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Inquiry in action

Full Text
Inquiry & Outreach
Consortium for
Sustainable Agriculture -4
Research and Education c
January 1997 Consortium News No. 13
Membership Reminder GPRA Update Searching for the
D o you know if you're a "Or-Word:
CSARE member? In Juli Baker Evaluating the USDA-CRIS
accordance with our new Centerfor Rural Affairs Database for Research Pertinent
member policy, once each year we to Organic Farming
send the Consortium News to the T ast fall, USDA's Research,
non-members as well as the CSARE Education and Economics Mark Lipson, OFRF
members on our mailing list. We L-mission area (REE) released want to share our information, and the completed draft of their Strategic -r e Organic Farming Re we want to encourage you remaining Plan, intended to comply with the 5 search Foundation has non-members to get on board. If 1993 legislation, the Government L recently completed a twoyou find a member form inside this Performance and Review Act, also year study analyzing the "organic issue, it means you're not yet a known as GPRA. This legislation content" of USDA-funded CSARE member because we've mandated that all government research. The National Organic
never received a membership form agencies and programs link their Policy Research Analysis from you. Send it in today! This work activities to real-world out- (NORPA) project was funded by issue continues a January special comes, ensuring that government the Charles Stewart Mott Foundabonus tradition by providing a activities be outcome-based, with tion and the Jesse Smith Noyes
subject and title index of our first performance both measurable and Foundation. The primary goal of dozen issues. Wow! We're begin- accountable to the public. Their this study is to identify federallyning our fourth year of publication. Strategic Plans, the overall mission funded research that is directly Use your member form to request area plan and the individual plans pertinent to the improvement and
back issues if you like. Thanks for formulated by the four program understanding of organic farming your interest and support. areas in REE, are intended to map systems. This study is a practical
out their work outcomes and activi- effort, performed from working What's Inside? ties for the next five years or more. organic farmers' point of view.
Mark Lipson, a working organic
Focus on Nat'l Ag R&E Policy: The CSARE Research Policy Task vegetable farmer and Chair of the
O REE Strategic Plan ............................. 3 Force, with leadership provided by California Organic Foods Advisory
o USDA SAWG Issues Report ............ 2 its co-chairs, Stewart Smith, Univer- Board is the Project Coordinator.
o Science Policy Critiqued ................. 4 sity of Maine, and Bob Gillespie,
O USDA Facilities Review ................. 18 Washington State University, submit- Project Methods: Searching for
O Land Grant Lobbying Tightrope ...... 19 ted a comprehensive response to the the "O"-Word O FundforRural America .................. 19 original draft. After evaluating public To assess the "organic content" of
Shared 4sions ......................................... 5 response to the original draft, REE USDA's research programs, we
Science Issue Round Tables ..................... 5 released its final draft in September used the Internet to search the
Farmer Scientific Societies ..................... 7 of 1996 (see analysis by Smith, this CRIS (Current Research Informaissue). REE's next step to comply tion System) database. We Focus on Change in Extension: with GPRA is to develop perfor- narrowed our initial search by
o Farmers in Transition, ........................ 8 mance objectives for their strategic building a list of 75 keywords,
o Shared Leadership/Responsibility ............ 8 plans. These objectives and perfor- encompassing the topics likely to
0 Can Learning Become the mance measures are being developed include projects that we would
Center ......................................... 9 internally by REE staff. qualify as "organic research".
-0o OTransformingExtension.... 13
GOExtension's Opportunities... 14 Querying the database with these
ORole in Information Transfer...15 During the last six months, REE staff keywords produced approximately 0 have focused on one of the five 4500 distinct project listings out of
Announcements ................... 26 intended outcomes of the strategic about 30,000 in CRIS. A rating
People and Places .............. 20 plan, food security, as a test model system with nine categories was
Subject index to articles ...... 22
....~.Su............................................................. continued on page 3 continued on page 2

Focus on National R & E Policy
Very few of these projects are
USDA SAWG Issues Report OFRF continued from page I breaking new ground where it is
devised to evaluate the projects. needed.
Elizabeth Mlansager Higgins Three categories ("Organic-SysHenryA. Wallace Institute for Te, "oric-Com nan d The organic products industry has
fo tern, "Organic-Component", and
AlternativeAgriculture "Organicencom- grown by over 20% a year for each
passed the range of"organic- of the last six years. U.S. sales for
3nSeptember the USDA anone passederthevrange.2ofi"organica y-wide policy directive pertinence". In order to qualify as 1996 were over $3.2 billion. The
a new agencyorganic-pertinent research a project global market for organic foods is
Expressing the Department's had to pass a dual test, meeting both estimated to reach $30 billion by the
commitment to sustainable agriculture, the "prohibitive" (could not include year 2000. Nearly 5,000 U.S. based on a Memorandum on Sustain- materials prohibited for organic certified organic farmers of every able Development issued by USDA farming) and "active" (described in scale, growing every type of crop,
Secretary Dan Glickman. That a context of non-chemical/ecologi- have undeniably demonstrated the
memorandum supports sustainability cally-intensive farming methods or viability of organic farming systems. throughout the Department's programs, systems) definitions of organic This has been achieved with almost and culminates the year-long work of arming, no institutional support (and often
the 50-member interagency Sustainable outright hostility) from the research
Agriculture Working Group, which The Results community. Despite these facts,
examined barriers to adopting more 317 distinct project reports were systematic research on organic sustainable farming methods. It also identified as "organic-pertinent" farming is still taboo in many responds to recommendations from the research. Of these, 15 projects institutions. Despite a stated President's Council on Sustainable were top-rated as "Organic-Sys- Presidential national goal to dramatiDevelopment (see Alternative Agricul- teams" research. 292 projects were ally reduce pesticide use, despite ture News, May, 1996). designated as "Organic-Compo- more than a decade of debate about
nent", investigating a method or the meaning and content of "sustain'the purpose of this memorandum is technology permissible in certified able agriculture", there is no analysis to state the Department's support for organic production and (apparently) of the role that organic farming can policies, programs, activities and being studied in the context of a play in meeting national agricultural education in sustainable development, non-synthetic-chemical system. Ten and environmental needs, and there
sustainable forestry and sustainable projects were categorized as "Or- is no explicit policy commitment to ss ganic-Educational", producing even explore these questions. For
rural community development, andt demonstration projects or marketing these reasons, research projects establish a mechanism to coordinate analysis. pertinent to organic fanning are
these efforts across the Department," relatively few and far between.
the memorandum reads. It goes on to Funding amounts for the organic Some do exist, and they represent quote verbatim from the Working projects have not yet been made some interesting possibilities, but
Group's recommended commitment available to us by USDA. We they are not the result of any
statement: USDA is committed to expect to have these data for the coherent policy, nor are most of
working toward the economic, envi- final report, but this information them purposefully related to organic ronmental, and social sustainability of aprnlisotouneyviabe farmers' needs.
diverse food, fiber agriculture, forest, apparently is not routinely available e and range systems. USDA will A series of policy recommendations
balance goals ofenhancedproduction Conclusions: What's Wrong With has been prepared in light of this
and profitability, stewardship of the This Picture? analysis. The final report will be
natural resource base and ecological Overall, we found a very small available in February for $15 from systems, and enhancement of the number of bona-fide organic farm- OFRF, PO Box 440, Santa Cruz,
vitality of rural communities. ing system research projects with an CA 95061. Phone (408) 426-6606,
explicit focus on understanding or FAX (408) 426-6670, email In August the USDA's interagency improving the workings of real *
Sustainable Agiculture Working Group organic production. The relatively had released its report TowardaMore larger body of "organic-component" Note: On December 17*, OFRF staff Sustainable Agriculture. The report projects represent a positive effort in presented the draft results and identifies five issue areas where there some areas, but the organic qualifi- recommendations of the NORPA are barriers or opportunities USDA can cation of many of these projects project to a USDA briefing for Deputy address to foster the full adoption of cateinfe any ohee pecs Secretary Rominger, Undersecretary sustainable agriculture. These issuenferred, as very few Wotecki, and 15 other USDA officials.
arasutae aCulturand Social, hiu contain explicit language referring to The presentation was received with areas are Culturalnd Maketi, an organic context. In many cases great interest and participants clearly
stional, Economics and Marketing, this research is studying methods expressed a desire for more informaResearch, and Communication and that are already proven effective and tion and dialogue about organic
continued on page 6 well integrated by organic farmers. farming research possibilities.

