Latin America's agricultural development...
 Regional roots and impact of FSRE...
 AFSRE draft constitution
 Publications, news and notes
 Conferences, training and...

Title: Association of Farming Systems Research-Extension newsletter
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071919/00006
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Title: Association of Farming Systems Research-Extension newsletter
Alternate Title: AFSRE newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Association of Farming Systems Research-Extension
Publisher: Association of Farming Systems Research-Extension
Place of Publication: Tucson AZ
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Research -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Research -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 1 (1993); title from caption.
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Table of Contents
    Latin America's agricultural development in perspective, by Edgardo R. Moscardi
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Regional roots and impact of FSRE in Asia, by Terd Charoenwatana
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    AFSRE draft constitution
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Publications, news and notes
        Page 9
    Conferences, training and outreach
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
Full Text



Edgardo R. Moscardi 2
Since the 1950s, marked economic changes have
taken place in Latin America. The import
substitution strategy of the 1960s and the export
promotion policies of the 1970s promoted the
development of the industrial sector at the expense
of the agricultural sector. Overall in Latin America,
agriculture's contribution to the GNP dropped from
21 percent in the 1950s to the current level of only
10 percent.
The failure of the 1960s and '70s economic
models became obvious in the 1980s; indeed, the
economic stagnation led some to refer to the 1980s
as the "lost decade." Downward economic trends,
along with structural problems related to the debt
situation, have combined to make Latin America the
hardest hit region in terms of permanent fiscal
deficits, hyperinflation, unemployment, and the
explosion of parallel and informal economies. The
result has been decapitalization and recession in the
In terms of agricultural development and
education, however, all is not lost. In spite of
economic models biased against agriculture, this
sector outperformed all others in almost every
country in the region. The agricultural sector also
expanded its linkages with other sectors and
services. Furthermore, agroindustry grew in the
region and was associated with the observed growth
in the manufacturing sector. Taken as a whole, the
agricultural sector has been not only efficient, but
also quite dynamic.
Reforming inefficient policies of the past has
been the theme for the 1990s in most Latin
American countries. Progress has been made in
"getting prices right," in liberalizing policies toward
more open markets, and in trade integration with
the emergence of new megamarkets (e.g., the Free
Trade Agreements involving Mexico, the US, and
Canada, and the MERCOSUR agreement involving
the southern cone countries).
SPaper presented at the Twelfth Annual Association for
Farming Systems Research-Extension Symposium, Michigan
State University, East Lansing, September 13-18, 1992.
2 Institute Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas (IICA)
Representative in Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Carrera 30-
Calle 45, Apartado Aereo 14592, Bogota, Colombia.

Volume 4,
Number, 1994

for Farming Systems Research-Extension Newsletter

Latin America's Agricultural
Development in Perspective
by Edgardo R. Moscardi ........................ 1
Regional Roots and Impact
ofFSRE in Asia
by Terd Charoenwatana ........................3
AFSRE Draft Constitution ......... 7
Publications, News & Notes .....9
Conferences, Training
& Outreach...........................10
These new policies demonstrate an
understanding of the vital role of the
agricultural sector in Latin American
economic development. Technological
progress in agriculture has been recognized
as the engine to overall economic growth.
Agricultural productivity has been identified
as the key to increases in food supply that
will be needed (Petit and Anderson, 1991).
Technological change in food grains has been
recognized as an important element in
alleviating poverty in many countries,
particularly in Asia. In Latin America's new,
more open economies, however, increases in
agricultural productivity will not necessarily
lead to a reduction in poverty because
increases in agricultural productivity in open
economies are less likely to be translated into
lower prices for consumers (Byerlee, 1991).
In order for Farming Systems Research-
Extension (FSRE) to remain relevant and
productive in this region, FSRE scholars must
be aware of the implications of these
Along with policy reforms, there are two
other strategic considerations that
development specialists must focus on when
looking to the future: institution building/
enhancement and natural resource
management. First, the number of national
and regional agencies dedicated to the
development of the agricultural sector has
increased greatly. The quality of governance
of some of these institutions, however, gives
one no great cause for comfort (Petit and
Anderson, 1991). Ruttan (1991) has
encouraged the development of "incentive

* We needyour
vote on
stitution by
June 30.
Please see
pages 7-8 and
enclosed ballot
* Important
AFSRE news,
page 9

TheAssociationforFarming Systems Research-Extension is an internationalsociety organized topromote the development and dissemination ofmethods and
results ofparticipatory on-farm systems research and extension. The objective of such research is the development and adoption through the participation by
farm household members-male andfemale--of improved and appropriate technologies to meet the socioeconomic needs offarm families; adequately supply
globalfood, feed, and fiber requirements; and utilize resources in a sustainable and efficient manner.

compatible institutions" that involve a more
complex understanding of both private and social
objectives related to sustainable development. The
second area of concern, natural resource
management, has become more crucial since
agriculture has been identified as the new engine
of economic growth. Agricultural intensification
and specialization could have a dangerous impact
on the natural resource base. FSRE in particular,
and agricultural research in general, has often
been overly dominated by shortsighted methods.
Technological progress can be an important
"Trans- element in sustaining the resource base, both
directly by developing "environmentally friendly"
formation technologies and indirectly by reducing the
S pressure to occupy more marginal lands (Byerlee,
ofthe 1991).
economies, For Latin America, the perceived problems and
circumstances of agricultural research and
along extension have changed significantly in the last 20
with the years. Many low- and middle-income countries
have experienced a transformation of their
development agricultural sector through technological change.
In these countries, the necessary technological
of more progress for the future, at least for grains, is likely
commercial to be that of the post-Green Revolution type,
which is much more knowledge- and skill-
agriculture, intensive than in the past. Moreover, in those
countries incomes have now reached a level at
... i likely which food grains tend to decline as a share of
to bring both farmers' income and consumers'
expenditures. Consequently, a natural process of
important diversification has started, in which consumers
demand higher-value food products such as fruits,
changes at vegetables, meat, and milk (Byerlee, 1991).
the farming- This transformation of the economies, along
with the development of more commercial
system level." agriculture (domestic as well as export-oriented),
is likely to bring important changes at the farming-
% system level. First, these changes will probably
result in less varied products, more monoculture,
and increased agricultural intensification. Second,
and closely related, FSRE will need to develop
technologies that are appropriate with regard to
environmental, gender, and other issues. Third,
several agricultural research foundations have
been created at various levels; their directing
boards include farmers and other social actors.
These organizations must be encouraged to use
appropriate incentives and to play an integrative
role. Finally, agribusiness has expanded yet
remains insignificant considering its potential. Each
of these areas must be monitored closely.
These developments demonstrate the need to
spread on-farm and FSRE methodologies in the
region. FSRE progress to date is notable; most
agricultural research institutes in Latin America
have integrated some form of on-farm or FSRE
methods into their programs. Also, many former
trainees of on-farm research (OFR)/FSRE courses
and seminars now hold important positions in
local research institutes and experimental stations.

