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Farming Systems Research-Extension newsletter

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Title:
Farming Systems Research-Extension newsletter
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Farming Systems Research Extension newsletter
Alternate Title:
FSRE
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Farming Systems Research and Extension Network
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Science
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
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Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
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English
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v. : ; 28 cm.

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No. 1-
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Title from caption.
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Number 1, 1989
The First in a Series of Four


INVITATION TO HOST
FUTURE SYMPOSIA
On behalf of the Ad Hoc Task
Force on an Association for
Sustainable Farming Systems
Research/Extension, universities
and other institutions which are
interested in possibly hosting the
Sustainable Farming Systems
Symposium in 1990 or 1991 are
requested to make themselves
known.
The series of Farming Systems
Symposia was started at Kansas
State University, which hosted
the first six annual meetings. The
University of Arkansas and
Winrock International invited the
Symposium to Fayetteville for the
sessions in 1987, 1988, and 1989,
and the first two of those have
been successfully completed.
During the 1989 Symposium,
scheduled for 8 to 11 October, it
is planned to have a business
meeting which might organize an
association. The association
would function to enhance future
symposia, as well as other means
for exchanging information
among those concerned with
Sustainable Farming Systems
Research and Extension.
However, since decisions
regarding the site of future
meetings, the timing of such
meetings (annual or biennial,
etc.), and financial arrangements
require significant lead time, this
invitation is intended to faciliate
a head start in the process.
Interested institutions should
make their potential availability
known to George H. Axinn, who
is serving as Chairperson of the
ad hoc Task Force.
Dr. George H. Axinn, Professor, Dept.
of Resource Development, 323 Natural
Resources Bldg., Michigan State
University, East Lansing, MI 48824


Farming Systems Research-Extension Newsletter

1988 FSR/E Symposium: CONTRIBUTIONS OF FSR/E
TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS


The Farming Systems Research and
Extension (FSR/E) Network held its
8th Annual Symposium, October
9-12, 1988 in Fayetteville, Arkansas,
supported by USAID, Ford Founda-
tion, Rockefeller Foundation, USDA
and the Farm Foundation. Program
emphasis included four major
sub-themes:
1) FSR/E accomplishments in the
field;
2) methodologies for assessing
the impact of FSR/E;
3) gender and intra-household
issues in FSR/E; and
4) the role of information/com-
munication systems in FSR/E.
A notable aspect of the program
included a full day of concurrent
regional sessions: Africa, Asia, Latin
America, and the United States. The
United States was considered as a
region to explore, among other
concerns, the ways in which FSR/E
experiences in lesser developed
countries can be applied within the
context of USDA's Low Input and
Sustainable Agriclture initiative. In
addressing the question; "Should
FSR/E methodologies differ when
applied to the U.S. setting?,"
discussants concluded that FSR/E
practices are basic, applicable to U.S.
agriculture without modification, and,
therefore, the Low Input and
Sustainable Agriculture initiative
could benefit directly from experience
elsewhere.
In addressing the main theme of
the Symposium Contributions of
FSR/E Towards Sustainable
Agricultural Systems a number of
presenters made a case for


establishing a natural linkage
between FSR/E and sustainable
agriculture. Among them, Charles
Francis, from the University of
Nebraska, stated: 'The future
success of agriculture to provide food
and income will depend on our ability
to develop sustainable crop and
animal production systems... The
process of resource and need
identification, farmer and scientist
evaluation of alternatives, local
involvement in testing viable options,
and ownership of the activity through
all its stages essentially the FSR/E
model is proving more effective
than conventional (approaches) to
increase productivity (and income)
over a wide range of situations."
Special Reports Highlighted
Three invited speakers attracted
the central attention of Symposium
participants: Timothy Frankenberger,
Kerry Byrnes, and Deborah
Merrill-Sands. Timothy Franken-
berger, representing the Farming
Systems Network Steering Commit-
tee, shared the main findings of the
"Asessment of FSR/E Experiences",
a study sponsored by USAID's
Bureau of Science and Technology.
Kerry Byrnes, from USAID's Bureau
for Program and Policy Coordination,
Center for Development Information
and Evaluation, presented the
primary conclusions from the study
"Synthesis of AID Experiences:
FSR/E." Deborah Merrill-Sands, from
ISNAR (International Service for
National Agricultural Research),
spoke on the lessons from a
nine-country study on "Assessing the
Institutional Impact of On-Farm,






client-Oriented Research Programs."
The three participants agreed in
their findings on several points: that
the adaptive and applied research
functions of FSR/E have been the
most successfully implemented; that
FSR/E has played an important
bridging role between extension and
agricultural research; that FSR/E
teams placed under research
divisions have better access to
research results and can influence
priorities easier than those placed
under extension; and that FSR/E by
itself cannot be expected to make a
major impact within the limitations of
a three- or five-year project.
Committee Retires,
Task Force is Established
At the final evening session of the
Symposium the Farming Systems
Network Steering Committee
presented a report on its activities
during the year on behalf of the
Network, including study results of the
"Assessment of FSR/E Experiences,"
a compilation of available FSR/E
training offerings, response to
USAID's concept paper for future
support to FSR/E, and USAID
funding for this, the first of four
transitional FSR/E Newsletter issues.
Steering Committee members were
rendered a standing ovation for their
efforts on behalf of the Network;
members included Kathy Alison,
Jerry Eckert, Cornelia Flora, Tim
Frankenberger, Peter Hildebrand,
Michael Joshua, Steve Kearl,
Rosalee Norem, and Tom Westing.
Ex-officio members included Chris
Andrew, Roberto Castro, Jim
Chapman, Kerry Byrnes, and Henk
Knipsheer. Special appreciation was
extended to USAID and to Winrock
International for their generous
support to Steering Committee
activities.
During the Open Network Forum
which followed, an Ad Hoc Task
Force was selected to further the
interests of those present that there
should be similar symposia in the
future. The instruction given to the
group was to make preliminary plans
for some kind of an association which
might become a sponsor, or at least


an advocate, for future symposia and
perhaps publication and distribution
of the proceedings of future symposia.
The following individuals were
selected to become the Task Force:
George H. Axinn, Michigan State
University, CHAIR
Virgitio Carangal, IRRI, Phillipines
Jacques Faye, SAFGRAD/OAU,
Burkina Faso
Hilary Feldstein, New Hampshire
Timothy J. Finan, University of
Arizona
Cornelia Flora, Kansas State
University
A. M. Foster, BCCI, Zambia
Anita Frio, IRRI, Phillipines
Peter E. Hildebrand, University of
Florida
Robert E. Hudgens, Winrock
International, Arkansas
Paul Kleene, DSA/CIRAD, France
Liu Xin-Hao, Beijing Agricultural
University
Harold J. McArthur, University of
Hawaii
Susan Poats, Florida
Donald E. Voth, University of
Arkansas
Two others who were deeply
involved in the management of the
last two symposia, and who are
responsible for much of the planning
and implementation of the next
symposium, are serving as ex-officio
members. They are: Tom Westing,
Director of International Agricultural
Programs at the University of
Arkansas; and Beth Barham, of the
same office.
Five committees have been
appointed, and are giving thought to
the needs of the future. They are:
Future Symposia Program and Site
Committee (Harold McArthur, Chair);
Editorial Committee (Cornelia Flora,
Chair); Finance Committee (Robert
E. Hudgens, Chair); Constitution
Drafting Committee (Timothy Finan,
Chair); and Nominating Committee
(Donald Voth, Chair). Any readers of
this FSR/E Newsletter who would like
to participate in these activities are
encouraged to write to George Axinn,
or to contact one of the Committee
Chairs. Axinn is Professor, Depart-
ment of Resource Development, 323


Natural Resources Building,
Michigan State University, East
Lansing, Michigan 48824-1222.
The Planning Committee for the
1989 Symposium (scheduled for 8 to
11 October) has set aside time for a
Business Meeting of the potential
new association on the first morning
of the Symposium. Among other
matters to be discussed at that
session will be (1) the purpose of the
association, (2) a name of the
association, (3) constitution and
by-laws, (4) officers for the next year,
(5) means of publication of future
proceedings (possibly in quarterly
installations), and (6) finance of an
association and of future symposia.
Depending on decisions made at
that time, the group may go ahead
with decisions on the site of the 1990
Symposium, and other future plans.
Preliminary effort in this direction
includes an open invitation to
institutions which might be interested
in hosting future symposia. Since
planning for such a large international
meeting usually takes several years,
it is hoped that some "head start" will
be achieved during this year.
According to Axinn, "The Task
Force is an open group, and inputs
from anyone interested in farming
systems research and extension are
welcome. The present membership
was either nominated or volunteered
during the last Symposium, or was
co-opted by the Chair because of
prior experience. They represent only
the informal collection of individuals
who have been involved in recent
symposia."
"It is appropriate," he believes, "that
these individuals come from Africa,
Asia, Europe, and Latin America as
well as North America. That reflects
symposia participation. Those from
the USA are probably over-rep-
resented, but that is for convenience
during this ad hoc year, in which
communication is being carried on
without financial support. If an
Association for Sustainable Farming
Systems is actually formed, its
managing committees will probably
reflect the world-wide nature of the
farming systems approach."