Focus on National R & E Policy
The REE Strategic Plan ment. The Task Force wanted to and well-nourished children, youth
from a Sustainable Agri- assure that those boundaries included and families. We did suggest that
culture Perspective sustainable agricultural systems. language regarding food access,
especially by low income families
Stewart Smith, Professor The first outcome, global competi- and for culturally appropriate foods,
Agrcuturl conmis, tiveness, focused on increasing US be strengthened, and that more
Agr ricuta EonoMaics, agricultural exports. The Task Force emphasis be placed on determining Uniersty f Mine pointed out that global competitive- the relationship between food
L s summer CSARE, through ness applies to supplying local nutrition and alternative fanning
its eseach PlicyTaskmarkets as well as foreign markets. systems. While these comments
itFRrch oiye ask om Furthermore, any consideration of were not specifically incorporated,
Fetdorcte rviewed san icn competitiveness should acknowledge this section should still be fr-iendly plente fon thnces dropoSDsei that fossil fuels are limited and will towards sustainable agriculture. As plnfr Seces undRerchA' eventually be more costly. REE in the previous section, the Task
Education and Economics (REE). accepted these views, acknowledging Force did not make specific language
Programs under these agencies have that helping farmers access local suggestions. a profound impact on the type of markets is an important aspect of
agriultral ystms.avaiabl toglobal competitiveness and that "new While the Task Force complemented fagricltralses nw a ailble ftoe farming systems that reduce costs REE for including the fourth outObviously, they are of great interest over time" and "sustainable farming continued on page 4
to anyone concerned with sustain- systems that provide long-term able agriculture. Since the REE competitiveness" can help achieve
strategic plan is intended to guide that competitiveness. While allowing GPRA continued from page I program development and adminis- sustainable agriculture to be a tration over the next five years, it is contributor to global competitive- for developing performance
imprtat hatitbe uportveofor ness, the revised draft does not objectives and measures. This iat tat itvebe supote ooro indicate a preference for sustainable process has apparently been
of sustainable agriculture. In that systems. ifherent prblneesay withpcrating
spirit the Task Force provided fortyinentpolmwthcaig pages of comments to the Under Regarding the safe and secure food this type of process within a
Secretary. Many of those comments and fiber system objective, the Task government agency. Issues such
wereincrpoate ino arevsedForce requested changes in concepts as interagency communications
weeinopresulingi a docu-e but left the specific language changes and differences in informationstrategic plan, reutn nadc- to REE. The primary concern was processing have led REE staff to
ment much more supportive of that the draft plan placed consider- reformulate their approach to,
whstinly agrllows, nd doeo able emphasis in managing risk, performance evaluation. According
whih olyallws an des ot rather than avoiding risk. The Task to Sara Mazi with USDA REE, guarantee, that sustainable agricul- Force suggested that research should because interagency and ture can get the necessary support look for farming practices that avoid interprogramn communications required for substantial transitions. rsofodsaeyfrexmlwere identified as a critical issue, rarishof food s e oheape REE placed representatives from The proposed plan was built around rae thne foodssTeise multiple programs and agencies on five desired outcomes: mngthsrik.Teevedthe teams that participate in the
(1) an agricultural system that is draft did not reflect those concerns, process.
hihycompetitive in the global a result perhaps of suggesting only
highly, conceptual changes without accom- After REE staff refine this process
(2) a safe and secure food and fiber panying language changes. While the for developing performance
syterevised language would not preclude objectives and concrete measures,
syshatem, wl-orsehlrn the development of sustainable the internal teams will apply the
(3)hathy welfaml-uieshehlrn agricultural systems as a strategy to resulting methodology to the
(4) greater harmony between manage risks from pests, for ex- remaining four outcomes for. the
agriculture and the environment, and ample, it does not specifically refer Strategic Plan. This process is
(5)enhnce ecnomc ~to such strategies and, more impor- expected to continue well into
a5 nhality o ifornc ciotiz nitn tant, it does not make the distinction 1997. The process for the first commqunlityife rciienn between reducing risk and managing outcome may be completed by the
commnitis. rsk.end of March. During this refineWhil thoe otcoms donotment process, some alteration of identify specific programs that may The Task Force had few comments the final Strategic Plan draft is be implemented, they do determine ontetiddsrducmhaly ptd.
the boundaries of program develop- othtirderdoucmeahy Exp=e.

Focus on National R & E Policy
Science Policy Critiqued: REE continued from page 3
The Endless Frontier, or Frontiers come, greater harmony between agriculture and the
oflIllusion? (Part 1) environment, we thought it could be more supportive of
sustainable agriculture. For example, the proposed
Elizabeth Bird language assumed that farm size would continue to Program on Agricultural Technology Studies increase and USDA should provide expanding farms the UW-Madson means of solving environmental problems. We suggested
that more emphasis be placed on developing diverse
justifies public expenditures on science? This farming systems, diversity in size of farms, and creating
question increasingly draws the attention of economic opportunities for farmers and rural communiresearch administrators and science policy critics ties. Several of our suggestions were incorporated into alike. It was the central question under discussion at the the document: It now looks to "ecosystems that support Agricultural Research Institute's 45th Annual Meeting in us and other species", rather than simply the "environSeptember 1996, titled "Survival in the 21 st Century: ment"; it calls for maintaining "diversity within agroecoPriorities for Agricultural Research." Coincidentally, about systems and surrounding ecosystems"; and it acknowlthe time I attended this meeting, I finished reading Frontiers edges we need to know more about the impact of indusofillusion: Science, Technology and the Politics of trial agriculture on surrounding ecosystems, economic Progress, by Daniel Sarewitz. The resonance between the opportunities and social issues related to farms, rural book and the ARI Meeting presentations, particularly that by communities and consumers. Like the global competitiveRoger Pielke, is striking. Part 2 ofthis review (April 1997 ness section, this objective can now accommodate issue) will focus on Sarewitz. sustainable agriculture even though it does not commit to
specific sustainable agricultural programs.
While the ARI Annual Meeting title begs the question,
"Who's survival?", the focus clearly was on the survival of The revisions to the final desired outcome, enhanced agricultural research funding itself. As an organization economic opportunity and quality of life for Americans, composed primarily of universities and agricultural corpora- were generally consistent with the Task Force comments tions, ARI has been a principal advocate for agricultural but did not incorporate our language. The original research programs and funds. It is quite telling that the language called for economic growth and job creation, watchwords of this meeting were "reform," "accountability," with little attention to the quality ofjobs or the distribution "re-negotiating the social contract with science," "strategic of benefits from growth. The Task Force suggested more planning," "user needs," and "public values." emphasis be placed on quality of development, including
the dispersed ownership of farms, businesses, and
Mr. Gary Mitchell, Chief of Staff for the U.S. House productive assets. We also asked for a technology Committee on Agriculture, emphasized the "mantra of assessment protocol to identify initiatives that would meet reform." "Change now," he exhorted, "or be chopped in these quality criteria. The revised plan did not include our the future." He asserted that the agricultural research specific suggestions, but did include language calling for system needs to prioritize and be accountable channel- more community empowerment to determine local goals ing funding to address the real needs of farmers who face and objectives. Rather than assume a community would the loss of a safety net. Dr. Bob Robinson, Administrator want more jobs and growth, regardless of quality, the of the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and current plan supports local communities in making those Extension Service, observed that society is re-negotiating choices. Again, this language is more sympathetic to its contract with science institutions, asking tough ques- sustainable agriculture, but only opens the door for its tions such as "What are you doing? Why? How? Are you inclusion. It does not assure its inclusion. doing it any better than the private sector? What is the
impact? Why should I invest?" These questions are at The CSARE effort was worthwhile in helping the REE the heart of implementing GPRA, the Government strategic plan be more accommodating to sustainable
Performance and Results Act (see Baker, and Smith, this agriculture. Without our participation REE agencies would issue). Robinson noted that the guiding principles for be less apt to develop programs supportive of sustainable GPRA are "relevance, excellence and usefulness." agriculture. However, the revised plan does not assure
that sustainable agriculture interests will be served in
Dr. David Shannon, Chief Scientist for the Ministry of program development and administration or in resource Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in the United Kingdom, allocation. It does, however, provide broad enough described research priority-setting in his country, noting boundaries to assure that sustainable agriculture could be that "there has to be a customer for the research" that is a part of any or all of the five desired outcomes. It will done. The U.K., he said, has moved from a "science be up to its advocates to assure that sustainable agriculpush," to a "user pull" system. He described the ture gets adequately served by REE agencies over the
ministry's four aims as: "Protect the public; protect and next five years. enhance the agricultural and fisheries environment, Stewart Smith is Co-Chair of the
continued on page 17 CSARE Research Policy Task Force

