Citation
A model of a representative small farm in southern Trelawny, Jamaica

Material Information

Title:
A model of a representative small farm in southern Trelawny, Jamaica
Creator:
Brown, Dalton J
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
10 leaves : map ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Farms, Small -- Jamaica -- Trelawny, Parish of ( lcsh )
Yams ( jstor )
Peas ( jstor )
Farms ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Jamaica -- Cornwall -- Trelawny

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 10).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
"To Dr. Peter Hildebrand to fulfill requirements for AEB 5167 (Fall 1995)."
Funding:
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility:
submitted by: Dalton L. Brown.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
74333665 ( OCLC )

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/ 2- O55


A MODEL OF A REPRESENTATIVE SMALL FARM

IN SOUTHERN TRELAWNY: JAMACA





















SUBMITTED BY: DALTON L BROWN
TO DR. PETER HILDEBRAND TO FULFILL REQUIREMENTS FOR AEB 5167(FALL 1995)










TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE


MAP - LOCATION OF REPRESENTATIVE FARM I INTRODUCTION


OVERVIEW OF REPRESENTATIVE HOUSEHOLD MODEL FARM CHARACTERISTICS LAND TENURE ENTERPRISE ORGANISATION


2

2.1 2.2 2.3


3. DECISION MAKING, RESPONSIBILITY AND CONTROL


4. SIMPLE LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL OF THE
REPRESENTATIVE FARM HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM

4.1 THE ENTERPRISE (INCLUDING TABLES)

4.2 CONSTRAINTS

4.3 METHOD OF ANALYSIS


* RESULTS OF EMPIRICAL MODEL


* POLICY IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION 10 BIBLIOGRAPHY


MATRIX OF REPRESENTATIVE FARM MATRIX ANSWER REPORT SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF FARM MODEL SEASONAL WORK dALENDER AND FAMILY PARTICIPATION


APPENDIX I APPENDIX 2 APPENDIX 3 APPENDIX 4










LOCAlION OF REPRESENTATIVE FARM


SALEM
ALTERe'y POXPOPOUGH CAUR j 'TANN'S BAY,,



tUrge To~n 6 A JAMAAHLTO
lal I I r,m.fM Ch.Iky


R E


THE COCKPIT


COUNTRY


lement


:A R I B


E A


lOs


.WQn Vdle Valley












I. INTRODUCTION:


THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF THIS PAPER IS TO DEMONSTRATE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE MAJOR PRODUCTION FACTORS: LAND, LABOR AND CAPITAL AS DOMINANT CONSTRAINTS IN SMALL FARM HOUSEHOLD SYSTEMS OF THE SOUTHERN TRELAWNY REGION OF JAMAICA. THE SELECTION OF THIS AREA IS BASED PRIMARILY ON THE WRITERS EXTENSIVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PHYSICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS EFFECTING THE TYPICAL SMALL FARM HOUSEHOLD OF THE REGION. IN ADDITION, DATA IS AVAILABLE WHICH WILL ALLOW THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIMPLE EMPIRICAL MODEL TO DEMONSTRATE THE CENTRAL OBJECTIVE OF THE PAPER.

THE PAPER IS ORGANIZED INTO SIX SECTIONS. IN SECTION (2) A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM HOUSEHOLD MODEL IS PROVIDED. IN SECTION (3), THE CRUCIAL ASPECTS OF THE FARM HOUSEHOLD DECISION MAKING ARE DESCRIBED. SECTION (4) DESCRIBES A SIMPLE LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL DESIGNED TO CAPTURE KEY FEATURES OF THE DECISION MAKING AT THE TYPICAL FARM HOUSEHOLD LEVEL. IN SECTION (5) THE SUBSTANTIVE RESULT OF THIS SIMPLE EMPIRICAL MODEL IS DESCRIBED AND DISCUSSED. THE FINAL SECTION (6) FOCUSES ON SOME: POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF THE MODEL. IN ADDITION, SOME COMMENTS REGARDING FUTURE RESEARCH WORK IN THIS TARGET AREA ARE PRESENTED.