1989 FSR/E SYMPOSIUM


The ninth annual Farming Systems Research/Exten-
sion Symposium, hosted by the University of Arkansas
in collaboration with Winrock International Institute for
Agricultural Developmeant, will be held at the Center
for Continuing Education at the University of Arkansas
in Fayetteville October 8-11, 1989.
1989 Themes and Structures
The 1989 Symposium will examine the "Impacts of
Farming Systems Research/Extension on Sustainable
Agriculture" first regionally and then globally across the
following sub-themes:
FSR/E and the Concepts of Sustainability
The Role of Farming Systems in Sustaining:
Productivity and Profitability
Farmer Participation in Agricultural
Development
Institutional Development
Enivronmental Quality
Special Topics
Special training courses such as the 1988 "The
Microcomputer: Agricultural Applications," will once
again be offered prior to and following the Symposium,
both at the University of Arkansas and at other
institutions, and will be advertised as they are
developed. The Symposium itself will officially open with
a reception Sunday night, October 8, and adjourn
Wednesday evening, October 11, 1989.
Feedback from the 1988 Symposium indicated a
strong support for the focus upon FSR/E from a regional
perspective, allowing more attention to the details of
concrete systems environments. On Monday, October
9, 1989, therefore, there will be four concurrent
programs, each focusing upon the sub-themes above
within one of the following regions:
Africa a Latin America
Asia/Near East a United States
Tuesday and Wednesday, October 10-11, the
sub-themes will be addressed from a broader global
perspective. Emphasis will be placed on presentations
which offer a synthesis of issues within a given
sub-theme, cutting across regional differences.
Call for Papers
All papers submitted for consideration are requested
to address the main theme of "Impacts of Farming
Systems Research/Extension on Sustainable
Agriculture". Were planned improvements fully adopted


and implemented? Will the system introduced continue
to function successfully on its own, with little or no
additional inputs? What are the critical factors at both
the micro and macro level which will ensure its ongoing
success? What general recommendations and
conclusions concerning small farm development have
emerged from FSR/E? How can these recommenda-
tions be communicatedeffectively to project designers,
implementors, and policy makers? A small number of
commissioned papers will be presented for each
sub-theme within the regional and global sections of the
program. The remainder of the program will be
organized around brief presentations of contributed
papers followed by an open facilitator-led discussion of
a given sub-theme in which paper authors will act as
panel discussants. Contributed papers to be included
in the program will be selected based on abstracts
received.
Papers are invited which will address the content of
each of the sub-themes as follows:
FSR/E and the Concepts of Sustainability -
Sustainability in agricultural systems is an issue of
growing interest and concern. How are the key
concepts of sustainability and of FSR/E related?
What complimentarities exist? Are there any
conflicts?
The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Productivity
and Profitability How can FSR/E contribute to
the development of stable and increasingly positive
input/output relationships and economic profitability
for agriculture over both the long and short term?
The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Farmer
Participation How can FSR/E contribute to the
development of on-going patterns of farmer
participation in the agricultural research and
development process?
The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Institutional
Development How can FSR/E best support
institutional development, and contribute to
building strong,stable, and sustainable institutional
structures for agriculture?
The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Environ-
mental Quality What can FSR/E contribute to
building patterns of agricultural production and
resource use that not only do not degrade, but
actually enhance environmental quality?






Poster Presentations
The presentation of research results and projects,
and the opportunity to talk informally with project
personnel in attendance, will be accomplished by
organizing poster sessions in the late afternoon and
evening of Tuesday, October 10. No competing
programs or sessions will be scheduled during that time.
Posters will all be presented at the same location, with
authors/presenters present at designated times during
the poster session period for discussion of their project.
Individuals or groups are invited to make more than one
presentation.
Publication of Abstracts/Proceedings
All abstracts submitted by the deadline and selected
for presentation will be published for distribution at the
Symposium. Selection of papers for publications in the
1988 Symposium proceedings will be based strictly
upon post-symposium peer review. All papers must
be received in final form at the time of the
Symposium to be considered. Only a limited number
of papers will be published, thus acceptance for
presentation does not assure publication in the
proceedings.
Deadlines and Procedures
All abstracts must be submitted as a minimum of 1
page (maximum of 3 pages) no later than May 1,1989
and must be accompanied by a completed Abstract
Information Form. Please pay attention to the type of
presentation, indicating whether it is regional or global


and into which sub-theme it falls. If it is regional, please
write in the region.
Authors/presenters will be notified by June 30 of their
selection for participation in the 1989 Symposium A
preliminary program and Symposium pre-registration
information will be mailed in July. Registration fees will
be $190.00 for non-students and $100.00 for students.
Late registration will begin September 15. After that,
fees will increase to $235.00 and $125.00 respectively.
All papers to be considered for publication must be
received in final form at the time of the Symposium. All
Symposium papers, whether presented or not, and
submitted 30 days prior to the Symposium, will be
available to the extent possible at a local copying service
indexed by key words for individual purchase.

Travel Support
For those requiring travel support in order to attend
the 1989 Symposium, you must include a valid telex,
telephone or FAX number where you may be reached.
The request for support form is attached. Contact
information is imperative. Only those submitting this
information will be considered for funding.

For Further Information
Contact Ms. Pamela Styles, Symposium Coordinator,
International Agricultural Programs Office, 300 Hotz
Hall, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas
72701. Telephone 501-575-6857, FAX 501-575-5055
and Telex 314000.


REQUEST FOR TRAVEL SUPPORT
1989 FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION SYMPOSIUM


Name:
Institution:
Mailing Address:


Telephone Number:


Telex Number:

FAX Number:


(Country code, city code, number)


Do you require partial__ or full__ support?


(Country code, city code, number)


Origin of Travel?
Dates of Travel?


(departure date)


(return date)


Were you funded for the 1988 Symposium: yes__no__ If yes, full orpartial- support?
In order to be considered for support you must complete all information on this form. Please be sure to give only
current information so that we may contact you in the fastest possible manner. Mail this form along with your abstract
form to: FSR/E Symposium, International Agricultural Programs Office, 300 Hotz Hall, University of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 USA ATTN: Pamela Styles






ABSTRACT RETURN FORM
1989 FARMING SYSTEMS
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION SYMPOSIUM
(Please complete both sides of this form)
NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF AUTHORS


Senior author: (Surname first) Institution

Mailing Address:




Telex Telephone Number/FAX


Second author: (Surname first) Institution

Mailing Address:




Telex Telephone Number/FAX


Third author: (Surname first) Institution

Mailing Address:




Telex Telephone Number/FAX


Sub-theme
FSR/E and the Concepts of Sustainability
The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Producl
and Profitability
The Role of FSR/E in sustaining Farmer
Participation
The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Instituti
Development
The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Enviror
Quality


TYPE OF PAPER TO BE PRESENTED
(CHECK ONLY ONE BOX BELOW)
Regional Focus Global/Synthesis
[ i [ ]
tivity
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
onal
[ i [ i
mental
[ ] [ ]


If regional in focus, indicate region:
Who will present the paper?
Paper Session or Poster session _Language of Presentation
NATURE OF TRAVEL SUPPORT NEEDED
As in the past, travel support will be very limited. Please indicate what your travel needs would be if your paper
is accepted:
Would you require support to attend? yes no _
If yes, please complete the REQUEST FOR TRAVEL SUPPORT form.
ABSTRACT
Write an abstract of your paper or presentation, and attach it to this ABSTRACT INFORMATION FORM. Abstract
should be no shorter than 1 page and no longer than 3 pages.






ABSTRACT INFORMATION (continued)


Title of paper on Presentation:


Please repeat surnames of authors:

Please give two to four key words describing the paper or presentation:

Has the paper you propose to present at the Symposium been published previously?__ If yes, please list.



Have other publications been generated by your paper or from your research?_ If yes, please list.



What was the time period of your research (please include actual dates of project/research)?


Was research conducted in the field?

Who are potential users of this information?


What was your relationship to the activity? Consultant Graduate Student

Other

Please list methodologies used for research.


Briefly state findings of your research.


What regions were represented in your research?.