However, in looking toward the future, we must
analyze past weaknesses. FSRE has been criticized
for becoming an end in itself rather than serving as
a means for improving the research process. The
shortsightedness of this approach is obvious.
Withdrawal of support from international centers
has created uncertainty concerning the role of FSRE
and has limited future training possibilities. Also,
projects requiring increased monitoring and field
presence have suffered due to lack of funding for
operational expenses. Although these aspects of
FSRE have been criticized, and some FSRE projects
have been poorly implemented, there are many
more examples of high-quality FSRE work that have
achieved our goal of delivering "really improved"
technologies to small-scale farmers. Assessing past
weaknesses will enable FSRE to remain innovative
and to meet the new challenges associated with
shifting economic trends in Latin America.
In light of the changes facing agricultural
research and technology transfer, FSRE will need to
develop and enhance backward and forward links.
To ensure the incorporation of a longer term
vision, applied and strategic research-backward
linkages-must be enhanced. In terms of second-
generation inputs and new management practices
associated with developing agriculture, FSRE needs
to improve the forward linkages associated with
technology transfer and technical assistance.
Traditionally, links between FSRE and other
scholars involved in the research process have
been weak. The new demands of agricultural
research and extension require the development of
incentives, institutional as well as monetary, to
strengthen such links.
One of FSRE's strengths has been identifying the
need to organize agricultural development efforts
around a clear understanding of local farmers'
conditions and priorities. As beneficial as this
approach has been, it has, unfortunately, created a
tendency for FSRE teams to be dominated heavily
by social scientists. It is now clear that greater
benefit will be gained from a more
multidisciplinary approach to agricultural research
and extension. The research agenda has expanded
to incorporate new dimensions, such as sustainable
agriculture, which will require that FSRE teams be
much more multi- and interdisciplinary than in the
In many areas of Latin America, a new and more
complex generation of inputs and management
practices are playing an increasingly important role
in agricultural productivity. It has been argued that
in periods of dynamic agricultural growth, such as
Latin America's current opening of markets and
enactment of free trade agreements, farmers are
continually in a state of disequilibrium (Schultz,
1975). In order to improve the efficiency of a wider
array of inputs and to maintain the momentum of
post-Green Revolution agriculture, investments in
information dissemination and the improvement of
farmers' skills are essential (Byerlee, 1987).

A second challenge confronting FSRE is to
improve the effectiveness of interinstitutional
arrangements and the efficiency of resource use.
Several recent studies (e.g., two large studies by the
International Service for National Agricultural
Research) have established a framework for
correcting these problems; however, they have yet
to have any major impact on work at the ground
These issues point to a third challenge for FSRE:
training, in-service as well as graduate. With the
withdrawal of support from international centers
and external donors, opportunities for training have
been reduced. A more systematic approach is
needed for both short-term training in the
perspectives and methods of FSRE, and for graduate
training, in which empirical research can help FSRE
practitioners and managers face the challenges of
modern agriculture.

Byerlee, D. 1987. Maintaining the momentum in post-Green
Revolution agriculture: A micro-level perspective from Asia.
Michigan State University International Development Paper
Byerlee, D. 1991. Responses. In International agricultural
research: The next 25 years. On the occasion of CIMMYT's
(Centro Intemacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo) 25th
anniversary, 1966-1991. Mexico, DF: CIMMYT.
Petit, M., and J.R. Anderson. 1991. Agricultural development in
the Third World: Recent past and future directions. In
International agricultural research: The next 25 years. On
the occasion of CIMMYT's 25th anniversary, 1966-1991.
Mexico, DF: CIMMYT.
Ruttan, V.W. 1991. Challenges to agricultural research in the
21st century. In P.G. Pardey et al., eds., Agricultural
research policy. International Service for National
Agricultural Research.
Schultz, T.W. 1975. The value and the ability to deal with
disequilibria. Journal of Economic Literature 13:827-846.


Terd Charoenwatana2
Academic institutions-traditionally discipline
oriented, with highly specialized staff-often
generate information and research that are not
relevant to the farm environment and consequently
are not readily accepted by farmers, particularly
those with limited resources. The farming systems
research-extension (FSRE) approach was
developed as an alternative, to generate
technologies suitable to small farm environments.
It focuses on the farm household, views the farm
and its larger environment in a holistic manner,
and involves interdisciplinary teams of natural and
social scientists.
The FSRE approach has been used widely by
Asian researchers, and the scope of agricultural
research programs and disciplines involved has
been broadened. Research is now carried out in
farmers' fields with their participation, as well as in
experimental farms.

