. 2.....
Hermine Schonthal Endowment Publication
Fund ...........................
Retired Teachers' Fund ..................
Jacob H. Schiff Bequest for Hebrew Union
College ....................
Total Investments ...................
Premium and Interest-
General Fund .......................
Endowment Fund ......................
Hermine Schonthal Endowment Publication
Fund ............................
Total Premium and Interest............
Hebrew Union College-
Building ..........
Library and Contents....................
Total Hebrew Union College..........
TOTAL ASSETS ....................
General Fund .............................
Endowment Fund ...................... ...
Manny Strauss Fund No. 1 and No. 2..........
Hermine Schonthal Endowment Publication Fund
Jacob H. Schiff Bequest for Hebrew Union Col-
lege ................. .
Retired Teachers' Fund .......................
Current Funds for Current Expenses..........
Hebrew Union College Building and Library....
Discount on Investments Purchased-
General Fund .......................... $9,879.32
Endowment Fund ....................... 9,864.84

Total Discounts .....................
TOTAL LIABILITIES ................

















At October 31, 1922
Balance as per bank statement Oct. 31, '22. $29,268.46
Less: Outstanding Checks-
No. 562 Endowment and Trust Fund $100.00
No. 563 Board of Governors........ 16,117.29
No. 564 Administration Account ..... 1,335.36
No. 565 Administration Account for
N. F. T. S. ............. 1,693.38
No. 566 Board of Managers......... 7,199.69
No. 567 New York Executive Com-
m ittee ................. 351.54
No. 568 New York Committee for
School Extension ........ 479.65

Total Outstanding Checks........ 27,276.91

*Balance as per Books............ $1,991.55
This Balance includes-
General Fund ...................... $1,364.22
Hermine Schonthal Endowment Publica-
tion Fund ...................... 627.33


At October 31, 1922
Bglance as per bank statement Oct. 31, '22. $819.35
Outstanding Checks ..................... None

*Balance as per Books................ $819.35
*This Balance includes-
Endowment Fund ................... $139.35
Retired Teachers' Fund............... 680.00


At October 31, 1922
General Fund ........................................ $1,364.22
Endowment Fund .............. .......... ............. 139.35
Retired Teachers' Fund ........................ ......... 680.00
Hermine Schonthal Endowment Publication Fund............. 627.33

Cash Balance all Funds ..............................





At October 31, 1922
A. Receipts and Disbursements for Year Ended October 31, 1922-
For Maintenance of all Departments-
Dues from Congregations ............. $36,554.75
General Maintenance Subscriptions.... $167,316.75
Less: Return of Subscriptions for Frei-
berg Memorial .................. 275.00 167,041.75

Memorial Donations and Bequests..... 2,203.00
Miscellaneous ....................... 1,993.48
Interest from Securities in General
Fund .......................... 3,833.64
Interest on Bank Deposits............ 456.99
Interest from Manny Strauss Fund No. 1 1,481.11
Interest from Hermine Schonthal En-
dowment Publication Fund........ 700.00
From National Federation of Temple
Sisterhoods ..................... 4,375.39
Refund from Board of Managers...... 1,000.00
Refund on Insurance Premiums... 8.09
Refund from Special Grant to Board of
Governors .................. 174.49
Refund from National Federation of
Temple Sisterhoods ............. 574.00

Total for Maintenance of all De-
partments .................. $220,396.69
For Hebrew Union College-
Memorial Donations and Bequests..... $6,958.17
Subscriptions and Donations for Schol-
arships ........................ 22,830.96
Interest from Endowment Fund Securi-
ties ............................ 28,873.05
Refund on Insurance Premiums....... 358.18
Hebrew Union College Press.......... 41.98
Hebrew Union College Annual......... $1,107.39
Less: Refund ...................... 7.50 1,099.89

Hebrew Union College Library........ 248.00
Dormitory Building Fund............. $5.00
Less: Transfer to Dormitory Building
Fund .......................... 5.00

Special Donations ................... $1,377.46
Less: Refund ...................... 1.24 1,376.22

Subscriptions to Hebrew Union College 256.00

Total for Hebrew Union College...




SCHEDULE "B"-Continued

For Teachers' Institute-
Jacob H. Schiff Bequest..............
Publications ......................
Total for Teachers' Institute......
For Synagog and School Extension-
Subscriptions .....................
Summer Services ...................
Religious Text Books................. $13,876.33
Less: Refund on Books Re-
turned ..............$45.63
Expenditures for "Young
Israel" .............122.50 168.13

Total for Synagog and School Ex-
tension .............. ..
For Tract Commission-
Subscriptions .......................
For Synagog Pension Fund-
Less: Transfer to Synagog Pension
Fund ....................










Executive Board-Direct Expenses..Exh. 1
Board of Governors ................Exh. 2 $117,295.89
Less: Refund by H. U. C. Monthly... 50.60

Board of Managers ................ Exh. 3
Board of Delegates ............... ....
New York Executive Committee ...........
Less: Refund .....................

New York Committee for School Extension.
National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods,
Appropriation for Office Ex-
pense ........................ Exh. 4
Chicago Federation .....................
Religious Schools in Pittsburgh District....
Accrued Interest on Bonds Purchased......
Inheritance Tax on Bequest.............
Premiums on Bonds Purchased ...........
Less: Discount on Bonds Purchased..








15.00 56.25


Excess Receipts over Disbursements...

Add Amount Used to Reduce Administration
Fund to $18,000 .. ...... ............ $70.00






SCHEDULE "B" (Continued)

B. Statement of Cash Balance at Oct. 31, 1922-
Surplus at November 1, 1921 ............
Add: Excess Receipts over Disburse-
m ents ....................
Securities Matured and Sold....

Less: Securities Purchase..
Profit on Sale of i
Schonthal Publication Fund
books transferred to Hermine
Schonthal Publication Fund..







Surplus in General Fund............. $1,364.22

C. Statement of Financial Condition of General
Surplus at October 31, 1922..............
Investments-Par Value...................
Add: Premiums and Interest..........

Less: Discounts ..................

Net Cost of Investments..........

Balance in General Fund.........









(Not Including Appropriations for Subsidiary Departments)

For Year Ended October 31, 1922

Office Supplies .................... ................
Office Furniture .. .............. ......................
Rent .............................. ...............
Telephone ......................... ...............
Salaries ......................... ........... ......
Printing and Multigraphing......................... ...
Postage and Expressage ..............................
Union Bulletin ....................... .............
Mailing List-upkeep of ................................
Advertising ........................................
Refunders Claimed by Congregations for Money Expended in
their Local Campaigns ............................
Telegrams .................... ....................
Resolutions ......................... ..............
Official Bond Premium ................................
Periodicals ...................................
Fire Insurance Premium ............................ .
Safety Deposit Box Rent ................... ...............
Union Tidings ...................... ..............
Year Book .......................... ..............
Industrial Insurance ................ .......... .....
Professor Strack's Pamphlet ...........................
A uditing ...............................................
New York Committee for School Extension.................
Less: Return of Monies Expended ...................

New York Executive Committee .........................
Less: Return of Monies Expended....................

Traveling Expenses, Rabbi Zepin..........................
Rabbi Schwarz ......................
M r. Olshansky ......................

Total Direct Expense-Executive Committee........







For Year Ended October 31, 1922
Salaries of Faculty ..................................... $54,714.96
Scholarships, Loans, etc. ................................ 16,492.08
Department of Hygiene.................................. 695.75
Student Activities ....................................... 851.38
Prizes .................................. ....... ....... 100.00
Graduation Exercises .................................... 241.74
Salaries of Librarian and Library Staff...................... 9,395.00
Purchases and Maintenance of Library ..................... 3,900.95
Bindery ............................................... 2,979.80
Teachers' Institute Salaries............................... 1,217.90
H. U. C. Press and Other Subventions..................... 917.45
Salaries of Secretary's Office ............................. 2,400.00
Office Supplies and Postage .............................. 661.33
Advertising ........................................ ... 571.86
Catalogues ...................................... ....... 323.87
Insurance ............. ............... ................ 1,396.01
Maintenance of Buildings and Grounds.................... 11,533.04
Miscellaneous ......................................... 815.86
Repair of Buildings .................................... 8,086.91

Total Disbursements-Board of Governors .............. $117,295.89

For Year Ended October 31, 1922
Stationery and Office Supplies ........................... $773.93
Telephone ...................................... ...... 99.82
Rent ..................................... .. ......... 752.57
Office Furniture and Equipment ........................... 526.33
Salaries ............................................... 20,748.75
Expressage ......................................... 66.42
Postage and Telegrams .................................. 742.66
Printing ............................. ............ 886.08
Mailing List-upkeep of .................................. 470.15
Industrial Insurance ..................................... 15.21
Supervisors' Expenses .................................. 3,320.47
Text Books-Publishing and Printing ..................... 9,910.12
Books and Prints for use in Publishing Text Books......... 1,000.00
Summer Services .............. .................... .. 883.76
Tract Commission ....................................... 1,133.92
Union Home Study Magazine (Young Israel)............... 6,189.64
Sabbath School Exhibit ................................. 40.10
Board of Editors ....................................... 80.54
Resolutions ....................... .................. 79.65
Traveling Expense-Rabbi Egelson ........................ 51.58
Mr. Pollack .......................... 67.37

Total Disbursements-Board of Managers..............



(For Upkeep of Headquarters' Office in Cincinnati)
For Year Ended October 31, 1922
Stationery and Office Supplies.......................... $694.67
Telephone ............ ................ ............... 99.79
R ent ............................. ...................... 752 .61
Office Furniture and Equipment ........................... 526.33
Salaries ................... ..... ...... ............. 17,482.54
Postage .................. ... .................... ... 30.00
Printing ........................ .................. 175.12
Mailing List- upkeep of ..................... ......... 469.99
Industrial Insurance .............. ............ ........ .. 15.22
Telegrams .......................... ..... .. ............ .65

Total Disbursements-N. F. T. S. Appropriation ........

A. Receipts and Disbursements for Year Ended October 31, 1922-
Donations ..................................... $8,100.00
Premium on Stock Sold........................... 1,000.00


Excess Receipts over Disbursements ...........

B. Statement of Cash Balance at October 31, 1922-
Cash Balance at November 1, 1921 ...................
Add: Receipts for Year......................... $9,100.00
Securities Matured and Sold ................ 42,000.00

Less: Securities Purchased .......................

Cash Balance in. Fund......................

C. Financial Condition of Endowment Fund at October 31, 1922-
Cash Surplus at Oct. 31, 1922.................... ...
Investments-Par Value.............................. $609,500.00
Add: Premium and Interest...................... 16,139.89

Less: Discount ................................ 9,864.84

Net Cost of Investments.....................

Balance in Endowment Fund ................













At October 31, 1922

A. Receipts and Disbursements for Year Ended October 31, 1922-
Profit on Sale of Books .......................... $


Excess Receipts over Disbursements ...........

B. Statement of Fund Cash Balance at October 31, 1922--
Cash Balance-Nov. 1, 1921..........................
Excess Receipts over Disbursements ..................

Total Cash Balance. .......................

C. Statement of Financial Condition of Hermine Schonthal
Endowment Publication Fund-
Cash on hand at Oct. 31, 1922.................... .
Investments- Par Value ............................
Premium ......................................

Net Cost of Investments ................ ...

Balance in Hermine Schonthal Endowment Pub-
lication Fund ........................ .









A. Receipts and Disbursements for the Year Ended October 31, 1922-
Interest on Endowment Bonds .....................
U. S. 4th Liberty Loan Bonds received from General
Fund in lieu of Cash......................... $2,000.00

Total Receipts ..............................
Disbursements for Expenses-

Excess Receipts over Disbursements...........




B. Statement of Cash Balance at October 31, 1922-
Excess Receipts over Disbursements ........... 680.00

Surplus in Retired Teachers' Fund............. $680.00



Balance in Retired Teachers' Fund............



At October 31, 1922

C. Statement of Financial Condition of Fund-
Surplus at October 31, 1922 .... .....................
Investments-Par Value.............................




At October 31, 1922.


Pennsylvania Co. Trust Securities .........................
Illinois Central R. 1. Stock Interest Certificates ................
Western Union Telegraph Co. Real Estate............... ....
N'ewport, Cincinnati Bridge Co. General Mortgage ..............
K. K. Bene Yeshurun School Building......................
Cincinnati Lebanon & Northern Ry. Consol. Mortgage.......
Choctaw & Memphis R. R. First Mortgage ........ .....
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Fifty-Year Mortgage .........
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. Consol. Mortgage. .........
Clarksville, Tenn. Waterworks........................ .....
Parkersburg, W. Va. School ........................... ...
Lake Shore & Mich. Southern Ry. First Refunding..............
K. K. Bene Israel Temple... ................... .. .......
Southern Pacific Ry. First Refunding. ............... ........
Charleston, W. Va. Refunding ...........................
Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, Refunding ................
Schaengold Realty Co. M ortgage................ .......... ..
Port of Seattle, W ash. Improvement.... ....................
New York Central & Hudson River R. R. Collateral Gold .
Rothschild & Co., Chicago, Ill., Store Bldg..................
Northern Pacific R. R. Prior Lien.......................... ...
Union Pacific R. R. Prior Lien ............................ ...
Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Refunding................ ......
St. Louis-San Francisco R. R. Income Mortgage ...........
St. Louis-San Francisco R. R. Adjustment Mortgage ........
St. Louis-San Francisco R. R. Prior Lien ..................
Warren, Ohio High Street Improvement.....................
Youngstown, Ohio School............................. ..
Dayton, Ohio Sewer.............................. ....
Montgomery County, State of Tenn. Funding ..................
Alliance, Ohio Waterworks. .. .............................
County of Cuyahoga, Ohio Road Improvement ...............
County of Lucas, Ohio Road Improvement ..................

On Hand
Oct. 31, 1921
$8,000 00
10,000 00
20,000 00
5,000 00
2,000 00
10,000 00
6,000 00
10,000 00
3,000 00
1,700 00
7,000 00

Cost Par Value Sold
. . . . . . . . .

. . .. . .. .. . . .
. . . . . . . .

. ... . . .. ... . .

. .. . ... . . . .
. .. . .. .. .. .. . . . .

Rate Amount
3' $280.00
4 % 400.00
419(, 450.00
4Y%1 900.00
4 % 400 00
4 % 1,000.00
5 % 800.00
412% 900.00
5 50.00
4 % 200.00
4 % 400 00
4 % 400.00
4 % 650.00
4 % 600.00
4%%' 225.00
4 % 80 00
!' 450 00
3Y2% 420.00
6 % 360 00
4 440.00
4 % 600.00
5 % 500.00
6 % 180 00
6 % 102.00
4 % 60 00
5 % 75.00
5 % 350.00
5 % 60.00
5 % 100.00
5 % 750.00
5 % 750.00
5 % 300.00

On Hand
Oct. 31, 1922
10,000 00
10,000 00
25,000 00
1,000 00
10,000 00
10,000 00
2,000 00
5,000 00
10,000 00
15,000 00
1,500 00

State of Louisiana Highway Improvement .....................
County of Mingo, W. Va. Road Improvement .................
Portsmouth, Ohio Sewer. ... ......................... .. ..
Marion, Ohio Improvement........ ....................
Xenia, Ohio School. ................... ...... ........
Pacific Fruit Express Co. Equipment Certificates ...............
Delaware & Hudson R. R. Collateral Trust Co. Certs............
Guarantee Title & Trust Co. First Mortgage Cert. No. 1016......
Hamilton, Ohio Library Improvment................ ......
St. Bernard, Ohio Carthage Pike Improvement .................
Norwood, Ohio Revenue Deficiency........................
Ironton, Ohio School District.................... ... .. .
County of Mahoning, Ohio Road............................
State of Dakota Soldiers' Compensation ......................
Butte, Montana Funding....... .......................
Springfield, Ohio Street Improvement.... .. .............
Lima, Ohio General Sewer No. 1............................
Roanoke, Va. Public Improvement................ .......
Memphis, Tenn. Refunding.............................
Galion, Ohio School......................... ............
Chillicothe, Ohio Safety Dept. Improvement ...................
Painesville, Ohio Water Purification............ ............
Massillon, Ohio School...................
Troy, Ohio ....................... .......................
Gimbel Bros. 20 shares stock................ ...............
U. S. First Liberty Loan Converted. ......................
U. S. Third Liberty Loan ...................................
U. S. Fourth Liberty Loan ................................
U. S. Victory Loan.... ................ ..............
U. S. Certificates of Indebtedness ...........................
U. S. Fourth Liberty Loan (Retired Teachers' Fund)............

14,000 00
14,000 00
4,000 00
25,000 00


16,000 00




$50,960 65


U. S. Fourth Liberty Loan. ............................. ..
U. S. Certificates of Indebtedness........ .. .......... ....
U. S. Victory Loan .............. ... ..... ......... .. .. .



20,000 00


$3,000 00

2,000 00





40,000 00

$42,000 00

5 % 500.00
5 % 500.00
5 % 700.00
5Y% 825.00
512% 770.00
7 % 700.00
7 % 700.00
6Y2% 390.00
6 % 240.00
6 % .........
6 % 900.00
6 % 600.00
6 % 900.00
6 % 600.00
6 % 600.00
6 % 600.00
6 % 360.00
4Y2% 675.00
4Y% 225 00
5 % ..........
5 % ..........
5 % ... .... .
5 % ..........
4Y% 67.50
6 % 120.00
4Y4% 193.38
44% 4.25
4%% 3,982.25
434% 1,419.78
4 4% 950.00
44% 680.00

.. $31,734.16

$2,000 00 4 %
.......... 4 %%
20,000.00 4%%

22,000.00 .....
$64,000.00 ...





40,000 00

$687,500 00





Gimbel Bros-
U. S. Victory
U. S. Victory



During Year Ending October 31, 1922
Cost Par
20 shares Stock ................ Donation $2,000.0'
Loan Bonds.................... $40,172.42 40,000.0(
Loan Bonds.................... 20,211.61 20,000.0(

. . . ........... $60,384.03 $62,000.0(



City o
U. S.
U. S.
U. S.
U. S.


During Year Ending October 31, 1922
Par Value Prem. Disc't
of Galion, Ohio-Schools ................ $3,000.00 $46.50
cothe, Ohio, Safety Dept. Improvements.. 2,000.00 43.80
of Painsville, Ohio-Water Purification... 2,000.00 80.80
of Massillon, Ohio-School ............. 1,000.00 30.40
f Troy, Ohio ......................... 3,000.00
Treasury Certificates ................. 40,000.00
Treasury Certificates ................. 20,000.00
Victory Loan ......................... 20,000.00 52.50
Victory Loan ......................... 15,000.00 18.75 $15.00

Totals ............................... $106,000.00 $272.75 $15.00




*Note: Coupons amounting to $375.00 were clipped from bonds so as to reduce
price to come within the amount available at date of purchase.





At October 31, 1922
Hebrew Union College Endowments-
Isaac M. Wise Memorial Fund....................... $349,010.43
Additional Endowment Funds ........................ 95,293.97
Scholarship Fund (Sch. "G", Exhibit 1)................ 71,610.00
Jacob H. Schiff Bequest for Hebrew Union College..... 100,000.00

Manny Strauss Fund No. 1 .............................. 25,000.00
Manny Strauss Fund No. 2 .............................. 25,000.00
Hermine Schonthal Endowment Publication Fund............ 10,677.33
Retired Teachers' Fund .................................. 18,680.00

Total Endowment Funds ............................ $695,271.73




At October 31, 1922
Scholarship Fund-
William Soloman Rayner Scholarship.................. $7,500.00
Samuel Leon Frank Scholarship ....................... 7,500.00
Madeline Wise Rheinstrom Scholarship ................. 6,000.00
Mina and Louis I. Aaron Scholarship .................. 7,000.00
Sarah Weil Scholarship .............................. 1,000.00
Myer Oettinger Scholarship ........................... 7,500.00
Max Lilienthal Scholarship ........................... 6,000.00
Sol M ay Scholarship ................................ 10,000.00
Laura Seasongood Scholarship ........................ 7,610.00
Emil G. Hirsch Scholarship .......................... 6,000.00
Nathan Kahn Scholarship ............................. 1,500.00
Kaufmann Kohler Prize............................... 2,500.00
Ella H. Philipson Prize. ............................. 1,500.00

Total ................................. ......





At October 31, 1922
A. Receipts and Disbursements for Year Ended October 31, 1922-
Donations .......................... $171,291.13
Interest on Securities................ 3,364.63

Total Receipts ..................

Securities Purchased ................ $155,000.00
Add: Interest ...................... 2,026.39
Premiums and Commissions.... 418.95

Less: Discount .................... 705.00

Net Cost of Investments .........

National Federation of Temple Sister-
hoods Expense of Campaign-
Stationery ......................
Printing .......................
Postage ............. .........
Telegram s .....................
Traveling Expense-Mrs. Simon...





Total Expenses .............. 53,267.11
Less: Amount not Refunded to N.F.T.S. 446.97

Excess Receipts over Disbursements
Less: Donations in form of Securities

Excess Cash Receipts over Dis-
bursements .................

_- $159,560.48




SCHEDULE "H"--(Continued)

B. Statement of Cash Balance at October 31, 1922--

Excess Receipts over Disbursements...... $

Cash Surplus in Dormitory Fund.......



C. Statement of Financial Condition of Dormitory Fund-

Surplus at October 31, 1922..............
Investments-Par Value .................
Add: Premium and Interest .............

Less: Discount ...................... .

Net Cost of Investments ............

Balance in Dormitory Fund...........






D. Statement of Securities-

U. S. 2d Liberty Loan...................
U. S. 4th Liberty Loan..................
U. S. Certificates of Indebtedness.........
Palestine Cooperation Co.-10 shares, 2d
Preferred ..........................

Total Investments ...................








At October 31, 1922

A. Receipts and Disbursements for Year Ended October 31, 1922-

Donations ............. ........... .........
Interest on Investments ...........................

Total Receipts ............................
Disbursements for Expenses-

Excess Receipts over Disbursements...........

B. Statement of Cash Fund Balance October 31, 1922-
Balance at Nov. 1, 1921..............................
Add: Receipts for Year Ended Oct. 31, 1922.......



Less: Investments Purchased .................... 2,626.04

Balance October 31, 1922 .................. ..

C. Statement of Financial Condition of Pension Fund-
Cash B balance ....................................
Investments .......................... ...........$ $126,500.00
Add: Premiums and Interest ..................... 5.19

Less: Discount ............. ................. 803.16

Cost of Investments .........................

Balance Synagog Pension Fund................

D. Statement of Securities and Income-

On Hand
Oct. 31, '22
U. S. Third Liberty Loan...$123,850.00
U. S. Third Liberty Loan...

Purchased Interest
Cost Par Value Rate Amount
4% $5,263.61
$2,624.04 $2,650.00 4V 56.31

Total ............. $123,850.00 $2,624.04 $2,650.00

On Hand
Oct. 31, '22

$5,319.92 $126,500.00

Respectfully submitted,









Report of Public Accountants

Cincinnati, December 29, 1922.