Complete and mail this form (attached to a written abstract of 1 to 3 pages) to:
FSR/E Symposium
International Agricultural Programs Office
300 Hotz Hall
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, USA
Telex 314000






CALL FOR PRE-SYMPOSIUM AND POST-SYMPOSIUM
SPECIAL TRAINING OFFERINGS

Special Training Offerings are to be presented pre-symposium October 2-6 or post-symposium October 12-17 on
topics related to farming systems research. Training duration may be several days to a full week. Training offerings
will be subject to review by the Symposium Planning Committee.
Please use attached form to submit Special Training Offerings and your estimated fees. You may use additional
sheets if necessary. Training offerings should be self-sustaining and contribute to the total Symposium interchange.
Suggested budget considerations: room fees, equipment fees, honorarium, others.
The deadline for proposed symposium offering is May 1, 1989. Notification of acceptance and preliminary logistical
planning will begin June 30, 1989.

Title of Training:


Presenters:


Address:


Phone: Telex:

Fax Number:

SYNOPSIS OF TRAINING OFFERING









Request Pre-Symposium Request Post-Symposium (circle one)

Number of days Estimated Fee

Maximum Participants Minimum Participants

Training to be supported by: participant fees grant other sources

Estimated Budget Summary:
(use additional paper if needed)


Return to: Nancy Christman, University of Arkansas
International Agricultural Programs, 300 Hotz Hall
Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 USA
Telephone 501-575-6857
Telex 314000 FAX 501-575-5055













IDENTIFICATION OF RESULTS OF FARMING SYSTEMS

RESEARCH AND EXTENSION ACTIVITIES: A SYNTHESIS

by
Timothy R. Frankenberger
Billie R. Dewalt, Harold J. McArthur
Robert E. Hudgens, G. Mitawa
Kanok Rerkasem, Timothy Finan
Cornelia Butler Flora, Noel Young


Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to
review, analyze and document the
results of Farming Systems Research
and Extension (FSR/E) projects/pro-
grams that have been implemented
worldwide. This study focuses on the
factors that affect sustainability of
FSR/E within national agricultural
research and extension systems. It
seeks to determine the degree to
which externally funded FSR/E
projects have assisted in in-
stitutionalizing the FSR/E approach
into these systems, and the extent to
which governments will support these
activities. The study relied on field
case studies in Indonesia,
Guatemala, Botswana and CATIE,
and a secondary review of FSR/E
programs. Key topics addressed in
this study within the context of
institutional sustainability include:
organizational structure; training;
content of FSR/E programs; process
of technology assessment; linkages
with commodity research programs;
extension; agricultural support
systems; faculties of agriculture and
other government programs;
networking; and information
dissemination.
Impacts
There are numerous problems
associated with measuring the
technical impact of FSR/E contribu-
tion to small farmer development. As
Baker and Norman (1988) point out,


there are three boundary issues
which confound such assessments:
1. The relative contributions of
conventional research and FSR
are not separable since they are
complimentary activities;
2. The adoption of technologies
depends upon a wide range of
circumstances, including the
performance of support
systems which are not under
the control of FSR teams;
3. Because FSR/E approaches
encompass technological
developments and institutional
change, significant results are
not realized until after 10-25
years.
Due to these problems, this study has
chosen to concentrate on major
issues associated with the in-
stitutionalization of FSR/E programs
in National Agricultural Research
and Extension Systems.
The major impacts are organized
under seven headings. These
include: the organizational integration
of FSR/E; cost sharing in the FSR/E
program; short-term and long-term
training; institutional and international
linkages; information dissemination
and public policy; farmer participation;
and impacts on technology transfer.
The most important impacts across
projects and programs include: 1)
cost sharing in FSR/E programs with
National Agricultural Research and


Extension Systems; 2) improved
research and extension linkages; 3)
technologies tested and adapted; and
4) feedback from farmers used. For
Africa, the major impacts were: 1)
cost sharing of FSR/E programs with
National Agricultural systems; 2)
technology tested and adapted; 3)
improved research/extension
linkages; 4) improved links with
research; 5) feedback from farmers
used; 6) influenced research
design/priorities; 7) improved links
with other institutions; and 8) farmer
participation in research. For Latin
America, the major impacts were: 1)
cost sharing of FSR/E programs with
National Agricultural systems; 2)
improved research extension
linkages; 3) inservice training for
extension; 4) technology tested and
adapted; 5) improved links with other
institutions; and 6) feedback from
farmers used. For Southeast Asia,
the major impacts were: 1) cost
sharing of FSR/E programs with
National Agricultural systems; 2)
short-term training; 3) feedback from
farmers used; 4) improved research/
extension linkages; and 5) technology
tested and adapted.

Constraints to FSR/E Project/
Program Implementation
Overall, the major constraints to
FSR/E program implementation
across countries were: 1) competition
with other institutions in the research






organization; and 2) weak links
between research and extension. For
Africa, the major constraints were: 1)
competition with other institutions; 2)
the environment; 3) access to trained
manpower; 4) staffing of field teams;
5) cost of technology and access to
inputs; 6) poor linkages with policy
makers; 7) weak links with research
and extension; 8) on-farm experience
of research staff; and 9) the role of
extension. For Latin America, the
major constraints were: 1) competition
across institutions; 2) weak links
between research and extension; 3)
budget constraints; 4) cost of
technology and access to inputs; 5)
poor linkages with policy makers; and
6) agricultural prices and marketing.
For Southeast Asia, the major
constraints were: 1) weak links
between research and extension; 2)
project design; 3) design of on-farm
trials; and 4) involvement of farmers
in the research process.
Lessons Learned
1. The lack of cooperation between
research and extension is
common in national agricultural
research and extension
systems. FSR/E can play an
important bridging role between
extension and agricultural
research. FSR/E teams test
technology from research, and
provide researchers with
feedback from farmers and
extension to help set research
priorities. Technologies are not
always directly transferable from
research to extension.
2. All FSR/E projects within a
country should be placed under
one administrative umbrella.
Placing FSR/E programs under
research rather than extension
may be the preferred mode.
FSR/E teams placed under
research divisions have better
access to research results and
can influence priorities easier
than those placed under
extension. Linkages with
extension are more likely to
develop due to the location of
FSR/E teams in the field.


3. As research programs decen-
tralize, FSR/E teams could form
the core of regional research
teams working in different
ecological zones.
4. Unless incentives are provided,
it will be difficult to retain trained
manpower in the field as long as
career advancement is
contingent on placement in a
centralized research organiza-
tion. Consequently, there is also
little professional reward for
interdisciplinary and inter-institu-
tional collaboration. Despite this,
human capital development is
essential to the success of viable
FSR/E programs.
5. The reluctance of commodity
focused researchers to test and
disseminate technologies and
practices on farmers' fields until
final solutions are reached is
limiting potential production
improvements unnecessarily.
There is a need to test best bet
alternatives so that farmers can
participate in the assessments.
6. FSR/E activities carried out on a
project basis independent of
on-station research programs
are usually unable to undertake
long-term research. This leads to
a failure to develop credibility
among planners, on-station
researchers and extension
agents. In addition, the scale of
projects may be the biggest
barrier to national sustainability
of externally funded development
initiatives. Thus, serious
consideration should be given to
initiating FSR/E activities in a
project mode.
7. Impact on agricultural policy is
one area where FSR/E
programs have not fulfilled their
potential. The way results are
presented is often the key. An
honest assessment must be
made as to what extension can
use, what research can use and
what poilcy makers will read.
Executive summaries which
highlight major points could have
significant impacts, especially


if the information is packaged
appropriately to address policy
issues.
8. A well prepared plan or strategy
which outlines the process of
technology assessment could
help improve the linkages
between commodity focused
researchers, FSR/E teams and
extension. Such a plan would
specify disciplinary respon-
sibilities, methodological stages,
and feedback channels. This
plan could then be used to orient
new researchers who come into
the research or extension
program.
9. One of the main limitations for
FSR/E has been access to good
on-shelf technologies for
immediate agro-ecological
adaptation. This is especially
true for marginal areas under
harsh conditions, often where
FSR/E teams are assigned to
work. Under such conditions,
research pay-offs are often
limited in the short run, and may
take considerable time to
develop. FSR/E programs have
always been more successful in
more favorable environments. In
harsh climates, fewer successful
interventions are available and it
is often necessary to substan-
tially modify the existing farming
system. Thus, it is inappropriate
to assume that viable results can
be achieved in the same time-
frame for both types of
environments. Such compari-
sons may have led to the
impression that FSR/E ap-
proaches have not lived up to
expectations (Baker and
Norman, 1988).
10. A major difference between
on-station testing of technology
and on-farm testing is the value
placed on cause/effect relation-
ships. On-station trials focus on
such relationships, whereas
on-farm trials are less controlled.
Farmer assessments play a key
role in such trials, which are not
necessarily considered valid to






on-station researchers. This can
influence the speed at which
research recommendations are
passed on to extension. In
addition, the need of some
researchers to determine cause
and effect relationships in
on-farm trials has influenced the
emphasis placed on farmer
managed technology validation.
11. Successful FSR/E programs
tend to have sufficient capital for
operating expenses. An
appropriate ratio of expenditures
for staff and operations will
ensure that on-farm testing is
feasible. Expenditures of 90
percent of the budget for salaries
will significantly limit research
opportunities.
12. Expatriate technical assistants
should be directly incorporated
into the structure of the research
organization and extension
system. They should not be
placed in richly endowed projects
that have little resemblance to
the working realities of national
scientists and extension
workers. Attempts should be
made to work within the existing
resource base.
13. Past experience with systems
research can facilitate the
successful integration of FSR/E
programs into the national
agricultural system.
14. Farmer participation in bottom-up
planning and research is difficult
to achieve within a research
system that requires lines of
authority and responsibility to be
clearly defined by the central
office. Adapting a flexible and
dynamic bottom-up development
process to a highly centralized
and vertically structured
research organization is a
difficult task. In the same way
that farmers select and modify
technologies to fit their particular
farming system and resource
base, governments are
attempting to adjust and
incorporate the FSR/E process
within the national agricultural
structure (McArthur and