2. OVERVIEW OF THE REPRESENTATIVE FARm HOUSEHOLD MODEL:


THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM HOUSEHOLD IS LOCATED IN THE WAIT-A-BIT DISTRICT OF TRELAWNY. THIS IS A MOUNTAINOUS REGION CONSIDERED THE BREAD BASKET OF JAMAICA. THIS AREA IS SERVED BY AMENITIES SUCH AS PRIMARY SCHOOL, POLICE STATION, COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTER, POST OFFICE, VARIOUS CHURCHES AND A LIBRARY. IN ADDITION, THERE ARE AN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION









OFFICE, FARM SUPPLY AND GROCERY STORES, AGRICULTURAL PACKING HOUSE AND RUM SHOPS. MAJOR FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES, HOSPITAL, AND HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS ARE AVAILABLE IN LARGER ADJACENT TOWNS.




2. 1 FARM CHARACTERISTICS:


THE TYPICAL SMALL FARMS IN THE TARGET AREA RANGE IN SIZE FROM 0.5 TO 2.0 ACRES. IT MAY COMPRISE SEVERAL PARCELS, LOCATED WITHIN ONE TO TWO MILE RADIUSES FROM THE FAMILY HOME. THERE ARE OVER 140,000 SIMILAR UNITS LOCATED IN THE COUNTRY; THEREFORE, THEIR IMPORTANCE CANNOT BE UNDERSTATED.

THE FARM FAMILY GENERALLY CONSISTS OF A MALE AND FEMALE ADULT PARTNERS (MARRIED OR UNMARRIED), AND THREE TO FOUR CHILDREN. UNLIKE MANY THIRD WORLD RURAL COMMUNITIES, THESE ARE NOT EXTENDED FAMILIES. HOWEVER, CLOSE RELATIVES GENERALLY LIVE IN THE SAME COMMUNITIES AND MAKE GIFTS AS WELL AS EXCHANGE LABOR DURING PEAK LABOR-USE PERIODS.




2.2 LAND TENURE:


THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM FAMILY OWN THEIR LAND, HOWEVER, THE PRACTICE OF LAND LEASING IS NOT UNCOMMON. THE HOMESTEAD IS USUALLY SEPARATE FROM THE FARM AND OWNERSHIP DOCUMENTS ARE USUALLY AVAILABLE. SUCH DOCUMENTS, ARE USUALLY INDISPENSABLE FOR USE AS COLLATERAL IN SECURING LOANS FOR WORKING CAPITAL OR OTHER FARM OR HOUSEHOLD USE.




2.3 ENTERPRISE ORGANIZATION:


AN impoi:;rmw PRACTICE ON THESE FARMS IS THE PLANTING OF GRASS ALONG THE PERIPHERY OF THE FARM TO BE USED AS ANIMAL FEED AND FOR MULCHING CROPS IN THE DRY SEASON. THE TYPICAL FARM OWNS A DONKEY, ONE COW, A FEW GOATS, PIGS AND POULTRY. THE DONKEY IS

3











CRUCIAL IN TRANSPORTING FARM INPUTS AS WELL AS OUTPUTS. ANIMALS ARE IMPORTANT IN THESE FARMHOUSEHOLD SYSTEMS IN THAT THEY PROVIDE FARMYARD MANURE AND UTILIZE UNMARKETABLE FARM PRODUCTS.


THE THREE MAIN CROPS GROWN IN THE AREA ARE: YAM (DIOSCOREA CAYENNENSIS, D. ROTUNDA4TA) WHICH IS GROWN SEMI-INTENSIVELY ON MOUNDS AT A RATE OF ABOUT I1000 MOUNDS PER ACRE; RED PEAS (PHAESEOLOS VULGARIS) IS PLANTED IN PURE STAND AT A RATE OF APPROXIMATELY 20 TO 25 POUNDS PER ACRE; AND IRISH POTATOES (SOLANUM TUSEROSUM IN PURE STAND AT I1000 POUNDS PER ACRE.





3. DECISION MAKING, RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONTROL:


DECISIONS ARE JOINTLY MADE BY THE ADULT MALE AND FEMALE, ALTHOUGH, THE MALE IS THE ACCEPTED HEAD OF THE HOUSEHOLD. HOWEVER, MATTERS PERTAINING TO THE DIRECT RUNNING OF THE HOUSEHOLD ARE THE EXCLUSIVE DOMAIN OF THE FEMALE.