To the President and Members of the Executive Board of the Union of American He-
brew Congregations, Cincinnati, Ohio.
In accordance with your instructions, we have examined the books and accounts of
the Union of American Hebrew Congregations for the year ending October 31, 1922,
and submit the following report concerning the books of the Union and the schedules
and exhibits mentioned herewith:
We have examined all receipts and disbursements and find same properly entered
upon the books.
We have examined and verified the bonds deposited in the Safety Deposit Vault
at the Central Trust Company and the First National Bank, and find that these cor-
respond with the list of bonds given in Schedule "F" of the Secretary's Report.
Schedules "A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "G", "H" and "I" of the Secretarys Report,
together with supplementary exhibits, contain in our opinion a correct statement of the
receipts and disbursements for the current year and reflect the true financial condition of
the Union of American Hebrew Congregations as of October 31, 1922.
Respectfully submitted,
Certified Public Accountants.


The Hebrew Union College




Board of Governors Hebrew Union College

November 28, 1922.
To the Executive Board of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations:
A chronological report of the transaction
of the Board of Governors of the Hebrew
Union College and other features of inter-
est brought to its attention covering the
period November 1, 1921, to October 31,
1922, is herewith presented.
November, 1921.
The annual joint meeting of the Board of
Governors and the Advisory Board of the
Hebrew Union College was held on the first
day of this month.
Immediately following this joint meeting
a special meeting of the Board of Govern-
ors was held, at which Dr. Julian Morgen-
stern was elected Acting President of the
At this meeting the Board also approved
of the action of the Faculty to confer the
honorary degree of Doctor of Hebrew Law
upon the Honorable Simon Wolf, of Wash-
ington, on the occasion of his eighty-fifth
birthday anniversary.
At the regular November meeting of the
Board of Governors, Dr. Morgenstern sub-
mitted his first report as Acting President
of the College. His invitation to the Board
to participate in the Memorial Service to
be held for Doctor Deutsch was accepted.
The Board of Governors voted the widow
of Dr. Deutsch his salary for one year, to
which he would have been entitled had be
taken advantage of the sabbathical year
granted him.
At this meeting the Board voted an an-
nuity of one hundred dollars a month to
Mrs. Isaac M. Wise and Mrs. Moses Miel-
ziner, in appreciation of the services of
.their sainted husbands to the College, sub-
ject to the approval of the Union of Amer-
ican Hebrew Congregations.
The gift to the College Library of the
interleaved set of Graetz's "Geschichte der

Juden", representing the lifetime work of
Dr. Deutsch, by his widow, was accepted.

November 28, 1922
The congratulations of the Board were
sent to Rabbi Joseph S. Kornfeld, of Co-
lumbus, for the signal honor conferred on
him by his appointment by the President
of the United States as Minister to Persia.

December, 1921.
The offer of Dr. Philipson to take charge
of the course in Homiletics was gratefully
The recommendation of the Acting Presi-
dent concerning the rearrangement of the
curriculum and the reorganization of the
Faculty was referred to the Committee on
Course of Studies in conjunction with the
Acting President.
Congratulations of the Board were ten-
dered to Mr. Emil Pollak, who has been a
member of the Board of Governors since
1894, on the occasion of his seventy-fifth
birthday anniversary.
January, 1922.
The Board received and accepted a gift
from Mr. Jacob Schottenfels, of Cincinnati,
of a Chanukah lamp for use at the College.
Rabbi Jacob R. Marcus, instructor, was
granted an indefinite leave of absence for
study abroad.
Rev. Dr. H. G. Enelow, of New York,
delivered a course of lectures to the stu-
dents on "Jewish Theology".
At this meeting Mr. Alfred M. Cohen was
reelected President of the Board of Gov-
ernors, and Mr. Maurice J. Freiberg, Vice-
President, both by acclamation. Mr. Isaac
Bloom was reappointed Secretary for one
February, 1922.
Mr. Maurice B. Hexter, of Boston, deliv-
ered a series of lectures on "Jewish Com-


munity Organization and Family Welfare"
before the students of the College.
Special memorial services were held in
honor of the late Professor Gotthard
Deutsch in the Chapel of the College in
connection with the regular Sabbath ser-
vice on February llth. The memorial ad
dress was delivered by Rev. Dr. Joseph
Stolz, of Chicago.
The resignation of Dr. Jacob Z. Lauter-
bach as custodian of the Museum of Jew-
ish ICeremonial Objects was accepted and
the Librarian 'of the College was appointed
custodian of this Museum.

March, 1922.
Founders' Day was celebrated on the
25th of this month with impressive services
at the College Chapel. The Founder's Day
address was delivered by Professor Solomon
B. Freehof.
The latest work of Professor Moses But-
tenwieser, entitled, "The Book of Job",
made its appearance this month.
Assistant Professor Solomon B. Freehof
was promoted to full professorship under
the title of Professor of Jewish Liturgy.
At the regular meeting Dr. Jacob Mann,
of Baltimore, was appointed Professor of
Jewish History and Literature, to succeed
the late Dr. Deutsch.
The resignation of Dr. Louis Grossmann
as Professor of Ethics and Pedagogy and
as Principal of the Teachers' Institute was
accepted. Resolutions expressing the re-
grets of the Board and an appropriate tes-
timonial were tendered by the Board of
Governors to Dr. Grossmann.
Dr. Henry ,Englander, custodian of the
Emergency Loan Fund and the Eli Mayer
Memorial Fund, reported that the sum of
these funds had been increased to a total
amount of seven hundred twenty-five dol-
lars ($725.00).
April, 1922.
Rev. Dr. Joseph Silverman, of New York
City, delivered a course of four lectures
on "The Practical Problems of the Rab-
binate" before Ithe Senior and Junior stu-
dents of the College.
The Class of 1922 donated to the College
a plaque of Professor Gotthard Deutsch,
executed by Professor Boris Schatz.
In this month appointments were made
of Dr. Israel Bettan as Professor of Homi-

letics and Midrash; Dr. Abraham Cronbach
as Professor of Jewish Social Studies; Dr.
Henry Slonimsky as Professor of Jewish
Education and Ethics, 'and Dr. Louis B.
Wolfenson as Professor of Hebrew and
Cognate Languages. Each of these gentle-
men is to receive an initial annual salary
of four thousand dollars ($4,000.00), the
sum to be increased in the event of reap-
pointment to forty-five hundred dollars
($4,500.00) for the second year, and five
thousand dollars ($5,000.00) for the third
The following resolution was adopted:
"The Acting President of the Hebrew
Union iCollege having reported to the Board
of Governors the advisability of establish-
ing in New York City a school for the
training synagogues, the Board of Governors recom-
mends to the Executive Board of the Union
of American Hebrew Congregations, first:
that it take all necessary steps for the im-
mediate creation of such a school; and sec-
ond: that it authorize the Board of Govern-
ors of the Hebrew Union College to ap-
point a committee which shall, if possible,
in conjunction with the New York Execu-
tive Committee of the Union of American
Hebrew Congregations and representatives
of the Association of Reform Rabbis of
New York, formulate a plan for the proper
conduct of such a school, said plan to be
reported to the Board of Governors for
final action."
Dr. Kohler informed the Board of his
intention to take up residence with his fam-
ily in New York City. The sentiments of
the Board, acquiescing in his wish, were
transmitted to Dr. Kohler.
The resignation of Dr. Emil G. Hirsch as
a member of the Board of Governors was
transmitted in due course to the Executive
Board of the Union of American Hebrew
May, 1922.
Rabbi David Lefkowitz, of Dallas, Texas,
gave the last of this year's series ,of sup-
plementary lectures to the students of the
Senior and Junior Classes on the subject,
"The Rabbi and Social Service".
On Saturday afternoon, May 27th, Dr.
Kaufmann Kohler, President Emeritus of
the Hebrew Union College, occupied the
puipit of the College and delivered his fare-



well address to the students, Faculty and
Board of Governors of the College and a
large assemblage. His subject was: "Amer-
ican Reform Judaism, its Origin, its Growth
and its Outlook".
The election of a President of the Col-
lege was made the special order for the
regular meeting in October.

June, 1922.
On Saturday afternoon, June 10th, the
graduation exercises of the College were
held. The six members of the Senior
Class were ordained as rabbis. The pulpits
now occupied by these graduates are:
Rabbi Ferdinand M. Isserman, Assistant
Rabbi, Congregation Rodef Shalom, of
Rabbi Julius Mark, South Bend, Ind.
Rabbi Samuel H. Markowitz, Lafayette,
Rabbi Elihu Starrels, Assistant Rabbi,
Temple Sinai, of New Orleans, La.
Rabbi Harry J. Stern, Uniontown, Pa.
Rabbi William M. Stern, Ft. Smith, Ark.
Rev. Dr. William S. Friedman, of Denver,
Colo., delivered the Baccalaureate address.
Rabbi William M. Stern was the valedic-
torian. The degree of Doctor of Divinity
was conferred upon Professor Solomon B.
Freehof. The honorary degree of Doctor
of Hebrew Law was conferred upon Drs.
Louis Grossman'n and Moses Buttenwieser.
President Cohen delivered the salutatory
address. Later he announced the award of
the following prizes:
The Fred Lazarus Prize of one hundred
dollars to Louis Binstock, of the Junior
Class, for his essay entitled: "The Care
of the Stranger in Jewish Law and Prac-
The Jacob H. Kaplan Prize of fifty dol-
lars to Nelson Glueck, likewise of the
Junior Class, for his essay entitled: "The
Samaritans in the Talmud".
The Temple Sisterhoods of Cincinnati
presented the College with a handsome cov-
er for the Sepher Torah.
As a result of the regular semester ex-
aminations, the following students were
awarded scholarships:
Louis Binstock, Sheldon Blank and Sam-
uel Wolk, of the Junior Class.
Abraham Freed, of the '11 Collegiate

Sidney Regner and Lawrence Kahn, of
the C Grade.
Melbourne Harris, Henry Kagan, Victor
Reichert, George Taxay and Maurice
Zigmond, of the D Grade.
A meeting iof the reorganized Faculty
was held on June 9th, and a curriculum of
studies for the next academic year was an-
On the invitation of President Hicks, Dr.
Morgenstern represented the College at the
graduation exercises of the University of
Cincinnati on June 17th. At these exer-
cises David S. Nathan, of our Junior Class,
was elected a member of the honorary so-
ciety Phi Beta Kappa, and four other stu-
dents of the College won honors at the Uni-
versity this year.
The Committee on- Applications recom-
mended the admission of twelve students to
the College, this number being later aug-
mented to twenty new students.
The Board accepted with deep apprecia-
tion the generous gift of Dr. Kohler to
the Hebrew Union College of the larger part
of his valuable library. Miss Rose Kohler
deposited as a loan to the College her two
plaques, "The Spirit of the Synagog" and
"The Holy Scriptures".
At this meeting extensive repairs in the
Library and Administration Buildings of the
College were ordered made.

September, 1922.
The catalog for 1922-23, setting forth the
work and the history of the College, made
its appearance.
Fifty-one students of the College offi-
ciated during the fall holidays in congrega-
tions in all parts of the country. This is
the largest number of students that have
ever officiated at one time.
The annual report of Dr. H. B. Weiss,
College physician, submitted through Dr. J.
Greenebaum, head of the Department of
Hygiene, for the past year follows:
"Cincinnati, August 12, 1922.
Dr. J. Victor Greenebaum,
Head of Department of Hygiene,
Hebrew Union College.
My dear Dr. Greenebaum:
Allow me to present to you the annual
report regarding the work of the Medical
Department of the Hebrew Union College
for the year of 1921-22.



1. The thirty (30) new students all re-
ceived a careful examination, and if any
defects were noted steps were made to rem-
edy them.
2. We did not have any severe illnesses
among the student body, and we were for-
tunate that no epidemic broke out among
3. The students themselves have been
very co-operative in their desire to assist
the doctor in any plans he might have had
for them, thereby aiding themselves.
4. A dental survey was made by Dr.
Morris Gruenebaum, the report of which
was sent to you during the college year.
This survey was productive of much good,
inasmuch as we actually remedied a great
many dental defects. However, the dental
survey brought out the fact that many of
the students, especially the young students,
did not feel that they were able to pay for
dental attention. Knowing this, I feel it
is imperative upon the Department of Hy-
giene to so arrange that deserving students
requiring dental attention can continue to
obtain this service without cost to them in
the future..
5. We have used the Jewish Hospital
more this year than ever before, and I
would like to extend through you and the
Board of Governors my gratefulness and
thanks to the Jewish Hospital for the uni-
form kindenss in caring for the students
who have been ill and requiring hospital
6. The consummation of the Dormitory
I believe is going to make for a better
spirit among the students, besides allowing
for better medical as well as hygienic super-
vision of their lives while attending the Col-
7. Our consultants again have been most
generous in their time and material in car-
ing for the students, and I feel that a
letter of thanks should be directed to these
unselfish men who have served the students
of the Hebrew Union College so well.
8. Allow me to state that it has been a
great pleasure to me to work with such a
fine group of men who at all times co-
operated with the College physician.
9. Following you will find a statistical
summary of the work of the Medical De-
partment. It is interesting to note that
there has been an increase in all types of

work over the pervious year, evidencing
both the increased number of students and
an increased co-operation by the students:
Students seen (total obtained by adding
number .of students seen each
m onth) ........................ 211
O office calls ......................... 231
Complete examinations............... 32
Home calls......................... 24
Jewish Hospital calls................ 143
Operations ......................... 10
X-Ray examinations.................. 13
Dr. A. H. Freiberg ............. 2
Dr. J. L. Ransohoff ............ 3
Dr. E. B. Tauber .............. 8
Dr. Chas. Jones............... 7
Dr. W. Forcheimer ............ 11
Dr. C. Betzner ............... 4
Dr. S. Rabkin ................ 6
Dr. H. Classon ............... 1
Dr. Louis A. Lurie............. 1
Dr. Clarence King............. 2
Dr. M. Gruenebaum ........... 2
Dr. S. Iglauer................. 1
Dr. R. Stevenson .............. 2
Dr. S. Siebler ................10
Respectfully submitted,
College Physician."
The Board was informed of the sudden
death on August 22, 1922,-of Col. Harris
Weinstock, of San Francisco, a member.
The regrets of the Board were sent to the
bereaved family.

October, 1922.
The College formally opened for its forty-
eighth year on October 9th. Entrance ex-
aminations were held ion October 4th,
through 6th. The formal opening exer-
cises were held on Saturday afternoon, Oc-
tober 14th, at which time the new members
of the Faculty and the new students, as
well as the former members of the Faculty
and the student body, were welcomed by the
Acting President and the President of the
Board of Governors.
The enrollment shows twenty-eight stu-
dents in the Collegiate Department, fifty-
three students in the Preparatory Depart-
ment, and eight visiting students, making a
total enrollment .of eighty-nine students.
One of the new students is a son of an
alumnus of the College, another is a



brother of a graduate of the College, and a
third is a brother of a graduate of the
Jewish Theological Seminary.
The Acting President reported the work
in the various classes under the new sys-
tem of instruction had begun, and that it
seems to be the unanimous opinion of both
Faculty and students that the new system
offers fine promise for the future.
Dr. Ismar Elbogen, of Berlin, and Dr.
Israel Abrahams, of London, were invited
to deliver courses of four lectures each at
the Hebrew Union College.
Mr. Berthold Guggenhime. of San Fran-
cisco, was appointed a member of the Board
of Governors to succeed the late Col. Har-
ris Weinstock.
Dr. Julian Morgenstern was elected
President of the College for a term of two
years beginning September 1, 1922, at a
salary of seven thousand dollars ($7,000.00)
a year.

The subject of the ordination of women
as rabbis was made a special order of busi-
ness for the December meeting.
The Board gratefully received the Deutsch
History Card Index, a gift from the Alumni
The annual joint meeting of the Board of
Governors and the Advisory Board of the
College was held in the evening of October
The Board of Governors tendered its
gratitude to the Sisterhoods of congrega-
tions in many cities, as well as to the Na-
tional Federation of Temple Sisterhoods
and to individual donors, for gifts to the
Scholarship Fund of the Union of American
Hebrew Congregations for the benefit of
College students. These are contained in
the following schedule, together with a list
of other bequests and donations to the Col-

November 1, 1921 to October 31, 1922
From National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods-
The Temple Beth Emeth Sisterhood, Albany, N. Y. ...................
The Temple Sisterhood, Atlanta, Ga. (in memory of Miss Melanie Fiebel-
man .................. ................. .... .............
Baltimore Hebrew Congregation Sisterhood, Baltimore, Md. (Adolph Gutt-
macher Scholarship) .........................................
Sisterhood Oheb Shalom, Baltimore, Md. (Szold-Kaiser Scholarship) .......
Har Sinai Sisterhood, Baltimore, Md. (Einhorn Scholarship) ...............
The Temple Israel Sisterhood, Boston, Mass ..........................
Isaiah Woman's Club, Chicago, Ill .....................................
Sisterhood B'nai Sholom Temple Israel, Chicago, Ill. (Gerson B. Levi Schol-
arsh ip) ........................................... ...........
Plum St. Temple Sisterhood, Cincinnati, Ohio (The Isaac Mayer Wise Schol-
arsh ip ) ...................................... .. .............
Rockdale Avenue Temple Sisterhood, Cincinnati, Ohio (The Dr. Max Lilien-
thal Scholarship) ................................... ...........
Euclid Avenue Temple Sisterhood, Cleveland, Ohio .......................
The Temple Women's Association, Cleveland, Ohio.......................
The Temple Israel Sisterhood, Coumbus, Ohio ...........................
The Temple Israel Sisterhood, Columbus, Ohio (The Fred Lazarus Scholarship,
contributed by Mrs. Fred Lazarus, in memory of her husband)......
The Sisterhood of Temple Beth El, Detroit, Mich ........................
Sisterhood of Indianapolis Hebrew Congregation, Indianapolis, Ind. (in mem-
ory of relatives and frierfds of the members) ......................
Adath Israel Sisterhood, Louisville, Ky .................................
The Temple Sisterhood, Memphis, Tenn. (The I. M. Wise Scholarship).....
The Sisterhood of Temple Israel, Minneapolis, Minn. (Dr. Samuel N. Deinard
Memorial Scholarship) .............................. ....... .
Temple Sinai Sisterhood, New Orleans, La. (James K. Gutheim Scholarship)
The Mt. Neboh Sisterhood, New York, N. Y ............... ..........

$ 350.00











The Women's Association of Temple Rodeph Sholom, New York, N. Y....... 350.00
Women's Auxiliary of Central Synagogue, New York, N. Y................. 350.00
Women's Guild Temple Beth El, New York, N. Y ........................ 350.00
Sisterhood Rodef Shalom Congregation, Pittsburgh, Pa. (J. Leonard Levy
Scholarship) .................. .... ........................... 350.00
Sisterhood of Rodef Shalom Congregation, Pittsburgh, Pa. (Mr. and Mrs.
Charles. Falk Scholarship, given by Mrs. Meyer Forst, in memory of her
parents) ................................. ........... 300.00
The Temple Emanu El Guild, San Francisco, Cal. (in memory of Jesse W.
Lilienthal) ................... ........ ......... .............. 300.00
Sisterhood of Washington Hebrew Congregation, Washington, D. C. (Dr.
Abram Simon 'Scholarship) ...................................... 300.00
Beth Ahaba Sisterhood, Richmond, Va ..................... ........... 300.00
11 complete Scholarships of $350 each-two from District No. 2, two from
District No. 6, two from District No. 11, and one each from Districts
Nos. 3, 5, 8, 10 and 13.............................. ............ 3,850.00
3 complete Scholarships of $300 each-two from District No. 2 and one from
District N o. 10 .............................. ................ 900.00
1 complete Scholarship from the State of Connecticut.................... 400.00
1 complete Scholarship from the State of Texas................... ...... 520.00
4 complete Scholarships of $350.00 each, comprising amount from Dis-
tricts Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13....................... 1,400.00
1 complete Scholarship of $350.00 left over from last year ................ 350.00

From Organizations-
Sinai Congregation, Chicago, Ill............................ .............. 350.00
Emanu El Theological Seminary Association, New York, N. Y .............. 445.00
Congregation Emanu El, San Francisco, Cal. (Elkan Cohen Memorial Scholar-
ship) ........................................................ 300.00
Council of Jewish Women, Terre Haute, Ind .................. ............. 350.00

From Individuals-
Simon Lazarus, Columbus, Ohio (Simon Lazarus Prize) ................... 50.00
Nathan J. Miller, New York, N. Y. (William Miller Memorial Prize)........ 100.00
Mrs. H. L. Cohn, Baton Rouge, La. .................................... 50.00
Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Kiser, Mr. and Mrs. Melville S. Cohn and Mrs. Sol S.
Kiser, Indianapolis, Ind. (Dina S. Kiser Scholarship) ................ 300.00
Gustav and J. H. Bernheimer, of Kansas City, Mo. (in memory of I. E. Bern-
heimer) ........................... ............... 100.00
E. J. Reefer, of Kansas City, Mo. (in memory of M. C .and Marie Reefer).. 300.00
Simon Lazarus, Columbus, Ohio (Fred Lazarus Prize) .................... 100.00
Mrs. Wm. B. Woolner, Peoria, Ill. (in memory of Samuel Woolner)......... 350.00
Community of Pittsburgh, Pa. (in honor of Judge Josiah Cohen's 80th birth-
day) ............................ .. ............... .. 1,246.00
Mrs. Rebecca R. Kahn, of Selma, Ala., in memory of her husband, Nathan (to
be known as The Nathan Kahn Memorial Fund).................... 1,500.00
The friends of Hyman W. Brunswick, of Youngstown, Ohio (in his memory) 100.00
Trustees of Congregation Beth Emeth, Albany, N. Y., and friends of Hon.
Simon W. Rosendale (in honor of his 80th birthday)................ 491.00
I. Fleischer, Cincinnati, Ohio (I. Fleischer Prize) ....................... 100.00



S. H. Shoninger, of Chicago, Ill., in memory of his father, Henry Shoninger.. $ 100.00
Mrs. Bessie Felsenthal, of Brownsville, Tenn., in memory of her husband
Harry Moses Felsenthal ........................................ 100.00
Mrs. D. Stern, of Chicago, Ill., in memory of her son, Elvin Weil Stern..... 100.00
The Loewenstein Family, of Charleston, W. Va., in memory of their mother,
Henrietta Loewenstein ........................................ 100.00
The children of Mrs. Isabella Gusdorf, of Selma, Ala., in her memory....... 100.00
Mrs. Abraham Segal, of Cincinnati, O., in memory of her husband, Abraham
Segal ......................................................... 500.00
Mrs. Hattie Moore, of Cincinnati, 0., in memory of her son, Howard E. Moore 100.00
Mrs. Pauline Lippman, of Dubuque, Ia., in memory of her husband, Moses
Lippman ....................................... .. ... 100.00
Mrs. Fisher Bachrach, of Cincinnati, O., in memory of her father, Myer Sil-
verglade ....................... .............................. 200.00
Mrs. Alice Berman, of Chicago, Ill., in memory of Isaac Joseph, of Cincin-
nati, ..................................... ... ...... ........... 100.00
Mrs. Bertha Levi, of Anniston, Ala., in memory of her husband, Isidor Levi.. 100.00
Sigmund Feld, of Cincinnati, O., in memory of Ernest Uhlmann............ 100.00
Mrs. Carrie Silverman, of Cincinnati, O., in memory of her husband, Joseph
Silverman ............................................ 100.00
Harry M. Hoffheimer, of Cincinati, O., in memory of his wife, Stella Feiss
Hoffheimer .............. ........... ........................... 300.00
I. Markowitz, of Wichita Falls, Texas, in memory of his brother, Julius Mark-
owitz .................... ........................... 1,000.00
Mrs. Bertha S. Loewenstein, of Cincinnati, O., in memory of her husband,
Millard D. Loewenstein ........................ ......... 200.00

Mrs. Sophia Cluck, Chicago, Ill ....................................... $ 300.00
Philip Hamburger, Pittsburgh, Pa. ....................................... 5,000.00
Charles Straus, Cincinnati, Ohio............................. ........ 150.00
J. W alter Freiberg, Cincinnati, Ohio..................................... 1,500.00
Mrs. Bertha Schiffman, Huntsville, Ala .................................. 100.00
Jacob H. Amburgh, Cincinnati, Ohio........................... ......... 500.00
Benjamin Kingsbaker, Los Angeles, Calif.............................. 250.00
Mrs. Sarah Feiss, Cincinnati, Ohio .................................... 200.00
Morris C. Buxbaum, Cincinnati, Ohio .................................... 100.00
Miss Kate Friedburg, Paducah, Ky...................................... 250.00
Samuel Strauss, Cincinnati, Ohio....................................... 200.00
Jacob L. Sheuerman, Des Moines, Iowa. ................................. 100.00
Mrs. Emma Lederer, Des Moines, Iowa. ................................. 500.00
Joseph Swope, Dallas, Texas ............................... .. ....... 500.00
Respectfully submitted,

"Il6 ~ President.