Rerkasem, 1988).
15. Projects that focus on short-term
technology generation and/or
production objectives may
impede rather than reinforce the
long-term goal of integrating the
concept and methods of the
FSR/E process into the national
agricultural system (McArthur
and Rerkasem, 1988).
16. Networking is a key activity for
overcoming methodological
stagnation. The training aspects
of meetings are extremely
valuable.
17. Many FSR/E projects/programs
have not effectively used social
science input. Despite the
importance of characterization of
areas, anticipating socio-cultural
problems, and the need for
baseline studies to be used as
comparisons for evaluations,
very few social scientists are
brought into FSR/E programs.
This is due both to a shortage of
trained personnel as well as
perceptions on the part of
technical scientists. Consider-
ation should be given to how
social science input can be
useful to ongoing research
activities after the diagnostic
phase.
18. In spite of the fact that support
for FSR/E programs has
increased among national
planners in low income countries
during the 1980s, USAID and
other donors began shifting their
emphasis away from farming
systems research. This declining
support dramatically reduced the
pace of FSR/E institutionalization
after 1985 (Baker and Norman,
1988). Despite such reductions,
numerous countries around the
world have reorganized their
national research organizations
to accommodate FSR/E.
Regional networks have been
established such as the Asian
Farming Systems Network and
the West African Farming
Systems Network to allow
scientists to share experiences
and learn new ideas. In addition,


more than 10 universities in the
U.S. have established programs
focused on American agriculture
(Baker and Norman, 1988).
In light of these developments,
USAID played a significant role in
establishing FSR/E programs around
the world. As a development agency
responsible for its past initiatives,
backstopping the FSR/E programs in
the form of support for training and
networking is a necessary obligation.
Possible Trends
Baker and Norman (1988) have
outlined a number of directions that
the FSR/E approach has evolved
toward and speculate on future
directions. These include the
following:
1. A narrowly focused FSR/E
approach which was developed
at the IARCs has given rise to a
more comprehensive, longer
horizon systems approach.
2. Farmer participation in FSR/E
activities has increased through
time.
3. The domination of FSR/E
programs by donor agencies and
expatriate technical assistance
has given way to localized
programs.
4. There is declining interest in
describing farming systems, and
increasing interest in pushing
technologies through the testing
stage and extension.
5. The evolution of FSR/E has been
heavily influenced by the
expanding number of academic
professionals representing
several disciplines. These
academics have shown interest
in expanding the focus of FSR/E
and placed emphasis on-farmer
first perspectives.
6. Bureaucrats in donor agencies
and National Agricultural
Ministers are questioning the
viability and affordability, of
decentralized, bottom-up
approaches to development.
They would like to see the
emphasis shift to commodity
focused programs that address
national planning goals in high
pay-off environments. .







FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH PAPER SERIES ORDER FORM
Return to: Distribution Center, Umberger Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66505, USA

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2. Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1981 Farming Systems
Research Symposium Small Farms in a Changing World:
Prospects for the Eighties. Edited by Wendy J. Sheppard (April 1982)
3. The Farming Systems Approach to Research (by David W. Norman)
and Farming Systems Research and the Land-Grant System:
Transferring Assumptions Overseas (by Cornelia Butler Flora)
(October 1982-FSR Background Papers)
4. A Farming Systems Reseach Bibliography of Kansas State
University's Vertical File Materials (Revised).
Edited by Gretchen A. Graham (July 1986)
5. Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1982 Farming Systems
Research Symposium-Farming Systems in the Field. Edited by
Cornelia Butler Flora. Compiled by Wendy J. Sheppard (April 1983)
6. Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1982 Farming Systems
Research Symposium: Animals in the Farming System. Edited by
Cornelia Butler Flora. Compiled by Penny P. Nichols (May 1984)
7. Third World Women: A Select Bibliography. Compiled by Martha Tomecek
8. Farming Systems Research & Extension: Implementation and
Monitoring-Abstracts (1984 Symposium Abstracts).
Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora (October 1984)
9. Selected Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984 Farming
Systems Research & Extension Symposium: Implementation and
Monitoring. Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora and Martha Tomecek
10. Farming Systems Research & Extension: Management and
Methodology-Abstracts (1985 Symposium Abstracts).
Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora and Martha Tomecek (October 1985)
11. Farming Systems Research & Extension: Management and
Methodology (Peer reviewed selections from papers given at Kansas
State University's 1985 Farming Systems Research Symposium).
Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora and Martha Tomecek (August 1986)
12. Farming Systems Research & Extension: Food and
Feed-Abstracts (1986 Symposium Abstracts).
Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora and Martha Tomecek (October 1986)
13. Selected Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1986 Farming
Systems Research and Extension Symposium: Food and Feed.
Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora and Martha Tomecek
13a Addendum to Selected Proceedings of Kansas State University's
1986 Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium:
Food and Feed. Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora and Martha Tomecek
14. How Systems Work. Farming Systems Research Symposium 1987:
Abstracts (October 1987)
15. How Systems Work. Proceedings of Farming Systems Research
Symposium 1987 (October 1987)
16. Contributions of FSR/E Towards Sustainable Agricultural Systems.
Farming Systems Research/Extension Symposium 1988:
Program and Abstracts (October 1988)
17. Contributions of FSR/E Towards Sustainable Agricultural Systems.
Farming Systems Research/Extension Symposium 1988:
Proceedings (October 1988)


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Farming Systems Research-Extension Newsletter
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3028 McCarty Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611

















The FSRE Newsletter is supported in part by a grant (58-319R-9-003) from the Office of International Cooperation and Development (an agency of the USDA) and through the Office of International Programs,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.


OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE (ODI)
AGRICULTURAL ADMINISTRATIVE NETWORK SEEKS
LITERATURE ON FARMER PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH


In 1987, ODI published a review
entitled "Farmer Participatory
Research: A Review of Concepts and
Practices". This appeared as Network
Discussion Paper No. 19 and formed
the subsequent background paper for
Robert Chamber's Workshop at IDS
in July 1987 ("Farmers and
Agricultural Research: Complemen-
tary Methods") and for the ILEIA April
1988 workshop ("Operational
Approaches for Participative
Technology Development in
Sustainable Agriculture"). The paper
has subsequently been expanded
and updated, and appeared as ODI
Occasional Paper No. 17 in October
1988.
Some of the material reviewed in
Discussion Paper 19 was abstracted
at the time (Network Paper No. 22)
but ODI is now undertaking a more
ambitious program of abstracting
material particularly grey literature -
on farmer participatory research. The
plans are to enter author, title,
keywords and abstracts into ODI's
computer system, so that the material
can be computer searched. As a


spin-off from this process, we shall be
mailing a print out of the full
bibliographic details (including
abstracts) to contributors and to all
members of the network.
In this connection, we need to be
certain of having full and up-to-date
a set of material as possible. We
should therefore like to request:
copies of any published or
unpublished material authored by
yourself in this area, additional to
what you might already have sent
us.
updates on any changes to the
bibliographic details of what you
may have already sent us.
pointers to other work in this field
(with photocopies of literature, if
possible) so that we can broaden
the coverage of our abstracting.
Send farmer participatory research
literature to:
Agricultural Administration Network
Overseas Development Institute
Regent's College, Inner Circle
Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS


ANNOUNCEMENT
Call for Papers and References
Scholarly papers on and refer-
ences to ethnoveterinary medicine
(folk knowledge and practices of
animal health and disease) are
being sought for publication of an
annotated bibliography and prep-
aration of an interdisciplinary an-
thology on the subject worldwide.
This effort is directed by Dr. med
vet E. Mathias-Mundy, with the as-
sistance of C. M. McCorkle, PhD,
and T. Schillhorn van Veen, DVM.
Interested parties should contact
Dr. Mathias-Mundy at: CIKARD
(Center for Indigenous Knowledge
for Agricultural and Rural Develop-
ment), 318 Curtiss Hall, Iowa State
University, Ames, IA 50011, USA,
Phone 515/294-0938. 0

FSRE TRAINING
MATERIALS AVAILABLE
A four-volume set of material developed
for training professionals in farming
systems research and extension is
available from Media Marketing, P.O.
Box 926, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
The $175 set includes volumes on
diagnosis in farming systems research,
design techniques for on-farm ex-
perimentation, analysis and interpreta-
tions of on-farm experimentation, and a
trainer's manual. s




Full Text

PAGE 1

client-Oriented Research Programs." an advocate, for future symposia and Natural Resources Building, The three participants agreed in perhaps publication and distribution Michigan State University, East their findings on several points: that of the proceedings of future symposia. Lansing, Michigan 48824-1222. the adaptive and applied research The following individuals were The Planning Committee for the functions of FSR/E have been the selected to become the Task Force: 1989 Symposium (scheduled for 8 to most successfully implemented; that George H. Axinn, Michigan State 11 October) has set aside time for a FSR/E has played an important University, CHAIR Business Meeting of the potential bridging role between extension and Virgitio Carangal, IRRI, Phillipines new association on the first morning agricultural research; that FSR/E Jacques Faye, SAFGRAD/OAU, of the Symposium. Among other teams placed under research Burkina Faso matters to be discussed at that divisions have better access to Hilary Feldstein, New Hampshire session will be (1) the purpose of the research results and can influence Timothy J. Finan, University of association, (2) a name of the priorities easier than those placed Arizona association, (3) constitution and under extension; and that FSR/E by Cornelia Flora, Kansas State by-laws, (4) officers for the next year, itself cannot be expected to make a University (5) means of publication of future major impact within the limitations of A. M. Foster, BCCI, Zambia proceedings (possibly in quarterly a threeor five-year project. Anita Frio, IRRI, Phillipines installations), and (6) finance of an Committee Retires, Peter E. Hildebrand, University of association and of future symposia. Task Force is Established Florida Depending on decisions made at At the final evening session of the Robert E. Hudgens, Winrock that time, the group may go ahead Symposium the Farming Systems International, Arkansas with decisions on the site of the 1990 Network Steering Committee Paul Kleene, DSA/CIRAD, France Symposium, and other future plans. presented a report on its activities Liu Xin-Hao, Beijing Agricultural Preliminary effort in this direction during the year on behalf of the University includes an open invitation to Network, including study results of the Harold J. McArthur, University of institutions which might be interested "Assessment of FSR/E Experiences," Hawaii in hosting future symposia. Since a compilation of available FSR/E Susan Poats, Florida planning for such a large international training offerings, response to Donald E. Voth, University of meeting usually takes several years, USAID's concept paper for future Arkansas it is hoped that some "head start" will support to FSR/E, and USAID Two others who were deeply be achieved during this year. funding for this, the first of four involved in the management of the According to Axinn, "The Task transitional FSR/E Newsletter issues, last two symposia, and who are Force is an open group, and inputs Steering Committee members were responsible for much of the planning from anyone interested in farming rendered a standing ovation for their and implementation of the next systems research and extension are efforts on behalf of the Network; symposium, are serving as ex-officio welcome. The present membership members included Kathy Alison, members. They are: Tom Westing, was either nominated or volunteered Jerry Eckert, Cornelia Flora, Tim Director of International Agricultural during the last Symposium, or was Frankenberger, Peter Hildebrand, Programs at the University of co-opted by the Chair because of Michael Joshua, Steve Kearl, Arkansas; and Beth Barham, of the prior experience. They represent only Rosalee Norem, and Tom Westing. same office. the informal collection of individuals Ex-officio members included Chris Five committees have been who have been involved in recent Andrew, Roberto Castro, Jim appointed, and are giving thought to symposia." Chapman, Kerry Byrnes, and Henk the needs of the future. They are: "It is appropriate," he believes, "that Knipsheer. Special appreciation was Future Symposia Program and Site these individuals come from Africa, extended to USAID and to Winrock Committee (Harold McArthur, Chair); Asia, Europe, and Latin America as International for their generous Editorial Committee (Cornelia Flora, well as North America. That reflects support to Steering Committee Chair); Finance Committee (Robert symposia participation. Those from activities. E. Hudgens, Chair); Constitution the USA are probably over-repDuring the Open Network Forum Drafting Committee (Timothy Finan, resented, but that is for convenience which followed, an Ad Hoc Task Chair); and Nominating Committee during this ad hoc year, in which Force was selected to further the (Donald Voth, Chair). Any readers of communication is being carried on interests of those present that there this FSR/E Newsletter who would like without financial support. If an should be similar symposia in the to participate in these activities are Association for Sustainable Farming future. The instruction given to the encouraged to write to George Axinn, Systems is actually formed, its group was to make preliminary plans or to contact one of the Committee managing committees will probably for some kind of an association which Chairs. Axinn is Professor, Departreflect the world-wide nature of the might become a sponsor, or at least mentof Resource Development, 323 farming systems approach." 2



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organization; and 2) weak links 3. As research programs decenif the information is packaged between research and extension. For tralize, FSR/E teams could form appropriately to address policy Africa, the major constraints were: 1) the core of regional research issues. competition with other institutions; 2) teams working in different 8. A well prepared plan or strategy the environment; 3) access to trained ecological zones. which outlines the process of manpower; 4) staffing of field teams; 4. Unless incentives are provided, technology assessment could 5) cost of technology and access to it will be difficult to retain trained help improve the linkages inputs; 6) poor linkages with policy manpower in the field as long as between commodity focused makers; 7) weak links with research career advancement is researchers, FSR/E teams and and extension; 8) on-farm experience contingent on placement in a extension. Such a plan would of research staff; and 9) the role of centralized research organizaspecify disciplinary responextension. For Latin America, the tion. Consequently, there is also sibilities, methodological stages, major constraints were: 1) competition little professional reward for and feedback channels. This across institutions; 2) weak links interdisciplinary and inter-instituplan could then be used to orient between research and extension; 3) tional collaboration. Despite this, new researchers who come into budget constraints; 4) cost of human capital development is the research or extension technology and access to inputs; 5) essential to the success of viable program. poor linkages with policy makers; and FSR/E programs. 9. One of the main limitations for 6) agricultural prices and marketing 5. The reluctance of commodity FSR/E has been access to good For Southeast Asia, the major focused researchers to test and on-shelf technologies for constraints were: 1) weak links etween research and extension; 2) disseminate technologies and immediate agro-ecological e es epractices on farmers' fields until adaptation. This is especially projectrias; a nd 4) involvement of ofarme final solutions are reached is true for marginal areas under in th researc roe limiting potential production harsh conditions, often where Simprovements unnecessarily. FSR/E teams are assigned to Lessons Learned There is a need to test best bet work. Under such conditions, 1. The lack of cooperation between alternatives so that farmers can research pay-offs are often research and extension is participate in the assessments, limited in the short run, and may common in national agricultural 6. FSR/E activities carried out on a take considerable time to research and extension project basis independent of develop. FSR/E programs have systems. FSR/E can play an on-station research programs always been more successful in important bridging role between are usually unable to undertake more favorable environments. In extension and agricultural long-term research. This leads to harsh climates, fewer successful research. FSR/E teams test a failure to develop credibililty interventions are available and it technology from research, and among planners, on-station is often necessary to substanprovide researchers with researchers and extension tially modify the existing farming feedback from farmers and agents. In addition, the scale of system. Thus, it is inappropriate extension to help set research projects may be the biggest to assume that viable results can priorities. Technologies are not barrier to national sustainability be achieved in the same timealways directly transferable from of externally funded development frame for both types of research to extension. initiatives. Thus, serious environments. Such compari2. All FSR/E projects within a consideration should be given to sons may have led to the country should be placed under initiating FSR/E activities in a impression that FSR/E apone administrative umbrella. project mode. proaches have not lived up to Placing FSR/E programs under 7. Impact on agricultural policy is expectations (Baker and research rather than extension one area where FSR/E Norman, 1988). may be the preferred mode. programs have not fulfilled their 10. A major difference between FSR/E teams placed under potential. The way results are on-station testing of technology research divisions have better presented is often the key. An and on-farm testing is the value access to research results and honest assessment must be placed on cause/effect relationcan influence priorities easier made as to what extension can ships. On-station trials focus on than those placed under use, what research can use and such relationships, whereas extension. Linkages with what poilcy makers will read. on-farm trials are less controlled. extension are more likely to Executive summaries which Farmer assessments play a key develop due to the location of highlight major points could have role in such trials, which are not FSR/E teams in the field, significant impacts, especially necessarily considered valid to 9