ASPECTS SUCH AS MARKETING OF FARM PRODUCE, PURCHASES OF HOUSEHOLD CONSUMABLES, AND FARM INPUTS ARE THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE ADULT FEMALE. THIS ROLE AUTOMATICALLY GIVES HER CONTROL OVER THE FAMILY FINANCES. IN ADDITION, THE FEMALE ADULT IS THE MAJOR CARE GIVER OF THE CHILDREN, AND TAKES THE LEADING ROLE IN THEIR EDUCATION. FURTHERMORE, THE FEMALE ADULT AND CHILDREN TAKE CARE OF SMALL STOCK SUCH AS CHICKENS, GOATS, AND PIGS. INCOMES FROM THE SALE OF LIVESTOCK ARE SET ASIDE AS EMERGENCY RESERVES AND FOR OTHER UNEXPECTED EXPENDITURES.


THE ADULT FEMALE ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR PREPARING MEALS FOR THE HOUSEHOLD. THE CHILDREN ARE ALSO AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE SYSTEM WITH RESPONSIBILITIES INCLUDING: MAINTAINING THE YARD, FETCHING FIREWOOD AND WATER. THEY ALSO ASSIST WITH VARIOUS LIGHT CHORES UNDERTAKEN ON THE FARM AND TEND THE SMALLER ANIMALS.










THE MALE ADULT IS THE PRIMARY OVERSEER OF FAMILY AND FARM ACTIVITIES; HOWEVER, HIS WIFE IS ALSO FULLY INTEGRATED INTO THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS AND HER INPUT IS SOUGHT IN MAJOR DECISIONS.

THE HEAVIER WORK OF LAND PREPARATION, STAKING YAM (STAKES ARE ABOUT TEN FEET TALL AND ARE BOUGHT FROM VENDORS WHO SELL FROM TRUCKS), AND TENDING CATTLE ARE PERFORMED BY THE MALE.




4. A SIMPLE LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL OF THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM


HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM:


THE MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE FARM HOUSEHOLD PLANNING MODEL ARE: (A) THE ENTERPRISES, AND (B) THE CONSTRAINTS.




4.1 THE ENTERPRISES:


THE MAIN ENTERPRISES INCLUDED IN THE MODEL ALONG WITH THE INPUT OUTPUT COEFFICIENTS ARE DETAILED IN TABLE I.









TABLE I . ENTERPRISES AND INPUT-OUTPUT PARAMETERS IN LP

MODEL (PER ACRE BASIS)


PRODUCTION PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES COSTS (WA

YAM 51000

POTATO 40000

RED PEAS 87000 POULTRY 5100000 GOAT 4000

CATTLE I15000

PIGS 414000

DONKEY 1000

[NOTE: EXCHANGE RATE: I


YIELDS
2 PER UNIT

12000 (LB.) 10000 (IB.) 600 (1B.)

I 40000(LB.) 300 (LB.) 1000 (LB.)

15000 (LB.)

(TRANSPORT) US $ = 40 JA $)


MARKET PRICE

1 8 (JA $ I 8 (JA $) 20 (JA $ 40 (JA $) 60 (JA $) 40 (JA $) 40 (JA $:


VALUE OF PRODUCTION WJA $)

216000 1860000

1200

5600000

I16000

40000

600000


THE MAIN ASSUMPTIONS ARE THAT THE FOLLOWING OUTPUTS QUANTITIES ARE REQUIRED FOR FAMILY CONSUMPTION: YAM = 300 LBS.

POTATO =200 LBS. RED PEAS =50 LBS. CHICKEN =600 LB.


FARM

(I)

(2)

(3)

(4)









4.2 Constraints:

THE CONSTRAINTS REPRESENTED IN THE MODEL ARE:

(I ) LAND AVAILABLE = 2 ACRES

(2) FAMILY LABOR = 4 I 5 MANDAYS

(3) WORKING CAPITAL = 2000000 (JA $)




4.3 METHOD OF ANALYSIS:

THE MODEL WAS ANALYZED USING THE OPTIMIZER ROUTINE OF QUATTRO PRO ANALYSIS PACKAGE.




5. SUBSTANTIVE RESULTS OF THE EMPIRICAL MODEL:


THE MOST SUBSTANTIAL RESULTS OF THE LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL ARE PRESENTED IN TABLE 2.


TABLE 2.

A. Ep


SUBSTANTIVE RESULTS OF THE FARM HOUSEHOLD MODEL.


ENTERPRISES:


YAM
POTATO POULTRY RED PEAS POULTRY MEAT PIGS
PIG MEAT


PRODUCTION LEVEL


(ACRES) (ACRES) (NUMBERS) (ACRES)
(LB.) (NUMBERS)
(LBS.)