The Alumni
of the Hebrew Union College
Alphabetical arrangement and present residence

In order to insure correctness of this list the Alumni are urgently requested to send
notification of any change in their position or in their academic degrees to
DR. HENRY ENGLANDER, Registrar, H. U. C., Cincinnati, Ohio.

1883 Israel Aaron, D. D.t
1916 Samuel J. Abrams, M. A., Boston,
1901 David Alexander, B. A., Akron, Ohio.
1900 Abraham S. Anspacher, Ph. D., Hart-
ford, Conn.
1919 Garry J. August, A. B., St. Joseph,
1918 Nathan E. Barasch, A. B., Austin,
1920 Joseph L. Baron, M. A., Davenport,
1901 Moise Bergman, B. A., Monroe, La.
1921 Henry J. Berkowitz, B. A., Detroit,
1883 Henry Berkowitz, D. D., Ventnor
City, N. J.*
1906 Louis Bernstein, B. A.t
1912 Israel Bettan, D. D., Cincinnati, O.$
1901 Joseph Blatt, B. A., Oklahoma City,
1908 Joel Blau, B. A., New York, N. Y.
1913 Irving M. Bloom, B. A., New York,
N. Y.
1895 Seymour G. Bottigheimer, B. A., Peo-
ria, Ill.*
1905 Frederick F. Braun, B. A., New York,
N. Y.
1919 Barnet R. Brickner, M. A., Toronto,
1900 Abram Brill, B. A., Shreveport, La.
1903 Morris Cahan, B. A., New York, N. Y.*
1887 Edward N. Calisch, Ph. D., Richmond,
1916 Hyman B. Cantor, M. A.t
1916 Simon Cohen, B. A., Selma, Ala.
1899 Simon R. Cohen, B. A., Brooklyn, N. Y.
1896 Frederick Cohn, Ph. D., Omaha, Neb.
1912 Samuel S. Cohon, B. A., Chicago,. III.

Those marked with an are located in places
t Deceased.

1906 Abraham Cronbach, D. D., Cincinnati,
1898 Max Cohen Currick, B. A., Erie, Pa.
1889 Heiman J. Elkin, B. A.
1921 Milton Ellis, B. A., New York, N. Y.
1898 Hyman G. Enelow, D. D., New York,
N. Y.
1901 Henry Englander, Ph. D., Cincinnati,
1904 Harry W. Ettelson, Ph. D., Philadel-
phia, Pa.
1919 Abraham Feinstein, M. A., Hunting-
ton, W. Va.
1918 Abraham J. Feldman, A. B., Phila-
delphia, Pa.
1901 Morris M. Feuerlicht, B. A., Indian-
apolis, Ind.
1913 David Fichman, B. A., New Orleans,
1920 Solomon Fineberg, B. A., Niagara
Falls, N. Y.
1900 William H. Fineshriber, B. A., Mem-
phis, Tenn.
1919 Joseph L. Fink, M. A., Terre Haute,
1903 Henry M. Fisher, B. A., Atlantic City,
N. J.
1893 Charles Fleischer, B. A., Boston,
1902 Solomon Foster, B. A., Newark, N. J.
1908 G. George Fox, Ph. D., Chicago, Ill.
1920 Leon Fram, A. B., Chicago, Ill.
1916 Harvey B. Franklin, Ph. B., San Jose,
1892 Leo M. Franklin, B. L., Detroit, Mich.
1915 Solomon B. Freehof, D. D., Cincin-
nati, Ohio.xxx
1900 Charles J. Freund, B. S., B. L., To-
ledo, Ohio.*
1921 Iser Freund, B. A., Pensacola, Fla.

stated, but are not officiating rabbis.

SProfessor of Homiletics and Midrash in Hebrew Union College.
|I Professor of Jewish Social Studies in Hebrew Union College.
x Professor of Biblical Exegesis in Hebrew Union College.
xxExecutive Director The Jewish Charitable and Educational Federation.
xxx Professor of Jewish Liturgy in Hebrew Union College.



1893 Aaron Friedman, M. D., Hoboken,
N. J.*
1917 Benjamin Friedman, B. A., Syracuse,
N. Y.
1904 Harry G. Friedman, Ph. D., New York,
N. Y.*
1889 William S. Friedman, LL. D., Denver,
1904 Ephraim Frisch, B. A., New York,
N. Y.
1890 Alexander H. Geismar, B. L., Brook-
lyn, N. Y.*
1894 Abram Gideon, Ph. D., New York,
N. Y.*
1904 Alfred T. Godshaw, B. A., Waco, Tex.*
1904 Samuel H. Goldenson, Ph. D., Pitts-
burgh, Pa.
1916 Raphael Goldenstein, B. A., Albu-
querque, N. M.
1905 Sidney E. Goldstein, B. A., New York,
N. Y.
1906 Nathan Gordon, M. A., Montreal, Can.*
1894 Bennett Grad, B. A., Milwaukee, Wis.
1891 Samuel Greenfield, B. L., New York,
N. Y.
1889 Moses J. Cries, B. A.t
1909 Louis D. Gross, M. A., Brooklyn, N. Y.
1884 Louis Grossmann, D. D., Cincinnati, O.
1889 Rudolph Grossman, D. D., New York,
N. Y.
1918 Samuel M. Gup, M. A., Providence,
R. I.
1889 Adolf Guttmacher, Ph. D.t
1915 Julius Halprin, A. B., Newark, N. J.
1920 Samuel J. Harris, B. A., Toledo, Ohio.
1920 Bernard Heller, M. A., Scranton, Pa.
1916 James G. Heller, M. A., Cincinnati,
1884 Max Heller, M. L., New Orleans, La.
1921 Carl N. Herman, B. A., Cumberland,
1898 Abram Hirschberg, B. A., Chicago, Ill.
1891 Samuel Hirshberg, M. A., Milwaukee,
1916 Abraham Holtzberg, B. A., Chatta-
nooga, Tenn.
1921 Hyman Iola, B. A., Wheeling, W. Va.
1914 Isadore Isaacson, Ph. B., Sioux City,

1919 Edward L. Israel, A. B., Evansville,
1922 Ferdinand M. Isserman, B. A., Phila-
delphia, Pa.
1900 Pizer W. Jacobs, B. A., Gary, Ind.
1886 Moses Perez Jacobson, B. A., Ashe-
ville, N. C.
1904 Joseph Jasin, B. A., Cleveland, Ohio.*
1891 Israel Joseph.t
1899 Theodore F. Joseph, B. A., Rockville
Center, N. Y.
1902 Emanuel Kann, H. A., Piqua, O.*
1914 Israel L. Kaplan, B. A., Jacksonville,
1902 Jacob H. Kaplan, Ph.D., Cincinnati, O.
1920 Samuel S. Kaplan, M. A., Meridian,
1919 Max Kaufman, A. B., Plainfield, N. J.
1899 Israel Klein, B. A., Philadelphia, Pa.
1902 Samuel Koch, M. A., Seattle, Wash.
1909 Louis J. Kopald, M.A., Buffalo, N.Y.
1898 Joseph S. Kornfeld, B. A.:
1903 Solomon L. Kory, B. A., Vicksburg,
1903 Nathan Krass, Litt. D., New York,
N. Y.
1883 Joseph Krauskopf, D. D., Philadelphia,
1914 Jacob B. Krohngold, B. A., Indian-
apolis, Ind.*
1903 Louis Kuppin, B. A., Chicago, I1l.*
1906 Isaac Landman, B. A., Far Rockaway,
N. Y.
1920 Solomon Landman, B. A., Springfield,
1914 Charles B. Latz, M. A., Tulsa, Okla.
1914 Morris S. Lazaron, M. A., Baltimore,
1902 Maurice Lefkovits, Ph. D., Minne-
apolis, Minn.*
1900 David Lefkowitz, B. L., Dallas, Tex.
1916 Julius Leibert, B. A., Spokane, Wash.
1900 Emil W. Leipziger, B. A., New Or-
leans, La.
1914 Lee j. Levinger, M. A., Wilmington,
1889 Charles S. Levi, B. A., Milwaukee, Wis.
1897 Harry Levi, B. A., Boston, Mass.
1890 Clifton H. Levy, B. A., New York,
N. Y.*
1907 Felix A. Levy, Ph. D., Chicago, Ill.

Those marked with an are located in places stated, but are not officiating rabbis.
t Deceased.
T United States Minister to Persia.
























Morris Lichtenstein, M. A., New York,
N. Y.*
Harry S. Linfield, Ph. B., Philadel-
phia, Pa.$
Gustave H. Loewenstein, B. A., New
York, N. Y.*
Meyer Lovitch, B. A., Peoria, Ill.
Solomon C. Lowenstein, B. A., New
York, N. Y.I1
Alvin S. Luchs, B. A., Duluth, Minn.
Alexander Lyons, Ph. D., Brooklyn,
N. Y.
Wolfe Macht, A. B., Waco, Texas.
Juda Leon Magnes, Ph. D., New York,
N. Y.*
Edgar F. Magnin, B. A., Los Angeles,
Louis L. Mann, Ph. D., New Haven,
Eugene Mannheimer, B. A., Des
Moines, Ia.
Leo Mannheimer, Ph. D., New York,
N. Y.*
Jacob R. Marcus, B. A., Cincinnati,
Isaac E. Marcuson, B. L., Macon, Ga.
Elias Margolis, Ph. D., Mt. Vernon,
N. Y.
Harry S. Margolis, B. A., Paducah,
Jerome Mark, A. B., Knoxville, Tenn.
Julius Mark, B. A., South Bend, Ind.
Samuel H. Markowitz, M. A., Lafay-
ette, Ind.
David Marx, B. L., Atlanta, Ga.
Israel I. Mattuck, A. M., London, Eng-
Eli Mayer, Ph. D.t
Harry H. Mayer, B. A., Kansas City,
Samuel S. Mayerberg, M. A., Dayton,
Maurice M. Mazure, M. A., Brockton,
Samuel Felix Mendelsohn, B. A.,
Chicago, I11.
Louis D. Mendoza, B. A., Norfolk, Va.

Those marked with an are located in places stated, but are not officiating rabbis.
t Deceased.
$ Director, Dept. of Information and Statistics of Bureau of Jewish Social Research.
I] Executive Secretary N. Y. Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies.
x Instructor of Bible and Rabbinics in Hebrew Union College.
xx President, Hebrew Union College.
xxx Superintendent of Federated Jewish Charities.
xxxx Assistant Director of Synagog and School Extension in New York City.

1903 Max J. Merritt, B. A., Montreal, Can.
1897 Julius H. Meyer, B. A., Chicago, Ill.*
1901 Martin A. Meyer, Ph. D., San Fran-
cisco, Cal.
1917 Jacob I. Meyerovitz, M. A., St. Paul,
1921 Myron M. Meyerovitz, B. A., Alexan-
dria, La.
1900 Jacob Mielziner, M. A., Copenhagen,
1906 Julian H. Miller, B. A., St. Louis,
1919 Albert G. Minda, A. B., Minneapolis,
1918 Louis A. Mischkind, M. A., New York,
N. Y.
1918 Arthur S. Montaz, Ph. B., Hazelton,
1902 Julian Morgenstern, Ph. D., Cincin-
nati, O.xx
1901 Alfred G. Moses, B. A., Mobile, Ala.
1898 Leon M. Nelson, B. A., Richmond, Va.*
1895 Morris Newfield, A. B., Birmingham,
1898 Simon Peiser, B. A., Milwaukee,
1883 David Philipson, D. D., LL. D., Cin-
cinnati, 0.
1912 Jacob B. Pollak, M. A., New York,
N. Y.xxxx
1900 Jacob S. Raisin, Ph. D., D. D., Charles-
ton, S. C.
1903 Max Raisin, LL. D., Paterson, N. J.
1914 Marius Ranson, B. A., Albany, N. Y.
1905 Joseph Rauch, B. A., Louisville, Ky.
1921 Irving F. Reichert, B. A., Jamaica,
L. I., N. Y.
1906 Max Reichler, B. A., New York, N. Y.
1915 Harold F. Reinhart, A. B., Baton
Rouge, La.
1902 Abraham B. Rhine, D. D., Hot Springs,
1909 William Rice, T. M., San Francisco,
1917 Harry R. Richmond, B. A.
1917 Jerome Rosen, M. A., Louisville, Ky.


1899 William Rosenau, Ph. D., Baltimore,
1909 David Rosenbaum, Ph. D., Charles-
ton, W. Va.
1913 Adolf Rosenberg, B. A., Trinidad,
1894 Isidor E. Rosenthal, B. A., Lancaster,
1908 Herman Rosenwasser, A. M.
1904 Leonard J. Rothstein, B. A., Pine
Bluff, Ark.
1885 Isaac Rubenstein.t
1891 Charles A. Rubenstein, M. A., Balti-
more, Md.*
1921 Frederick I. Rypins, B. A., Pittsburgh,
1889 Isaac L. Rypins, B. L., Joplin, Mo.
1919 Joseph E. Sales, A. B.t
1919 Meyer Salkover, A. B., Cincinnati,
1893 Marcus Salzman, Ph. D., Wilkes-
Barre, Pa.
1919 Ira E. Sanders, A. B., Allentown, Pa.
1916 Israel J. Sarasohn, M. A., Amsterdam,
N. Y.
1880 Tobias Schanfarber, B. A., Chicago,
1909 Samuel Schwartz, T. M., Chicago, Ill.
1921 William B. Schwartz, B. A., Mont-
gomery, Ala.
1906 Jacob D. Schwarz, B. A., Cincinnati,
1918 Alexander Segel, A. B., Fresno, Cal.
1920 Abraham I. Shinedling, Marshall, Tex.
1904 Mendel Silber, B. A., M. D., New Or-
leans, La.
1915 Abba H. Silver, M. A., Cleveland, O.
1916 Maxwell Silver, B. A.
1884 Joseph Silverman, D. D., New York,
N. Y.

Those market with an are located in places
t Deceased.

1894 Abram Simon, Ph. D., Washington,
D. C.
1909 Jacob Singer, M. A., Lincoln, Neb.
1921 Jacob H. Skirball, Cleveland, Ohio.
1895 George Solomon, B. A., Savannah, Ga.
1893 Michael G. Solomon, B. L., Los An-
geles, Cal.*
1922 Elihu Starrels, B. A., New Orleans,
1921 Bernhard J. Stern, M. A., Athens, Ga.
1922 Harry J. Stern, B. A., Uniontown, Pa.
1904 Nathan Stern, Ph. D., New York, N. Y.
1922 William Stern, B. A., Ft. Smith, Ark.
1884 Joseph Stolz, D. D., Chicago, Ill.
1904 Joseph H. Stolz, M. A., Chicago, Ill.*
1915 Jacob Tarshish, B. A., Columbus, O.
1913 Sidney S. Tedesche, B. A., San An-
tonio, Tex.
1918 Jacob Turner, A. B., Chicago, Ill.*
1901 Leon Volmer, B. A., New Orleans,
1914 Elkan C. Voorsanger, B. A., New
York, N. Y.
1902 Isidor Warsaw, B. A.
1918 Philip Waterman, A. B., Grand
Rapids, Mich.
1909 Aaron L. Weinstein, M. A., Fort
Wayne, Ind.
1918 J. Max Weis, A. B., New York, N. Y.
1897 Harry Weiss, B. A., Brooklyn, N. Y.
1920 Harvey E. Wessel, M. A., Baltimore,
1903 Jonah B. Wise, B. A., Portland, Ore.
1903 Louis Witt, B. A., St. Louis, Mo.
1909 Horace J. Wolf, M. A., Rochester,
N. Y.
1899 Louis Wolsey, B. A., Cleveland, O.
1921 Morris Youngerman, B. A., Lancaster,
1900 George Zepin, B. A., Cincinnati, O.xx
1899 Martin Zielonka, M. A., El Paso, Tex.

stated, but are not officiating rabbis.

SInstructor in Mathematics, University of Cincinnati.
[ Assistant Secretary, Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Cincinnati, Ohio.
x Superintendent Jewish Orphans' Home.
xx Secretary, Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Cincinnati, Ohio.



Register of Students
Collegiate Department

Aaronsohn, Michael, Baltimore, Md.
Bazel, Solomon N., B. A., Youngstown, Ohio.
Binstock, Louis, M. A., Memphis, Tenn.
Blank, Sheldon H., M. A., Mt. Carmel, Ill.
Bretton, Max, B. A., Ambridge, Pa.
Frankel, Benjamin M., B. A., Peoria, Ill.
Glueck, Nelson, B. A., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Lipman, Mayer, Ph. B., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Nathan, David S., B. A., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Rothman, Walter E., B. A., Detroit, Mich.
Wolk, Samuel, B. A., Baltimore, Md.
Books:aber, Philip D., M. A., Cincinnati,
Caplan, Harry N., B. A., Baltimore, Md.
Feinberg, Abraham, B. A., Bellaire, Ohio.
Grafiran, Lou E., New York City.
Lifschitz, Theodore, New York City.
Peiser, Walter G., B. A., New York City.

Baron, Samuel H., Indianapolis, Ind.
Cohon, Beryl D., B. A., Chicago, Ill.
Feuer, Leon I., Cleveland, Ohio.
Gordon, Julius, Cleveland, Ohio.
Regner, Sidney L., Rochester, N. Y.

Falk, Gus F., New Orleans, La.
Feinberg, David L., Bellaire, Ohio.
Goldstein, Morris, Philadelphia, Pa.
Goodis, David, B. S., Philadelphia, Pa.
Greenwald, Milton, Louisville, Ky.
Kahn, Lawrence, E. B., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Reichert, Victor E., B. Litt., New York City.
Rosensweig, Ephraim, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Shulran, Chas. E., LL. B., Cleveland, Ohio.
Taxay, George D., Pittsburgh, Pa.
Unger, Sidney L., New York City.

Berkowitz, Benjamin, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Finkelstein, Lionel, Goldsboro, N. C.
Goldberg, Harrison, Steubenville, Ohio.
Goldburg, Ariel L., Quincy, Ill.
Graft, Morris W., Cleveland, Ohio.
Gumbiner, Joseph H., Detroit, Mich.
Harris, Melbourne, Oakland, Cal.

Taxay, Joseph M., Pittsburgh, Pa.
Urich, Morris, Milwaukee, Wis.

Fineberg, Howard, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Finkelstein, Adolph H., Goldsboro, N. C.
Freed, Abraham, B. A., New York City.
Gordon, Samuel H., B. A., Portland, Ore.
Kelson, Benjamin, B. A., Springfield, Mass.
Kronman, Harry L., New York City.
Phillips, Samuel, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Shillman, Samuel R., B. A., Pittsburgh, Pa.

Blachschleger, Eugene, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Dorfman, Bernard M., Cleveland, Ohio.
Eisendrath, Maurice M., St. Paul, Minn.
Feibleman, Julian B., B. A., Jackson, Miss.
Glazer, Babel, B. A., Kansas City, Mo.
Neumark, Martha, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Wolk, Samuel J., New York City.

Hibshman, Eugene E., Cleveland, Ohio.
Hurwitz, Samuel Ft. Wayne Ind.
Jacobs, Myron W., LL.B., Cleveland, Ohio.
Kagan, Henry, Washington, Pa.
Mallin, Herman, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Snyder, Herman E., Reading, Pa.
Stein, Bertram, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Tavel, Henry, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Zigmond, Maurice L., Denver, Colo.
De Koven, Roger, Chicago, Ill.
Emden, Milton M., Cincinati, Ohio.
Feuer, Maurice, Cleveland, Ohio.
Fineberg, Abraham M., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Freund, Hirsch L., B. A., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Kalver, Phillip, Youngstown, Ohio.
Levy, Geoffrey H., Middletown, Ohio.
Levy, Jack A., Little Rock, Ark.
Offenbach, Isidor E., Bradford, Pa.
Weise, Aaron L., Murfreesboro, Tenn.
Woerner, Irving V., Jackson, Tenn.
Zielonka, David L., El Paso, Texas.
Halperin, Sam'l A., B. A., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Harris, Adeline, Lawrenceburg, Ind.
Muskat, Caroline J., Marietta, Ohio.
Zeligs, Dorothy, Cincinnati, Ohio.



Degrees Conferred During the Past Year
Doctor of Divinity
Solomon B. Freehof, Professor H. U. C., Cincinnati, Ohio.

Honorary Degrees Conferred During the Past Year
Doctor of Hebrew Law
Simon Wolf, Washington, D. C.
Moses Buttenwieser, Ph. D., Professor H. U. C., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Louis Grossmann, D. D., Rabbi, Professor H. U. C., Cincinnati, Ohio.