Shared Visions Science Issue Round Tables
Farming for Better Communities Perspective from Canada
Hctoria Mundy Katherine Barrett,
University ofNebraska, Ph.D. Candidate in Botany
Extension Education University of British Columbia
S hared Visions in Iowa is one of groups, Native peoples, the private
the eighteen projects across the A s the boundaries between sector, environmental interest
United States that encourage science, technology, policy groups, and university faculty and
sustainable agriculture with the A and ethics are blurred, the administration. While the meetings
support of the W.K. Kellogg Founda- call for public involvement in cover a wide range of policy issues, tion. Its concerns encompass deciding the goals of scientific research priorities for science and
communities, marketing skills, inquiry seems more warranted than technology are an integral part of the
beginning farmers, profitability, and ever. But this call raises the ques- Round Tables' agenda. Final environmentally-friendly production tion: "How might scientists embrace recommendations can be as specific practices. public involvement in scientific as setting goals for a particular
decision-making?" This requires scientific study, or as general as
Shared Vsions producers work consideration not only of the ends, building a substantial and diverse
together in groups. They decide what but also of the means of scientific knowledge base for future research their communities and farms need decisions. For scientists to want and education. they really develop a shared vision for public involvement, forums must be the group. Then they go to work to available to ensure that theprocess is A central and defining feature of make the vision happen. People from fair, effective, and mutually benefi- Round Table meetings is consensusthe University of Iowa, the Practical cial. This step is prerequisite also to based decision-making. By defmiFarmers of Iowa, and the Leopold building a strong basis for public tion, this means that decisions are Center for Sustainable Agriculture help confidence in scientific endeavours. not controlled by a particular interthe 14 Shared Vsions groups in Iowa. est, but are built upon in-depth and
Several groups concentrate on market- A look at recent Canadian initiatives inclusive discussion. Consensusing. The Farm Fresh CSA draws most in this direction may provide insight based decisions tend to be more of its members from rural Benton into the promises and pitfalls of stable and mutually beneficial for all County. In 1995, they had 22 mem- broadly based decision-making participants (ideally for the whole
bers, who received vegetables and Perhaps the most extensive mecha- community). The Round Table apples. They discovered that door-to- nism for public participation in model is therefore one process door deliveries took too much time, so Canada has been a form of multi- through which scientists might this year they'll make a change or two stakeholder meeting known as welcome and benefit from the in the produce distribution system. Round Tables. Following the involvement of the non-scientific
Brundtland Report (Our Common public.
The Central Iowa CSA draws mem- Future, The World Commission on
bers from around Ames, Iowa. Environment and Develop- However, multi-stakeholder meetings
Members receive vegetables, of ment, 1987), the Canadian Task such as Round Tables, are not
course. But this CSA also links Force on Environment and Economy without problems. The most
consumers to local sources of meat, proposed the Round Table meetings commonly cited shortcomings are: eggs, honey, even baked goods and as a means to involve all sectors of Ensuring fair and equal representafiber products. They hope to do more society in deciding both reactive and tion at the meetings; dissemination of of this in 1996. proactive steps toward sustainability. information about the issues at hand;
and reaching tangible goals in a
The Eliza County group is developing Round Table meetings have been practical length of time (Round a directory of farmers who have held at the national, provincial and Tables may continue for several
products for sale. In order to be listed cmuiylvlsne18.Hw er)
in the directory, producers must meet community level since 1988. How- years). certain standards. For example, they ever, opportunities for broad and must have aplan for sustainability general public involvement are Nevertheless, the Round Tables
The directory will be widely distrib- greatest at the local level where offer an opportunity for the expertise uted. members are invited to participate of both the scientific and nonthrough advertisements, or are scientific community to be integrated
The Franklin County group is in the recruited from local interest groups. in a manner that is open, creative, very early planning stages of producing In this way, it is hoped that atten- reciprocal and productive. In short, antibiotic-free pork. The market dance is representative of the entire they provide an atmosphere in which potential is good, but they have lots of community. To date, Round Tables scientists should want the public work left to do as they figure out typically have included members of involved in scientific decisioncontinued on page 25 local government, farmer and labour making.5

Focus on National R & E Policy
USDASAWG cont. from page 2 farmers in setting research agendas and
designing research. 1. Assess the research, development
Outreach. The Working Group Tn po barriers to diversifyig
reports findings on each issue area, and The recommendations of the Working agriculture and generating value-added makes recommendations for immedi- Group for immediate action include: approaches to rural economic developate action and items requiring more 1. Develop a USDA supported ment;
study The Working Group also has scholarship for post graduate research 2. Fund new types of institutes or
compiled an inventory of USDA and education programs on sustainable centers that allow interdisciplinary
programs relevant to sustainable agriculture, research that focuses on problem
agriculture. Both the inventory and the 2. Continue to support the USDA solving rather than on publishing Working Group report are available SARE program and other programs refereed journal articles;
from the Office of Sustainable Agricul- contributing to the achievement of 3. Expand sociological research to ture Programs, USDA South Building sustainable agriculture goals. provide USDA programs with a better
Room 3868, Ag Box 2223, Washing- 3. Establish an award program to understanding of how and why
ton, DC 20250-2223. identify and reward university and producers make or adopt changes in
ARS scientists who successfully their production systems.
One area where USDA has been incorporate creative, systems oriented
strongly criticized by proponents of approaches in their research and The Working Group's conclusions sustainable agriculture is research. education program. about the flaws in the current research
Currently the majority of USDA's 4. Involve producers, especially those system's support for sustainable
research programs do not provide the with sustainable agriculture expertise, agriculture are accurate, and their information needed by farmers looking in developing research priorities, proposed action items would constitute to reduce chemical inputs or diversify making funding decisions, conducting a giant step toward USDA support for their farming systems. The Organic research projects, and implementing sustainable agricultural systems. Even Fanning Research Foundation has education efforts based on research so, they do not yet go far enough in
found in its recent evaluation of the results. This might even include addressing fundamental flaws in over 30,000 projects receiving federal planning, conducting and evaluating USDA research priorities. USDA funding from USDA in the Current research within the USDA Agricultural should require all proposed research to
fundag IResearch Service and the National show that it is not unsustainable, and
Research information System (CpRjS)' Research Initiative. require research focused on narrow
that only 317 ofthe 30,000 projects 5. Examine the use of the Current components ofplant and animal were pertinent to organic riculture Research Information System for systems to demonstrate how it will
and only 15 of these were for organic documenting sustainable agriculture contribute to information needed for system research (Lipson, this issue). research. systems based research and sustainable
For other areas of interest to sutain- 6. Encourage agricultural scientists to farming systems. able agriculture they found similarly include relevance to sustainable low commitments of resources. The agriculture in their research activities Moreover, the recommendations lack SARE (Sustainable Agriculture and encourage collaboration on any quantitative goals, timelines or
Research and Education) program, interdisciplinay systems projects by: definitive targets by which progress of
sustainable agriculture res At $8 Pexpanding current grant programs to the Department of Agriculture in musailonpe ariutu isacery Ati$8 include agricultural systems and fostering sustainable agriculture and million per year, it is a very small sustainable agriculture, allowing interdisciplinary, integrated systems portion of USDA's overall agriculture planning grants for systems projects research can be measured or evaluresearch budget within the NRI and giving more weight ated.
The USDA Sustainable Agriculture to systems-oriented proposals in
Working Group concluded that current grants programs. Overall, the report of the USDA
"traditional disciplinary research 0 in performance reviews, allowing Sustainable Agriculture Working Group methods are poorly suited to solving for the longer start up time, increased is an excellent beginning. We can hope the complex problems that arise in management effort and lengthy data that their work does not end with this considering the sustainability of collection needed for systems research report, but that the Department agriculture" They confirm that most and projects evaluating sustainability; continues to move forward to make USDA supported research efforts have and the changes necessary to both remove
not focused on examining whole crediting multiple authors equally on institutional barriers to sustainable
systems or integration of multiple publications resulting from systems agriculture and to encourage integrated perspectives through interdisciplinary oriented research. systems and interdisciplinary
research, but rather focus on smaller The Working Group's proposals for research.* components of plant and animal te needing fr evals for
systems. They also found insufficient items needing further evaluation 'Most SARE projects are not available collaboration between researchers and include: on CRIS.