After World War II, remarkable progress in crop
intensification took place in Taiwan. Intercropping,
relay cropping and sequential cropping methods,
developed for irrigated, subtropical areas, allowed
Taiwanese farmers to grow as many as five crops
per year in the same field.
These developments could not be wholly
transferred to the humid tropics. Intensive farming
systems research in tropical Asia started in 1964,
when the International Rice Research Institute
(IRRI) initiated programs in rice-based cropping
systems. Early studies at IRRI showed that
intensive multiple cropping could significantly
increase food production and farmers' income. In
1975, IRRI established the Asian Cropping Systems
Network, in which several Asian nations would
collaborate to develop and test cropping patterns
suitable to local environments.
Considerable multiple-cropping research for
rain-fed areas has been done on the Indian
subcontinent. With Ford Foundation support,
Chiangmai University in Thailand started a
cropping systems program for irrigated areas in
1969, and Khon Kaen University started a program
for rain-fed land in 1975. Multiple-cropping
research projects were started in The Philippines,
Indonesia (with IRRI's assistance), and Thailand
(by the Department of Agriculture, with assistance

Paper presented at the Twelfth Annual Association for
Farming Systems Research-Extension Symposium, Michigan
State University, East Lansing, September 13-18, 1992.
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, and Director,
Research and Development Institute, Khon Kaen University,
Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

from the International Development Research
Centre (IDRC) and IRRI. By the early 1970s, most
Asian countries recognized the importance of
cropping systems research, and many FSRE
research and training institutions had been
established (see lists of Asian FSRE units and
networks on pages 5-6).
Changes have occurred in all stages of FSRE
procedures: site description and diagnosis, research
design and testing, and research dissemination. The
most important effects, as observed by Zandstra
(1991), are as follows:
Description and diagnosis: Site description and
diagnosis have evolved from a formal survey
approach to a more interactive process involving
"In all Asian farmers and other key informants (Collinson, 1979;
Rhoades, 1985). Agroecosystem analysis, consisting
countries, of three basic steps-system definition, pattern
population analysis, and research design and implementation-
provides an overview of target areas, resource
pressure and availability, constraints, and opportunities for
improvement. During the 1980s, further
environmental refinements of agroecosystem analysis and rapid
degradation rural appraisal placed greater emphasis on the
linkages between systems at the field, farm, village,
are now and region levels (Conway, 1986). The use of "key
questions" in agroecosystem analysis (Conway,
endangering 1986) or decision trees and problem ranking have
agricultural helped identify problematic areas. For crops and
most livestock, the important production
productivity, constraints are relatively well established. The
farm opportunities available to remove production
arm constraints, however, should be defined in the
incomes, context of the prevailing environmental, market,
and policy conditions.
and food Design: The planning of research strategies remains
prices weak. Procedures for designing technology and
evaluation systems still do not sufficiently reflect
concerns for the sustainability and stability of
%o production systems. The problems are partly due
to the complexity of measuring sustainability.
Simulation models can help in the design of new
farming systems. The combination of simulation
models with the Geographic Information System
(GIS) should allow better estimation of the
performance of systems. Farmer participation is
also important in the design of technology and
evaluation systems (Fujisaka, 1989). With farmer
participation, research is more clearly focused on
farmers' constraints and opportunities.
Testing: The process of technology testing also has
changed greatly, moving from experimental farms
to on-farm trials with farmer participation. On-farm
testing with farmer participation is important to
identify technologies suitable to local
environments. Thus, if the trial is implemented by
researchers, farmers should be invited to take part.
Ideally, all trials should be designed by both
researchers and farmers.

In all Asian countries, population pressure and
environmental degradation are now endangering
agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food
prices. New, sustainable farming systems are
needed. The Asian Farming Systems Association
recommends strengthening support for FSRE, but
with more attention to its efficiency and impact,
and has proposed the following guidelines for
developing FSRE in Asia:
Broadening the scope of FSRE. FSRE should include
more farm enterprises, work more readily at the
family, village, agroecosystem, or watershed level,
and take into account nontechnical factors such as
institutional constraints and agricultural policy.
Affecting policy. Research focusing on resource
conservation can generate recommendations that
endanger the economic interests of low-income
farmers. Researchers must be careful to weigh the
likely distribution of benefits arising from resource-
conserving innovations.
Incorporating externalfactors. FSRE practitioners have
typically given inadequate attention to transaction
costs, common property resources, pricing policies,
and other external factors that can cause private
and social costs or benefits to diverge. Policies to
address land degradation, agroecosystem diversity,
and links between agriculture and global pollution
will have increasing impact on farming systems.
Setting priorities for expansion of FSRE programs. This
will require careful matching between specific
FSRE approaches and institutional restrictions,
environmental conditions, etc.
Involving farmers. Sustainable practices often have
their roots in farmers' experiments and
recommendations. Farmers can also train other
farmers and collect and report data.
Working for sustainability. Researchers and research
managers must understand and examine
agroecosystem diversity, links between agricultural
enterprises, and the vulnerability of agricultural
systems to global pollution and climate change.
FSRE offers methods for assessing changes in
farmers' circumstances over time, and should be
especially useful in recommending strategies for
Integrating systems. As sustainability becomes more
important to FSRE, so does the notion of
"biological restructuring" of farm enterprises, which
emphasizes nutrient and energy cycling, requires
integration of new enterprises, and maximizes the
recycling of waste and by-products.
Building models Researchers should take care not to
become overly reliant on formal models, and
modelers should be aware of the need for
substantial farmer input.
Assessing impact. There has been relatively little
documentation of the impact of FSRE at the farm
level, and few FSRE practitioners are familiar with
monitoring and evaluation procedures. Far more
attention must be paid to impact assessment.