1.50
0.02 1400 0.08
4900
37
5566









B RESOURCES UTILIZED: AVAILABLE UTILIZED UNUSED SOLD

LAND (ACRES) 2.0 2.0 0 0
LABOR (MDAYS) 415 415 0 0
WORKING CAPITAL (M JA $) 2.0 2.0 0 0


C. CONSTRAINTS:

YAM CONSUMED (LB.) 17891 300 17591 17591
POTATO CONSUMED (LB.) 200 200 0 0
RED PEAS (LB.) 50 50 0 0
POULTRY MEAT (LBS.) 4900 600 4300 4300

D. NET INCOME (000, JA $) 708,499




8 TABLE 2 DEPICTS A NUMBER OF' INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM

HOUSEHOLD. FIRST, PANEL A SHOWS THE ENTERPRISE COMBINATIONS THAT MAXIMIZE NET FAMILY INCOME. SECONDLY, PANEL B CONFIRMS THE INITIAL PROPOSITION THAT LAND, FAMILY LABOR, AND WORKING CAPITAL IS SEVERELY CONSTRAINING THE INCOME GENERATING CAPACITY OF THE FARM FAMILY. IN PARTICULAR, ALL THE LAND, LABOR AND WORKING CAPITAL WERE EXHAUSTED. IF AN EXTRA ACRt OF LAND WERE AVAILABLE THIS WOULD INCREASE NET FAMILY INCOME BY JA $ 1 22,432. FURTHER, AN EXTRA MAN DAY OF LABOR WOULD INCREASE NET FAMILY LABOR BY JA $ 722.38. FINALLY, AN EXTRA UNIT OF WORKING CAPITAL WOULD INCREASE NET FAMILY INCOME BY JA $ 0. 1 1.

THE RESULTS FURTHER SHOWS (PANEL C), THAT HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION REQUIREMENTS ALSO ACTED AS EFFECTIVE CONSTRAINTS TO DECISION MAKING AND FARM ORGANIZATION. FOR EXAMPLE, RELAXING THE YAM, POTATO AND POULTRY CONSUMPTION CONSTRAINTS BY ONE POUND WOULD INCREASE NET FAMILY INCOME BY THEIR RESPECTIVE MARKET PRICES WA $ 18.0, 18.02 AND 40.0, RESPECTIVELY). THE MOST SURPRISING CONSUMPTION CONSTRAINT, HOWEVER WAS RED PEAS CONSUMPTION. RELAXING THIS CONSTRAINT BY ONE POUND WOULD INCREASE NET FAMILY INCOME By JA $ 307.94 (OVER 15 TIMES ITS MARKET PRICE). FINALLY, PANEL D INDICATES THAT











NET FAMILY INCOME IS MAXIMIZED AT JA $ 709,499. THIS IS EQUIVALENT TO AN ANNUAL INCOME OF ABOUT US $ 1 7,739. THIS IS NOT AN UNUSUALLY HIGH INCOME FOR FARMERS IN THIS TARGET AREA.









POLICY IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS:


THE EMPIRICAL RESULTS FROM THE OVERLY SIMPLISTIC REPRESENTATION OF THE FARM HOUSEHOLD MODEL HAVE SOME VERY IMPORTANT IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY. FIRST, GIVEN THE IMPORTANCE OF THE CONSTRAINTS OF LAND, LABOR AND CAPITAL, ANY POLICY THAT EFFECTIVELY REDUCES THESE CONSTRAINTS IS LIKELY TO PRODUCE HIGH PRIVATE RETURNS. FOR EXAMPLE, THE PROVISION OF IMPROVED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OR MORE PROFITABLE PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES. IN ADDITION, THE PROVISION OF ADEQUATE AND TIMELY CREDIT COULD POTENTIALLY IMPROVE FAMILY INCOME.


THE ANALYSIS ABOVE WAS DESIGNED SPECIFICALLY TO DESCRIBE THE EXTENT OF THE LAND, LABOR AND CAPITAL CONSTRAINTS. HOWEVER, IN RETROSPECT, THE RESULTS COULD BE MORE ENLIGHTENING IF THE BASIC MODEL WAS PARAMETERIZED TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF CHANCES IN FARM SIZE, LABOR AVAILABILITY (THROUGH HIRING) AND INCREASES IN WORKING CAPITAL ON FARM ORGANIZAMON AND FAMILY INCOME. IT IS NOT UNREASONABLE, THEREFORE, TO SUGGEST THAT SUCH SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF THE MODEL COULD CONSTITUTE FURTHER STUDY.