annual meeting farm tours, publishing
Farmer-Researcher Organizations as icles andhosg conference.
Scientific Societies This organizational framework has
BarbaraRusmore provided the context for many different
Artemesia Institute research projects to occur simultaneously and to continue over a number
-- of years. A wide variety of research
n the last issue of the Consor- what they are learning with a topics are included in each request for
tium News, several articles wider agricultural community proposals, and funding is offered for up
talked about the need to link IThe socialinteraction allows for to three years. Club research has
science and social problems and the efforts to be recognized, shared, helped foster spin-off projects. In
importance of science serving the assessed, and implemented by a several situations, aclb's activities led
broader public good. They recognized much larger and ever-widening to establishing related commercial
that decisions about research priori- community of scientists- ventures, such as the Pea and Lentil
ties are ethical decisions, and ones that farmers, ranchers and technical assis- Association, a trade association for need to be made in the context of one's tance providers. Through their work, growers, and Timeless Seeds, a small culture and community. 'The transfor- these organizations form the social business marketing and distributing mation of nature, in technoscience and framework for a more diverse scientific legumes and other products grown by in other work is a collective enterprise. society that is actively inquiring into sustainable operations. Thus new ways to remake nature must social problems.
necessarily involve new forms of social Taken together, AERO's actions are
relations" (Busch et. al). Farmer partici- How do such scientific communities very similar to the operations of a patory research provides one way to make occur? The experience of the Altema- scientific support institution. Included these research decisions and to engage tive Energy Resources Organization within this work are key elements of a an expanded scientific community in a (AERO), a farmer and community citizen-scientist democratic process for democratic process of social problem membership nonprofit in Montana, developing new knowledge relevant to a solving, provides an example. When AERO wider social good. Those who are
began its program in sustainable faced with problems are engaged in These concerns regarding the link agriculture in the mid-80s, it surveyed researching solutions. There are between social value and scientific producers and their experimental opportunities to work with a wider research arise as our western culture practices. The published survey helped community, exchange knowledge and goes through a time of great change. to create a sense of community; it let develop critical awareness about the Science is changing as well. When people know about each other and important questions that need research. Kuhn (1971) talked about scientific identified what was known and who the And collaborative action can be taken to revolutions, he pointed out that the researchers were. move toward a better world. Viewed
process ofparadigm shifts takes place from the perspective of participatory
within a community of scientists. This In talking with producers and academic research, the farmers are scientists, community forms a culture for itself scientists about research needs, AERO though their questions and methods through meetings, conferences, publica- concluded that encouraging producers may differ. Rather than using statistics tions, and formal and informal gather- to continue and expand their experi- alone tojudge validity, participatory ings in which new ideas can be pre- mentation was the soundest research researchers rely on experience, observasented, argued and explored. The strategy, and thus it established a tional skills and usefulness ofthe results
conventional scientific societies consist research grant program. This grant for a particular situation. of those who have gone through program identified the social vision and
rigorous training and have developed values AERO was seeking and set Agricultural organizations supporting credentialed expertise in the field. criteria for how research would take participatory research may recognize place in small research groups. themselves as a vanguard of a scientific
Farmer participatory research programs revolution. They link science to social
provide an alternative model for how To support these grants AERO helped values in moving toward a vision of the scientific process can combine good organize groups, provided them with sustainable agriculture as a different research and broader participation of technical support and helped them way to direct our natural and human citizens in experimentation and dissemi- establish liaisons with each other and resources. Participatory research nation of new knowledge. In participa- with other researchers in the university institutes play a crucial creative role in tory research, the research questions and elsewhere. By linking the local building the new scientific community: start with the problems faced by the participatory research clubs with they provide producers, community farmers and ranchers. These innova- information and resources, AERO members, agricultural advisors and
tive farmers and ranchers are encour- enhanced learning. By encouraging the scientists means to collaboratively aged to work with university and clubs to work with their local experi- investigate and experiment with impleagency personnel to investigate more ment station, county agent or NRCS mending the new paradigm; and they sustainable farming systems. Organiza- staff t AERO drew the agencies into this establish ways for these participants to tions like Land Stewardship Project, emerging scientific society. With all the share and discuss what they are North Dakota Sustainable Ag Society club members, AERO encouraged learning, how to do relevant research,
and Practical Farmers of Iowa provide exchanges of information and experi- and how their values guide their ways for these researchers to share ence in multiple ways, including an choices. *

Shared Leadership, Farmers in Transition: Role
Shared Responsibility for Extension?
Chuck Francis and Heidi Carter, Kim L. Staritzky
University ifNebraska "1 at do farmers in transition to sustainable
& nuI agriculture need from cooperative exten
ur challenges in losing people and resources on W Vsion? As a graduate student at Cornell
pics related to sustainable agriculture require new
invlvestyles of leadership. Most events or projects now University I embarked on a search to hear what involve coalitions or groups, and an increase in task forces, farmers in transition have to say about changes they've ad-hoc teams, and committees that are typically not part of made and the support they need. The following traditional organizational structures. Leaders often have little synthesis derives from twelve interviews with men and ofthe traditional authority and dominion over the reward women farmers from across New York state who structure common in a classical hierarchy, and lack the produce a diversity of products. control over annual evaluations, salary incentives, promotions, or other means to encourage activities in a particular The farmers in my study expressed needs for increased direction. In the absence of these contingent rewards, the access to sustainable agriculture information and new leader has to employwhat couldbe called inspirational education. They seek educational approaches which leadership. Traditional forms are referred to as "transac- honor their values, experiences, ways of learning, and tional," while the emerging model depends on "transforma- complex circumstances. They were deeply concerned tional" leadership. with issues of family, environment, community, and
the future of farming farm transfer, and the next
In two workshops conducted under the banner of Shared generation. Leadership, SharedResponsibility, we have brought
together extension specialists and educators, NRCS person- Farmers expressed a desire for assistance (e.g. from nel, farmers, and non-profit representatives to explore and extension) in establishing mentor relationships and practice the potentials of a fll range leadership model. The
concepts come from the book, Improving Organizational apprenticeships whereby they might pass information
Effetivnes thrughTrasforatinaleadeshi byon to the next farming generation. One farmer shared Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership by her idea of the importance of apprenticeships: "I'm
Bernard Bass and Bruce Avolio from the Center for Leader- herkide o the oaNew tieships "I'm ship Studies, School of Management, SUNY Binghampton, linthrug h th a Ne te daysrat al t
New York. Facilitators (Dr. Dan Wheeler and Dr. Elizabeth different apprenticeships that are being offered and it Birnstihl) led day-long workshops on how to identify the makes me feel very envious of young people coming traits of successful leaders, how to recognize our own along now because they have the opportunity to learn strengths as leaders, and how these principles can be used in by doing. There's no substitute for that. You can go our own organizational environment. Small group sessions and study all the classes in the world at college and identified the major challenges facing groups working in you come out knowing nothing. You might know the sustainable agriculture, and how a full-range leadership theory behind it, but you don't know how to do it .... I model can help us build on strengths and resources for got all sorts of educational advantages but I didn't training people in the future. know how to farm. The apprenticeships are just a
wonderful opportunity." The farmers I interviewed
Some ofthe characteristics of traditional transactional also wanted to hear the "old wisdom," for example leadership include contracts for rewards of effort, expressed through an "old timers" speakers bureau sponsored by as the classical incentives listed above. Leaders often set the extension. levels of expected performance and monitor progress,
intervening when things go wrong or when the project is not Many farmers are engaged in filling in the information moving fast enough. Such a leadership approach requires gaps themselves through their own research the the hierarchy of a private company or structure that permits farmer/scientist exchange can go both ways. They are exercise of tight control. In contrast, in the emerging taking on the challenge of serving as educators themtransformational leadership model, the leader gives close selves, reaching consumers, extension personnel, attention to all members of the team and encourages their environmental groups and other farmers. unique input to the group's tasks. The leader recognizes
individual and group creativity, questions assumptions, Overall, farmers in the study challenged educators to seeks new directions, and relies on intelligence of team
members. In the new model, the leader inspires with a high examine the many different ways which farmers are degree of optimism and frequent communication with the most effectively learning about sustainable agriculture. team. The group develops a strong sense of mission and They require approaches which are farmer centered, commitment as it pursues a vision that has been derived focused on local issues, and practice based. Through from interaction among all participants. In the full range the suggestions and ideas shared by these and other leadership approach, we recognize that each of us uses a farmers, educators and extension personnel can number of leadership methods, and we have to build on our improve their methods and find renewed roles which own unique skills. serve the educational and informational needs of
continued on page 25 farmers in transition to sustainable agriculture. *