Understanding and emphasizing the role of women.
This is particularly important in ecological
restoration and income generation when food or
cash is scarce. Research managers must incorporate
women's needs into research design and evaluation,
target women as beneficiaries of FSRE activities, and
work to increase women's participation as FSRE
Strengthening research links between FSRE researchers
and disciplinary and commodity scientists. The
challenge is to convince disciplinary scientists of the
value of a systems perspective, and of the
importance of FSRE tools and concepts.
Working more directly with extension services. This will
require streamlined procedures. Farmers themselves
can perform more extension functions through
farmer-to-farmer training.
Teaming up with NGOs When research resources are
limited, nongovernment organizations can help
government FSRE programs direct technology-
generation activities toward small farmers and can
foster creativity in the development of FSRE
Improving training. The new directions suggested for
Asian FSRE will require FSRE professionals to
develop new skills. Universities and agricultural
education systems must be prepared to meet this
* Multiple Cropping Centre, Chiangmai University,
Thailand. Interdisciplinary, system-oriented research
on irrigated areas of northern Thailand, particularly
the Chiangmai Valley, started here in 1969, funded
by the Ford Foundation. later work has included
the incorporation of system and ecological
concepts, training in human ecology, agroecosystem
analysis, a Master's degree in agricultural systems
for international students, and short-term training
Farming Systems Research Project, Khon Kaen
University, Thailand. The program began in 1975.
Ford Foundation and USAID have supported
projects in cropping systems, rural systems, and
FSRE, including animal subsystems and work to
better integrate social and natural scientists. The
university has also played an important role in
spreading the approach in Thailand and
incorporating new elements into FSRE, including
human ecology, agroecosystem analysis, rapid rural
appraisal, and anthropological study of farmers'
Farming Systems Research Institute (FSRI),
Department of Agriculture, Ministry ofAgriculture
and Cooperatives, Thailand. FSRI was established in
1982. Its roles include (1) conducting on-farm
interdisciplinary research and referring specific
problems to other units of the Department of
Agriculture; (2) examining specific cropping
patterns and integrated farming; and (3) studying
crop-animal integration. Several research units are
located in different parts of the country. In 1976,

before the FSRI was established, the Rice Division
of the Department of Agriculture launched a joint
project with Kasetsart University on rice-based
cropping systems, supported by the International
Development Research Centre (IDRC) and closely
linked to the cropping systems program of IRRI
through the Asian Cropping Systems Network. A
variety of rice-based cropping systems as well as
component technologies were evaluated on-farm in
the Northeast and Central regions of Thailand.
* Farming Systems Research Project, Prince of
Songkbla University, Songkhla, Thailand. With the
support of the French government, the Faculty of
Natural Resources started an FSRE project in 1982
using the francophone approach. Lately, FSRE
activities have declined as French support has been
terminated. However, the systems approach is still
used in research and development.
FSRE at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT),
Thailand AIT provides graduate education in
engineering, science, and allied fields. An
interdisciplinary program in Agricultural Systems
began in 1986; the primary focus is on integrated
farming systems involving crops, livestock, and fish.
AIT now offers a Master of Science in Agricultural
* FSRE at the International Rice Research Institute
(IRR), The Philippines. IRRI is a pioneer in systems
approaches to agricultural research and
development and in FSRE (Hoque, 1984; Gomez,
1991). In the late 1960s, IRRI scientists started a
multiple-cropping research program to increase the
productivity of rice-based cropping systems; it has
been accepted widely by IRRI's cooperators in Asia.
IRRI's FSRE has now become integrated into its
major ecosystems-based programs, in close
partnership with national research programs
through research consortia for upland rice, rain-fed
lowland rice, and deepwater and tidal wetland rice
ecosystems. In 1975, IRRI organized the Asian
Cropping Systems Network.
Farming Systems and Soil Resources Institute,
University of The Philippines at Los Batos. The
majority of The Philippines' research in agriculture,
forestry, and rural development are done at the
university. The institute conducts short-term training
and research in farming systems. Much of its
research is designed to intensify land use in areas
devoted to single commodities such as rice,
sugarcane, and coconut (Gomez, 1991).
FSRE in Indonesia. In 1970, on-station multiple-
cropping experiments of IRRI were started at Bogor
(Manwan, 1989). These were followed by
systematic on-farm interdisciplinary work, crop-
livestock research (with IDRC support), the
extension of research to transmigration sites (with
World Bank support), and other projects funded by
USAID. By 1978, there were 25 operational sites on
four major islands. In 1980, the Central Research
Institute of Agriculture became the Central Research
Institute for Food Crops.

* Thailand FSR Network. In Thailand, FSRE has been
conducted for more than 20 years by the Farming
Systems Research Institute (part of the Ministry of
Agriculture and Cooperatives), and by Chiangmai,
Khon Kaen, Kasetsart, and Prince of Songkhla
Universities. Several other organizations conduct
on-farm FSR, usually with foreign support.
The National FSR Coordinating Committee had
organized, by 1991, five national cropping systems
meetings and eight national farming systems
meetings. The Ministry of Agriculture has
incorporated an FSR approach into its commodity
on-farm research and into its extension programs.
* Asian Cropping Systems Network (ACSN). The
network was established at a 1975 IRRI conference
on rice-based cropping systems (Hoque, 1984). It
includes the IRRI Cropping Systems Program and
the national programs of Bangladesh, Burma,
China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, The
Philippines, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
ACSN aims to: develop cropping-systems
technology for Asia's rice-growing areas; support
national cropping-systems programs; enable IRRI to
distribute relevant technology and research
methods; coordinate planning and review between
national programs and IRRI; draw policy and
planning lessons from cropping-systems work in
Asian rice-growing areas; and hold regional and
international meetings on cropping-systems
* Asian Farming Systems Association. Asian
participants at the 1988 AFSRE Symposium
expressed a desire to organize their own
symposium. Two years later, the Asian Farming
Systems Association was founded at the First Asian
Farming Systems Symposium. The second
symposium was held in 1992, and the third will be
held from November 7-10, 1994 in Manila (see
"Call for Papers" in this newsletter, page 9). The
Association also publishes the Journal of the Asian
Farming Systems Association.
* Southeast Asian Uniersities Agroecosystem Network
(SUAN). SUAN is a loose, informal association of
university-based research groups in Indonesia, The
Philippines, and Thailand, founded in June 1982,
which: exchanges information through regional
symposia, meetings, workshops, publications, and
training; conducts collaborative interdisciplinary
research on rural resource problems; and tests new
approaches (e.g., FSR, human ecology,
agroecosystem analysis, and rapid rural appraisal).
The Secretariat is at Khon Kaen University, with the
chair rotating among members: Multiple Cropping
Center, Chiangmai University, Thailand; Farming
Systems Research Project, Khon Kaen; Institute of
Ecology, Padjadjaran University, Bandung,
Indonesia; Institute of Environmental Science and
Management, University of The Philippines at Los
Baios; and the Cordillera Studies Center, University
of The Philippines College Baguio, Baguio City.