PAGE 1

IDENTIFICATION OF RESULTS OF FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION ACTIVITIES: A SYNTHESIS by Timothy R. Frankenberger Billie R. Dewalt, Harold J. McArthur Robert E. Hudgens, G. Mitawa Kanok Rerkasem, Timothy Finan Cornelia Butler Flora, Noel Young Purpose of the Study there are three boundary issues Extension Systems; 2) improved The purpose of this study was to which confound such assessments: research and extension linkages; 3) review, analyze and document the. retiv triti of technologies tested and adapted; and results of Farming Systems Research 1 Thertiovena reserch and 4) feedback from farmers used. For and Extension (FSR/E) projects/proconventional research and FSRce Africa, the major impacts were: 1) grams that have been implemented complimentary activities; st sharing of FSR/E programs with worldwide. This study focuses on the opienta atiNational Agricultural systems; 2) factors that affect sustainability of 2. The adoption of technologies technology tested and adapted; 3) FSR/E within national agricultural depends upon a wide range of improved research/extension research and extension systems. It circumstances, including the linkages; 4) improved links with seeks to determine the degree to performance of support research; 5) feedback from farmers which externally funded FSR/E systems which are not under used; 6) influenced research projects have assisted in inthe control of FSR teams; design/priorities; 7) improved links stitutionalizing the FSR/E approach 3. Because FSR/E approaches with other institutions; and 8) farmer into these systems, and the extent to encompass technological participation in research. For Latin which governments will support these developments and instituitional America, the major impacts were: 1) activities. The study relied on field change, significant results are cost sharing of FSR/E programs with case studies in Indonesia, not realized until after 10-25 National Agricultural systems; 2) Guatemala, Botswana and CATIE, years. improved research extension and a secondary review of FSR/E Duetothese problems, this study has linkages; 3) inservice training for programs. Key topics addressed in chosen to concentrate on major extension; 4) technology tested and this study within the context of s s a d h adapted; 5) improved links with other institutional sustainability include: of i asociad th i institutions; and 6) feedback from orgainstituzational strustainability ning;clude stitutionalization of FSR/E programs farmers used. For Southeast Asia, organizational structure; training; in Nationnal Agricultural Research the major impacts were: 1) cost content of FSR/E programs; process and Extension Systems. sharing of FSR/E programs with of technology assessment; linkages The majripat r organized sharing of FSR/E programs with of technology assessment ; linkages The major impacts are organized National Agricultural systems; 2) with commodity research programs; under seven headings. These extension; agricultural support include: the organizational integration short-term training; 3) feedback from systems; faculties of agriculture and of FSR/E; cost sharing in the FSR/E farmers used; 4) mproved research/ other government programs; program; short-term and long-term extension linkages; and 5) technology networking; and information training; institutional and internationaltested and adated dissemination. linkages; information dissemination Constras to FE Impacts and public policy; farmer participation; Cosrants t et There are numerous problems and impacts on technology transfer. rogram mplementation associated with measuring the The most important impacts across Overall, the major constraints to technical impact of FSR/E contribuprojects and programs include: 1) FSR/E program implementation tion to small farmer development. As cost sharing in FSR/E programs with across countries were: 1) competition Baker and Norman (1988) point out, National Agricultural Research and with other institutions in the research 8



PAGE 1

on-station researchers. This can Rerkasem, 1988). more than 10 universities in the influence the speed at which 15. Projects that focus on short-term U.S. have established programs research recommendations are technology generation and/or focused on American agriculure passed on to extension. In production objectives may (Baker and Norman, 1988). addition, the need of some impede rather than reinforce the In light of these developments, researchers to determine cause long-term goal of integrating the USAID played a significant role in and effect relationships in concept and methods of the establishing FSR/E programs around on-farm trials has influenced the FSR/E process into the national the world. As a development agency emphasis placed on farmer agricultural system (McArthur responsible for its past initiatives, managed technology validation, and Rerkasem, 1988). backstopping the FSR/E programs in 11. Successful FSR/E programs 16. Networking is a key activity for the form of support for training and tend to have sufficient capital for overcoming methodological networking is a necessary obligation. operating expenses. An stagnation. The training aspects Possible Trends appropriate ratio of expenditures of meetings are extremely Baker and Norman (1988) have for staff and operations will valuable, outlined a number of directions that ensure that on-farm testing is 17. Many FSR/E projects/programs the FSR/E approach has evolved feasible. Expenditures of 90 have not effectively used social toward and speculate on future percent of the budget for salaries science input. Despite the directions. These include the will significantly limit research importance of characterization of following: opportunities. areas, anticipating socio-cultural 1. A narrowly focused FSR/E 12. Expatriate technical assistants problems, and the need for approach which was developed should be directly incorporated baseline studies to be used as at the IARCs has given rise to a into the structure of the research comparisons for evaluations, more comprehensive, longer organization and extension very few social scientists are horizon systems approach. system. They should not be brought into FSR/E programs. 2. Farmer participation in FSR/E placed in richly endowed projects This is due both to a shortage of activities has increased through that have little resemblance to trained personnel as well as time. the working realities of national perceptions on the part of 3. The domination of FSR/E scientists and extension technical scientists. Considerprograms by donor agencies and workers. Attempts should be ation should be given to how expatriate technical assistance made to work within the existing social science input can be has given way to localized resource base. useful to ongoing research programs. 13. Past experience with systems activities after the diagnostic 4. There is declining interest in research can facilitate the phase. describing farming systems, and successful integration of FSR/E 18. In spite of the fact that support increasing interest in pushing programs into the national for FSR/E programs has technologies through the testing agricultural system. increased among national stage and extension. 14. Farmer participation in bottom-up planners in low income countries 5. The evolution of FSR/E has been planning and research is difficult during the 1980s, USAID and heavily influenced by the to achieve within a research other donors began shifting their expanding number of academic system that requires lines of emphasis away from farming professionals representing authority and responsibility to be systems research. This declining several disciplines. These clearly defined by the central support dramatically reduced the academics have shown interest office. Adapting a flexible and pace of FSR/E institutionalization in expanding the focus of FSR/E dynamic bottom-up development after 1985 (Baker and Norman, and placed emphasis on-farmer process to a highly centralized 1988). Despite such reductions, first perspectives. and vertically structured numerous countries around the 6. Bureaucrats in donor agencies research organization is a world have reorganized their and National Agricultural difficult task. In the same way national research organizations Ministers are questioning the that farmers select and modify to accommodate FSR/E. viability and affordability, of technologies to fit their particular Regional networks have been decentralized, bottom-up farming system and resource established such as the Asian approaches to development. base, governments are Farming Systems Network and They would like to see the attempting to adjust and the West African Farming emphasis shift to commodity incorporate the FSR/E process Systems Network to allow focused programs that address within the national agricultural scientists to share experiences national planning goals in high structure (McArthur and and learn new ideas. In addition, pay-off environments. m 10