Civil Rights



Board of Delegates on Civil Rights

To the Executive Board of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations:
Gentlemen: The fiscal year just passed
has been, as so many years heretofore, re-
plete with many activities, and while many
deserving matters were not realized, in the
main our efforts have been fruitful of good

Hardships of the Present Immigration Law
Before considering typical individual
cases of hardship and suffering, in which
the Board sought to secure relief for de-
serving persons, it is desirable to point out
that the harsh, ill-advised and arbitrary so-
called 3% Quota Law, with its discrimina-
tions on the basis of nationality, was ex-
tended by Congress on May 11, 1922, for a
further period of two years, terminating
June 30, 1924. Though Jews as such are
not aimed at in this law, immigration from
the countries from which they come chiefly
was limited to comparatively small annual
quotas (and to 1/5 of a year's quota in any
month), namely, from Austria, 7,444 per
year; from Czeko-Slovokia, 14,269; from
France, 5,692; from Germany, 68,039; from
Hungary, 5,635; from Italy, 42,021; from
Poland (including Eastern Galicia), 25,800;
from Roumania, 7,414; from Russia, 34,247;
from United Kingdom, 77,206; from Ar-
menia, 1,588, and from Palestine, 56. The
total from all countries is 355,825, about
one-third or one-fourth of the pre-war fig-
ure. The total number of immigrant alien
Jews admitted to the United States during
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922 (the
first full year under the 3% Quota Law)
was 53,524, which is an approximate max-
imum of the number of Jews admissible
under this Act.

Suffering Caused by Method of Adminis-
tering the Law
The administrative provisions of this Act
-particularly its fixation of a maximum

.monthly quota, with no method indicated
by which the immigrant can satisfactorily
learn before arrival whether the monthly
quota will be reached before his personal
application over here will be considered or
not,-led to indescribable suffering. As a
"holiday gift" the Secretary of Labor, just
before Christmas, 1921, felt constrained to
yield to the dictates of humanity to miti-
gate these cruelties, and he admitted, nom-
inally temporarily under bond, substantially
all the immigrants, about 1,000 in number,
who happened to be at our ports at the
time awaiting deportation for excess of
quotas. One result was that the cases
which were referred to in our last report,
brought by Mr. Kohler to test the Act, be-
came moot, as his clients naturally pre-
ferred to enter, rather than take their
chances in the courts, with the heavy court
disbursements likely to accrue against their
relatives or friends. Even apart from
other considerations, this body, in conjunc-
tion with the American Jewish Committee
and the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith,
submitted vigorous "Recommendations" as
far back as November 7, 1910, to the Na-
tional Immigration Commission, objecting
to the very dangerous precedents set by
that body in judging and weighing immi-
grants in racial categories. (See Vol. 41
of the Reports of that Commission, pages
157, 176, 181.) Our fears that arbitrary,
un-American and ill-advised racial discrim-
ination and racial animosities would result
in all sorts of other directions, too, has, un-
fortunately, been realized since. We are
reminded, in this connection, that Senator
Maclay, of Pennsylvania, said in the U. S.
Senate as far back as 1790, in discussing
our first naturalization bill, which New
Englanders then also sought to treat along
racial lines: "We Pennsylvanians act as
if we believed God made of one blood all
the families of the earth; but the Eastern
people seem to think that He made none
but New England folks."



The "Equal Citizenship Act"

Efforts avowedly to reduce these quotas
still more, from a 3% to a 2% basis, in the
so-called Dillingham Act, were made by re-
strictionists this year, but have not thus
far succeeded. Meantime, however, Con-
gress has still further reduced the number
of admissible immigrants enormously, par-
ticularly Jewish immigrants, by its enact-
ment of the so-called "Equal Citizenship
Act", which abolished the universally recog-
nized and established principle that a wife
acquires her husband's citizenship, and now
requires her, if not a U. S. citizen before
its enactment on September 22, 1922, to be-
come naturalized individually here, after a
residence of the prescribed time, etc. On
its face, this bill was not aimed at immigra-
tion, but in connection with the 3% Quota
Law it will work untold hardship, keeping
hundreds of thousands of wives of resi-
dents of this country and their children
abroad for many years, apart from their
husbands, except insofar as they can grad-
ually, in small numbers, come over here
within the monthly and annual quotas of
the Immigration Laws, and after struggling
with all the difficulties attending the pro-
curement of viseed passports abroad (par-
ticularly difficult now for the Jews in Po-
land), and often unprocurable, as it leaves
many women "without a country" in inter-
national law. As is well known, an enor-
mous number of males come to this coun-
try in advance of their wives and children,
to provide homes here for them out of the
earnings so hard to make in the case of
the new immigrant fleeing from oppression.
When the husband became naturalized, his
wife became a U. S. citizen through his
naturalization, and had a constitutional
right to join him here, and was not an
alien, whose admission was limited by the
3% quota and other provisions of the Im-
migration Law. The new Naturalization
Law cuts off the right to U. S. citizenship
of the wife of a United States resident
thereafter becoming naturalized, however,
and treats her as an alien, so that, despite
her marriage to one hereafter becoming a
United States citizen, she can hereafter
come over only within the small immigra-
tion law quota limits. It will be years be-
fore all these wives can legally join their
husbands, in the case of citizens of many

countries, despite the fact that the statute
gives a preference within the quota limits
to wives of citizens. On the other hand, as
such arriving wives and their children will
be charged against the quotas, there will
be scarcely any chance for other aliens of
said countries to come over, in view of the
quota limits. This law was enacted largely
at the instance of American women's organ-
izations, who desired to enable American
women to retain their citizenship, despite
marriage to aliens, and to treat women as
separate entities in the matter of naturali-
zation; the feature here pointed out, how-
ever, was overlooked and ignored by them,
and the law made retroactive, so as even to
apply to foreign women already married to
American residents thereafter becoming
naturalized here. The hardships of this
law are becoming more pronounced day by
day. The Board discovered them beforehand,
and submitted a strong memorandum to the
President urging the bill's veto for this
reason, prepared by Mr. Kohler, to which
your Chairman also appended his signature,
but in spite of this statement and represen-
tations on the part of your Chairman by
letter and telegrams from Atlantic City to
the White House, the President felt con-
strained to sign the bill nevertheless. The
statement referred to is annexed hereto,
marked Appendix I.

When the House of Representatives
passed the Immigration Quota Bill above
referred to, two members of the Jewish
faith voted for it. A great deal of criticism
ensued. The Board was asked to attack
them, but declined, and for the following
reasons: Men or women are elected as
American citizens, and not because they be-
long to any nationality or creed. Such a
thing as a Jewish Congressman is repug-
nant to tall our traditions. Only in faith
are they Jews. It would be a great mis-
fortune for the Jews, and the country no
less, were lit .otherwise. When the Immi-
gration Bill was on its passage, the voting
was done by members of Congress, repre-
senting all the people. Of course, if the
legislation had been specifically aimed at
the Jews, we would have had the right to
expect these men to vote against the mea-
sure, not only because they were Jews, but
as patriotic citizens, who should uphold and
practice fair play. We repeat that the



legislation was of a general character, and
it strengthens our citizenship and elevates
our people to vote as Americans. It is un-
fortunate that the door is to be temporarily
closed, but abuse without reason is not go-
ing to remedy the wrong.

Objection Raised to Classification "Jews"
The Immigration Bureau, in its annual re-
port, in making up the list of aliens ad-
mitted, classified ,our people as "Jews". The
Board considered this classification as a
discrimination unless every other group of
aliens coming to -this country is classified
in the same way, as, for instance, so many
Catholics, so many Methodists, so many
Lutherans, etc. Your Chairman took the
matter up with Commissioner General of
Immigration, W. W. Husband, as shown by
the following correspondence:

"Washington, D. C., January 5, 1922.
Hon. W. W. Husband,
Commissioner General of Immigration,
Washington, D. C.
My dear Mr. Husband: I have no desire
to rush into print unnecessarily, although I
have been urged to do so, preferring to
have .a pleasant friendly correspondence
with you which may, if we mutually agree
to it, be given to the press later.
You are classifying immigrants of Jewish
faith as Jews, which in my judginent is
altogether improper, unless you classify
every other group of aliens coming to this
country in the same way-so many Catho-
lics, so many Presbyterians, etc. The Jews
come as citizens, or ought to come as citi-
zens, of the respective countries in which
they have been born or emigrate from. Any
other classification would be discrimination.
In my book "The Presidents I Have Known"
you will find this question was up during
the administration of President Roosevelt,
and the correspondence had then showed,
backed -and substantiated by the leading
scholars of Jewish faith, that the Jew is
not a race or a nationality, but a religion.
Of course the political Zionist group of the
Jewish people will claim otherwise, as they
seem determined to recognize Palestine as
their home-land.
But again I repeat, that if all creeds are
classified there can be no objection, other-
wise it is discrimination.

With sincere best wishes for the New
Year, I am,
Very sincerely yours,

"Washington, D. C., January 10, 1922.
Hon. Simon Wolf,
Washington, D. C.
My dear Mr. Wolf: I will not attempt
tonight to answer your very interesting let-
ter of January 5th, relative to the classifi-
cation of Jews as a race or people. I am
very familiar with past discussions over
this subject, and have read that part of
your book which refers to it. You will
doubtless remember that the matter was
considered by ithe Immigration Commission
at a hearing which Judge Mack and you at-
tended. Probably others were present also;
that I do not remember.
I remember writing a long letter to Mr.
William R. Wheeling, then Assistant Secre-
tary of Commerce and Labor, and a member
of the Immigration Commission, on the sub-
ject, and -have tried to find a copy to send
to you, but have not succeeded. I have al-
ways, I think, appreciated your point of
view, but have also felt that the statistics
on this subject, which date from 1899, were
really valuable additions to the sum of hu-
man knowledge. As your letter states, the
Jewish people themselves are divided on
the question, and I have listened to strong
arguments from them on both sides of the
I shall try to find a copy of the letter to
Mr. Wheeler and send it to you. In the
meantime, let me thank you for your good
wishes for the New Year, and assure you
that they are returned many fold.
Very truly yours,
Commissioner General."

In connection with the above reference re-
garding the hearings before the Immigration
Commission, special reference is made to
Volume 41 (pp. 265-293) of the Immigration
Commission Report, "Statements and Rec-
ommendations Submitted by Societies and
Organizations Interested in the Subject of
Immigration." This included the ,oral ar-
gument made by your Chairman and Judge
Julian W. IMack, supported by the supple-
mental memorandum on such classification



prepared by Mr. Max J. Kohler, and the
Skuratowski brief on said point prepared
by Judge Abram I. Elkus and Mr. Kohler
(pp. 176-181).

Character of Cases Handled
The Board is happy to state that in-
sistent efforts have resulted in securing
temporary stays of deportation for a large
number of our co-religionists, not only
those who came under the exhausted quota
class, but also those who were for the time
being either physically or financially not
up to the standard as required by the Immi-
gration Law-and also many who were ex-
cluded under the Literacy Test. These
stays ranged from a month to one year, at
the end of which time the cases were re-
viewed, and .all conditions being found
equal, that is, if the alien had proven to the
satisfaction of the immigration authorities
that he or she had benefited by being even
for so short a time in the "Land of Oppor-
tunity", and would undoubtedly, if allowed
to remain, become good, law-abiding citi-
zens, were admitted permanently. Many
admissions to hospitals for temporary treat-
ment were also secured. Of course, as is
usual in all of these temporary stays, bonds
were given.
The many letters of thanks, telegrams and
personal calls, give evidence of the great
appreciation of relatives and friends, and
inspired us to renewed efforts. From Los
Angeles the Board received the following
letter of thanks in a most worthy case:
"Please pardon my tardiness in ac-
knowledging your wire of the 4th inst.
with reference to the above alien.
SI left town after receipt of the wire in
question and the matter was temporarily
overlooked. I wish -to assure you, how-
ever, that you earned the thanks and
gratitude of the alien in question, and
also his father-in-law, Mr. -, of this
city, and many other people who were
interested in the matter.
Needless to say I appreciate very much
your ready response to my request, and
feel deeply grateful and indebted to you."
This is merely given to show the char-
acter of the hundreds of letters received.
No one can imagine the feeling of having
prevented the deportation of men, women
and children who, driven from the land of
their birth, come here to enrich our coun-

try by their brain and brawn. To prevent
the calamity of having to return, after see-
ing the Statue of Liberty, is a feeling of
such intense misery that to be admitted is
a joy forever; and if the Board had not
accomplished any other work, it would feel

Requests for Information
Numerous requests for aid and informa-
tion came from the Jewish Women's Coun-
cil, particularly from New York City, and
in the main we are glad to say our efforts
were successful, and have received their
acknowledgment in kind and appreciative
terms. In one instance, where we secured
an extension of time within which an alien
girl was to be deported, in order to allow
her more time to prepare to pass the Lit-
eracy Test, we received these few appre-
ciative lines:
"We are very grateful to you for your
letter of April 28th, in which you advise
us that an extension has been granted this
With deep appreciation of your many
courtesies to us, I am, etc."
Later, from this same Society, we re-
ceived the following request:
"May we again take the privilege of
calling upon you, this time with a ques-
tion concerning the establishment of resi-
dence in the United States by aliens?
We raise the question regarding aliens
who have lived in the United States, and
who return to Europe for a temporary
stay-in some instances in countries
where the quota for the fiscal year has
been exhausted. We wish to know how
long a period of residence in the United
States before their departure guarantees
their admission regardless of quota.
Thanking you for your courtesy in this,
as in all other matters, I am, etc."
To which the Board answered:
"Answering yours of the 4th-aliens
who have resided in the United States at
least seven years established what is
called a domicile, which practically guar-
antees their admission to the United
States upon their return, regardless of
quota. Of course we all know that, to
be a full-fledged American citizen is to
be desired under all circumstances."



Alien Public Charges
The number of people who have become
public charges has alarmingly increased
during the past year. City and State insti-
tutions all over the country complain of
having alien patients to the exclusion of
citizens. This is another phase which needs
attention and prompt remedy. Public
charge cases are subject to deportation
during a period of five years after the ad-
mission of the alien, and the Board has
time and again prevented deportation by
paying the government, or institution in
question, the cost of maintaining the in-
mates or patients.
In March, 1922, the Board received the
following inquiry from Mr. Louis H. Levin,
of the Associated Jewish Charities of Balti-
"Could you get for us some informa-
tion in regard to the following question:
Quite a number of years ago you ob-
tained a decision from some of the au-
thorities connected with the Immigration
Department of Washington to the effect
that an immigrant receiving assistance
from a private charitable organization,
one that received no aid from city, state
or governmental agency, is not a public
charge, and is not subject to deportation
on account of the receipt of such aid
within five years of landing. Lately, I
have heard that this ruling has been
questioned by the Department, which is
attempting to construe the receipt of aid
from a private corporate body as a receipt
of public aid, and not private, and there-
fore subjects the recipient to the De-
portation Law.
Can you tell me what the rule of the
Immigration authorities is on this point,
and if there has ever been a decision
covering this aspect of the case?
Thanking you in advance, and with kind-
est regards, etc."
Your Chairman, on receipt of this com-
munication, immediately took the matter
up with the Commissioner-General of Im-
migration, and received from him on March
25, 1922, the following reply:
"My dear Mr. Wolf: Answering your
letter of the 21st instant, I beg to ad-
vise you that the Bureau knows of no
ruling (Department -or otherwise) to the

effect that an alien who receives assist-
ance 'from a private charitable organiza-
tion' is thereby to be regarded as a pub-
lic charge, and, as such, subject to de-
portation under the provisions of Section
19 of the Immigration Act of February 5,
1917. Of course, where such an organi-
zation is supported partly by private and
partly by public funds, the alien who is
the beneficiary thereof is a public charge
to the extent that he is supported by
funds paid in by the public.

In short, only aliens who are inmates of
institutions or hospitals which are main-
tained in part or wholly by the public are
considered public charges, and thus are
liable to deportation. (An able opinion to
this effect, citing authorities, was rendered
by Solicitor Earl, of the Department of
Labor, to the Secretary of Labor, July 28,
1910, in answer to an inquiry of your
Chairman, which was reinforced by a brief
prepared by Mr. Kohler.)

Expediting Vise of Passports Abroad
Hundreds of appeals have been brought
to the attention of your Chairman to secure
his aid in having authorization granted to
Consuls abroad to vise passports. Appli-
cations for vis6 of Polish passports are not
referred to our State Department, the
United States Consuls in said country being
vested with absolute power and authority
to grant the vise or refuse, according to
the circumstances of the case. Naturally,
the aliens in Poland, at least many of them,
do not understand this quota situation, and,
of course, having made their preparations
to come to the United States, secure their
passports and present them to the Consul.
His office, being crowded with thousands of
similar cases, does not have the time to
make proper explanation, but instead, puts
the alien off with the unsatisfactory an-
swer that the vis6 cannot be granted at
that time-gives him a number and tells
him to return later. They wait for what is
doubtless to them an interminable length
of time, and once more present themselves
before the Consul, with the same result.
Then they appeal to their relatives and
friends in the United States for funds and



aid in securing the desired vis6. In cases
of this character, to-wit, non-vis6 of pass-
ports on account of excess quota, there is
absolutely no step to be taken from this
end. The State Department under its rul-
ing refuses to institute any action in vis6
cases, unless requested so to do by the ,Con-
suls abroad, and -there is therefore nothing
left for the alien to do but to wait the re-
quired time until a new quota is declared.
What is true of Poland is also 'true of
many other countries-Turkey, Jugo-Slavia,
Germany, etc. Russia forms an exception.
All applications for the vis6 of Russian
passports are referred to our State Depart-
ment here before adverse action is taken.
If the Consuls, of course, have no doubt
about granting the vis6, they do so. In
many Russian cases brought to the atten-
tion of your Chairman, where the State
Department here has no record of the ap-
plication of the alien for vise and request
of the Consul ,in Russia for authority to
vise, the matter has been taken up direct
with the IConsul, with the result that in
numerous cases the granting of the vise has
been expedited.
Aid in Transmission of Money Abroad
Aid has also been given by the Chairman
in the transmission of money to Europe, in
securing justice for accused citizens in
civil life, the army and navy, etc.
During the year an order was issued by
the Post Office Department providing for
the shipment of parcel post packages up to
eleven pounds each to Russia. This order
was naturally sent to postmasters all over
the United States. Many appeals came to
the Board for aid in shipping clothing and
shoes to relatives in different parts -of Rus-
sia, and on taking the matter up with the
Post Office Department, advice was given
in regard to the above-mentioned order. In
one particular case which I brought to the
attention of the Post Office Department, I
received the following reply:
"With reference to your communica-
tion, in which you quote letter from the
gentleman at Demopolis, Alabama, rela-
tive to the sending of clothing to Kiev,
Russia, you are informed that the matter
has been taken up with the postmaster
at Demopolis, and proper instructions is-
sued relative to the acceptance of such
articles for despatch to Russia."

Medal in Honor of Haym Solomon Urged

The Chairman received an interesting let-
ter from Maude Morrison Frank, of New
York City, a great-great-granddaughter of
Haym Solomon, asking for a government
position in the Bureau of Education. He
had an interview with President Harding
and told him of her request. The Presi-
dent said he would gladly aid her. The
Chairman then told him of the seeming in-
gratitude of our government in the matter
of Haym Solomon. The President requested
him to send him (the President) a written
statement, setting out the facts, which was
done in the form of a letter bearing date
February 4, 1922.
On account of important matters that
constantly engrossed his time, the Presi-
dent was unable as yet to send a special
message to Congress.

Urge All Immigrants to Speedily Become
The delay *in making application for
American citizenship is very deplorable at
times. Some of our co-religionists have
been in the United States twenty years and
more, and have never become naturalized-
some of them are not even declarants. As
to many other classes of aliens it is even
worse. The consequence of this criminal
neglect has caused deserved misery. Too
much emphasis cannot be laid on the de-
sirability of all those, women as well as
men, who come to our shores becoming
full-fledged citizens just as soon as possi-
ble, not only for their own protection, but
as a protection for their children, and, most
of all, for the purpose or fulfilling their
duty to the country of their adoption.
An interesting and important decision was
recently rendered by the State Department
in the case of an American-born woman,
whose citizenship was declared forfeited by
her marriage to a German alien, who had
been in this country a number of years
without taking any steps towards becoming
a naturalized citizen. Her application for
passport to visit Germany was refused.
She was told that she would have to get the
passport from the local German represen-
tative, or the Consul General at New York
City, and have it viseed by the American
Consul when she desired to return.



This is another sad incident where, had
the man become naturalized, all this trouble
would have been avoided. Your Chairman
repeats that naturalization is one of the
main educational factors for Americaniza-
tion, and there is no excuse for an immi-
grant, and more especially for a Jew, not
taking the necessary steps towards natu-
ralization and becoming a citizen of the
United States at the earliest possible mo-
ment. No man should be accepted as a
member of any Jewish congregation unless
he is an American citizen, or has taken the
necessary preliminary steps to become one.
The contest against the Ku-Klux wave of
intolerant prejudice and un-American at-
tacks on the citizenship of certain classes

has not been part of our work. The secular
and Jewish press, statesmen in and out of
Congress and legislatures, have done this
in far better shape, but though it is a
serious danger that confronts this country,
like the Know-Nothing craze, it will die
and be buried with the contempt of all
sane, decent and patriotic Americans.
This department has given the utmost
within its power in the movement to elim-
inate the teaching or reading of the Bible
in the public school. We are happy to say
the movement's workers are bending sev-
eral of the states.
We recommend that the coming conven-
tion take some concrete action on several of
the matter contained in our report.*


Economic misery abroad, and failure to
check lawlessness and revolutionary propa-
ganda, are responsible for considerable con-
tinuing persecution of our co-religionists
abroad in various countries, notwithstand-
ing treaty guarantees of the rights of mi-
norities, often specifically of the Jews.
With normal economic conditions restored,
and growing familiarity in practice with the
principles of a "government of laws, not
of men", under new constitutions and
fundamental laws, the situation will un-
doubtedly improve greatly. As it is, how-
ever, we are glad to be able to record that
almost everywhere wholesale anti-Semitic
persecution and mob-spirit manifestations
against the Jews were less serious during
the past year than they were the year be-
fore. Naturally, disturbed conditions and
unfamiliarity in some instances on the part
of Jews abroad, with the fact that their
real good lies in equal laws, and not in spe-
cial "national Jewish rights", led on occa-
sion to exaggerated reports of excesses
against them and to unwise verbal assaults
on the attitude of their officials. Under the
scheme of the Peace Treaties, the League
of Nations was given jurisdiction over such
violaitons of the rights of minorities. It
has, in several notable instances, adopted
appropriate measures to protect Jewish mi-
norities from excesses on the part of ma-
jorities. Naturally, however, the declination
of our government to join the League in any
N. B. The next two sections of this

form thus far, has deprived the Jews of
their best and most disinterested friend in
such council of the nations, and the com-
parative weakness of the League of Nations
has made it very conservative in pressing
such Jewish charges.
Mr. Lucien -Wolf, of London, has been
particularly active in presenting Jewish
grievances of this kind to the League of Na-
tions on behalf of the British Conjoint
Jewish Committee, and the British govern-
ment in particular has championed this
cause at his instance. A well-posted cor-
respondent of the London "Jewish Chron-
icle", in its issue of Oct. 6, 1922, sums up
the steps taken by the League at its recent
Assembly at Geneva in this field, as follows:
"Looking back on the League of Nations
Assembly, it is perfectly obvious that the
question of the protection of minorities in
various countries is second only in im-
portance to that of disarmament, to which
it is in some degree related. Lord Robert
Cecil has pointed out that the treatment
of minorities is a perennial source of
strife, and even of warfare. While the
subject concerns the Jews in various parts
of Europe most intimately, it is a much
larger question, for it is at the root of the
troubles in Asia Minor, and, as has been
shown, it affects also the condition of na-
tive races in far-flung parts of Empire,
mandated territories and obscure corners
of the globe.
report on "Violation of Minority Protective

Guarantees" and "Anti-Semitic Discrimination at American Colleges", have been pre-
pared by our colleague, Mr. Max J. Kohler, and deserve careful attention.-Simon Wolf.