The FSRE approach has been institutionalized in
different forms, ranging from individual courses to
Master's degree programs (Gomez, 1991). Master's
programs focus on interdisciplinary systems approaches
to the design, implementation, and evaluation of
research and development programs. The diploma
courses emphasize tools, techniques, and procedures
used by the FSRE approach. Several Asian graduate
degree programs focus on farming systems:
* Master of Science in Agricultural Systems, Asian
Institute of Technology, Thailand. Required courses:
Systems approach to agricultural development, crop
production systems, livestock production systems,
aquaculture systems, and farm economics. One year.
Master of Science in Agricultural Systems,
Chiangmai University, Thailand. Core courses on
agricultural systems; courses on either production or
development; and special topics in agricultural
systems. Two years.
Diploma in Farming Systems Research, Khon Kaen
University, Thailand. One year. This program will
be developed into a Master of Science in Agricultural
Diploma in Agriculture, Major in Farming Systems,
University of The Philippines at Los Banos. Farming
systems was added as a major area in academic year
1991-92. One year.

Collinson, M.P. 1979. Understanding small farmers. Paper
presented at a conference on rapid rural appraisal, Institute
of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK,
December 4-7.
Conway, G.R. 1986. Agroecosystem analysis for research and
development. Bangkok: Winrock International.
Fujisaka, S. 1989. A method for farmer-participatory research
and technology transfer: Upland soil conservation in the
Philippines. Experimental Agriculture 25:423-453.
Gomez, A.A. 1991. Farming systems: Impact on research and
training institutions. Journal of the Asian Farming Systems
Research Association 1:21-28.
Hoque, M.Z. 1984. Cropping systems in Asia: On-farm research
and management. Los Bafos, Laguna, The Philippines:
International Rice Research Institute.
Manwan, I. 1989. Farming systems research in Indonesia: Its
evolution and future outlook. In S. Sukmana, P. Amir, and
D.M. Mulyadi, eds., Development in procedures for farming
systems research: Proceedings of an international workshop,
Bogor, Indonesia, March 13-17. Jakarta, Indonesia: Agency
for Agricultural Research and Development.
Rhoades, R.E. 1985. Informal survey methods for farming
systems research. Human Organization 44(3):215-218.
Zandstra, H.G. 1991. Approach to farming systems research and
extension: Problems and improvements. Journal of the
Asian Farming Systems Research Association 1:101-111.


AFSRE has been formally incorporated in the Philippines. The Board of AFSRE has developed
a proposed Constitution for your consideration as a full member of AFSRE, based on input
from members attending the 1992 and 1993 international symposia. Ratification of the
Constitution, as required by its Article VII, will enable AFSRE to become an organization duly
constituted by its membership. The AFSRE Board would appreciate your reading through this
proposed Constitution carefully, indicating on the enclosed ballot card whether you approve
or disapprove, and then either mailing or faxing the ballot to the address indicated. Please
send your ballot to arrive by June 30, 1994. Thank you for your input.

Association for Farming Systems Research-
Extension (AFSRE), hereafter referred to as "the
The Association for Farming Systems Research-
Extension is an international society organized to
promote the global development, exchange, and
dissemination of methods and results of systems-
based, user-oriented, and participatory research,
extension, and policy support for the sustainable
development of agriculture and natural resources.
The objective of such research, extension, and
policy support is to combine formal scientific
methods and user knowledge to: create
technological innovations for agriculture and
natural resource use; increase user control in the
process of technological change in agriculture and
natural resource use; expand the range of options
for technological change available to users through
user-based policy support; meet the food, feed,
fiber, and socioeconomic needs of users and
consumers; improve the distribution of the benefits
and contribution to well-being of technological
change to all-men and women, young and old-
users; and enhance the long-term sustainability of
the natural and human resources available to users.
The Association pursues its stated goals
through the regular publication of the Journal of
Farming Systems Research-Extension and a
newsletter; through the periodic convening of a
global farming systems symposium; and through
networking activities.
All Board members must be members in good
standing of the Association.
The Board of the Association will meet at
least once at each Symposium, and more
frequently as needs may arise.

Term ofoffice: The President will serve a total of
three years, of which the first year will be as
President-Elect following his/her election, the
second year as President, and the third year as Past
Election: The President will be elected by a
plurality of members who cast ballots in an
election held for that purpose.
Powers and responsibilities: The President will
provide leadership in setting goals for the
Association and assuring its continuity and financial
stability. He/she shall establish policy for the
Association in consultation with the entire Board.
The President will have the authority to
appoint or remove the officers listed in section 3,
The President, President-Elect, and Past
President will share the responsibilities for
symposium planning, fundraising, and membership
promotion, based on mutual agreement after each
election of a new President-Elect.
Term ofoffice: Each regional representative will
serve from one global symposium to the
succeeding global symposium, which will normally
be a period of two years and will not exceed three
Election: Each region, through its regional farming
systems networks and/or associations, will
determine the manner of electing the regional
Powers and responsibilities: Each regional
representative will represent the needs and
interests of his/her region, and convey information,
issues, and policies of the Association to the
region. Each representative will also work to
increase membership from his/her region in the