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FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH PAPER SERIES -ORDER FORM Return to: Distribution Center, Umberger Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66505, USA Hardcopy Microfiche No. of No. of Total Title of Paper copies Cost copies Cost cost 2. Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1981 Farming Systems Research Symposium -Small Farms in a Changing World: Prospects for the Eighties. Edited by Wendy J. Sheppard (April 1982) $ 5.00 $1.50 $_ 3. The Farming Systems Approach to Research (by David W. Norman) and Farming Systems Research and the Land-Grant System: Transferring Assumptions Overseas (by Cornelia Butler Flora) (October 1982-FSR Background Papers) $ 5.00 $0.50 $ 4. A Farming Systems Reseach Bibliography of Kansas State University's Vertical File Materials (Revised). Microfiche Edited by Gretchen A. Graham (July 1986) $10.00 Unavailable $ 5. Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1982 Farming Systems Research Symposium-Farming Systems in the Field. Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora. Compiled by Wendy J. Sheppard (April 1983) $10.00 $2.00 $ 6. Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1982 Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the Farming System. Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora. Compiled by Penny P. Nichols (May 1984) $15.00 $5.50 $_ 7. Third World Women:A Select Bibliography. Compiled by MarthaTomecek $ 2.00 $0.50 $ 8. Farming Systems Research & Extension: Implementation and Monitoring-Abstracts (1984 Symposium Abstracts). Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora (October 1984) $ 2.00 $0.50 $ 9. Selected Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984 Farming Systems Research & Extension Symposium: Implementation and Monitoring. Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora and Martha Tomecek $15.00 $4.00 $ 10. Farming Systems Research & Extension: Management and Methodology-Abstracts (1985 Symposium Abstracts). Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora and Martha Tomecek (October 1985) $ 3.00 $1.00 $ 11. Farming Systems Research & Extension: Management and Methodology (Peer reviewed selections from papers given at Kansas State University's 1985 Farming Systems Research Symposium). Microfiche Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora and Martha Tomecek (August 1986) $10.00 Unavailable $ 12. Farming Systems Research & Extension: Food and Feed-Abstracts (1986 Symposium Abstracts). Microfiche Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora and Martha Tomecek (October 1986) $ 3.00 Unavailable $ 13. Selected Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1986 Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium: Food and Feed. Microfiche Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora and Martha Tomecek $15.00 Unavailable $ 13a Addendum to Selected Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1986 Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium: Microfiche Food and Feed. Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora and Martha Tomecek $ 3.00 Unavailable $_ 14. How Systems Work. Farming Systems Research Symposium 1987: Microfiche Abstracts (October 1987) $ 9.00 Unavailable $ 15. How Systems Work. Proceedings of Farming Systems Research Microfiche Symposium 1987 (October 1987) $25.00 Unavailable $ 16. Contributions of FSR/E Towards Sustainable Agricultural Systems. Farming Systems Research/Extension Symposium 1988: Microfiche Program and Abstracts (October 1988) $ 5.00 Unavailable $_ 17. Contributions of FSR/E Towards Sustainable Agricultural Systems. Farming Systems Research/Extension Symposium 1988: To be Microfiche Proceedings (October 1988) determined Unavailable $ Name SUBTOTAL COSTS $ Foreign Surface Mailing Charge Mailing Address for Hardcopies is $1/copy (total number of copies x$1.00)= $ TOTAL AMOUNT $___ D Check enclosed (payable to KSU) Phone Number Invoice my institution 11



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1989 FSR/E SYMPOSIUM The ninth annual Farming Systems Research/Extenand implemented? Will the system introduced continue sion Symposium, hosted by the University of Arkansas to function successfully on its own, with little or no in collaboration with Winrock International Institute for additional inputs? What are the critical factors at both Agricultural Developmeant, will be held at the Center the micro and macro level which will ensure its ongoing for Continuing Education at the University of Arkansas success? What general recommendations and in Fayetteville October 8-11, 1989. conclusions concerning small farm development have 1989 Themes and Structures emerged from FSR/E? How can these recommendaThe 1989 Symposium will examine the "Impacts of tions be communicatedeffectivelyto project designers, Farming Systems Research/Extension on Sustainable implementors, and policy makers? A small number of Agriculture" first regionally and then globally across the commissioned papers will be presented for each following sub-themes: sub-theme within the regional and global sections of the SFSR/E and the Concepts of Sustainabiity program. The remainder of the program will be The Role of Farming Systems in Sustaining: organized around brief presentations of contributed SThel and Profitability Supapers followed by an open facilitator-led discussion of Productivity and Profitability a given sub-theme in which paper authors will act as Farmer Participation in Agricultural panel discussants. Contributed papers to be included Development in the program will be selected based on abstracts Institutional Development received. Enivronmental Quality Papers are invited which will address the content of a Special Topics each of the sub-themes as follows: Special training courses such as the 1988 "The Microcomputer: Agricultural Applications," will once FSR/E and the Concepts of Sustainability again be offered prior to and following the Symposium, Sustainability in agricultural systems is an issue of both at the University of Arkansas and at other growing interest and concern. How are the key institutions, and will be advertised as they are concepts of sustainability and of FSR/E related? developed. The Symposium itself will officially open with What complimentarities exist? Are there any a reception Sunday night, October 8, and adjourn conflicts? Wednesday evening, October 11, 1989. The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Productivity Feedback from the 1988 Symposium indicated a and Profitability -How can FSR/E contribute to strong support for the focus upon FSR/E from a regional the development of stable and increasingly positive perspective, allowing more attention to the details of input/output relationships and economic profitability concrete systems environments. On Monday, October for agriculture over both the long and short term? 9, 1989, therefore, there will be four concurrent The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Farmer programs, each focusing upon the sub-themes above Participation -How can FSR/E contribute to the within one of the following regions: development of on-going patterns of farmer Africa Latin America participation in the agricultural research and Asia/Near East United States development process? Tuesday and Wednesday, October 10-11, the The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Institutional sub-themes will be addressed from a broader global Development -How can FSR/E best support perspective. Emphasis will be placed on presentations institutional development, and contribute to which offer a synthesis of issues within a given building strong, stable, and sustainable institutional sub-theme, cutting across regional differences, structures for agriculture? Call for Papers a The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining EnvironAll papers submitted for consideration are requested mental Quality -What can FSR/E contribute to to address the main theme of "Impacts of Farming building patterns of agricultural production and Systems Research/Extension on Sustainable resource use that not only do not degrade, but Agriculture". Were planned improvements fully adopted actually enhance environmental quality? 3



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CALL FOR PRE-SYMPOSIUM AND POST-SYMPOSIUM SPECIAL TRAINING OFFERINGS Special Training Offerings are to be presented pre-symposium October 2-6 or post-symposium October 12-17 on topics related to farming systems research. Training duration may be several days to a full week. Training offerings will be subject to review by the Symposium Planning Committee. Please use attached form to submit Special Training Offerings and your estimated fees. You may use additional sheets if necessary. Training offerings should be self-sustaining and contribute to the total Symposium interchange. Suggested budget considerations: room fees, equipment fees, honorarium, others. The deadline for proposed symposium offering is May 1, 1989. Notification of acceptance and preliminary logistical planning will begin June 30, 1989. Title of Training: Presenters: Address: Phone: Telex: Fax Number: SYNOPSIS OF TRAINING OFFERING Request Pre-Symposium Request Post-Symposium (circle one) Number of days Estimated Fee Maximum Participants Minimum Participants Training to be supported by: participant fees grant other sources Estimated Budget Summary: (use additional paper if needed) Return to: Nancy Christman, University of Arkansas International Agricultural Programs, 300 Hotz Hall Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 USA Telephone 501-575-6857 Telex 314000 FAX 501-575-5055 7



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ABSTRACT RETURN FORM 1989 FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION SYMPOSIUM (Please complete both sides of this form) NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF AUTHORS Senior author: (Surname first) Institution Mailing Address: Telex Telephone Number/FAX Second author: (Surname first) Institution Mailing Address: Telex Telephone Number/FAX Third author: (Surname first) Institution Mailing Address: Telex Telephone Number/FAX TYPE OF PAPER TO BE PRESENTED (CHECK ONLY ONE BOX BELOW) Sub-theme Regional Focus Global/Synthesis FSR/E and the Concepts of Sustainability [ ] [ ] The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Productivity and Profitability [ ][ ] The Role of FSR/E in sustaining Farmer Participation [ ] [ ] The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Institutional Development [ ] [ ] The Role of FSR/E in Sustaining Environmental Quality [ ] [ If regional in focus, indicate region: Who will present the paper? Paper Session or Poster session Language of Presentation NATURE OF TRAVEL SUPPORT NEEDED As in the past, travel support will be very limited. Please indicate what your travel needs would be if your paper is accepted: Would you require support to attend? yes no If yes, please complete the REQUEST FOR TRAVEL SUPPORT form. ABSTRACT Write an abstract of your paper or presentation, and attach it to this ABSTRACT INFORMATION FORM. Abstract should be no shorter than 1 page and no longer than 3 pages. 5