BIBLIOGRAPHY

I AGRICULTURALL STATISTICS. VOLUME 7, 1986. CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES,

1986

2.PEARSON, C.J. 1992. FIELD CROPS ECOSYSTEMS: SCHOOL OF CROP SCIENCES,

UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA.







APPENDIX I
PROFILE OF A JAMAICAN SMALL FARM
YAM YAM YAM POTATO POTATO POTATO PEAS PEAS PEAS CHICK CHICK CHICK PIGS PIG GOAT GOAT DONK DONK CATTLE CATTLE
PROD TFER SOLD PROD TFER SOLD PROD TFER SOLD PROD TFER SOLD PROD SOLD PROD SOLD TFER PROD SOLD
Unit Income 0 0 18 0 0 18 0 0 20 0 0 40 0 40 0 60 30 0 0 20


Res/const LAND
YAM ACCT YAM CONS POTATO CONS POTATO ACCT CHICKEN ACCT CHICKEN CONS PEAS ACCT PEAS CONS GOAT ACCT PIG ACCT DONKEY ACCT CATTLE ACCT LABOR CAPITAL FAMILY INCOME


0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 -140000
0 0 0 0 0
0 -600 1 1 0
0 0 -1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 85 0 0 55
0 8700 0 0 51000000
-18 0 0 -20 0


RHS USE


INCOME OBJECTIVES V VARIABLES
709499.12 1,4909 300 17591 0.02


200 0 0.0833 50


0 0034683 600 4255.6 0.3711 5566 0 5E-14 0 0


0 0 0 0


0 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
-1 0 0 0
0 0 0 -1
0 0 -10000 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 74 0
0 0 40000 0
0 -18 0 0


1
-12000
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
122 51000
0


RESICON
0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0<= 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 1.968203E-12
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -300 -300
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -200 -200
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 -1.145195E-13
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 1.77236E-12
-1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -600 -600
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 -6.77236E-15
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -50 -50
0 0 0 0 -300 1 0 0 0 0 <= 0 5.034177E-14
0 0 -15000 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 7.780443E-13
0 0 0 0 0 0 800 1 0 0 <= 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1000 1 <= 0 0
0 0 600 0 50 0 64 0 74 0 <= 415 415
0 0 414000 0 4000 0 1000 0 15000 0 <= 2E+06 2000000
0 -40 0 -40 0 -60 -30 0 0 -20 = 0 -709499.12422








Answer Report Solutl Startin Final A:A25 0 709499.1


Varlab Statin A:C25. 0 A:025. 0 A:E25. 0 A:F25. 0 A:G25. 0 A:H25. 0 A:125.I 0 A:J25. 0 A:K25. 0
A:L25. 0 A:M25. 0
A:N25. 0
A:025. 0
A:P25. 0
A:025. 0
A:R25. 0
A:S25. 0
A:T25. 0
A:U25. 0
A:V25. 0
AW25 0
A:X25. 0


Final 1.490923
300
17591.08
0.02 200
0
0.083333
50
0
0.034683
600 4255.581 0.371061 5565.912
0
5.03E-14
0
0 0 0 0 0


Gradient Increment Decrement
0 348120.51 139.22 0 18 Infinite
18 29.010042 0.0116 0 153.11858 Infinite 0 18.015312 Infinite 18 0.0153119 Infinite 0 172761.91 Infinite 0 307.93651 Infinite
20 287.93651 Infinite
0 48512463 1E+08 0 40 Infinite
40 346.51759 2.1915
0 1525.8688 345640 40 0.1017246 23.043
0 140977.64 Infinite
60 469.92546 60 30 168741.02 Infinite
0 0 Infinite
0 157487.51 Infinite
20 157.48751 20
0 Infinite 0 0 Infinite 0