The five regional representatives will
collectively form a nominations committee to
propose, receive, and screen nominations for the
office of President of the Association, and to receive
expressions of interest to serve in appointed
positions on the board, or on other Association
committees that may be formed from time to time
for specific needs.
The following officers will be appointed by the
a. Secretary-Treasurer
b. Editor
c. Networking Officer
Term of office: The term of office of each
appointed officer will be fixed by mutual agreement
with the President.
Powers and responsibilities:
a.The Secretary-Treasurer will be
responsible for maintaining a list of the membership
of the Association, and for accounting for and
managing income and disbursements of the
b.The Editor will be responsible for
publishing the Journal for Farming Systems
Research-Extension and the Association for Farming
Systems Research-Extension Newsletter, both on a
regular basis each year, as frequently as funds and
material for publication permit.
c. The Networking Officer will be
responsible for communications across the regions,
and for liaisons with other global associations and
networks with related mandates or interests.
The institution or regional association agreeing to
host the Symposium will designate a Chair as part
of its proposal for hosting the Symposium. The
Symposium Chair will work closely with the
President, President-Elect, and Past President in
planning the content and format of the Symposium.
The President, President-Elect, Past President,
Regional Representatives, Secretary-Treasurer,
Editor, and Networking Officer shall form the
Executive Board of the Association, the major
policy-making and governing body of the
Membership is open to all interested parties,
regardless of race, nationality, sex, handicap, age, or
creed, who share an interest in the objectives of the
Association. All individual members who have
registered and whose dues are current will have
voting privileges in the election of the President and
for specific issues that may be put before the
general membership. Annual dues will be assessed
to support the Association and the publication of

the journal and the newsletter. The structure of the
annual dues will be established by decision of the
duly constituted Executive Board.
The Association will sponsor a global Symposium
approximately every two years, and no less
frequently than every three years, with the exact
date established in coordination with the regions
and the hosting institution. Prior to each
Symposium, the Executive Board will solicit
expressions of interest for hosting the succeeding
Symposium, and institutions or regional associations
and/or networks interested in serving as hosts will
be invited by the Board to present their proposal or
proposals for the succeeding Symposium at the
current Symposium.
The Symposium will provide a forum for the
sharing of information, the presentation of reports,
and the expansion of national and international
networks in farming systems research-extension.
The Association will hold an Executive Board
meeting and a general business meeting at each
Symposium. The general business meeting and at
least one session of the Executive Board meeting
will be open to the entire membership of the
The Association will function and be incorporated
as a not-for-profit corporation. The Executive Board
will determine the necessary legal procedures and
make application for the incorporation of the
Association as a not-for-profit, tax-exempt
This Constitution will come into effect when
approved by a majority of the membership who
cast ballots in an election for such purpose. A copy
of the Constitution will be mailed together with a
ballot to all members who have registered and
whose dues are current at the time of preparation of
the ballots, and returned by mail by the members.
This Constitution may be amended by a majority of
the membership who cast ballots in a referendum
for such purpose. Such a referendum may be
initiated by the Executive Board or by a signed
petition of ten (10) percent of the membership in
good standing. A copy of the section of the
Constitution both as in effect at the time of the
referendum and as would be under the proposed
change shall be mailed together with a ballot to all
members who have registered and whose dues are
current at the time of preparation of the ballots, and
returned by mail by the members.

The Board appreciates the nominations for Board
positions that members submitted in response to the
"Call for Nominations" distributed with the last issue of
the Neusletter. It should be clarified that the
President-Elect is the only position for which an
election will be held in the coming year. Elections
for the other positions, using the names submitted, will
be held the following year.
Membership will now follow the calendar year
(1994) rather than the academic year (1993/94). If you
have renewed your membership for 1993/94, thank
you! Your membership will expire on December 31,
1994. If you have not, please use the form on page 12
to register for 1994.
Those who renewed their memberships at the
October, 1993 Florida Symposium are now members
through December 31, 1994. Those who last renewed
their memberships at the Fall, 1992 Michigan
Symposium may vote on the Proposed Constitution but
should renew their memberships as soon as possible.
Volume 4(2) of the Journal of Farming Systems
Research-Extension will be mailed shortly to all whose
memberships are current through the end of 1994.
They will also receive JFSRE4(3), to be published in
the Fall. A new membership year will begin in January,
1995, with JFSRE5(1) to be published in Spring, 1995.
Abstracts of papers and poster presentations are
being accepted for the third Asian Farming Systems
Symposium in Manila, November 7-10, 1994. (See
address and conference description on page 11.)
The Southern Africa Association for Farming Systems
Research and Extension (SAAFSR-E) was formally
established, and a constitution adopted, at a conference
in Mbabane, Swaziland, in June 1993. The six members
of the first Council of the SAAFSR-E represent five
different countries in the region. SAAFSR-E was
incorporated as a non-profit, tax-exempt organization
in Swaziland; a permanent secretariat has been
established there. The organization continues to
publish a newsletter.
Contact: Ted Stilwell, DBSA, P.O. Box 1234,
Halfway House 1685, South Africa, tel. +27 (11) 313-
3138, fax +27 (11) 313-3086.
At the November 1992 all-Africa conference of the
Animal Production Society of Kenya, delegates decided
to form an Africa Society for Animal Production. The
society is currently being organized. Contact: J.E.O.
Rege, International Livestock Centre for Africa, P.O.
Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Reluctant Partners? Non-Goernmental
Organizations, The State, and Sustainable
Agricultural Development

John Farrington and Anthony Bebbington, with Kate
Wellard and David J. Lewis
This is the foundation volume of a four-book set.
Each of the three other volumes focuses on a global
region: Non-Governmental Organizations and the
State in Asia: Rethinking Roles in Sustainable
AgriculturalDevelopment, eds. John Farrington and
David J. Lewis; Non-Governmental Organizations and
the State in Africa: Rethinking Roles in Sustainable
Agricultural Deveopment, eds. Kate Wellard and
James G. Copestake; Non-Governmental
Organizations and the State in Latin America:
Rethinking Roles in Sustainable Agricultural
Development, eds. Anthony Bebbington and Graham
Thiele, with Penelope Davies, Martin Prager, and
Hernando Riveros. Foundation volume 40 hardback,
12.99 paperback. All other volumes 45 hardback,
14.99 paperback. Four-volume hardback set 150.
Contact: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P
4EE, UK, tel. +44 (71) 583-9855.