"It is well that the matter is kept to the
forefront by the three leading men of the
League, Lord Robert Cecil, Professor Gil-
bert Murray and Dr. Nansen, who are
backed up by a growing contingent of
delegates, including the exceedingly popu-
lar Dr. Dante Bellegarde, of Haiti, deter-
mined that the League shall spare no ef-
fort to improve the conditions of exist-
ence of persecuted peoples the world over.
As a matter of fact, the treatment of
minorities is becoming a kind of test ques-
tion for members of the League, and it
may be declared with certainty that un-
less humane and civilized conditions ob-
tain in a country, that country will find
itself excluded. In due course exclusion
is going to be a calamity, so that improve-
ment may therefore be anticipated. The
League, as Mr. Motta, the ex-President of
Switzerland, put it, has become the guard-
ian of the minorities.
"Nevertheless, it will be a slow process.
The statement issued last week by the
Latvian Legation in London indicates the
temperament that is opposed to reform.
Latvia and Esthonia put up an ingenious
contention, a plea for a world-treaty on
the subject of minorities. But it was seen
through, and they were told bluntly by the
three protagonists that this was but a de-
vice for delay which could not be tolerated.
Dr. Pusta, the Esthanian delegate, was in
fact called before the Council and told
that his government would be expected to
fulfill the obligations which were a condi-
tion of its admission to the League.
"The long dispute between Lithuania
'and Poland with regard to the Vilna re-
gion is a matter affecting the treatment of
the non-Polish minority. It is disputed
territory, where, it is stated, the over-
whelming majority is hostile to Polish
domination. This led to the publication of
charges, and denials, in which-to put it
plainly-some one was palpably lying.
The contentions of Mr. Ashkenazy, the
Polish delegate, that there had been no
pogroms, did not carry conviction, and it
may be remarked that Mr. Ashkenazy is a
long, long, long way from being the most
popular delegate to the Assembly. His at-
titude was distinctly irritating. Mr. Ven-
ceslas Sidzikauksas, the fair-haired and
extremely youthful-looking delegate of

Lithuania, stuck to his charges valiantly,
and his offer to submit to the decision of
the Permanent Court of International Jus-
tice, and his plea that a Committee of In-
quiry or a Permanent Commissioner
should be sent out, imperssed all hearers.
Mr. Ashkenazy made an attempt at the
plenary session to confuse the issue, and
was sharply brought to book by Lord Rob-
ert Cecil, who pointed out that the Polish
delegate was wrong in maintaining that
the 'great majority of the Committee' was
opposed to an inquiry. He explained that
some members desired that a committee
should be sent out directly; others thought
the matter must be left to the Council of
the League. Mr. Motta upheld this view,
and Mr. Ashkenazy, who had suggested
postponement of the discussion, had to ac-
cept the correction. The matter is, there-
fore, left to the Council."
The general procedure adopted by the
League of Nations for presenting griev-
ances of minorities was ably outlined by
this Geneva correspondent of the same pa-
per in its issue of Sept. 22, 1922, as follows:
"The minorities question continued to
be debated in committee day by day, and
it was interesting to note the persistent
efforts to water down the resolutions of
Professor Gilbert Murray. Mr. Honotaux,
of France, and Mr. Scialoja, of Italy, the
champion 'destructive critic' of the As-
sembly of the League of Nations, came to
the aid of the representatives of the new
nations, and they and the Bulgarian repre-
sentative, Mr. Radeff; Mr. Ashkenrazy (Po-
land); Mr. Osusky (Czecho-Slovakia);
Mr. Ninchitch and Mr. Yovanovitch (Jugo-
Slavia-here called the Serb-Croat-Slovene
State), displayed an ingeunity in word-
spinning and quibbling that would have
put any Talmudic pilpulist into the shade.
One or two made no effort to conceal
their real intentions. They wished to kill
the resolutions, or at least to render them
completely innocuous, and the speeches
suggested that the happiest countries were
those with minorities which the rest of
the world believed to be badly treated.
"The resolutions were sent to a sub-
committee for re-drafting, and finally, the
one suggesting the appointment of resi-
dent representatives to certain districts to
report impartially on the treatment of mi-


norities, was 'suppressed', and its place
taken by a statement in the report of the
committee to the Assembly that Professor
Murray had emphasized the value of such
practice, and that accordingly the fact was
placed on record with a hope that the
Council of the League might have re-
course to the system 'in suitable cases
.with the consent of the government
concerned.' It is a cuirous compromise,
but better, at any rate, than complete re-
jection. The other disputed resolution,
suggesting appeal by aggrieved parties to
the International Court of the Hague, was
completely altered, until it proposed that
members of the Council alone should have
the power to appeal to the Court, without
prejudice to other methods of conciliation.
At the same time, the report contained
Professor Murray's original resolutions in
full, and Lord Robert Cecil told me that
he and the Professor are, on the whole,
satisfied with the results of the commit-
tee's debates.

"These discussions revealed the extraor-
dinary fear among the nations that ac-
tivity on behalf of minorities would en-
courage them to make impossible demands.
At the same time, Professor Murray, and
those who supported him, insisted on the
minorities co-operating loyally with the
citizens of the respective States; and the
League is establishing a tradition and ma-
chinery that must act as a check to those
governments which have an idea that
they may do as they please with subjects
who differ from the majority of their citi-
zens in language, race or religion. With
Europe's frontiers drawn crazily, the ex-
istence of the League, its resolutions, and
the record of its discussions, are essential
to the well-being of masses of the people,
many of whom are Jews. The failure of
Latvia and Esthonia to sign the declara-
tion in favor of the protection of minori-
ties is not lost to sight, and may yet lead
to action by the Council, which will teach
these young nations that they cannot enter
the League and at the same time behave
as if they were outcasts. Dr. Nansen has
his eye on them."
It is obvious that ill-advised demands for
distinctive Jewish political "national rights"
arouse much feeling against the Jews in
those countries, and the sensitiveness of

sovereign states-especially new ones-to
being haled by non-sovereign accusers be-
fore divers weak assemblies to answer ac-
cusations under abnormal conditions, which
are sometimes ill-advised and often exag-
gerated, must be taken into account, in the
interest of the minorities themselves.
In the most authoritative "History of the
Peace Conference of Paris" which has thus
far appeared (published in London under
the auspices of the Institute of International
Affairs), edited by H. V. Temperley, of
Cambridge University, the most extended
consideration so far to be found in print is
accorded to the treaty provisions for "Pro-
tection of Minorities" (Vol. 5, pages 112-
365 and 432-470). The following interest-
ing remarks are made regarding the atti-
tude of Jews at the Peace Conference to
these clauses (pp. 136-7):
"As is well known, there were consid-
erable differences among the representa-
tives of the Jews as to the objects which
they desired to secure. On the whole, it
may be said that the English Jews tended
to confine their efforts to securing to
their co-religionists the widest personal
liberty and full opportunities for the use
of their own religion and the maintenance
of their own customs. There was, how-
ever, a party which went further than
this, and aimed at getting official recogni-
tion of what they called 'Jewish nation-
ality'. They seem to have hoped that the
Conference would give official recognition
to the Jews in Poland and in other states
as an organized corporation with definite
political rights, and there are indications
that if this had been secured, they might
then have pressed for representation of
this 'Jewish nationality' on the League of
Nations. It need not be said that any
suggestion of this kind was ruled out
from the beginning. M. Clemenceau's let-
ter specially points out that the clauses of
the Treaty 'do not constitute any recog-
nition of the Jews as a separate political
community within the Polish state.'
"The recognition of 'national rights' of
the Jews in Poland would have been com-
pletely inconsistent with the territorial
sovereignty of the state, which is the
basis of our whole modern system. It is
in accordance with this that, for instance,
the educational control of the schools as-



signed to the Jews is given, not to one
general committee supervising Jewish ed-
ucation for the whole of Poland, but to
'Committees', which are clearly intended
to be mere local bodies."
Curiously enough, these minority pro-
tective clauses are described in this work
as English in origin, and the circumstance
that they were in fact first sponsored by
America, and originally drafted in their ul-
timate form by Mr. Louis Marshall, of New
York City, is ignored. We understand, how-
ever, that the editor of this work has re-
cently conceded that he believes it to be cor-
rect "that the first suggestion as to the mi-
nority treaties was at America's instigation",
thus confirming some remarks on this sub-
ject in our prior annual reports, now re-in-
forced by Ray Stannard Baker's newly pub-
lished work, "Woodrow Wilson and Settle-
ment", based on ex-President Wilson's own
official papers, and Prof. Mianley O. Hud-
son's paper in House, and Seymour's "What
Really Happened in Paris". It is also grati-
fying to find interesting and important mate-
rial regarding Jewish representations at the
Peace Conference, the Polish Pogrom Com-
mission Inquiry and Reform Judaism's at-
titude to Zionism in Mr. Henry Morgen-
thau's reminiscences, entitled "All in a Life
Time", just issued. On pages 349-350 we
find a reprint of the bulk of the "statement"
against Political Zionism (not readily ac-
cessible elsewhere), submitted by Mr. Mor-
genthau, Hon. Julius Kahn and Rabbi Isaac
Landman to the Peace Conference on behalf
of 275 prominent American Jewish signers,
as drafted by Dr. Henry Berkowitz, Dr.
David Philipson, the late Prof. Morris Jas-
trow and Max Senior, and which accords
with prior declarations of this organization,
which had dissevered itself from the Amer-
ican Jewish Congress movement on the is-
sues of political Zionism and national Jew-
ish political rights.
As is, of course, well known, the League
of Nations approved the mandate over
Palestine, conferred by the Treaties of San
Renio and Sevres on Great Britain, with its
provision regarding permission to establish
"a national Jewish home" there, but with
authority to restrict immigration, and with
guarantees covering the rights of other na-
tionalities there, which render it doubtful
(particularly in the light of official state-


ments by Winston Churchill and Sir Her-
bert Samuels, the British High Commis-
sioner), whether any considerable Jewish
increment in Palestine's population will be
permitted. On the other hand, native Arab
and native Christian opposition to the "na-
tional Jewish home" idea, continues.
U. S. Palestinian Resolution
The joint resolution of the Congress of
the United States, approved by President
Harding September 21, 1922, approving of
this measure, had a curious legislative his-
tory, involving a significant modification
which the press of this country has wholly
overlooked. Originally introduced by Sen-
ator Lodge, it passed the U. S. Senate May
3, 1922, in an extraordinary form. Not
content with the phraseology of the Balfour
Declaration in favor of the establishment in
Palestine of "a national home for the Jew-
ish people", the Senate resolution substi-
tuted the words "the national home", to in-
dicate still more clearly the theory that the
Jew was to have a "home" nowhere else
than in Palestine, and the further saving
condition of the Balfour Declaration was
deliberately stricken out, that this should
be without prejudice "to the rights and po-
litical status enjoyed by Jews in other coun-
tries (Cong. Record, May 3, 1922, p. 6784).
In the House of Representatives thereafter,
however, the resolution was reported in
modified form, and thus passed that House
June 30, 1922 (Cong. Record, pp. 10549-58,
10834 et seq.). The words "a national
home" were avowedly and intentionally sub-
stituted, probably in consequence of Com-
mittee "Hearings", at which Dr. David
Philipson and Rabbi Isaac Landman of

this organization vigorously opposed the
entire resolution. Moreover, Congress-
man Burton, of Ohio, in his address
in favor of the resolution, referred to
some liberal Jewish opposition to the reso-
lution, and stated that the qualification re-
garding non-prejudicing of rights and po-
litical status of the Jews in other countries
had been omitted, because unnecessary in a
country like the United States, where the
Jews, of course, have full and equal rights.
Its significance as an affirmative declaration
of the fact that the Jews of the United
States, and of most countries of Europe,
desire no citizenship in any other country
than that in which they are happily domi-



ciled, was overlooked, however. Of course,
it is an erroneous but very common version
of the Balfour Declaration to make it read
"a national homeland for the Jewish peo-

ple", instead of "a national home", and
this misconception is at the bottom of much
Zionist dissatisfaction with the terms of the
English mandate over Palestine.


The proposal of Pres. Lowell, of Harvard
University, that the percentage of Jewish
students to be received there be limited,
naturally aroused much discussion and pro-
test throughout the country. His claim
seems to be correct, however, that certain
other colleges reach the same result by
more secret methods. An important general
principle is involved, not to be limited even
to such distinguished institutions as our
higher seats of learning, and members of
this Board have done their share to awaken
correct public sentiment on a subject which
the governing authorities of that institution
are still considering, "Eternal vigilance is
the price of liberty". The United States
government, through diplomatic channels
and otherwise, has in the past repeatedly
protested against somewhat similar educa-
tional restrictions against the Jews in Rus-
sia, Roumania and Poland, and accordingly
the evil results that would follow if Pres.
Lowell's plan be adopted, in stultifying all
such future efforts on our part abroad, even
on behalf of Jewish enjoyment of element-
ary common school and high-school facili-
ties, should not be lost sight of. In fact,
recent reports from Germany-where the
anti-Semitic movement has developed enor-
mously since the war-on the general prin-
ciple that the Jew must always be made the
scapegoat-show that even there Jewish
participation in elementary instruction in
some districts is now jeopardized, despite
the terms of the Treaty of Peace and the
new German Constitution. In Munich, for
instance, popular clamor and openly-ex-
pressed prejudice on the part of so-called
Christian fellow students and instructors,
has now been driving almost all Jewish pu-
pils out of the high schools, by subjecting
our co-religionists to intolerable annoyances.
In Saxony, it is reported, arbitrary refusals
to excuse pupils from the public schools
for absenting themselves on any but legal
holidays, heavily penalizes Jewish and Cath-
olic pupils, as well as their parents, for ab-
senting themselves on their religious holi-
days. Of course, nearly all over the Con-
tinent, serious economic embarrassment,

coupled with religious and racial antag-
onism, leads to efforts to exclude thousands
of students on one pretext or another from
the higher institutions of learning, often
for the assigned reason that they are not
legally resident in the particular place in
question, because of changes in the bounda-
ries of particular countries and enforced
banishment caused by the war. Under these
circumstances we incorporate herewith as
Appendix II an article on the Harvard in-
cident, published by Mr. Max J. Kohler, of
this Board, in the "New York Times" of
Sunday, July 23, 1922, and elsewhere re-
printed; it is here reproduced, with some
passages restored, heretofore curtailed. Mr.
Kohler clearly points out that in New York
and many other states, having similar
"Civil Rights Acts" on their statute books,
such discrimination on racial or religious
lines is even a violation of the criminal
laws of the state, and that, where this is
not the case, as in Massachusetts, the true
American spirit, finding expression in Civil
Rights Acts first enacted at the intsance of
Harvard's distinguished son, Charles Sum-
ner, of Massachusetts, by the Federal Gov-
brnment and by various states, requires
the cessation of such discrimination. When
the precedents established by American
statesmen so widely divergent in their gen-
eral views as Thomas Jefferson, Charles
Sumner, Grover Cleveland and Theodore
Roosevelt can be invoked in favor of a
claim, one may be quite certain that true
American principles underlie it. In this
connection, it is interesting to observe that
one of the Acts, soon after the days of the
"Civil War", of the "Board of Delegates of
American Israelites"-with which our own
Committee was merged, shortly after the
Union of American Hebrew Congregations
was formed-was to secure a revocation
from the Board of Trustees of the College
of the City of New York, of the ruling of
the then President of that College regarding
not excusing Jewish students absenting
themselves on their religious holidays, ex-
cept on condition of their forfeiting all
their marks for those days, thus placing



them out of the race for College honors
with non-Jewish classmates. The executive
official in question-who was more familiar
with military strategy than with the his-
tory of the development of American prin-
ciples and the decisions of the federal
courts-took the position that a public col-
lege ought to ignore all sectarian matters,
including religious holidays, and therefore
decline to regard absence on a student's
most important religious holidays as ex-
cusable, though this executive chose to shut
his eyes to the fact that statutes closed the
doors of the College on the religious holi-
days of nearly all the Christian students.
Fortunately, the superiors of this official,
by resolution, were induced to give him a
lesson in the true principles of American
religious liberty, which he was constrained
to follow thereafter.
The subject of Jewish attendance at
higher institutions of learning in America
is so important, and is attracting so much
attention today, that it will be well to sup-
plement the article in the appendix some-
what. It is true that, in their origin, nearly
all our American colleges in pre-revolu-
tionary days were sectarian institutions, but
the American spirit changed their status in
this respect, almost from the adoption of
our Federal Constitution on, and the grant
of exemption from taxation, bestowal of
large public subsidies, .and authorization to
confer degrees and the like they have en*
joyed, all recognize that they bear at least
a quasi-governmental character, which
makes them subject to legislative regula-
tion with respect to racial and religious
tests. In New York State, the Legislature
was so impressed with the importance of
making colleges absolutely undenomina-
tional, that in organizing Columbia Col-
lege right after the Revolution, it even made
Rev. Gersham Mendes Seixas, Rabbi of the
only Jewish congregation of the state in
that day, one of its trustees. Jefferson's at-
titude with respect to the University of
Virginia is outlined in his own letter to
Isaac Harby, reprinted in Mr. Kohler's ar-
ticle. Even though it be conceded that ad-
mission to colleges may properly be limited
by a test of mental ability and the like-
unlike elementary school instruction, .which
should be open to all-and that courses in
many of these institutions must continue to
be remunerated for, while others, estab-

lished by the State itself, must, under pub-
lic law, be gratuitously and universally
rendered-such Civil Rights Acts as have
been referred to, and the American prin-
ciples underlying them, cannot properly
justify curtailment, avowed or devious, on
the lines of race or religion. Supposed
personal advantages to the institution of
learning itself, and desire to cater to the
snobbish "loyalties" of students, prospect-
ive students or alumni, can no more jus-
tify such discrimination and tests as to
American colleges and universities than in
the case of public theaters and the like,
whose claims to manage their own affairs
as they like, regardless of such principles,
have been regularly overruled by our courts
for decades. In Hon. Oscar S. Straus' in-
teresting, recently-published autobiography,
entitled "Under Four Presidents" (pp. 46-7),
he does well to emphasize the precedent
set by Grover Cleveland as President in
the Keiley affair, in the matter of Austro-
Hungary's refusal to accept him as U. S.
Minister, for the assigned reason that his
wife was a Jewess, though the post con-
cededly involved qualifications making such
representative personally acceptable to the
foreign government. Mr. Straus well says:
"The President and Secretary Bayard were
incensed. Both rebuked this religious big-
otry publicly, the President in his annual
message to Congress and the Secretary of
State in the answer to the Austro-Hun-
garian Minister at Washington," he quotes.
Grover Cleveland tersely stated in his an-
nual message, on Dec. 8, 1885 (8 Richard-
son's Messages, 325; compare 366):

"The reasons advanced (by Austria, for
objecting to receive Mr. Keiley) were such
as could not be acquiesced in without vio-
lating my oath of office and the precepts
of the Constitution, since they necessarily
involved a limitation in favor of a for-
eign government upon the right of selec-
tion by the Executive, and required such
an application of a religious test as a
qualification for office under the United
States as would have resulted in the prac-
tical disfranchisement of a large class of
our citizens and the abandonment of a
vital principle in our government .
That gentleman has since resigned his
commission, leaving the post vacant. I
have made no new nominations, and the


interests of this government at Vienna
are now in the care of the secretary of
As in the public incident in question, no
test as to a person's race or religion is
admissible on application to enter any pub-
lic institution of learning in America, under
the Civil Rights Laws in force in many
states, or the spirit underlying them. The
inquiry whether Jewish craving for learn-
ing induces them to seek entrance to our
universities in larger numbers than their
proportionate part in the population of the
district in question, is based on a line of
inquiry which ought to be closed to the
college authorities, as it is to our public
officials. The proper lesson which the
United States of America ought to continue
to teach the whole world, abroad as well
as at home, may be derived from a here-
tofore unpublished passage in Mr. Straus'
autobiography: When Theodore Roosevelt
proffered to him the appointment to the
President's Cabinet, after some personal

expressions of esteem, he said: "I want
to show Russia and some other countries
what we .think of the Jews in this country."
Mr. Straus goes on to say: "Roosevelt
added that he could not see that it would do
any good, and might do harm, to make fur-
ther protests regarding massacres in Rus-
sia; and he did not want to do anything
that might sound well here, and have just
the opposite effect there. He thought it
would be much more pointed evidence of
our government's interest, if he put a man
like me into the Cabinet, and that such a
course would doubtless have a greater in-
fluence than any words with the countries
in which unreasonable discrimination and
prejudice prevailed." So also as to this
college test of race or creed, in excess of
certain arbitrary percentages. Shall we set
aside, at home even, at the instance of pos-
sibly unconscious selfish and bigoted oppor-
tunism, the important American precedents
we have proclaimed to the world, even
abroad ?


There are pending before the Congress
of the United States, bills requiring the
annual registration of all aliens in this
country at indeterminate places with de-
portation as the penalty for non-compliance,
even in case of pure oversight, and with tlv,
probable result that compliance will lead to
an enormous number of deportations on
purely technical grounds without time limit,
of persons having all their family ties and
all their interests here. They are frankly
patterned on the unpopular Alien and Sedi-
tion Acts of 1798 and the harsh Chinese
Exclusion Law machinery in force, and
would give unlimited opportunities through-
out the country for blackmail, extortion and
oppression, and are apt to cause injuries to
the seven million aliens in this country, not
paralleled in our day. Mr. Max J. Kohler,
in the name of your Chairman and himself,
appeared before the House Committee on
Immigration, January 5, 1923, in vigorous
opposition to these bills, on behalf of this
Board, the I. O. B. B. and the Baron de

Hirsch Fund. It is hoped that these meas-
ures, applicable equally to non-Jewish and
Jewish aliens, will be dropped.