Focus on Change in Extension
Can Learning Become the Center Of history. When UW first established an Agriculture
Gran UnierstiesandDepartment after the Morrill Act of 1862, its instruction Land Grn nvriisadwas in the style of the day, meant to elevate the mind, not
Cooperative Extension? particularly practical. This style did not encourage many
farmers to send their children. Through heavy external
Gerald R. Campbell, influence of a strong Board of Regents the UW built new Professor and Extension Specialist programs for farmers on a strong tradition of self educaDepartment of Agricultural and Applied Economics and tion and experimentation in agricultural societies. The
Center for Community Economic Development University established "Farmers' Institutes" to take its
University of Wisconsin-Madison/Extension knowledge to farmers where they were. The Regents also established the "Short Course" which brought
Note: The original version of these comments was farmers to the campus for courses during the winter.
presented to stimulate discussion at the quarterly
meeting ofMinnesota Extension Service, campus faculty In these early days, there was considerable discord and staff This is a work in progress and Dr Campbell between farmers (sometimes including members of the welcomes your comments. Board of Regents) and university researchers. In his
history of the UW College of Agriculture (formed in
Introduction 1889), W. H. Glover writes of this period that the Dean
of the College and director of the Experiment Station was I began a search in 1989 to sort out my experience of not interested in buying harmony with the farmers; if that
nearly 30 years as a student and teacher in five Land harmony came from, "... servile devotion of the staff of a
Grant universities. I was motivated primarily by my station to the immediate and superficial aims offarmcareer shift into administrative positions as Associate ers. The University and its College of Agriculture Dean for Cooperative Extension and later Vice Chancellor established its identity as the creator of knowledge. It for UW Extension. At this point in my journey Iam would interact with farmers but the University would set convinced that in Land Grant universities and Coopera- the research agenda. That agenda would be firmly based tive Extension our tradition and opportunities call for us on science as applied at the experiment station. to intentionally bring learning back to the center of our
work. The Broader University Extension Movement and the
Wisconsin Idea
Land Grant Universities centered on being "Research Universities" The developments of agricultural extension at Wisconsin
were from the beginning influenced by developments in
Today, Land Grant universities have become "research the broader university extension movement elsewhere. universities" with the prime elements of their culture The farmers' institutes had been in part copied from the centered on the creation of new knowledge and new "English extension movement" which had taken lectures applications of knowledge. My observation is that the off campus and into towns and villages. The college preference for the creation of new knowledge has so began agricultural extension with the Wisconsin Agriculdeeply permeated the culture of Land Grant universities tural Experiment Association in 190 1. Under President and so skewed their work that they are dangerously close Charles Van Hise, the (3W established the Universityto losing elements of the public support base on which wide Extension Division in 1907. Van Hise had increastheir fortunes have rested. The culture of the university ingly defined the importance of bringing university permeates the culture of the Cooperative Extension knowledge to people across the state, and bringing institutions attached to the university, university faculty expertise to state legislative and other
governmental bodies and otherwise making itself useful to The rhetoric of recent times often stakes the Land Grant the citizens. Van Hise was also a geologist and mindful of university's unique place in U.S. higher education on their the new universities (Johns Hopkins and the University of "world-class research, first-rate service and access to Chicago) where creation of knowledge and graduate affordable education for all." This was not always the study were redefining the idea of higher education. Van case. At the time of the Morrill Act in 1862 the chief Hise had a strong interest in establishing Wisconsin as a focus of Congress was access to education for the sons university in the new pattern where the discovery of new and daughters of farmers, mechanics and laborers. They knowledge was as important as the teaching of existing sought to "democratize" education and the country by knowledge. He understood that if the public was to increasing access for citizens who had been shut out of an support research to create new knowledge it must see that elitist system of higher education. They also encouraged research as beneficial to its interests. the application of knowledge to the issues confronted in
everyday life of farms, factories and households. The 'Wisconsin Idea" of the university in service to the state added a rich conceptual backdrop for the developThe University of Wisconsin ment of agricultural extension. When the 1914 partnership of University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and
The University of Wisconsin provides an illuminating case continued on page 101w

Focus on Change in Extension
Learning, continued from page 9
couny gverment whch as cme o b Cooeraive ideas and technologies to bring to farmers, agribusinesses cxsounya goenetwihdi hascoei ito bsed oeav and farm families. When I interviewed for a faculty exitnin wasure est le iscstaeilit reted o n position, including some extension funding, at the Univerexising ultue. hat ultue i strtegiall ceneredon y of Wisconsin in 1972, 1 was assured by those in the the promise of the Land Grant university as a creator of agricultural extension program leadership as well as the knowledge with classroom, laboratory and extension as it campus-based faculty, that at Wisconsin "extension" vehicle for disseminating that knowledge. It is founded in really meant "applied research." I am sure this was meant major part on the notion of knowledge as utilitarian and to reassure me that I would not need to worry about the creation of new knowledge as an engine of economic much real engagement with those outside the university growth. except to "extend" my research results.
The Growth of the Land Grant University as a R- The university orientation toward research began to draw
search University outside attention in the 1970s. This attention was in part
I beiev tht tis amestoy ws rpeaed n oly ligtly a reaction to the campus disturbances during the Vietnam Idiee thatys smte t wStrpated In onl ihtlya war, but was also associated with the environmental idfent wayss iarosst uniesttes Ifoedae anu movement and other societal forces which questioned the idsentity crisais nacnd rats unrits tnoday boutnigs products of science and technology. The 1970s also saw reser vistt as treahoris rokotsdg a irgnings, the controversies over displacement of farm labor by Oreidentitdy as creo n of nwederwas significanl machines and the beginning of health concerns over the roetire te deepmnt fud o eder twsals raind use of chemical pesticides in agriculture. For Land Grant fcmetitivte grantiuns fianor reerh Ita alof re- university Colleges of Agriculture the 1 970s saw the forcd byate rontngras csthitatingfithn meatoure-o publication of the critical report "Hard Tomatoes, Hard Cooperative Extension programs. Our identity as creators agiculura exerimHihoent ustion hpirtiso of knowledge and the accelerated flowering of theagiutrlepimnsaio. "research university" was reinforced after WWII as the In the 1980Os the concern about universities spawned a usefulness of war time research became widely apparent. number of critical essays and books. The general critique The GI Bill also filled university classrooms. The de- of public institutions and the particular conservative mand for College teachers boomed and the cold war gave critique of universities as centers of "political correctimpetus for even more federal funding for a vastly ness" brought the university's identity to public and increased scope of university research. legislative attention. The critique gained ground as a
greater share of the public had direct experience with
During this period Land Grant universities took their uiest dcto n ste"ayboes er
fauly' iclnaio twad isovry ofnwkolde their children complain about how they were being
fueled by outside funds, to fundamentally redefine what a treated. This led to calls for accountability, proposals for Land Grant University was. The self governing faculty legislatively mandated faculty teaching loads, the creation culture helped move the university away from its early of systems for reviewing tenured faculty, and a general emphasis on teaching to an emphasis on research. Across tightening of the scrutiny by governing bodies for public academne, research universities were the ones to beanprvthierduto. emulated. These universities were also the source ofanprvthierduto. nearly all new Ph.D.s who became university faculty and The Debate Over the Roles of University Faculty took the identity they learned as graduate students as a
model for their own careers. From the mid 1950s to the The public and legislative critiques of the 1970s and early mid 1970s these new Ph.D.s found little difficulty in 1980s, the enrollment downturn of the 1980s and the securing new faculty positions. They also found a growing number of new Ph.D.s who could find only part relatively generous climate for funding their research time faculty positions began to raise questions about the interests. roles of university faculty. The name most often associDurig te 190s andGran Unverstie grw raidl as ated with renewing these broad discussions of faculty
Durin theb boom" Lean Gt Unvestolesgew rapieedlya roles is Earnest Boyer. Until his death in 1995, he was a othperabibom" bhegtans tof cometohconegeany then end visionary and forceful leader of the Carnegie Foundation ofth pridca theoi strina oftswthe nidircton wand for the Advancement of Teaching. I that role Boyer led thein p olcl troithn and outsd thre universityes waig hs the development of the 1990 study Scholarship Reconteking tolle ons calll fturm rg uaGrnniversitis-gti sidered. Priorities of the Professoriate. I cannot pieriodt thera ceetoailturi as Lad Granftivr overstate the profound impact which Professor Boyer's gtiest uthecees doei agriculture lso ame ortei book has had. It resulted in thousands of campus gn retenouccssal dome agitre bnectae moree discussions about the evolving roles of faculty. It spurred revolution was in full swing, and new developments in threiinofeueadpomincieiatsmef basic biological sciences and early developments in the nations most prestigious Universities. computer technology all fueled the technology of discov- In my personal case it gave explanations for the unease I ery. For extension this meant a growing stream of new 10felt in reconciling my academic life which centered on