Systemes agraires, Systdmes deproduction:
VocabulairefranCais-anglais avec index anglais
(Farming Systems and Agrarian Systems: A
French-English Vocabulary with English Index)

Laurence de Bonneval
A French-English specialty dictionary for FSRE
designed as a practical translation aid, this handy
book contains some 2000 main entries in French, with
a comprehensive English index referring back to the
French terms. It explains the main concepts currently
being used in FSRE in both French-speaking and
English-speaking countries.
Contact: INRA Editions, Route de St Cyr, 78026
Versailles Cedex, France, fax +33 (30) 83.34.49.

Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and the
Sustainabilty of Tropical Agriculture

Eds. K. Mulongoy and R. Merckx
This volume contains 37 papers from a 1991
symposium, covering characterization and
quantification of soil organic matter (SOM) processes,
organic inputs and SOM, nutrient cycling and
processes regulating the transformation of SOM, soil
fertility and SOM, and recommendations for future
research. US$15 in developing countries; more
elsewhere. Contact: International Institute of Tropical
Agriculture, PMB 5320, Oyo Road, Ibadan, Nigeria, tel.

I Ner Pubic'ItMIS

+234 (22) 400300/400318, or c/o L.W. lamboum &
Co., Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon CR9
3EE, UK, tel. +44 (81) 686-9031, fax +44 (81) 681-8583.

User-Friendly Irrigation Designs

Nirmal Sengupta
"An account of the little-known irrigation and water
harvesting systems of India. Since the 'modem'
versions of canals and tubewells can barely serve one-
fifth of the total arable areas of a country like India,
the author asserts that the highly scattered traditional
irrigation designs must still be supported and
Anil Shreshta, International Iigation
Management Institute, Nepal.
Indian Rs. 185 from SAGE Publications, P.O. Box
4215, New Delhi 110 048, India, or US$27.50 from
SAGE Publications, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks,
CA 91320, USA. (Courtesy Farmer-Managed
Irrigation Systems Network Newsletter no. 12,
September 1993.)
Community Supported Agriculture
Available, with free access, from Bio-Dynamic
Farming and Gardening Association, P.O. Box 550,
Kimberton, PA 19442, USA, tel. +1 (215) 935-7797.
(Courtesy Alternative Agriculture News, Vol. 11,
No. 12, December 1993)

American Journal of Alternative Agriculture
The most recent issue of this quarterly, peer-
reviewed journal of research on alternative agriculture
includes a study of barriers to low-input agriculture,
farmers' evaluation of agricultural research, and an
examination of alternative and conventional
agriculture policy perspectives. Examination copy
US$6. Contact: Wallace Institute, 9200 Edmonston
Road #117, Greenbelt, MD 20770, USA, tel. +1 (301)
441-8777. (Courtesy Alternative Agriculture News,
Vol. 11, No. 12, December 1993.)





I* -%1--0

The Challengefor Farming Systems
Manila, The Philbpines
November 7-10, 1994
Hosted by the Asian Farming Systems Association
and the Department of Agriculture of The Philippines,
the symposium will address three major themes:
* FSRE, sustainability, conservation, and the
* Institutional evolution: Farming systems, commodity
disciplinary research, and policy initiatives
* Farming systems, equity and gender concerns, and
poverty alleviation.
Selected symposium papers will be published in the
Association's Journal. Very limited funding assistance is
Contact: Symposium Coordinator, AFSS, P.O. Box 70,
Peradeniya, Sri lanka, tel. +94 (8) 88081/88206, fax +94
(8) 32817/88206/32517.
AGRICULTURE : Towards 2000 (ISEAT-2000)
Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
June 5-8, 1994
The symposium will address practical, technological,
and social challenges to environmental agriculture, and
aims to reach an accord that supports the coexistence of
sustainable agriculture with responsible environmental
management and protection. It will examine Pacific Rim
farming policy and work toward "clean agriculture;" the
organizers hope that 50 "practical environmentalists"
who work with farmers will join 250 other participants
from governments, nongovernmental organizations, and
agribusinesses. They invite interested individuals to
Contact: Professor Paul Saffigna, ISEAT-2000, Faculty
of Environmental Sciences, Nathan Campus, Griffith
University, Queensland 4111, Australia, tel. +61 (07) 875-
5332, fax +61 (07) 875-5282.
Diagnosis, Design, and Interpretation
May 2-20, 1994
Dr. Anita Spring and other international FSRE
experts will lead participants in an exploration of the
fundamentals of diagnosis and design of appropriate
technology for different farming systems. The
shortcourse is very participatory in nature and includes
case studies, international models of successful
systems, and field applications. A Rapid Rural

Appraisal of Florida farmers provides practical "hands-
on" experience in interviewing, organizing,
disaggregating by gender, analyzing, and interpreting
farm data from different environments. The fee for the
three week course is US$2,216. See next entry for
contact address.

May 23 -June 3, 1994
This course provides an excellent training
opportunity for research and extension personnel to
learn new, efficient methods for assessing new
technological options. Dr. Peter Hildebrand and other
international FSRE experts will guide participants step by
step through designing, analyzing, and interpreting on-
farm research using calculators and personal computers.
The fee for the two week course is US$1,540.
Contact: Ms. Lisette Staal, University of Florida,
International Training Division, IFAS, P.O. Box 110480,
Gainesville, Florida 32611-0480, USA.