The Board takes great pleasure in ac-
knowledging the courtesy and good will
shown by the different Bureaus and Depart-
ments of the Government.

We wish to add that during this year, as
in the many years past, we are greatly in-
debted for the intelligent and active co-
operation of Mr. Kohler and his many acts
of kindness and courtesy.

Special thanks are due to Congressmen
Julius Kahn, Isaac Siegel and J. A. Sabbath
for their many acts of good will.

We deeply deplore the death of our vet-
eran colleague Israel Cowen, who at all
times was active and alert.

Respectfully submitted,

SIMON WOLF, Chairman.



Appendix I

Outline of Memorandum Submitted to the President on Gross
Hardships of the So-Called Equal Citizenship Bill

The so-called "Equal Citizenship Bill"
(see iCong. Record for Sept. 9, p. 13,392),
which has just passed both Houses of Con-
gress and is now before the President for
his consideration, would work terrible hard-
ship for hundreds of thousands of women,
wives of residents of the United States, who
have not yet become naturalized themselves,
by reason of its applicability to the Immi-
gration Laws. This effect of the Bill has
been wholly overlooked by its supporters,
who have not realized that for many, many
years to come, hundreds of thousands of
women whose husbands have preceded them
to the United States, in order to provide
means to establish a home here, will be un-
able to join them here. Heretofore the
wife of one becoming a citizen of the
United States has herself become a citizen
through his naturalization, and has had a
constitutional right to enter the country.
Under the unanticipated effects of the Bill
in question, the wives will be unable to join
their husbands in the United States after
the letters' naturalization, except in the
very limited numbers prescribed by the 3%
Quota Law, namely, 3% per year of the
number of each nationality in the United
States in 1910, and only one-fifth of this
3% in any one month, under penalty of de-
portation. Terrible hardship and suffering
will result for hundreds of thousands of im-
migrants whose wives have not yet joined
them, and there will be a brutal separation
of families. In 1920 there were over three
and a quarter million unnaturalized males
of voting age in the United States, hun-
dreds of thousands of whose wives still
lived abroad. The Immigration Commis-
sion statistics in 1910 indicate that about
22 7/10% of the married foreign-born hus-
bands residing here, had their wives still
abroad; in the case of the Greeks, 74.7%,
the Russian Hebrews 12%%, the South
Italians 36.9%, the Magyar 43.3%, and the
Polish 23%.
There has been a strong desire in many
quarters, especially among women's organi-
zations, to repeal the Act of Congress of
1907 under which an American woman,
even if residing here, forfeits her American
citizenship by marrying an alien, though he

also is an American resident. There has
also been a desire in many quarters to
avoid the effect of the decision in U. S. vs.
Cohn, 179 Federal Reporter, 834 (C. C. A.),
holding that an alien married woman cannot
become naturalized here as long as her
husband is an alien. This is what has
been commonly meant by this general de-
mand, embodied in the Republican National
Platform of 1920 in the paragraph:
"We advocate in addition the inde-
pendent naturalization of married women.
An American woman, resident in the
United States, should not lose her citi-
zenship by marriage to an alien."
The Bill in question has, however, gone
far beyond this, and will work terrible and
unrecognized hardship in separating fami-
lies under the Immigration Laws, in a man-
ner not dreamed of by most of its sup-
porters. The debate in the House wholly
overlooked the effects of the Bill under the
Immigration Laws; the Senate passed the
Bill without any discussion whatever.
Take a few instances in point. Under
the Immigration Quota Law, the wives of
men becoming naturalized after the passage
of the law will no longer be admissible in
excess of Ithe 3% per year quota (or the
20% per month thereof), but the families
will remain arbitrarily separated indefi-
nitely! The wife will also have to estab-
lish her independent right to enter under
all the other provisions of the Act. Even
after entry, until she becomes naturalized
here herself (after acquiring English, etc.),
she will be subject to deportation for five
years after entry, for instance, because she
may be overtaken by misfortune, and taken
to a hospital at public expense as a result
of an accident occurring to her or the like.
She will thus be separated, not merely from
her husband, but her own infant children
who are citizens! The Solicitor of our
State Department, in criticizing this Bill,
pointed out that abroad she will not be
recognized as a citizen of her original
country if married to an American citizen,
and she will be literally a woman without
a country, and protected by none; more-
over, it violates many of our naturalization



The census of 1920 showed that there
were 2,226,712 alien white females in the
United States over 21 years of age. They
would have far greater difficulty in acquir-
ing ability to read English than the men.
Adult women have far greater difficulty in
securing educational facilities than men.
The night-school facilities for women,
moreover, are very limited, and domestic
and household duties stand in the way far
more than in the case of men, to say noth-
ing of lesser inclination, and there are
scarcely any day classes for adults, even if
bread-winning did not interfere. The same
is true of the requisite knowledge of civics.
In New York and various other States, re-
cently-naturalized women cannot vote, if
unable to read English, so such Act is not
necessary to aid the policy of curtailing il-

literate voters. Our naturalization courts
are already congested, and this law would
double the number of applications, without
in any way increasing the facilities, as has
been recommended.
The Bill should, in any event, not be
made retroactive, so as to apply to women
who married before i-ts enactment. Wives
of persons heretofore naturalized, however,
are not thereby prevented from joining their
husbands here, for they became U. S. citi-
zens through their husbands' naturalization
before its enactment.
SIMON WOLF, Chairman,
Board of Delegates of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations.
Of subcommittee.

Appendix II
Racial Discrimiration at College Versus the Law of the Land

In connection with the wide discussion
that has taken place recently in the public
press regarding alleged plans to discrim-
inate in the admission of Jewish students
at Harvard University, so as to exclude all
above a certain percentage, reference was
made to the alleged fact that Columbia
University and New York University had
reached the same result by the application
of so-called "psychological tests". This
has been authoritatively denied by repre-
sentatives of these institutions, but the cir-
cumstance has, I believe, been overlooked
that in New York State and in various
other states having similar "Civil Rights
Laws" in force, such discrimination would
be an infraction of subsisting penal laws.
When the proposed course would, in fact,
make those in charge of the colleges in
question law-breakers, I think there is lit-
tle sense in discussing academically the
pros and cons of such proposed discrimina-
tion. Section 40 of our New York Civil
Rights Law, as amended in 1918, provides:
"All persons within the jurisdiction of
this state shall be entitled to the full and
equal accommodations, advantages, facili-
ties and privileges of any places of public
accommodations, resort or amusement,
subject only to the conditions and limita-
tions established by law and applicable to
all persons. No person, being the owner,
lessee, proprietor, manager, superintend-

ent, agent or employee of any such place
shall directly or indirectly refuse, with-
hold from or deny to any person any of
the accommodations, advantages, facili-
ties or privileges thereof, or directly or
indirectly publish, circulate, issue, display,
post or mail any written or printed com-
munication, notice or advertisement, to
the effect that any of the accommodations,
advantages, facilities and privileges of
any such place shall be refused, withheld
from or denied to any person on account
of race, creed or color, or that the pa-
tronage or custom threat of any person
belonging to or purporting to be of any
particular race, creed or color, is unwel-
come, objectionable or not acceptable, de-
sired or solicited. A place of public
accommodation, resort or amusement
within the meaning of this article shall
be deemed to include inns, taverns, road-
houses, hotels, kindergartens, pri-
mary and secondary schools, academies,
colleges and universities, extension courses
and all educational institutions under the
supervision of the regents of the state of
New York. Nothing herein contained
shall be construed to include any institu-
tion, club or place of accommodation
which is in its nature distinctly private."
Section 41, among other things, makes
the violation of this section a misdemeanor,
punishable by fine or imprisonment.



It will be ,observed that colleges are ex-
pressly enumerated as being embraced by
this prohibition. The statute is well-drawn.
It expressly excepts a place "which is in
its nature distinctly private" on the one
hand, while it affirmatively includes institu-
tions of learning on the other. If members
of the faculties and governing bodies of in-
stitutions of learning desire to make them
"distinctly private", like clubs, they should
arrange first of :all to disassociate them
from "purposes affected with a public use",
surrender *their exemption from taxation
and public subsidies, and authority to con-
fer degrees, and cease to boast of their
status as public agencies, and the like. It
is the privilege of a private club to bar
whom it pleases and for what reason it
pleases, but the fallacy involved in the er-
roneous confounding in some quarters of
universities with social clubs is merely em-
phasized by such propositions as this. We
may deplore the narrow-mindedness and
bigotry of those who, lacking in true Amer-
icanism, would decline to welcome to their
homes a person, merely because he is of a
particular race ,or creed, but as long as a
purely "private" matter is involved, it is
no concern of the State. Our Civil Rights
Laws, however, aim at discrimination at
inns, hotels and schools just because these
are not by "nature distinctly private". In
the leading case of People vs. King, 110
New York 418, the constitutionality of our
New York Act was sustained, in a criminal
prosecution involving a skating rink, just
because a public place was involved; Judge
Andrews well said for the Court of Appeals
that, if the basis of the discrimination had
been "a rule excluding all Germans or all
Irishmen or -all Jews, the law as applied to
such a case would have seemed "entirely
reasonable (United States vs. Newcombe,
U. S. Dist. Ct., 4 Phila. 519)." Even a pub-
lic dancing pavilion is within the statutory
bar (Johnson vs. Auburn Railroad Co., 222
N. Y. 443). In the recent case of McKaine
vs. Drake Business School, Inc., 107 Misc.
Repts. 241, Judge Finch wrote an opinion
on behalf of our N. Y. Appellate Term, ap-
plying the statute to a business school, and
well pointed out that "it would seem difficult
to hold upon this record that a school which
concededly advertises for students upon
billboards and elevated and subway stations
throughout the city of New York was of a

distinctly private nature." In the Johnson
case, the New York Court of Appeals unani-
mously held that the bar against racial dis-
crimination includes "each of those utilities,
facilities and agencies created and operated
for the common advantage, aid and benefit
of the people, the denial of which to any
person would be a discrimination, obstruc-
tion or deprivation in achieving prosperity,
health, development or happiness." Our
Civil Rights Laws were patterned upon
those drafted by one of Harvard's most
distinguished sons, Charles Sumner, of
Massachusetts, whose zeal induced Congress
to adopt such characteristically American
measures, aiming at prevention of race and
creed discrimination, even with respect to
local matters, which proved to be beyond
federal jurisdiction. It is remarkable that
even in darkest Czaristic Russia, in Janu-
ary, 1914, a national congress of Christian
educators dared publicly to protest against
the then prevailing Russian official policy of
curtailing Jewish educational opportunity!
Many American citizens thought that the
American policy of opposition to all race
and creed discrimination along educational
lines had been safely established soon after
our government was organized. The student
of American educational history ought to
bear in mind the noble service of Thomas
Jefferson in this field, who was so proud of
his identification with American higher edu-
cational endeavor that he directed that his
tombstone should describe him as "Author
of the Declaration of Independence, of the
Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom,
and Father of the University of Virginia."
He thus refers to a measure which he took
at his own instance, in the University of
Virginia, over which he then presided, in
the course of a letter he wrote to Isaac
Harby in 1826: "I have thought it a cruel
addition to the wrongs which that injured
sect (the Jewish) have suffered, that their
youth should be excluded from the instruc-
tion in science afforded to all others in our
public seminaries, by imposing upon them
a course of theological reading which their
consciences do not permit them to pursue;
and in the University lately established here,
we have set the example of ceasing to vio-
late the rights of conscience by any injunc-
tions on the different sects respecting their
If Massachusetts has not yet adopted



similar Civil Rights laws, first drafted by
one of her own greatest statesmen, it is
time she did! The true American spirit is

expressed in them. In a democracy, -the
young cannot be taught democratic princi-
ples too early. MAX J. KOHLER.

Appendix III

The Board of Delegates
by Max J. Kohler

The above-named title has been assigned
to me for treatment on this important
jubilee, but strangely enough-valuable as
have been the services of the body in ques-
tion, during five or more decades (during
little more than one of which I have been
personally active)-no substantial outline
even of its activities has heretofore ap-
peared. The reasons for this omission,
accentuated by the absence of the title,
even, from the "Jewish Encyclopedia", and
its practically complete omission from the
index of the first twenty volumes of pro-
ceedings of the American Jewish Historical
Society-which latter society has wisely
refrained from chronicling currents events
-are varied.
Chief of them is the fact that this Board
has not employed a brass band to celebrate
its achievements, but has contented itself
with unchronicled work, well done. Next
is the circumstance that its activities have
been so completely identified with those of
its distinguished, indefatigable and self-
sacrificing chairman, Hon. Simon Wolf, of
Washington, ever since he accepted that
position thirty-three years ago (and even
before, as it was on his motion that an
earlier organization in which he had been
active was consolidated with it), that one
is naturally disposed to turn, for a narra-
tive of its activities, to his autobiography,
"The Presidents I Have Known from 1860
to 1918," where, however, the subject was
not (and was not intended to be) compre-
hensively treated.
A further, but unfortunate, circumstance
is the fact that our contemporary American
chroniclers of Jewish events have almost
invariably signally failed to treat adequately
our distinctively Jewish contemporary re-
ligious and related activities, as distin-
guished from Jewish charitable endeavor,
Jewish activity in our American political,
business and social life, necrologies and
other biographies, sermons and the account
of anti-Jewish pogroms and other phases

of Jewish suffering and anti-Jewish dis-
crimination. Even the annual "reports" of
the Board of Delegates from 1879 on, in
the annual printed "Proceedings of the
Union of American Hebrew Congregations",
beginning in 1872, have, I believe, never
been summarized heretofore.
I say "heretofore", but the brief space
allotted to me here is not adapted to any
detailed summary, and exigencies of space
have very often caused the omission from
the Board's reports of matters of impor-
tance, especially general matters, fresh at
the time in the recollection of the reader.
I have intentionally preserved the ab-
breviated caption assigned to me, as it
applies equally to the organization ante-
dating Isaac M. Wise's important step in
organizing the "Union of American Hebrew
Congregations", which had been called the
"Board of Delegates of American Israel-
ites", and which was formally merged, in
1878, after a notable and useful career, be-
ginning in 1859 (now commonly forgotten),
in the newly organized 'department of our
organization, then given the name "Board
of Delegates on Civil and Religious Rights",
and since slightly abbreviated by the omis-
sion of the words "and Religious".
The next volume of the "Publications of
the American Jewish Historical Society"
will, I understand, contain a paper of
mine, prepared some years ago, on the
activities of that earlier "Board of Dele-
gates of American Israelites", and reprint-
ing in full, now almost inaccessible, a sum-
mary of its twenty years of beneficent
activity, prepared in 1879, by the late Myer
S. Isaacs, of New York, under the title
"Final Report", he having been its most
active worker from its birth to said con-
Accordingly, I will merely remark here
that this earlier body was organized in 1859,
almost simultaneously with the "Alliance
Israelite Universelle" (a valuable two-
volume history of which recently appeared



by Mr. Leven, long its president), and ac-
tively cooperated with that organization,
and with the "Board of Deputies of British
Jews" (organized as far back as 1760)
and with the English and Austrian branches
of the Alliance, the "Anglo-Jewish Associa-
tion" and the Vienna "Allianz".
The immediate occasion for the forma-
tion of the American and French organiza-
tions was the "Mortara Affair", which
aroused the Jews all over the world to joint,
though futile, action with respect to that
incident. I cannot refrain from mentioning
the names of Isaac Leeser and Adolph L.
Sanger, in addition to Judge Isaacs', how-
ever, as the leading spirits in the old
organization, though the former's efforts at
the organization's ,attempted 'assumption of
jurisdiction over controversial theological
questions, prevented leading reform congre-
gations under Einhorn, Merzbacher and
others from joining and was a mistake our
great organizer, Isaac M. Wise, took pains
to clearly avoid in the formation of our
organization .
It is, however, significant to mention a
fact overlooked by that great man's biog-
raphers, that, in his genius for emphasiz-
ing the necessity for cooperation and or-
ganization, and in his self-abnegation,
Isaac M. Wise first identified himself with
the old body and sought to resurrect and
strengthen the moribund rabbinical semi-
nary called "Maimonides College", of Phila-
delphia, it had sponsored, and only, when
those measures failed did he organize our
"Union". @ As the "Civil Rights" work of
the old organization had been well per-
formed, however, the Union did not attempt
to encroach on its sphere of activity, but
logic and reason dictated the formal merger
of the two organizations in 1878, under the
advice of Simon Wolf, Mayer Sulzberger,
Julius Freiberg, Bernhard Bettmann, I.
Binswanger, Rev. George Jacobs, Leopold
Bamberger, Solomon Levi, S. Wolfenstein
and Hon. Josiah Cohen, besides Dr. Wise
himself, and the taking over by the new

organization of the leaders of the old one,
Myer S. Isaacs, Adolph L. Sanger, Mayer
Sulzberger, Simon Wolf, Myer Stern, A. S.
Solomons, Moritz Ellinger, Julius Bien and
Wm. B. Hackenburg, @ especially after
their joint collection and publication of the
"Statistics of the Jews of the United States"
around 1878, under the chairmanship of the
late William B. Hackenburg, with the ac-
tive aid of Jacob Ezekiel, Lewis Abraham,
Jacob Furth, A. W. Rich, Philip Lewin,
Lipman Levy, Rev. Henry S. Jacobs, Wil-
liam Bennett, Myer Stern, Simon Wolf and
Julius Bien on the committee. Of these,
happily, Simon Wolf, Mayer Sulzberger and
Josiah Cohen are still with us. The con-
stitution of our organization was accord-
ingly amended in 1878, as to defining the
work of this Board, so as to read, substan-
tially as today, as follows (p. 422, com-
pare 426):
"It shall be the duty of the Union to
keep a watchful eye on occurrences at
home and abroad, concerning the civil and
religious rights of Israelites, and to call
attention of the proper authorities to the
fact, should any violation of such rights
occur, and to keep up communication with
similar central Israelite bodies throughout
the globe." Also (pp. 538, 2281):
"To establish relations with kindred or-
ganizations in other parts of the world, for
the relief of the Jews from political op-
pression, and for rendering them such aid
for their intellectual elevation as may be
within the reach of this Union."
Twenty-five years ago, on the occasion of
the celebration of the twenty-fifth anni-
versary of the founding of the Union, Hon.
Simon Wolf briefly summarized the main
accomplished aims of the Board of Dele-
gates, in terms almost equally applicable
today, and at a time, when as now, anti-
Semitism had taken upon itself new pro-
portions, then in connection with the Cap-
tain Dreyfus affair, as follows (1898 Report,
pages 3992, 3994):
"The Board of Delegates on Civil and

0 Proceedings of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, p. 23 (1873); Prof. Henry Englander's "Isaac
Leeser" in "Year Book of the Central Conference of American Rabbis," Vol. 28 (1918), p. 213 et seq., espe-
cially 237-245, 234-5, 247-52.
( "Proceedings," p. 63 (1873); May's "Isaac Mayer Wise," p. 271, and Dr. Wise's contemporary writings in the
Jewish press; Henry S. Morais' "The Jews of Philadelphia." pp. 188-9; "Fifty Years' Work of the Hebrew Education
Society of Philadelphia," pp. 54-77.
( "Proceedings" (1876), pp. 242-3, 292; (1877), pp. 295, 245-8, 366, 378-381; (1878), pp. 422. 426, 537-8, 546;
(1879). pp. 574-5, 578, 676-83.
0 "Proceedings" as to Committee on Statistics (1876), pp. 245-6; (1877), pp. 349-357, etc.,-389; (1878), 508-517;
(1879), pp. 687-9; (188o), 903. 905; (1881). 1074-6.



Religious Rights has done a vast amount
of labor, at home and abroad, has never
asked a favor based on sectarian lines, but
always as citizens of the United States. It
is a recognized power and factor, and
never ask whether the case in hand is
that of an Orthodox or Reform, *a mem-
ber of the Union or not, but solely is he a
Jew, honorable and trustworthy. The record
of achievements of this Board for the last
twenty-five years will make a notable and
important historical contribution. Many
hearts have been gladdened, many homes
made happy by the prompt, energetic and
patriotic action of this branch of the Union,
and I cheerfully bear testimony to the vari-
ous departments of our government for
their liberal construction of statistics and
for their high-toned American spirit. It is
so pleasing to feel that you live under a
flag that protects one and all, and that
the Jew, as an American citizen, occupies
the same place as any other American, in
splendid contrast with the action had by a
so-called republic across the sea. Here law
and order govern, justice does not shun
daylight, and the humblest stands the equal
of the highest. Patriotism on the field of
battle has no sectarian bias, but is the
outcome of love of and for the institutions
under which we have lived so happily,
and to which we cling with loyal affection.
God bless and preserve the United States.