Focus on Change in Extension
teaching, on and off campus, in an academic department behaved problem situations. He argues that this model of and a college where the culture favored research. Boyer "technical rationality" encourages a highly specialized and said clearly what most in American higher education compartmentalized university with each of the disciplinknew, that higher education had "moved from an empha- ary departments developing its own specialized jargon, sis on the student to an emphasis on the Professoriate, theory, applications and control of the curriculum. That from emphasis on generalized education to specialized curriculum puts theory and well-defined applications education, and from loyalty to the campus to loyalty to ahead of direct experience. the profession." (p.l13) Schon contrasts the universities' abstract and constrained
Scholarship Reconsidered concentrated on revealing world with the world of the university trained working what university faculty were actually doing and the professional toiling in the "swamp"' of professional schizophrenia they felt in a culture which pulled them practice. In the "swamp" of practice none of the theory away from their desire to make a difference in the lives of or well-behaved problems of the discipline seem to fit the their students, and to make a difference in the commit unruly facts and behaviors found on a daily basis. Schon ties in which they lived. Scholarship Reconsidered made longs for a melding of the theory and abstraction with the meaning of the Carnegie Foundation survey findings by knowledge gained through active practice. This melding describing faculty work. It identified four types of is evidenced in what he calls the reflective practitioner scholarship and recognized the diversity of contributions and the process of action research which moves freely today's faculty make. These were described as". .the from experience to abstraction and back again in a real scholarship of disco very; the scholarship of integration; learning system. Schon contends it will be very challengthe scholarship of application; and the scholarship of ing to move universities to the proposed new definitions teaching." (p. 16) The Carnegie Report explicitly called of scholarship without changing fundamentally the ways for movement away from the teaching vs. research vs. of knowing. service language of the past. Its arguments allowed me to TeNwAeia coa see that I had been doing all four forms of scholarship. TeNwAeia coa
In my case those forms of scholarship took place in the Eugene Rice at the American Association of Higher context of budgets associated with research, resident Education (AAHE) has been leading AAHE's initiative to instruction and extension. On reading Scholarship eaieeovn aut oe ic oigteefo
Reconsidered it was clear to me that all these forms Of exam ie Bevon colrlshi sincovsingere from scholarship were taking place around me and that what I wrkith yer onclrship eoensideed 9n0 a did was often inaccurately described by naming it with recentpphe onivricde ta betweenacthriedb sond though catsos ha a psphoft"ntherate widely accepted assumptions. These assumptions teahig, rscsnhad extenioonparmne of ustgrtd became so ingrained in faculty thinking that they were kewho teehe n extension eearh rtehngs eachofty seldom discussed. Further, the assumptions led to kwe teetesorsarho.echn aut behaviors that were inconsistent with serving a number of
were.constituencies including undergraduate students and the
Scholarship Reconsidered and the Reflective Practi- public. The assumptions were further brought into tioner question as the dearth of faculty positions in the 1 970s
and 1980s meant fewer and fewer new faculty were able
During the same period that Land Grant (and many to live by the assumptions that their senior colleagues had other) universities were establishing and building their come to define as the reality of faculty life. identity as "research universities," Donald Schon of MIT ThasupinmdepartbyRcaelsedeow had been studying professionals and how they do their They asumionsmdepaent by itric are lotnite bhelow.c work and how they learn. He reported his results in the Theyt aresinonsistenwihsoc and congdunvest.Iun hetoric book The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals abuti a reonsie andenga university Ifr trohue a Think in Action. In essence Schon said that redefining sreptios ae trudeathen uc ih ofwhattournbrochuresiand scholarship would be a difficult case of cultural change reothaesilavsuwtha"uhindetsng because of the conventions and well practiced set of gp behaviors which universities have built up over time. 0 Research is the central professional endeavor of
Fundamentally, Schon argues that Universities have academic life.
accepted an epistemology (a way of knowing) which he a Quality in the profession is maintained by peer calls "technical rationality." In this model, widely adopted review and professional autonomy. from German University practice in the 1890s and early 0 Knowledge is pursued for its own sake. 1900s, knowledge is built from initial abstract proposi- 0 Pursuing knowledge is best organized by discitions. These propositions are then tested with empirical pline (i.e., by discipline-based departments). investigation guided by the scientific method. The 0 Reputations are established in national and
investigation produces results which can be applied and international professional associations. taught usually in the form of well defined and well continued on next page/V

Focus on Change in Extension
0 Professional rewards and mobility accrue to universities and Cooperative Extension have a long
those who persistently accentuate their specializa- history of trumpeting responsiveness to students.
tionse r k However, we still have not figured out our students'
S The inof the academic profes- preferences for learning time, style or technology.
sional is the pursuit of cognitive truth. Further, too few of us, administrators and faculty
alike, demonstrate the tentative, uncertain, groping,
Rethinking Professional Work collaborative and supportive behaviors which are part
of a shared commitment to learning.
Land Grant universities are at a critical time. One can Learning must become central to all of the fields feel it in the air as tradition contests with reform. The in which we operate. In extension there has long new relationships we need to recapture public support are existed a divided culture between those trained in consistent with the Reflective Practitioner (in contrast to extension and continuing education and those trained the Expert). Much of our Land Grant university history in the agriculture, natural resources, youth develophas used the technical rationality perspective to drive us ment and family subject matters associated with toward the "expert" model. The demeanor of "research cooperative extension. We should use the expertise
based" university professionals has too frequently been on learning we already have within the university to condescending to our students but especially so to those improve the learning experiences we are trying to outside the university. This "expert" stance results in create. resentment against academic professionals and the general Ongoing conversations with stakeholders. In rejection of and hostility toward many professions extension such conversations seem to be intense and
founded on and practicing the expert model today. It also broad followed by years of scattered and unorganized prevents us from fully being true to our professed interest efforts. We simply have not developed a philosophy in learning. If the search for truth is to serve well the that stakeholder engagement is part of an ongoing citizens who fund their university, we must be fearless in continuous learning process. A real commitment to admitting the ideas, knowledge, experience and participa- learning would make us more willing to move away tion of our students and our citizens. This calls on us to from our frenetic activity delivering programs and be both teachers and learners. Fundamentally it calls on move toward a more strategic model of delivering us to reexamine our identity. learning activities.
Putting Learning at the Center A broad commitment to learning will help us realize the
Land Grant and Extension promise in building a demoIf we believe we should center the work of Land Grant cratic, compassionate and progressive society. It also universities and Cooperative Extension on learning, how could help us build organizations which provide the would we get there? A similar question was asked by the opportunity for faculty, staff, students and citizens to be faculty of the Weatherhead School of Management at mutually engaged in work which allows them to realize
Case Western University. Richard E. Boyatzis, Scott S. their aspirations. I believe making learning the center of Cowen and David A. Kolb provide a very interesting Land Grant universities and Cooperative Extension will
description of the innovations they created with their be supported by a public which eagerly joins in a partnercolleagues. They point out that most educational innova- ship to meet the challenges of our particular places and tions begin by assuming that there will be no change creating a sustainable future.* where change is essential. For Cooperative Extension a
prime example is the insistence that our work is "research REFERENCES based." Relying only on "research based" learning Boyatzis, Richard E., Scott S. Cowen and David A. Kolb, Innovation in
severely limits our capacity to use all elements of accu- Professional Education: Steps on a Journey From Teaching to mulated knowledge. Learning, The Story of Change and Invention at the Weatherhead
School of Managemen Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco,
Boyatzis et. al. found the following to be critical ele- 1995. ments:
Boyer, Earnest L. Scholarship Reconsidered. Priorities of the
" The essential question which we would ask over Professoriate, The Carnegie Foundation For The Advancement of
and over is "How does this structure, practice, Teaching, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1990
method, habit or tradition promote or inhibit Glover, WH.Farm & College: The College OfAgricultural Of The
learning?" University Of Wisconsin A History, University of Wisconsin Press,
" Assess outcomes to measure the value added by Madison, WI, 1952, P. 112.
Extension activities. So long as we measure quality
based on inputs like the terminal degrees held by Rice, R. Eugene, "Making a Place for the New American Scholar," pp.
extension workers or the number of publications they 8-9, 4th AA1HE Conference on Faculty Roles & Rewards; Atlanta 1/96.
create, we will be locked into our current technology
of producing learning and will not be able to take Schon, Donald, The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think advantage of new opportunities. in Action, Basic Books Inc., 1983 and "The New Scholarship Requires a
* Become a learner centered institution. Land Grant New Epistemology", Change, November/December, 1995, pp27-34.