January 9 -July 27, 1995 (English)
February 27 September 14, 1995 (French)
A post-academic course for researchers combining
theoretical studies in France with interdisciplinary group
fieldwork in a developing country. This combination
provides participants with the capacity to analyze
constraints and opportunities for change in agricultural
systems, and to develop appropriate research priorities
and programs.
Requirements: PhD/MSc, two years developing
country experience, age under 40.
The full course fee is Df54,000, including all travel,
accommodations, tuition, and allowances. A limited
number of scholarships are available for candidates
from developing countries, France, The Netherlands,
Switzerland, and the UK. ICRA can arrange co-funding
for candidates whose sponsors cannot pay the full fee.
Contact: Jon Daane, ICRA, P.O. Box 88, 6700 AB
Wageningen, The Netherlands, tel. +31(0)8370-22938,
fax +31(0)8370-27046.

Ibadan, Nigeria
IITA is offering a range of courses for 1994:
* Second quarter: Crop management research on
plantain, banana, and maize
* May 30 June 17: Sustainable food production systems
* July 4-22: Breeding of root and tuber crops
* July: Postharvest technology research and nutrition,
and farmer participatory techniques for alley cropping
* August 1-26: Crop management research for root crops
* September-October: Farmer participatory techniques
for alley farming, crop management research on

cassava and root crops
* September 12-30: Plant genetic resources management
* September 19-30: Agricultural research management
for senior scientists
* Fourth quarter: Crop management research on
plantain and banana
* October 3-28: Biological control of the green cassava
* October 31 November 25: Postharvest technology
for researchers.
Contact: IITA, PMB 5320, Oyo Road, Ibadan, Nigeria,
tel. +234 (22) 400300/400318, or c/o L.W. Lamboum &
Co., Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon CR9
3EE, UK, tel. +44 (81) 686-9031, fax +44 (81) 681-8583.

Tillers focuses on international application of low-
capital, small-scale technologies. Tillers' internship
program provides experience in sustainable agriculture,
international rural development, and historical
interpretation. Interns receive practical, hands-on
training to develop small-scale farming, research,
enterprise, and training skills. In return, they are
expected to do farm work, help with skill instruction,
and develop training materials for Tillers' adaptive
technology transfer activities.
Tillers seeks applicants with skills and experience in
crops, livestock, mechanical work, historical collection,
and organizational development. Skills in drafting,
photography, videotaping, writing, and teaching are also
valued. It also publishes TillersNeus and runs US and
international training, publication, and exchange
To apply for an internship, send a letter of
application, resume and two references to Richard
Rosenberg, Director, Tillers International, 5239 South
24th Street, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49002, USA, tel. +1
(616) 344-3233/342-6040.

Brighton, UK
IDS is offering the following courses for 1994/95:
* May 31 August 19: Women, Men, and
Development: A course for all concerned with
gender equality within social change.
* August (in Ghana): Sub-Saharan Africa: Through
Structural Adjustment to Transformation
* August 22 September 16: Bibliographic
Information on Development
* 19 September 9 December: Food Security in
Africa: Policy Planning and Interventions
* September 19 December 9: Statistics for
Development Policy: A course for the producers
and users of statistical data
* January 9 March 31, 1995: Implementing Health
for All: Health Sector Reform in Primary Health
Contact: Teaching Area, IDS, University of Sussex,
Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RE, UK, tel. +44 (273) 606261,
fax +44 (273) 621202.
\t 11

Institutional Individual Student
United States, Canada, Western Europe,
Japan, Australia, New Zealand $125 $65 $20
All other countries $125 $20 $20
Members receive both the AFSRE Newsletter and the Journal for Farming Systems Research-Extension. Mem-
bership dues can be paid by a check drawn on a U.S. bank or by international money order payable to
Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension in U.S. dollars. Please send membership fees along
with the completed form to:

Dr. Timothy J. Finan, Secretary/Treasurer AFSRE
Department of Anthropology
The University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ 85721 USA

1. Family name

2. First name and middle name or initial

3. Female Male _Age Citizenship

4. Title or position

5. Department

6. Institution

7. Postal mailing address

8. Telephone Fax Telex

9. Primary languages)

10. Other spoken languages (indicate fluent, f proficient, p, basic, b)

11. Other languages read

12. Highest educational degree Discipline

13. Current professional interests

14. Experience: Name of project, capacity, country
15. Would you like to volunteer to serve as an AFSRE country representative to collect association dues in local currency and
forward them, in U.S. dollars, to the treasurer if you can legally do this in your country of residence?
The ASRE Neuetter issupported by a grant from the Ford Foundation; contributions from ASRE members and the Oce ofArid hands Studies, The Unimrsiy ofArizona.
The editors welcoe articles, neuw items, andpublication announcementsfor consideration in future issues.

Timothy R. Frankenberger, Editor
Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension Newsletter
Office of Arid Lands Studies
The University of Arizona
845 N. Park Avenue
Tucson, AZ 85719 USA
Tel.: (602) 621-1955 Fax: (602) 621-3816
Staff. Associate Editors; M. Katherine McCaston, Claude Bart, Jennifer]. Manthei & Daniel Goldstein
Design; Sonia Telesco, Arid Lands Design, 1994


I, a full voting member of the Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension
(AFSRE), hereby indicate my approval or disapproval of the Proposed AFSRE
Constitution, as printed in the Volume 4, Number 3,1994, issue of the AFSRE
Newsletter, as the official Constitution of the AFSRE.

Q Approve

U Disapprove

Please mail or fax this ballot to:
John S. Caldwell
AFSRE Constitution Committee Chair
306E Saunders Hall
Virgini Tech
Blacksburg, VA 24061-0327
Fax +1 (703) 231-3083


AFSRE has been formally incorporated in The Philippines. The Board of AFSRE has
developed a proposed Constitution for your consideration as a full member of AFSRE,
based on input from members attending the 1992 and 1993 international symposia.
Ratification of the Constitution, as required by its Article VII, will enable AFSRE to
become an organization duly constituted by its membership.

The AFSRE Board would appreciate your reading through the proposed Constitution
carefully, on pages 7-8 of this newsletter, indicating on the reverse of this card whether
you approve or disapprove, and then either mailing or faxing the ballot to the address


Thank you for your input.

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