That the condition of Jews in many parts
of Europe and Asia is deplorable, no one
can deny, and to bring about a reform in
that direction is surely the aim and object
of every intelligent Jew, no matter where
he may be domiciled. But the question is
not one of religion or sentiment, but of
practical statesmanship. Whatever power
we possess, whatever influence we have,
whatever means are at our disposal should
be used in effecting a change of legislation
in the respective governments where the
Jew is oppressed, at the same time work-
ing among our coreligionists, so that they
will be evolved out of the Ghetto condi-
tions, and the deplorable influence of
mediaeval ideas, so that the higher aims
and objects of modern civilization will be
appreciated, and that while they shall be
recognized as equals before the law, they
must on the other hand recognize they are
fellow citizens in the same spirit, and be

obedient to the same laws of their re-
spective countries. This is not a holiday
work, nor can it be consummated in a year,
but the foundation can be laid."
A bald outline of the activities of the
Board of Delegates is to be found in the
annual reports, printed in the annual "Pro-
ceedings of the Union", since 1879. I ex-
amined them anew, and could more freely
add much enthusiastic praise to the outline
of 1898 just quoted from the indefatigable
and self-sacrificing chairman's words about
what were really in very large degree his
own activities. To do justice to the theme,
an outline, at least, of its numerous activi-
ties and successes would be necessary, but
that also is here out of the question, as it
would require more space than this whole
issue could afford. I must, therefore, con-
tent myself with saying a few words about
a few lines of its activities, and singling
out, with at least appropriate cross-refer-
ences, a few of its signally important ac-
I just outlined the various subjects of its
beneficent activities, on paper, very briefly,
that are referred to in these printed re-
ports, but a mere list of them would re-
quire columns of print. Reference must be
made to the reports themselves, and to the
history of the time.
As regards the most graphic ones, more-
over, reference may be made to other con-
veniently accessible books, to supplement
our "reports", besides the "Jewish En-
cyclopedia", and the Publications of the
American Jewish Historical Society. This
also involves omitting further accounts,
herein, of American efforts at ameliorating
the condition of the Jews in Roumania and
the Near East, from the days of Peixotto
and of the Congress of Berlin to Secretary
Hay's Roumanian note and the Algeciras
Conference treated more comprehensively in
Kohler & Wolf's "Jewish Disabilities in the
Balkan States-American Contributions to
their Removal, with Particular Reference to
the Congress of Berlin", Cyrus Adler's
"Jews in the Diplomatic 'Correspondence of
the United States", my "Jewish Rights at
International Conferences", Mr. Wolf's
"Presidents I Have Known", and Mr. Oscar
S. Straus' "Under Four Administrations".
It eliminates all but a reference to the
narrative of our efforts at improving the
condition of the Jews in Russia, down to



the time of the abrogation of the Russian
Treaty (the definite plan for which was
sponsored and announced in Louis Mar-
shall's epochal address at the "Union"
Council of 1911 at New York, "Proceed-
ings", pages 6638-54), and the Russian
Revolution; more detailed accurate accounts
of these will be found in Simon Wolf's
"Presidents" (particularly in its very im-
portant sections dealing with the Kishineff
Massacre Petition and the Conference with
President Taft of February 15, 1911, about
the abrogation of the treaty); in Mr. Straus'
above-cited reminiscences, and special chap-
ters of the American Jewish Year Book, and
the reports of the American Jewish Com-
mittee contained therein, and the I. O. B. B.
volumes dealing with the Kishineff petition
and in memory of Leo N. Levi, to which
should be added the United States Legisla-
tive "Hearings" cited in the "Jewish Dis-
abilities'" volume (page 6), and the Weber
Kempster Commission Report, published as
United States Executive Document 235 of
the Fifty-second Congress, First Session.
The related conference of leading Jews
with Witte when on the Portsmouth peace
mission will be found more fully treated
than in our reports, not merely in the above-
cited works of Wolf and Straus, but also in
Witte's own reminiscences (which, moreover,
frankly concedes that nothing was left for
the United States to do but abrogate the
Russian treaty in 1911), and in Baron
Rosen's reminiscences. The best answer
ever given to slurs on American Jewish
patriotism and good citizenship is to be
found in Simon Wolf's conclusive refuta-
tion of the charge, single-handed, in "The
American Jew as Patriot, Soldier and Citi-
zen" (1895), which our Board sponsored,
supplemented by the works of the Ameri-
can Jewish Historical Society and the ad-
vance reports of the elaborate study of
Jewish patriotism in the great war, which
is in preparation under the direction of
Mr. Leavitt and his associates.
The discussion in these annual reports of
the diplomatic protection of Jewish rights
by the peace treaty and preparation for it,
beginning with President Wilson's assur-
ances to Mr. Wolf as far back as April 7,
1915 ("Proceedings" pp. 7934 et seq., 8006
et seq., 8425 et seil., 8763 et seq., 9017 et
seq.), can be profitably supplemented by
references, not merely to the Year Book


volumes and the reports of the American
Jewish Congress Committee, my article on
"Religious Guarantees at the Peace Con-
ference", in the November-December, 1920,
issue of the American Law Review, House
& Seymour's "What Really Happened at the
Peace Conference", Temperley's "History of
the Peace Conference of Paris", volume 5,
pp. 112-365, 432-470, Mr. Straus' reminis-
cences, and Henry Morgenthau's "All in a
Life-Time", but particularly by reference to
Kohler and Wolf's above-mentioned "Jew-
ish Disabilities in the Balkan States" and
my Year Book article on "Jewish Rights at
International Conferences", "Jewish Rights
,at the Congresses of Vienna and Aix-la-
Chapelle" and "Educational Reforms in
Europe in their relation to Jewish Emanci-
pation", studies expressly prepared for use
as precedents in connection with the Peace
Conference. As the Union of American He-
brew Congregations parted company with
the American Jewish Congress and there-
fore in direct representation at Paris on
the issues of political Zionism and na-
tional Jewish political rights, a large part
of its direct labors at the Peace Conference
is represented in these collections of pre-
Unfortunately Mr. Louis Marshall, Judge
Mack and their associates have not yet pub-
lished the inside history of their successful
efforts to secure the adoption of the mi-
nority protective clauses in the peace trea-
ties through the American Peace Commis-
sion, which have already proved so useful
to non-Jewish as well as Jewish minorities,
despite our non-ratification of the League of
Nations Covenant.
Despite some indications of occasional
difference of opinion and policy, perhaps
nothing more strongly indicates the spirit
of cooperation which has existed between
our body and the American Jewish Com-
mittee (organized in 1906), than the latter's
publication of such works by active mem-
bers of the former, and their hearty co-
operation in immigration matters for the
last fourteen years at least, to say nothing
of membership of several of the same per-
sons on both committees.
The consistent opposition of the "Union"
to political Zionism-running through our
reports-can profitably be supplemented by
reference to Mr. Morgenthau's reminiscences,
the late Prof. Morris Jastrow's "Zionism


and the Future of Palestine", Dr. K.
Kohler's published writings, beginning even
before the address of March 3, 1898, in
"The Judaean" Addresses I p. 68, the writ-
ings of Isaac M. Wise and the Proceedings
of the Central Conference of American
Rabbis, down to the arguments against the
U. S. Resolution in favor of the "Estab-
lishment of a National Home in Palestine",
by Rabbis Philipson and Landman, in the
published "hearings before the Committee
on Foreign Affairs, House of Representa-
tives", on House Concurrent Resolution 52,
on April 18-21, 1922, which culminated in
the President's approval of an amended
resolution September 21, 1922.
The discussion in our reports of Polish
Pogroms and the Economic Boycott can be
profitably augmented by reference to Mr.
Morgenthau's reminiscences, the report of
this U. S. Government mission of which he
was Chairman, published as U. S. Senate Doc-
ument No. 177 of the Sixty-sixth Congress,
Second Session, Arthur L. Goodhart's "Po-
land and the Minority Races" (reviewed by
me in these columns December 3 to 24,
1920), Georg Brandes' stirring article in
his "The World at War", the account of
Louis Marshall's important interview with
Dmowski of October, 1918, Brailsford's
chapter on "The Polish Jews", in "Across
the Blockade", and the appropriate volumes
of the American Jewish Year Book, includ-
ing both "Events" of the Jewish year and
reports of the American Jewish Committee.
The numerous observations in our re-
ports in favor of Americanization, Good
Citizenship, Naturalization and opposition
to political solidarity of the Jews can be
profitably augmented indefinitely by ref-
erence to the accounts of the work of the
Baron de Hirsch Fund (especially of its
Twenty-fifth Anniversary in the March 12th,
1915, issue of this periodical, and a sup-
plementing of the same by reference to the
Educational Alliance and the Hebrew Edu-
cation Society of Brooklyn as well in the
issues of May 7, 14, 28 and June 18, 1915).
"Judaean Addresses", Vol. II; C. S. Bern-
heimer's "The Russian Jew in the U. S.",
the Wolf, Straus and Morgenthau reminis-
cences, Mary Antin's book, Jane Addams'
"Twenty Years at Hull House", Lillian D.
Wald's "The House on Henry Street", the
article in the 1921 Year Book on "Jewish

Americanization Agencies", Bogen's "Jewish
Philanthropy", and the reports of innumer-
able other Jewish societies.
The references to the organization's work
in throwing light on the religion, activities
and patriotism of the American Jew may be
profitably augmented by the works "Juda-
ism at the World's Parliament of Reli-
gions", published by the "Union", the
publications of the American Jewish His-
torical Society and of the Jewish Publica-
tion Society, the "Jewish Encyclopedia",
Mr. Wolf's and Mr. Straus' above-cited
works, the "Proceedings of the Two Hun-
dred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settle-
ment of the Jews in the United States", the
two volumes of Judaean Papers, the "Cen-
tral Conference of American Rabbis" re-
ports, and innumerable other writings.
From the beginning of its history until
now, we find in our reports a consistent,
vigorous opposition to sectarianism in our
public agencies, including introduction of
Bible and other sectarian instruction in the
public school, to proposed amendments and
bills to make our government sectarian; to
discrimination against Jews in public office,
our courts and social life, and vehement
opposition to the classification of immi-
grants as Jews, while other religions are
not so described (carried over into "Presi-
dents I Have Known", pp. 238-264); this
also embraced cooperation with the anti-
defamation league of the I. O. B. B. and
other organizations under Mr. Louis Mar-
shall's lead, which combatted the anti-
Semitism of Henry Ford and others of his
ilk. The Bloom case was given special at-
tention in our Reports, and this also was
carried over into "Presidents" (pp. 382-
An important and useful paper, on the
basis of international precedents, was pre-
pared at the request of the Board by Mr.
Arthur K. Kuhn, in 1911, entitled "Interna-
tional Law and the Discriminations prac-
ticed by Russia under the Treaty of 1832";
it has just been drawn upon heavily by
Prof. Ellery C. Stowell in his book on "In-
tervention". The important and useful
changes in our N. Y. Civil Rights Laws,
to aid in preventing discrimination against
the Jews at hotels and other quasi-public
agencies and in particular penalizing pub-
lication of offensive discriminatory adver-



tisements, were promptly commended in
these reports, and their publication led to
their adoption elsewhere.
The early advocacy of the promotion of
agriculture among the Jews of America
in our Union's reports, long prior to the
adoption of such plans by the Baron de
Hirsch Fund, the Jewish Agricultural and
Industrial Aid Society and the National
Jewish Farm School of Doylestown may
well be supplemented by the articles on
"Agricultural Colonies" in the Jewish En-
cyclopedia, by Leonard G. Robinson's his-
torical -article in the "Year Book" for
1912-3 on "The Jew and Agriculture", and
more recently by the accounts of Aaron
Aaronsohn's fine agricultural work in Pales-
tine; David Lubin's splendid biography by
Olivia Rosetti Agresti, and Prof. Rosen's
wide-scaled undertaking in the Ukraine.
The sensational claims as to very exten-
sive Jewish participation in the White Slave
Traffic in 1910 led to an opening of the
Government files on the subject to the
Board, Jewish cooperation in bringing Jew-
ish offenders to justice, and the discovery
that the charge of Jewish participation was
wildly exaggerated; since then our Board
has cooperated even more actively than be-
fore in the admirable nation-wide work of
the Council of Jewish Women, partially
subsidized by the Baron de Hirsch Fund,
in looking after and protecting Jewish im-
migrant girls against these dangers.
On the occasion of ill-advised and ulti-
mately fatal assaults by Government agents
on the splendid work -of the Galveston In-
formation Bureau-perhaps the finest orig-
inal constructive work organized by the
much-lamented Jacob H. Schiff-several of
the most active workers on the Board ren-
dered the Bureau valuable assistance. When
reckless petty Government officials around
1910, supported by dicta from some bigoted
and superficial federal inferior judges, be-
gan to challenge the right of Syrians, Turks,
Armenians, Parsees and even Jews to be
naturalized as "free white persons", the
Board promptly sought the aid of the head
of the Labor Department to stop this ab-
surd campaign; it remained for Mr. Louis
Marshall and the writer to finally establish
the rights of Jews and Syrians, etc., to
naturalization, as intervening counsel in the
case of U. S. vs. Balsara, in the U. S. Cir-

cuit Court of Appeals in the summer of the
year specified.
In thus picking out some, but by no
means all, of the important activities of the
Board, some have avowedly been included
in which its members were merely partici-
pants among others, and in which it was
glad to interest other champions besides,
and other works have been cited where the
matters in question were more comprehen-
sively treated.
In most of them, Simon Wolf and his
associates on behalf of our Board, and as
Washington Representative of the I. O.
B. B., was a leading participant, and, gen-
erally, an initiator of the alleviating meas-
ure. In some few instances, others initiated
the movement and even sometimes over-
looked the need for securing his coopera-
tion, but as he was always on the spot in
Washington, and his indefatigable and dis-
interested zeal for the Jewish cause, as
well as his American patriotism, were uni-
versally known, the Government would call
him in for wise counsel, if the other prime
movers did not. I have thus passed
quickly over every subject I can refer to
herein, except the Board's untiring service
to the immigrant under his leadership, and
that requires separate 'and lengthier treat-
ment herein.

Indefatigable Effort
It is due to the Board of Delegates, and
later in a measure also to the Baron de
Hirsch Fund and the leaders of the Amer-
ican Jewish Committee, following in Simon
Wolf's wake, that American Jewry has
always presented a united front in aid of
the Jewish fugitive from Russia and Rou-
mania knocking at our doors, since the
early 80's, a devotion limited only by the
interests of our own beloved country.
At no hour of the day or night, all these
years, have the ears of this American
patriot been closed to the entreaties of
the unfortunate East-European co-religion-
ist seeking to enter this asylum for the
oppressed and land of promise. It was emi-
nently suitable that the chief celebration
of his eightieth birthday six years ago was
arranged by the Hebrew Sheltering and
Immigrant Aid Society, and that their De-
cember, 1916, Bulletin was devoted wholly
to that auspicious event.




On that occasion, the President of that
society, manned and controlled by Russian
Jewish immigrants, stated that they had
investigated the records and the statistics,
"and it will surprise you, as it has sur-
prised us, to know that Simon Wolf has
been instrumental in preventing 103,000
Jewish immigrants from being deported,
after they had arrived upon American
Such self-sacrificing, indefatigable, and
disinterested devotion is indeed unique! No
eight-hour or twice eight-hour day was long
enough to afford time for such an achieve-
ment, and it meant incessant personal com-
munication with the Immigration officials
during their office hours, and telephonic
and written communication long before and
after such hours. After these statistical
figures were announced, the solicitor of the
Labor Department, who had come to New
York from Washington for the occasion,
stated: "It did seem to me just for a
moment that Mr. Wolf had come to see me
about those 103,000!" As Arthur Brisbane
next said, "It is a beautiful thought to have
this gathering, and honor Mr. Wolf. It is
,a good example for the young people, makes
them feel it worth while to give their life"
to such a cause as that to which he has
devoted his."
How Simon Wolf Worked
As to Mr. Wolf's usual method in those
cases, Charles Nagel, Secretary of Labor,
said five years previously: "The way.Mr.
Wolf approaches us is calculated to get
best results, because he comes to us fairly,
good-naturedly, and when he is defeated,
he recognizes our point of view. That is
the spirit in which you ought to come. You
must keep in mind that an organization en-
gaged in the protection of alien people
naturally assumes the character of an ad-
vocate. It is bound to do it. It is human."
Naturally, his warm sympathy, his con-
scientious fidelity to truth and his devotion,
above all, to the interests of our country,
and on the other hand, respect for his in-
defatigable self-sacrificing zeal, and sane
and tactful petitioning, account for such a
record of admissions of unfortunates, des-
tined to become useful and patriotic citi-
zens of our land of glorious opportunity.
Such work as has been done by the
Board of Delegates, under the leadership of

its indefatigable German-born chairman,
almost exclusively for the benefit of Rus-
sian and Roumanian co-religionists who
were disposed, abroad, constantly to quarrel
and dislike each other, has been an im-
portant factor in abolishing in the United
States the one-time distinction between a
"Portuguese Jewish synagogue", an English,
Bohemian, German, Polish, Russian and
Roumanian congregation, and our unifying
and democratic melting-pot welds them all
into patriotic American citizens of the Jew-
ish persuasion.
What a contrast to the tale unfolded by a
British Home-Office Paper of 1771, record-
ing that in that year the officers of the
Great Synagogue of London thanked the
British Government for attempting to ex-
clude Polish Jews from the English shore,
merely because they could not pay the
usual packet-boat passenger charges!
When Fearlessness Was Necessary
But under Mr. Wolf's Chairmanship, both
the Board and he personally, could, when
necessary, become vehement and fearless in
championing important principles, even
against public officers whom he relied upon,
to exercise discretionary powers in favor of
his proteges. Wisely, however, placed as he
was, his role was generally that of a mild
Aaron rather than a fiery Moses, but he de-
lighted in associating such other workers
with him on the Board, even if they did not
first invoke his aid, and he did not conceal
his adherence to their views.
Thus, in days of an earlier Know-Nothing
crusade, he publicly bearded a narrow, in-
competent bigot, Senator Chandler, when
the latter tried, as the head of the Senate
Committee on Immigration, to close the
door to Russian Jewish refugees by invok-
ing slander and erroneous principles of
law and policy. He secured an invaluable
public statement from Secretary Charles
Foster, often employed since then, on August
1, 1891, which emphasized the principle
that destitute fugitives from Russian per-
secution were not illegally "assisted" over
here, under the immigration laws, because
they were assured that sympathetic friends
in the United States were ready and willing
to help them get along in new and untried
surroundings, and, in fact, desired to as-
sume such obligations for them to the
Government ("Presidents", pp. 158-162).


He stood alongside of and encouraged
Jacob H. Schiff, when the latter, like a
fearless prophet of old, in the same year,
in cooperation with our Board, successfully
insisted on the removal of an Assistant
Secretary of the Treasury who had insidu-
ously encouraged his subordinates to pro-
mulgate false principles of law, in order to
deny to his co-religionists the due process
of law on applications for entry which was
their due, as also, ten years later, when, in
my presence, also, Mr. Schiff fearlessly ar-
raigned Cabinet members for ruining his
splendid "Galveston Bureau" experiment.
On behalf of our Board, Mr. Wolf ably
championed the cause of the Jewish immi-
grant in argument before the Industrial
Commission, and it is interesting to know
that, on behalf of our Board, he was one
of the first to recommend the enactment of
a preventative law, immediately adopted in
1901, penalizing the steamship companies
for bringing over persons obviously suffer-
ing from contagious disease or other de-
barring disability, for filthy lucre, in reck-
less disregard of the irreparable injury done
to the unfortunate aliens. He secured an
important opinion from Solicitor Earl, of
the Labor Department, in 1910, which de-
termined the theretofore doubtful question
in favor of the alien, whether immigrant
beneficiaries of purely private charities
were deportable, as having become public
Bailing Immigrants
Under his chairmanship, the practice was
developed in pathetic, worthy cases of bail-
ing immigrants, suffering from curable ail-
ments for limited periods, until a cure
might be effected, often at the expense of
culpable steamship companies, instead of
deporting them, and also, during the war,
when deportation so often meant death, of
bailing illiterate immigrants until they had
learned to read.
When Commissioner Williams attempted
to assume harsh legislative authority, and
intimidated his subordinates into enforcing
his erroneous principles of construction of
the immigration law, he used his pacifying
influence to try to induce the superior Gov-
ernment officers to -accept the principles-
since sustained by our highest courts-

underlying the habeas corpus proceedings
entitled "Matter of Skuratowski", instituted
by Judge Elkus and myself in 1909. Many
of the questions involved, the Board had
previously urged in arguments before the
immigration officials.
In the midst of Commissioner Williams'
insidious effort to make harshness and in-
justice to the immigrant on the part of his
inspectors in applying the immigration
laws, synonymous with competency, the
Chairman of the Board induced Secretary
Nagel to attend our 1911 Council in New
York and reply to my strictures in an ad-
dress (both soon after printed in Proceed-
ings, pp. 6589-6634 and in pamphlet form),
which conceded so many rights to the
immigrants assumedly already accorded
them, that the percentage of illegal de-
portations at once fell enormously.

Truth and Justice Go Hand in Hand
Time after time our Board has been rep-
resented at public hearings before Congres-
sional Committees on Immigration, the Im-
migration Commission and the President,
and argued in favor of laws, just to the
immigrant and the right of asylum and no
less so to our country. Time after time it
has opposed literacy tests and 3 per cent
quota laws-originally successfully--and
urged adequate religious fugitive exemp-
tions, and otherwise reasonable immigra-
tion and naturalization laws.
It was chiefly through the efforts of
members of our Board that the United
States Supreme Court, in the case of
Gegiow vs. Uhl, 239 U. S. 3, decided that
immigration authorities cannot escape judi-
cial review, even in cases of alleged "like-
lihood to become public charges", when
they proceed on erroneous principles of law
and without any sustaining evidence, de-
spite a legislative fiat in favor of non-
The purposes of the Board of Delegates
may, in short, well be summed up in a
beautiful passage inscribed by Woodrow
Wilson in the yearbook presented to Simon
Wolf on his seventieth birthday, reading:
"Prejudice is provincial; truth and
justice go hand in hand in this blessed


Synagog and School Extension




Board of Managers of Synagog and School Extension

Cincinnati, O., Jan. 3, 1923.
To the Members of the Executive Board:
Gentlemen: In transmitting the series of
annual reports which describe the variety of
labors pursued under the management of
the Department of Synagog and School Ex-
tension, the Board of Managers of this De-
partment begs to submit a summary and
opinion of the work undertaken and accom-
plished. Our work is, roughly speaking,
divided into two categories-Synagog Ex-
tension and School Extension. The words
"roughly speaking" are used advisedly, be-
cause experience has demonstrated that the
terms we use do not correspond to the
tasks described by the same terms when
used by similar religious organizations of
American non-Jewish denominations. To
be explicit, we mean that Synagog Exten-
sion is something quite dissimilar from
Church Extension.
Church Extension connotes building up of
church organizations where they do not ex-
ist or where they are weak. This is accom-
plished by the loan or gift of money to
struggling congregations for buildings and
maintenance purposes, or by subsidizing
ministers to go to favorable locations for
the purpose of establishing churches in
those localities. This kind of propaganda
is made possible by the fact that Christian
churches depend for growth on converts to
the particular creed of that church. The
ability of the minister or the activity of the
congregation is the chief requisite for
growth. Any field except one over-supplied
with churches is a good field. Our congre-
gations are organized quite differently. If
we attempt to organize a congregation in a
village in Ohio we have no difficulty in en-
rolling practically every Jewish family, but
the growth of that congregation to the
status of self-support is dependent entirely
on immigration. It is useless to put a rabbi
in that congregation at our own expense
and expect him to build up a large congre-
tion when we are dependent for growth

upon accretions to the population from with-
out. This makes our term "Synagog Exten-
sion" practically a misnomer to those who
have "Church Extension" in mind and who
compare the two terms.
There is only one class of cities where
Jewish conditions resemble the non-Jewish
in this respect and where it would be pos-
sible to do Synagog Extension in the same
sense. That class of cities may be de-
scribed as our metropolitan centers where
Jews live in large numbers. Here there
are many synagogs, but the number of
the unsynagoged is so large as to offer
an excellent field for Synagog Extension.
We feel constrained to call to the atten-
tion of the Executive Board the fact that
we have not recently attempted work of this
description. At the same time we respect-
fully urge upon your consideration the need
for such enterprise. The manifest reason
for our not having entered upon this field
or work is the absence of an appropriation
for this purpose. We venture a comparison.
with what is being done in non-Jewish de-
nominations. The American Unitarian As-
sociation will serve as a good example.
They have 448 churches with a membership
of 86,000. We have 250 synagogs with a
membership of 36,000, or probably about
43,000. We can reasonably expect to spend
about half as much as the Unitarian Asso-
ciation in this field.
Aside from the funds required to sup-
port the several Unitarian ministers' col-
leges, the Association spent on extension
work, called variously Missionary Work,
Church Extension, etc., for the year ending
May 24, 1921, the following sums:
For salaries and overhead expenses of the
central office in Boston, $52,000; for field
secretaries, S32,0C00; gifts to forty-three
churches for equipment and maintenance,
S26,000; loans to churches for building pur-
poses, S33,C00. A total of about $143,000 in
one year. Gifts to churches since organi-
zation of the Association (and represented


in some sort of non-interest-bearing equity
in church property) amounts to $416,000.
Outstanding loans for church building op-
erations represented by well-secured mort-
gages amount today to $158,000 to 66
churches. This revolving loan fund has
since its foundation made 260 loans amount-
ing to $713,000.
When we compare these figures with our
own, particularly the $143,000 in one year
to the $34,000 which we spent last year on
Synagog Extension, we must ask ourselves
whether we really- are in earnest in this
problem of Synagog Extension.