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-i Number 1, 1989 The First in a Series of Four Farming Systems Research-Extension Newsletter INVITATION TO HOST 1988 FSR/E Symposium: CONTRIBUTIONS OF FSR/E FUTURE SYMPOSIA TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS On behalf of the Ad Hoc Task The Farming Systems Research and establishing a natural linkage Force on an Association for Extension (FSR/E) Network held its between FSR/E and sustainable Sustainable Farming Systems Research/Extension, universities 8th Annual Symposium, October agriculture. Among them, Charles and other institutions which are 9-12, 1988 in Fayetteville, Arkansas, Francis, from the University of interested in possibly hosting the supported by USAID, Ford FoundaNebraska, stated: 'The future Sustainable Farming Systems tion, Rockefeller Foundation, USDA success of agriculture to provide food Symposium in 1990 or 1991 are and the Farm Foundation. Program and income will depend on our ability requested to make themselves emphasis included four major to develop sustainable crop and known. sub-themes: animal production systems... The The series of Farming Systems process of resource and need Symposia was started at Kansas 1) FSR/E accomplishments in the identification, farmer and scientist State University, which hosted field; evaluation of alternatives, local the first six annual meetings. The 2) methodologies for assessing involv t in teti vle yof Arkansas and the impact of FSR/E; involvement in testing viable options, University of Arkansas and the impact of FSR/E; and ownership of the activity through Winrock International invited the 3) gender and intra-household a nersh o te ntiay th Symposium to Fayetteville for the issues in FSR/E; and all its stages -essentallythe FSR/E sessions in 1987, 1988, and 1989, 4) the role of information/conmodel -is proving more effective and the first two of those have munication systems in FSR/E than conventional (approaches) to been successfully completed. increase productivity (and income) During the 1989 Symposium, A notable aspect of the program over a wide range of situations." scheduled for 8 to 11 October, it included a full day of concurrent is planned to have a business regional sessions: Africa, Asia, Latin Special Reports Highlighted meeting which might organize an America, and the United States. The Three invited speakers attracted association. The association United States was considered as a the central attention of Symposium would function to enhance future region to explore, among other participants: Timothy Frankenberger, symposia, as well as other means concerns, the ways in which FSR/E Kerry Byrnes, and Deborah for exchanging information experiences in lesser developed Merrill-Sands. Timothy FrankenSustainable Farming Systems countries can be applied within the berger, representing the Farming Research and Extension. context of USDA's Low Input and Systems Network Steering CommitHowever, since decisions Sustainable Agriclture initiative. In tee, shared the main findings of the regarding the site of future addressing the question; "Should "Asessment of FSR/E Experiences", meetings, the timing of such FSR/E methodologies differ when a study sponsored by USAID's meetings (annual or biennial, applied to the U.S. setting?," Bureau of Science and Technology. etc.), and financial arrangements discussants concluded that FSR/E Kerry Byrnes, from USAID's Bureau require significant lead time, this practices are basic, applicable to U.S. for Program and Policy Coordination, invitation is intended to faciliate agriculture without modification, and, Center for Development Information a head start in the process, therefore, the Low Input and and Evaluation, presented the Interested institutions should Sustainable Agriculture initiative primary conclusions from the study make their potential availability Sustainable Agriculture initiative primary conclusions from the study known to George H Axinn, who could benefit directly from experience "Synthesis of AID Experiences: is serving as Chairperson of the elsewhere. FSR/E." Deborah Merrill-Sands, from ad hoc Task Force. In addressing the main theme of ISNAR (International Service for Dr. George H. Axinn, Professor, Dept the Symposium -Contributions of National Agricultural Research), of Resource Development, 323 Natural FSR/E Towards Sustainable spoke on the lessons from a Resources Bldg., Michigan State Agricultural Systems -a number of nine-country study on "Assessing the University, East Lansing, MI 48824 presenters made a case for Institutional Impact of On-Farm,



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Farming Systems Research-Extension Newsletter INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3028 McCarty Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611 The FSRE Newsletter is supported in part by a grant (58-319R-9-003) from the Office of International Cooperation and Development (an agency of the USDA) and through the Office of International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE (ODI) AGRICULTURAL ADMINISTRATIVE NETWORK SEEKS ANNOUNCEMENT LITERATURE ON FARMER PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH Call for Papers and References In 1987, ODI published a review spin-offfrom this process, we shall be Scholarly papers on and referentitled "Farmer Participatory mailing a print out of the full ences to ethnoveterinary medicine Research: A Review of Concepts and bibliographic details (including (folk knowledge and practices of animal health and disease) are Practices". This appeared as Network abstracts) to contributors and to all being sought for publication of an Discussion Paper No. 19 and formed members of the network. annotated bibliography and prepthe subsequent background paper for In this connection, we need to be aration of an interdisciplinary anRobert Chamber's Workshop at IDS certain of having afull and up-to-date thology on the subject worldwide. in July 1987 ("Farmers and a set of material as possible. We This effort is directed by Dr. med vet E. Mathias-Mundy, with the asAgricultural Research: Complemenshould therefore like to request: sistance of C. M. McCorkle, PhD, tary Methods") and for the ILEIA April copies of any published or and T. Schillhorn van Veen, DVM. 1988 workshop ("Operational unpublished material authored by Interested parties should contact Approaches for Participative yourself in this area, additional to Dr Mathias-Mundy at: CIKARD Technology Development in what you might already have sent for Agricultural and Rural DevelopSustainable Agriculture"). The paper us. ment), 318 Curtiss Hall, Iowa State has subsequently been expanded University, Ames, IA 50011, USA, and updated, and appeared as ODI updates on any changes to the Phone 515/294-0938. 0 Occasional Paper No. 17 in October bibliographic details of what you 1988. may have already sent us. FSRE TRAINING Some of the material reviewed in 0 pointers to other work in this field MATERIALS AVAILABLE Discussion Paper 19 was abstracted (with photocopies of literature, if four-volume set of material developed at the time (Network Paper No. 22) possible) so that we can broaden for training professionals in farming but ODI is now undertaking a more the coverage of our abstracting. systems research and extension is ambitious program of abstracting available from Media Marketing, P.O. material -particularly grey literature -Send farmer participatory research Box 926, Gainesville, Florida 32602. on farmer particiatory research. The literature to: The $175 set includes volumes on ans are t eterpautory, t e, A Amn Net diagnosis in farming systems researach, plans are to enter author, title, Agricultural Administration Network design techniques for on-farm exkeywords and abstracts into ODI's Overseas Development Institute perimentation, analysis and interpretacomputer system, so that the material Regent's College, Inner Circle tions of on-farm experimentation, and a can be computer searched. As a Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS trainer's manual. s



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ABSTRACT INFORMATION (continued) Title of paper on Presentation: Please repeat surnames of authors: Please give two to four key words describing the paper or presentation: Has the paper you propose to present at the Symposium been published previously?__ If yes, please list. Have other publications been generated by your paper or from your research?_ If yes, please list. What was the time period of your research (please include actual dates of project/research)? Was research conducted in the field? Who are potential users of this information? What was your relationship to the activity? Consultant Graduate Student Other Please list methodologies used for research. Briefly state findings of your research. What regions were represented in your research? Complete and mail this form (attached to a written abstract of 1 to 3 pages) to: FSR/E Symposium International Agricultural Programs Office 300 Hotz Hall University of Arkansas Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, USA Telex 314000 6



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Poster Presentations and into which sub-theme it falls. If it is regional, please The presentation of research results and projects, write in the region. and the opportunity to talk informally with project Authors/presenters will be notified by June 30 of their personnel in attendance, will be accomplished by selection for participation in the 1989 Symposium .A organizing poster sessions in the late afternoon and preliminary program and Symposium pre-registration evening of Tuesday, October 10. No competing information will be mailed in July. Registration fees will programs or sessions will be scheduled during that time. be $190.00 for non-students and $100.00 for students. Posters will all be presented at the same location, with Late registration will begin September 15. After that, authors/presenters present at designated times during fees will increase to $235.00 and $125.00 respectively. the poster session period for discussion of their project. All papers to be considered for publication must be Individuals or groups are invited to make more than one received in final form at the time of the Symposium. All presentation. Symposium papers, whether presented or not, and .submitted 30 days prior to the Symposium, will be Publication of Abstracts/Proceedings available to the extent possible at a local copying service All abstracts submitted by the deadline and selected indexed by key words for individual purchase. for presentation will be published for distribution at the Symposium. Selection of papers for publications in the Travel Support 1988 Symposium proceedings will be based strictly For those requiring travel support in order to attend upon post-symposium peer review. All papers must the 1989 Symposium, you must include a valid telex, be received in final form at the time of the telephone or FAX number where you may be reached. Symposium to be considered. Only a limited number The request for support form is attached. Contact of papers will be published, thus acceptance for information is imperative. Only those submitting this presentation does not assure publication in the information will be considered for funding. proceedings. Deadlines and Procedures For Further Information All abstracts must be submitted as a minimum of 1 Contact Ms. Pamela Styles, Symposium Coordinator, page (maximum of 3 pages) no later than May 1,1989 International Agricultural Programs Office, 300 Hotz and must be accompanied by a completed Abstract Hall, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas Information Form. Please pay attention to the type of 72701. Telephone 501-575-6857, FAX 501-575-5055 presentation, indicating whether it is regional or global and Telex 314000. -----------------------------------------------------REQUEST FOR TRAVEL SUPPORT 1989 FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION SYMPOSIUM Name: Institution: Mailing Address: Telex Number: Telephone Number: (Country code, city code, number) FAX Number: Do you require partial __ or full __ support? (Country code, city code, number) Origin of Travel? Dates of Travel? (departure date) (return date) Were you funded for the 1988 Symposium: yes__ no__ If yes, full orpartialsupport? In order to be considered for support you must complete all information on this form. Please be sure to give only current information so that we may contact you in the fastest possible manner. Mail this form along with your abstract form to: FSR/E Symposium, International Agricultural Programs Office, 300 Hotz Hall, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 USA ATTN: Pamela Styles 4