Focus on Change in Extension
Transforming Extension actively involved in the creation of local science shops and
support the Community Research Network by working
John Gerber, Director with local nodes in the network.
UA'LSS Extension To participate in community-based learning, universities
A""ooper ative Extension has been busy at strategic must change their focus from individual learning to encourIplanning, furturing and the like for some time, but age cooperative and interactional learning, using techniques
truthfully, I've not noticed a great deal of creativity such as study circles and participatory research. Transmisin much of this activity. Of course, Extension is part of a sion of knowledge must be less of a one-way "downunvriyculture that is itself fairly old and stodgy. loading" from the expert to the user and more of a sharing urnirsi ieEtninae on utrdit among a community of learners. In a fanning situation,
Oaraition ive E eio are bornciv nurtured pint this would mean that agricultural researchers are recogmauritylie an ar potve and at seomnebpinth nized for their ability to contribute to a learning situation
however, requires courage and creativity, to let go of through a process which tests a hypothesis and seeks to outmoded ways of thinking while remaining true to the identify and validate universal principles. Farmers on the mission of the public university, other hand contribute to the learning situation through their
more intuitive understanding of the complex interrelationThe irs ide tht neds o "o" i th asumpton hat ships intrinsic to agroecosystems. The extension educator Thwde fist ide thaieds to "go"isit aspin txpert working in this environment should be a facilitator of the kowlee us becaldedi bunivmerstrainedi expes learning experience, not an all-knowing expert in command tnou ere thi macademicmfundamtism isa otexrsseud of solutions which create dependency relationships beinrr ou. eie akvie, rcommetndi teahat oters soud oftween the knowledge providers and the knowledge users.
carr ou. Weadvseconslt nd tach Weare rou ofResearch and education should result in relevant informaour ability to persuade others to act in ways we believe tion produced and shared in a democratic and communitybest. We do all this with the authority of science and over baemner 80 years of tradition telling us this is the best and perhaps ae anr the only way to work. We identify' questions and seek In Massachusetts, the former Cooperative Extension solutions within a community of "knowers" and then System is undergoing a dramatic institutional transformatransfer the results of our work to a very separate commu- tion. Following a period in which cuts in state funding nity of "doers." The disconnection between the develop- resulted in the loss of about 60% of the field-based staff ment and utilization of knowledge hampers the ability of and 30% of the campus-based staff, Extension in Massathe public university to serve its mission of creating, chusetts was ready to try something new. Beginning in preserving and transmitting knowledge in service to the 1993, we adopted a process of strategic marketing that will public good. radically transform Extension in incremental steps. In this
At a time when the Cooperative Extension System is being context strategic marketing is recognized as more than just
widey citiize, itmigt b qute nrma tobe iskpromotion or public relations-it is a means of restructuraverse: who would be crazy enough to make the claim that g to address issues of "product, price, place and promovali an useul ew kowldgemigh begeneate by tion." In our "product" planning for example, we have valiidad uselne kxnolg mto e enertAfterb examidned our extension programs for efficacy and contriaindividuls o aecies externale to eserity Afer bution to our public mission, allowing us to make difficult aloghrop ofd maciins an rganez ta resecthern choices among programmatic alternatives. In our "price"~ together mande mae dnieisiones ond tissuexhtfectitheprorm discussions we have examined the likely future of funding, livest mayee uiestisadteidxesonporm the cost and appropriate pricing structure for doing business in an organization that has lost much of its public
I think universities and their extension systems are nedd funding. In our "place" discussions we have examined the
to povie tchncalexprtie wth stonggrond i best means for our stakeholders to access our products,
to povie tehnial xperisewitha sron grondig m comparing traditional tools such as newsletters and meetthe academic disciplines; however, to serve our public ig ihohrmassc scmue omnctos
misson e mst ear toworkin ew ays Soe o us study circles and science shops. Once these plans are
are trying to "invent" new ways of working. For example, made and first steps are taken toward a new organization, UMAS S Extension has helped establish a Community we do our "promotion." Our newly re-named organization, Research Network in partnership with the Loka Institute UMASS Extension, is no longer seen by key funders and and several community-based organizations around the decision-makers at the University of Massachusetts as an nation (see "Community Research," Consortium News 80-year old, county-based program near the end of its # 12). We are investigating the idea of local extension useful life, but as a vibrant and vital learning organization offices as "science shops," along the lines of the model in ketohefurofhepbiladgntnvrsy.Ts the Netherlands where citizens can get help in solving sttefutren foft hs blin grat uiversity This problems of importance to themselves, their neighbors and raeicmrktngefothaienuied ifrnt from14 their neighborhoods. Cooperative Extension should be cotne1n3ae1

Focus on Change in Extension
Extension, continued from page 10.
Dr. O ran H estermnan on earlier attempts at strategic planning
Ex e si n s p or u ite which resulted in little more than
Extension's Opportunities lts and frustration.
Elizabeth Bird Strategic marketing has been an
Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems exciting journey that has stabilized our UW-Madison funding base, at least for now. Along
the way we made the first steps to
a Symposium on Privatization of Information at the 1996 American strengthen the relationship between 5 Society of Agronomy meetings, Dr. Oran Hesterman of the W.K. research and extension by forming
.FI Kellogg Foundation spoke on the topic, "If Not Information Transfer, cross-functional work teams which Then What? Extension's Future Role in Agriculture and Rural Commu- plan,lat are budgeted, and soon will nities." Drawing in part from Kellogg's experience with the Integrated be evaluated as teams regardless of Farming Systems projects it has funded around the country, Hesterman each individual's university appointargued that Extension needs to reconceive its role. His talk, which sought ment. We initiated a training program audience participation, generated some heated discussion from some for ourselves that will help us learn to extension agents who feel their primary role remains information transfer. work as a learning organization that is Others inthe audience supported Hesterman's viewsand customer focused.
We targeted three areas for continued
Hesterman cited the following evidence that Extension's role requires financial investment: leadership, change: technology and implementation of our
* With advances in information and communications technology, infor- marketing plan.
mation is changing faster than even public universities can keep up We collapsed 21 independent prowith; grams into four interrelated efforts in
* Many farmers possess considerable expertise already; Agroecology, Nutrition Education,
" Most farmers do not turn to Extension as their primary source of Youth and Family Development, and
information. Natural Resource/Environmental
* Agribusiness increasingly is adopting a service (information transfer) Conservation. We made extraordiorientation; nsertto We the taod* The National Research Council's 1996 Board on Agriculture report, nary efforts to identify the stakeholdColleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service ers in these four programs and
and Public Policy (reviewed in Consortium News #10), recommends listened carefully to their needs, using
that Extension should focus on public goods that cannot be privatized; focus groups, structured interviews,
* Patterns of declining funding suggest the importance of publicly sup- surveys and even a random telephone
ported information transfer is also declining; survey of"average citizens," thus
* With the evolution of integrated farming systems, the technology strengthening our connection with
transfer paradigm is less and less relevant to increased system complex- those communities we serve. We are
ity. experimenting with new ways of
learning such as consensus conferIn light of this evidence, Hesterman put forward his own vision for the ences, and working in new partnerfuture roles of Extension. Instead of transferring technologies, Extension ships such as the CRN. We've should: rededicated ourselves to working with
4- Facilitate learning, particularly co-learning by teams of scientists and individuals, businesses, families and
farmers; communities in ways that serve both
* Help farmers and rural citizens make effective use of communications their particular needs AND the public
and information technology; good. And throughout the process we
4- Focus on capacity-building and leadership development; have become recognized as a leader in
4- Assist in food and farming systems re-design, which will require strategic marketing, addressing the
learning systems thinking; underlying issues which prevent a
-04 Assist communities to address complex problems and issues such as university's transformation as required
land use, area-wide integrated pest management, and watershed plan- to thrive in the next century. I think ning. we have found a way to re-discover
the land grant mission of public
Hesterman concluded that as a community based organization, Extension service and find our way home.* has a great opportunity to play a critical role in the future. 14