What We Attempt to Do in Synagog
Before closing this subject or making
recommendations, it is only fair to describe
what we attempted to do under the title
Synagog Extension. We have attempted two
real instances of Synagog Extension, one in
Philadelphia in 1904, one in the Bronx
district in New York City in 1910. The first
failed because we withdrew our support
before the experiment was well started.
The second was successful. The institution
is Sinai Congregation, of the Bronx, now a
self-supporting and successful congregation.
The cost of this second experiment strained
our resources to such an extent that we
were unable to attempt a third. But both
experiments were successful to all intents
and purposes. In making these trials we
have discovered easier and better and less
expensive ways of doing this work, but it
is still beyond our present appropriation.
In addition to these experiments we have
in the second place expended our efforts in
organizing congregations in places where
these can immediately become self-support-
ing. This is not a very large field of en-
deavor, but there are a certain number of
Jewish groups that become ready for such
organization each year. Work in this field
it limited but necessary. Many congrega-
tions thus organized have in due course of
time grown large, and now have completely
equipped religious organizations, including
temples and rabbis.
Our third line of endeavor is directed to
the smaller groups of Jews who, by the
reason of paucity of numbers or remote-
ness of location, or for other reasons, are
unable to achieve complete organization.

Some of these classes are only grouped un-
der the title Synagog Extension for want
of a better name, and deserve special atten-
tion. These classes are:
a. Scattered Jewish groups living on
farms or in remote hamlets where they
cannot readily congregate with other Jews
for worship, study or fellowship. We have
records of about 1,500 such groups.
b. Jewish men and women in universities.
A survey of this group leads us to estimate
the number at 15,000.
c. Jews at summer resorts and recrea-
tional camps.
d. Jews in hospitals and penal institu-
You may ask, "What do we attempt to do
for these groups under the title 'Synagog
Extension'?" Our answer would be: "We
attempt to keep all these groups in such
close contact as circumstances permit with
the larger household of Israel. We find
that there is a tendency ih these instances
to fall away from Judaism, through igno-
rance and through a sense of detachedness.
While it is true that we want to win and
keep these scattered remnants of the house
of Israel within the fold, we want to do
more than that. We want to give them the
strength of character that comes from a
knowledge, observance and loyalty to our
We therefore attempt to bring to these
four classes the boon of Jewish fellowship;
wherever possible, Jewish instruction, and
on occasions, Jewish worship. If you will
consider for a moment the far-flung line of
attack you will realize how enormous is the
task, the feebleness of human effort, and
the difficulty of appraising results. Our in-
struments are the rabbis all over the coun-
try. To their undying credit be it said that
they go and serve wherever called upon,
without money and without praise. The
only credit they receive is buried in reports
such as are prefaced by these remarks.
This year alone 156 rabbis (includes dupli-
cates) made 1,081 visits to 239 hamlets,
summer resorts, universities and institu-
tions, to extend the hand of fellowship to
isolated Jewish groups.
There are other instruments which will be
described elsewhere in this report, and in
other reports presented to the Executive
Board, which we use in our work of Syna-



gog Extension. There is the Union Bulle-
tin, which not only reaches every house-
hold in the congregations of the Union, but
which is sent without charge to the classes
above enumerated, and it is often the only
bond of union between certain groups and
the body of Israel. We use the Jewish
Tracts for the same purpose. We publish
and have distributed, in quantities of 22,000
a month, a paper for Jewish boys and girls,
called "Young Israel'. We make use of the
books on Jewish history, religion and
thought published by ourselves in our De-
partment of School Extension. These find
their way into 33,071 homes each year. We
use the Jewish weekly papers, which pub-
lish our educational articles and news
items. We use the daily press, which car-
ries our items in considerable quantity, and
which probably reaches more Jews than any
other agency in America.
It is often hard to distinguish between
the work of the Union in this direction and
the work of the Department of Synagog Ex-
tension. The tasks of the National Federa-
tion of Temple Sisterhoods are closely al-
lied in purpose and sometimes even in
method. We organize State Federations of
Jewish School Teachers and of Sisterhoods.
Other and wider plans for State organiza-
tion are now contemplated. All this work
is directed to the same end. We receive
and answer a vast number of inquiries for
guidance in the work of religious education
and organization.
234.984 pieces of first and third-class
mail were sent out last year; 1,590 pack-
ages of books; 625,000 Bulletins in one
year; 212,470 Home Study Magazines in
one year; 92,000 Tracts in one year; 67,000
Union Tidings in one year; a total of 1,233,-
044 items. We are talking, writing, pub-
lishing, mailing all the time.
We have heard some criticisms of the
work of Synagog Extension. No doubt
some of these are just. It has been said
that it is not "Synagog Extension". We
care not what it should be called. This is
what we do. Call it by whatever name you
In closing this part of our report, we de-
sire to leave the Executive Board under no
misapprehension. We are not opposed to
the larger work of Synagog Extension. We
see the danger, and we warn the Executive

Board of the danger of closing our eyes to
the fact that we have no Synagog Building
Loan Fund, that we have no Field Secre-
taries, that we have no means of helping
congregations in distress to tide over un-
fortunate periods in their growth. Greater
movements than ours have failed because
of short-sightedness evidenced in the meth-
od of their organization. We hold ourselves
in readiness to carry out any and all plans
for which adequate financial provision will
be made.
If we were to select any of the above
agencies for recommendation to the Execu-
tive Board, we would select first and fore-
most the urgent and crying need for a Syn-
agog Building Loan Fund. If a synagog is
really a force to help men lead better lives,
if it is the best answer to prejudice-and we
must certainly believe it is, or wherefore
are we engaged in Synagog Extension?-
then the more synagogs we wisely help to
establish the better our defense and argu-
ment. We recommend that $5,000 be set
aside each year, to be available for loan
purposes in limited quantities, under care-
fully established rules, upon good security
and at nominal interest, for the building of
We recommend further, that the sum of
$5,000 be appropriated annually for the use
of the Department of Synagog and School
Extension, to subsidize congregations en-
gaged in work at strategic points, and
which are doing the work of Synagog Ex-
tension in limited localities.
Another piece of excellent constructive
work is being performed by the Department
at the universities above mentioned. We
have divided a subsidy of $1,520.70 among
59 colleges. These slender means pay the
traveling expenses of lecturers, mostly
rabbis, who are invited by the students and
by our own supervisors in some cases. We
also offer prizes for essays on certain Jew-
ish subjects in a few districts. We have
been promised aid in the way of literature
by the Commission on Jewish Religious
Educational Literature. This, however, is a
matter of slow growth. The situation today
is very much in need of executive direction.
There is more than enough work to occupy
the full time and attention of at least one
man. His duties would consist of very lit-
tle office work, but mostly of traveling, with



perhaps prolonged visits in certain univer-
sities where it is necessary to undertake the
work of organizing both the student bodies
and also the work of organizing the finan-
cial resources of the district for the sup-
port of this work.
The cost of such an enterprise would be
not less than $6,000. We respectfully call
the attention of the Executive Board to the
great need that exists for this work. We
refrain from lengthening this report un-
necessarily by repeating from past reports
the arguments for winning for the Jewish
cause the educated men and women of the
next and future generations. We merely
ask: Can we afford to keep losing them in
order to avoid raising $6,000 more a year?
We have an excellently-equipped central
office. We are doing pretty nearly every-
thing a central bureau can be expected to
do. It will not add appreciably to our
overhead to take on these additional tasks.
It will add immeasurably to our actual ac-
In answer to this plea for increased ap-
propriations we trust we will not be met
with the discouraging reply about the dif-
ficulty of raising funds. It is as easy to sell
faith as it is to sell discouragement. We
must convince ourselves that the money
must be raised.

School Extension
The second part of our work' deals with
School Extension. This has two aspects,
both of them important but different in
character. The problem of School Exten-
sion deals in the first place with the organi-
zation of religious schools, and in the sec-
ond place with the creation of the tools of
education, such as educational theory and
its application to the production of text-
books and other literature and accessories
of the teaching profession. We have pur-
sued efforts in both directions.
We have organized schools-week-end
schools, three-times-a-week schools and day
schools; free schools and pay schools. We
have attempted experiments under many
conditions. In the city of New York we
have attempted to organize a religious
school system. These are all still in the
nature of experiments. We organize
schools by sending rabbis to visit their
neighborhoods where .the need for such

schools exists. We organize schools by
We also publish Jewish literature for
schools and for general reading. This part
of our work is under the guidance of the
Commission of Jewish Religious Educational
Literature. This body, appointed jointly by
the Union, and the Conference of American
Rabbis, is practically a national Board of
Jewish Education. It deals with the theory
and practice of Jewish education. It formu-
lates curricula for various kinds of schools.
It deals with writers. It works upon prob-
lems of technique. It seeks to improve the
work of the teachers of religion, through
the publication of proper books, the or-
ganization of city and district associations
of teachers, and it contemplates the publica-
tion of a Teachers' Magazine. It maintains
a traveling exhibit of school books and
paraphernalia. It publishes books, accesso-
ries, lantern slides, and a magazine for our
youth called "Young Israel".
In the Department of School Extension
we particularly recommend the reading of
the report of the Commission on Jewish.
Religious Educational Literature, which in-
dicates a new viewpoint and enlarged ac-
tivity. In this department we have recently
created a new office known as Director of
Educational Activities. The position is oc-
cupied by Dr. Emanuel Gamoran, a new ad-
dition to our forces, who received his degree
in pedagogical philosophy at Columbia Uni-
versity, New York.
This step was taken because we are con-
vinced that progress in this highly technical
branch of knowledge must be made by spe-
cialists trained for this work. There has
been a great call for the improvement of
Jewish religious education, and our organi-
zation, representing the reform congrega-
tions of this land, must heed this call if
our organization is to sincerely serve the
Jewish cause. We have engaged our first
specialist in this department of work, and
before very long we hope to add others to
this list. We will then again come to the
Executive Board for an enlarged appro-
priation. No one questions the need for
greater educational work. We are con-
vinced that we are on the right track. Its
success will depend upon the budgetary as-
sistance the Executive Board places at our



In closing this report the Board of Man-
agers begs to express its appreciation of
the recurring vote of confidence expressed
by many Councils in the past, and by the
Executive Board, as evidenced in the in-
creasing appropriation from year to year.
We trust the work of the Department has
merited your confidence and will reward
your confidence even in a greater measure
in the future.
The Board of Managers particularly com-
mends the staff of workers in the Depart-
ment of Synagog and School Extension.
There are many things the Department has
not done. Some it cannot do, despite much
urging which it receives from time to time.
For that reason, it is the recipient of much
undeserved criticism. Like all national or-
ganizations which attempt to do propa-
panda, it suffers from the impatience of its
friends. But ours is a very young organi-
zation. Those of us that have watched its
development are conscious of one thing,
and that comforts us greatly. The Depart-
ment of Synagog and School Extension has
worked under great odds to build up a
home missionary machine. Each year has
witnessed the undertaking of additional
tasks, the acquiring of additional skill, the
gaining of new friends and confidence.
We know of no other organization in
America that is receiving the constant and
unwavering support of so many rabbis and
laymen as the Department of Synagog and
School Extension. The number of those
who have encouraged the School Extension
movement by loyally using our publications,
of those who have, often at great incon-
venience, visited hamlets, colleges, summer
resorts, hospitals and correctional institu-

tions, has met our surprise and admiration.
They are mentioned in the individual reports
which follow. We are especially mindful of
the fine work accomplished by our Educa-
tional Commission on Tract Commission
and the Supervisors and Deputies. To all of
them this Board extends its thanks.

In Memoriam
During the year we lost two devoted
members of our board. We chronicle their
loss with great sorrow.

A leader of commanding abilities and
great visions has been lost by the Union in
the person of Israel Cowen. He was one
of the organizers of the Department of
Synagog andSchool Extension in 1905. He
was deeply interested in the welfare of the
Jewish Synagog and the Jewish School. He
was the first to establish a foreign travel-
ing scholarship for students at the Hebrew
Union College. His life is a blessed mem-
ory and inspiration to all of us.

We record with deep sorrow the passing
of Morris S. Barnet, for many years an ac-
tive member of the Board of Managers of
Synagog and School Extension. He was
fully in sympathy with the large aims and
efforts of that important branch of the
Union and his wise counsel and liberal
support could always be counted on by the
Board. He was a faithful son of the
Household of Israel.
Respectfully submitted,



Director's Report on Synagog Extension

Cincinnati, O., Oct. 31, 1922.
To the Board of Managers of Synagog and
School Extension.
I beg to submit the following report on
Synagog Extension:

For a number of years we have been
directing our efforts toward the religious
welfare of the small communities without
religious leaders. We have not always
had Field Secretaries, but when such were
available we have sent them to certain
sections of the country to spend long
periods in visiting every town having a
Jewish population under fifty families. The
results of these visits varied according to
the number of families, etc. In this way
the following centers have from time to
time been visited: the Pacific Coast
States, the New England States, Ohio, In-
diana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Pennsyl-
vania, Mississippi and Louisiana.
When Field Secretaries have been un-
available, and this has been our general
condition, we have asked the rabbis to
visit nearby cities. In the last year we
have not had a Field Secretary but we at-
tempted to cover a number of cities in the
shape of a campaign. The month of March
was fixed as the period. 144 cities were
selected because they were near rabbis
who had previously showed a disposition to
serve in this way.
Correspondence began in January and
reached quite an intensive phase at the
end of February. It is impossible to carry
out any enterprise without gaining in ex-
perience and, we trust, in wisdom. We re-
ceived much advice and many complaints
from a few rabbis and some laymen who
did not want to do this work or who pre-
ferred to do it some other way. Very often
these ways were better ways than our own.
Our object, however, was to get the work
done. We are content to chronicle the fact
that 103 cities out of the 144 conducted

meetings visited by neighboring rabbis often
accompanied by laymen. The cost of the
enterprise was ridiculous compared to the
good accomplished, and compared to the
cost of sending paid organizers to as many

Some of the visits revealed conditions
that could not materially be improved.
Some of the towns were utterly unrespon-
sive and gave the visitors a very cold re-
ception. We are sorry to record that some
rabbis were very much discouraged by
their individual experiences, and what is
worse, they made wide generalizations
based upon what we fear were limited ob-
servations. At any rate, here is a record
of the results culled from correspondence
with the visitors and the towns visited. 34
religious schools were organized; 15 new
congregations were formed; circuit preach-
ing by neighboring rabbis was instituted in
10 cities; preliminary steps were taken for
the organization of Sisterhoods in 9 cities;
regular Friday evening services to be con-
ducted by laymen were inaugurated in 6
cities; 4 adult study circles were organized;
3 congregations joined the Union of Amer-
ican Hebrew Congregations. In all, 83
new forms of religious organization were
effected as a result of this campaign for
Synagog Extension.

Our efforts, however, were not confined
to these cities. Since 1910 this Department
has periodically assigned certain cities to
nearby rabbis with the request periodically
renewed to visit these points at our ex-
pense. These efforts have always met with
moderate but increasing results. In this
way we have been in touch during the past
season with 75 additional cities. These
visits were often preceded and always fol-
lowed by correspondence seeking to find
some permanent results from this work.
Most frequently our attention was directed
to the smaller community adjacent to the
larger community that had a religious
leader. Here we served as a sort of inter-
mediary, bringing the rabbi into touch with
the smaller community that needed his




ministration. We paid the expenses of the
rabbi for his first few visits which he spent
in making a survey and in effecting what-
ever organization was necessary. Subse-
quent to the organization by the rabbi, it
was expected that the community thus or-
ganized would be sufficiently interested to
pay the expenses of the rabbi for succeed-
ing visits.

The work for shut-ins confined in pris-
ons and hospitals for the infirm and de-
ranged is simple in its character and wide-
reaching in its influence. Where the in-
mates are young, religious classes are
formed. For older inmates, regular or oc-
casional services are held. For all of them
the important thing is personal contact and
As in other forms of religious propa-
ganda the existing agencies are first called
upon. Congregations, Sisterhoods, other
Societies, all those that come within the
term "neighbors", are in the most logical
position to render service. Where the
sentiment in favor of this work is not well
developed we call upon the rabbis. The
best work the rabbi can do is to train
workers for this task, which should be
carried out under his personal supervision.
Sometimes rabbis prefer themselves to do
the prison and hospital visiting.
In the crowded centers of population like
the Eastern Sea Coast and Chicago this
problem appears in an aggravated form
and requires the full attention of men es-
pecially engaged for this purpose. In some
cities local prison welfare societies have
been organized. Our work in these cen-
ters is confined to supplying literature, such
as Bibles, prayer books and books on re-
ligion and Jewish history.
In one of these centers, 'Chicago, the
work was conducted under our auspices,
and under authority delegated to the Fed-
eration of Synagogs of Chicago. Dr. A.
Cronbach, now a professor at the Hebrew
Union College, was for the last two years
chaplain of the Jewish Institutions and Hos-
pitals of the Chicago district. His report
is submitted in this series.
Our reports indicate activity by volunteer
workers in 40 institutions.

This is the thirteenth season of summer
services. In the first year we organized
services in ten places, with the volunteer
assistance of seventeen rabbis. This year's
summer services were held at 42 places un-
der the leadership of 64 rabbis and some
laymen. The first year sixty services were
held. This year 284 services were held.
The two most encouraging results are the
following: first, the regular reporters and
visitors expect services to be conducted
and are disappointed if these are not held;
second, the camps for Jewish boys and girls
have quite uniformly instituted religious
services on the Sabbath. One inter-denom-
inational camp has for years applied to us
to send rabbis to conduct a weekly service
for the Jewish boys.
We continue to supply leaflet reprints of
the prayer book and hymn book for this
purpose. Our main service consists in
arranging a suply of rabbis for the services
where they are needed. These men go
without remuneration. We pay the travel-
ing expenses. At some resorts collections
are taken up. At others a tax of some sort
is assumed by the regular summer resi-
dents. These sums are devoted to various
purposes according to the fancy of the

The Hebrew Union College Dormitory
Fund received $1,046.52 from the Sacandaga
Park Summer Congregation through the
kindness of Rabbi Simon R. Cohen, of
Brooklyn, N. Y.; also, $150.00 from the
Summer Colony of Kennebunkport, Me.,
where Rabbis Leo M. Franklin of Detroit,
James G. Heller of Cincinnati, and Harry
Levi of Boston, conducted services. The
Department of Synagog and School Exten-
sion received $414.21 in the shape of small
amounts from various places.
A list of the cities and the volunteer
workers follows at the close of the re-
ports. The services in Wisconsin and
Michigan were under the direction of Rabbi
Leon Fram of Chicago, who visited many
of the places and 'arranged to fill the

Our first survey of Jewish students made
in 1915, revealed the fact that there were


about 7,300 Jewish men and women at-
tending universities and colleges in the
United States. Estimates made subse-
quently by other organizations put the
figure at 15,000. At this writing the num-
ber of Jewish students undoubtedly has
been greatly increased.
As far back as 1906 the Department pro-
vided lecturers to address the Jewish stu-
dent groups at Harvard and at Yale Uni-
The survey further disclosed that there
were about 180 universities that reported
the presence of Jewish students. In 100
less than 10 each were reported. 80 uni-
versities had a sufficient number of stu-
dents to warrant the effort of organization.
50 of these universities were located in
cities where there were rabbis and sister-
hoods. Here our endeavor has been to
bring the students into contact with the
Jewish communal life, and to get the es-
tablished organizations to include the stu-
dents in the religious life of the city.
The 30 remaining universities presented
problems of individual organization. Our
first task was to establish relationships.
Where correspondence availed we used that
method. Where that failed we again re-
lied upon the "neighboring" rabbi and upon
the Supervisor of Synagog Extension of the
district. In many cases members of our
office force and members of the faculty of
the Hebrew Union College were sent to
certain points. The changing student body
adds to the difficulty of the task.

During the past year our activities were
concentrated at 19 colleges and universities.
Regularly established student congregations
functioned at the following universities:
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.; Princeton
University, Princeton, N. J.; Dickinson Col-
lege and Law School, at Carlisle, Pa.; Uni-
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.; Uni-
versity of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.; Univer-
sity of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.; Uni-
versity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. At
the beginning of this scholastic year, a
student congregation was formed for the
students of Yale University by Dr. Louis L.
Mann, of New Haven. It meets regularly
at his temple every Sunday morning and is


addressed by Dr. Mann and by the rabbis
whom he invites.
The Prize Oration Contest among Jewish
university students, which was inaugurated
-in 1920-21, was extended during the past
year to ten districts presided over by su-
pervisors. The response on the part of the
students was more gratifying last year than
in the year before. A number of orations
were received from four supervisors' dis-
tricts and awards were made as follows:
A first prize of $50.00 to Mr. Sol S. Herzog,
of Harvard Law School for his essay on
"The Jewish Outlook in America"; a first
prize of $50.00 to Mr. Aaron Director, of
Yale University for his essay on "The Jew
at the University"; a first prize of $50.00 to
Mr. Samuel Soref, of the University of
Wisconsin, for his essay on "Disintegrating
Influences upon Jewry"; a second prize of
$25.00 to Mr. Daniel L. Brenner, of the
University of Missouri for his essay on
"What Has the Jew Accomplished in Philan-
thropy"; a second prize of $25.00 to Miss
Rose Kreisser, of Boston University for
her essay on "The Jewish Student and the
The large number of Jewish students at
the University of Illinois, at Champaign,
Ill.; the inability of the small Jewish com-
munity located there to maintain a rabbi to
look after the relgiious needs of the Jewish
students, prompted the community to ask
the Department for financial assistance. A
committee of the Board of Managers visited
Champaign and made a survey of the sit-
uation. As a result of their report, the
Board of Managers voted to appropriate the
sum of $1,000.00 for the use of the congre-
gation at Champaign-Urbana in the event
that the congregation succeeds in securing
the services of a rabbi.
The solution of the many problems in-
volved in this work seem to require the un-
divided attention of a special worker who
can both study the problems carefully and
devote the necessary time to fifiding solu-
Respectfully submitted,


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