Cell Value Constrain Binding? Slack Dual V Right Increm Decrement A:C25. 1.4909 >=0 No 1.4909231 0 0 1.4909 Infinite YAM PROD
A:D25. 300 >=0 No 300 0 0 300 Infinite YAM TFER
A:E25. 17591 >=0 No 17591.077 0 0 17591 Infinite YAM SOLD
A:F25. 0.02 >=0 No 0.02 0 0 0.02 Infinite POTAT PROD
A:G25. 200 >=0 No 200 0 0 200 Infinite POTAT TFER
A:H25. 0 >=0 Yes 0 .- 0 13328 200 POTAT SOLD
A:125.I 0.0833 >=0 No 0.0833333 0 0 0.0833 Infinite PEAS PROD
A:J25. 50 >=0 No 50 0 0 50 Infinite PEAS TFER
A:K25. 0 >=0 Yes 0 - 0 816.12 50 PEAS SOLD
A:L25. 0.0347 >=0 No 0.0346827 0 0 0.0347 Infinite CHICK PROD
A:M25. 600 >=0 No 600 0 0 600 Infinite CHICK TFER
A:N25. 4255.6 >=0 No 4255.5809 0 0 4255.6 Infinite CHICK SOLD
A:025. 0.3711 =0 No 0.3710608 0 0 0.3711 Infinite PIGS PROD
A:P25. 5565.9 >=0 No 5565.9124 0 0 5565.9 Infinite PIG SOLD
A:025. 0 >=0 Yes 0 -1E+05 0 1.2742 1.68E-16 GOAT PROD
A:R25. 5E-14 >=0 Yes 0 0 0 5E-14 Infinite GOAT SOLD
A:S25. 0 >=0 Yes 0 -2E+05 0 0 3.057641 DONK
A:T25. 0 =0 Yes 0 0 0 0 Infinite DONK TFER
A:U25. 0 >=0 Yes 0 -2E+05 0 0 3.695193 CATTL PROD
A:V25. 0 >=0 Yes 0 0 0 0 Infinite CATTL SOLD
A:Y6. 2 <=2 Yes 0 122432 2 1.4545 1.168719 LAND
A:Y7. 2E-12 <=0 Yes 0 18 0 Infinite 17591.08 YAM ACCT
A:Y8. -300 <=-300 Yes 0 18 -300 300 17591.08 YAM CONS
A:Y9. -200 <=-200 Yes 0 18.015 -200 200 13328.4 POTATO CONS
A:YIO. - <=0 Yes 0 18.015 0 200 13328.4 POTATO ACCT
A:Y11. 2E-12 <=0 Yes 0 40 0 Infinite 4255.581 CHICKEN ACCT
A:Y12. -600 <=-600 Yes 0 40 -600 600 4255.581 CHICKEN CONS
A:Y13. - <=0 Yes 0 307.94 0 50 816.1221 PEAS ACCT
A:Y14. -50 =-50 Yes 0 307.94 -50 50 816.1221 PEASCONNS
A:Y15. 5E-14 <=0 Yes 0 60 0 Infinite 5.03E-14 GOAT ACCT
A:Y16. 8E-13 <=0 Yes 0 40 0 Infinite 5565.912 PIG ACCT
A:Y17. 0 <=0 Yes 0 0 0 Infinite 0 DONKEY ACCT
A:Y18. 0 <=0 Yes 0 20 0 Infinite 0 CATTLE ACCT
A:Y19. 415 <=415 Yes 0 72238 415 706.44 177.5442 LABOR
A:Y20. 2E+06 <=200000 Yes 0 0.1066 2E+06 - 1550244 CAPITAL


APPENDIX 2

























chicken cattle goats pigs


APPENDIX 3


SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF JAMAICAN SMALL FARM MODEL








Appendix 4. Seasonal work calendar, schedule, and family participation.


Activity Jan Feb Mar FARM ACTIVITIES YAM
Land prep *m ----- >
planting
stake
fertilize
weed con harvest >
markt. --------------- >


Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec



*mw -------- >


*mwbg>
*mw--->


POTATO
plant maint harvest market PEAS
plant maint harvest

PIGS GOATS CATTLE
DONKEY POULTRY

NON FARM
EMP/MENT F. F.WOOD HOUSE WK. YARD WK. F. WATER


*mwb>
*mbw ------------ >
*wmbg>


*mw---


*wb>


*bgw .g. >
*b g ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ >
*mb ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
*m b ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
*wgb ---------------------- .------------------------------------------------------------ >

ACTIVITIES
*m w --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
*bg -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------- >
*w a ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------0>


*mb
*bg


._. . . ._. .__. . . ._ . . . . . . .


.--. . .-----.--.----------------------------------------------------------- .------. ------


--_. .