Focus on Change in Extension The theme of the recent Cooperative Extension System
Strategic Framework is Partnership forming partnerships that transcend boundaries among and between the
private sector, land-grant institutions and other colleges
Extension Role In and universities. The Certified Crop Advisors program
sponsored by the American Society of Agronomy, which
Information Transfer now has over 800 Certified Crop Advisors, is an example
of partnering which complements the programs of the
Edward (Ted) Wilson, Deputy Administrator, Cooperative Extension Service.
USDA CSREES The Cooperative Extension system faces a number of
I as asked to give a national perspective of thecha allenges and opportunities for the future. These factors
Cooperative Extension Service's role for a session on may have significant impacts on extension's program the Privatization of Information at the 1996 American delivery systems, and its structure, and on the mix of Society of Agronomy meeting (Note: this article is clientele served. On the other hand, the mission of the adaptedfrorn the text of the talk). I will focus on this, Cooperative Extension Service continues to be as relevant but information transfer won't be the main thrust of my today as when it was conceptualized through the Smithpresentation because information transfer isn't the main Lever Act in 1914. The mission is to enable people to thrust of the Cooperative Extension System. Extension's improve their lives and communities through learning mission is education. Information transfer is a compo- partnerships that put knowledge to work. nent of non-formal education, just as it is a component of Some factors that will influence the future of agricultural
forml eucaton.extension and research are: changing demography and
Transferring suggests conveying to users information and changing farm structure; telecommunications; global advice regarding adoption of specific technologies, competitiveness; public expectation and perception; fiscal practices and systems of technologies and practices. constraints and accountability. Education goes beyond transferring information and Chansine Demoeraphy and Farm Structure advice regarding specific practices and technologies.
Education empowers people by helping them to under- echnigdmraywllavagetripcto
stand and apply: (1) principles concerning relationships Teucagin demtnipogra wilha an grearpct. o among basic concepts; and (2) effective individual and edualtion andeenonfprogramsuthanon freserarch For group decision-making processes. This helps users to exampe the movemeant ofea thes popton shfroera to make correct selections of specific practices, technolo- fulrban afnd sbua ares s nt yhfted thepoicapwebs. gies,' and systems, assessing the payoffs of adopting fulch ru mted tso shitedso therliical powrcrbase. alternative practices and technologies. The purpose of theisra proamted som Extnaeseon e rvieslt inrasbee education is to enable people to cope with existing and the proramcimingineurban areas; thet oeesult hsbe changing conditions by increasing their ability to solve sbo n criticism urby th s ama cor ha etnon ietese problems. Educating people increases not only their bandoth ngprcpicuistltue thsmaere mynt.eteae comprehension, but also their ability to analyze, synthe- btheprpioistllhr. size, and evaluate. A second demographic change is the rapidly increasing
The reason I distinguish information transfer from ethnic and minority groups. Members of these groups education is that Extension's comparative advantage lies often need flexible professional development opportuninot in information transfer but with non-formnal education. ties and education to help them keep up with changing The private sector is becoming very effective in transfer- family, social, cultural, professional and work environring information. They can customize it for a producer ments. Our education and extension programs will need and deliver it in a very timely manner. As the private to develop a variety of delivery methods and to have each sector can do this they should. And the public sector option affordable and accessible to all ethnic and minority should support them in doing this. Non-formal educa- groups. tion-the teaching of principles and concepts and deci- Antesiifctchlngsemfrmhehaig sion-making skills is much more of a public sector role Anoute significant challengeistemsfromethe hangin
adthe role to which Extension should be devoting more stucture of thel fartm e ectrti An increase in the
of is atentin.,large commercial farms, a trend toward industrialized or
The growing private sector role in providing technology, vertically integrated operations, and a decline in the information and advice to farmers means that public number of mid-size operations. extension can redirect its efforts toward those areasExesogrwuwihtend-z fmsadeind where private incentives are lacking. Extension can put Ext tesogrs upd wihted-saize ifarmsain dteie more emphasis on programs with broad public benefits mto is progams aind ectwioenesar i forto strtegsies and on clientele with limited means to pay. This in- to servelo th caudience Ito wille bei new foruti-ensio creased involvement of the private sector in information todvlphecaiytosrehsnwmui-vl and technology transfer is particularly welcome in an era agricultural structure. of budget tightening and the need for increased efficiency in the use of public funds. 15 continued on next page Mr

Focus on Change in Extension
Telecommunications research is approximately $3.2 At the same time that we face
billion per year and $1.4 billion for declining budgets, there will be Advances in telecommunications cooperative extension each year for increased requirements to be acprovide the greatest opportunity and a total investment in agricultural countable to the public and to challenge facing our education and research and extension of $4.6 contribute to the goals ofpublic
extension programs, and could result billion. In return for this invest- policy. The Government Perforin revolutionary changes in our ment, the public increasingly mance and Results Acts of 1993
university outreach programs. It expects us to address issues that are aims at revolutionizing the way the
provides the opportunity for our of concern to them, they expect to Federal Government does business.
universities to become truly engaged be involved with our priority setting The Act institutionalizes an accountwith their communities. Through a process, and they expect to see new ability system based on performance variety of delivery methods, the science and technology that signifi- measurement-setting goals and
university now has the opportunity cantly improve the quality of life. objectives and measuring progress of reaching all those who need its toward achieving them.
services. On the other hand, the public
perception is that we often do In my optin-dstic view, publicly
Global Competition science for scholarship and to funded agricultural research, educapromote our disciplines rather than tion, and extension will continue to U.S. agriculture has for years to address society's issues. The deserve and receive public support.
enjoyed a positive balance of trade; perception is that we give little Why? Because we will meet the this year agricultural exports are attention to the long term conse- GPRA accountability standards and expected to exceed $60 billion with a quences of our research, that is, the we will continue to address imporpositive balance of trade in excess of impact on the environment, the tant public needs. We work in the $20 billion. However, the competi- quality of our water, soil and air. public interest producing a public tive position that the U.S. now holds The American public is no longer good; however, that will not be in international markets is a concern. concerned with food availability, enough to secure increased funding. The dominance the U.S. once instead the concern is for the The level of funding will be influenjoyed as an abundant supplier of quality of the environment. These enced by our skills in demonstrating low-cost commodities may no longer concerns are, and will be translated our accomplishments and how these hold true. Other countries have into public policies that affect the accomplishments impact societal
begun to catch up, and in some cases funding of agricultural science and issues. surpass the U.S. agricultural produc- therefore, the future direction for tivity growth in certain areas, and the agricultural research, education and ;Mese and other factors will influresult is a weaker competitive extension. ence the structure, program content
position. and program delivery systems of our
Fiscal Constraints and Account- fixture Cooperative Extension Global competition will further ability Service. However, the mission of
intensify with full implementation ot the system is as relevant today as it
GATT, NAFTA and with the new Fiscal constraints and accountability was in 1914. The system will
freedom to farm provisions of the are two inseparable factors that will develop partnershipswith the private 1996 Farm Bill also impact the future direction of sector and other educational instituagricultural research, education and tions to meet the expanding agenda This global competition should extension. This country is faced ofthe multi-level agricultural sector,
stimulate new lines of research and with an enormous fiscal demand and the rural, urban and suburban
new extension program foci and which is fueled by programs such population. The extension programs
priorities. The need to be more as Medicaid, Medicare, welfiLre of the future must be broadly
competitive internationally could lead problems, the cost of cleaning up relevant to the U.S. public. The us to focus on value added products, the environment, and the cost of Cooperative Extension System will new uses for agricultural commodi- maintaining an enormous defense welcome the private sector's increasties, and a systems approach to our establishment. If we look at the ing role in information and technolresearch and extension programs expense side of the ledger along ogy transfer because this will enable
focusing on issues rather thart with an ingrained resistance to the public system to focus of
disciplines and looking at the farm increasing state or Federal taxes and programs which proved public good unit as a food, feed and fiber a serious deficit problem, there in the national interest. Such goods
production system, not an isolated emerges a worrisome conclusion: include enhanced human health and set of production issues. that agricultural research, education, safety, economic opportunity,
and extension will experience environmental quality, and sound
Public Expectations and Percep- declining appropriations or at best information for public and private
tion flat budgets with marginal increases decision making on important public
in special emphasis areas. policy issues related to the food and
The Public investment in agricultural agricultural system.

Science Policy, cont. from page 4 the United States cattle. In re- struck a strong chord with confersponse, the Department of Agricul- ence-goers and was used repeatedly ture set up a Bureau of Animal through the remainder of the meetprotect animal welfare, and support Industry and took a problem ing.
competitive agriculture, fishery and approach...and the scientific commufood industries;" a rather different nity responded with a solution to that The process of change, Pielke list-and different order- than one problem." argued, also "has revealed our lack
would find in this country. of expertise in the relationship of
The assumptions underlying Science: science and society....In the past it The presentations that focused most The Endless Frontier, were the would be enough to fill up the
substantively on the social contract following: reservoir with knowledge. We
for publicly supported research were 0 "that scientific progress is wouldn't have to worry about how it those of Dr. Fred Buttel and Dr. essential to the national welfare would get downstream. It would
Roger Pielke. Buttel focused on 'as part of a team'; simply flow downhill....In the future,
how the public agricultural research 0 "a metaphor that science pro- consideration of use and advancing system could do a better job of vides a reservoir of knowledge, fundamental understanding will have
directing public research for the and this knowledge sits where to co-exist in a healthy
public good (see Consortium News society can tap and apply it to relationship ....In recent years we've
#12 for a version of his talk). national needs; been asking the wrong question of
Speaking early in the agenda, Pielke "scientific progress results from our Federal science policy, 'what is set the historical context for contract the free play of free intellects the proper role of government in re-negotiation, providing touchstones working on subjects of their own funding science?' Instead we should that echoed through the remaining choice in a manner dictated by be asking, 'what research will
presentations and the participatory their curiosity. This, of course is support the Federal Government in workshops that followed. (The text the need for autonomy for meeting its missions?'
of all the meeting presentations and researchers." the workshop results will be available Pielke concluded that "we must call
soon in a conference proceedings to Bush's report persuaded policy into question the assumptions that
be published by ARI; call 301-530- makers that "science is a proper we have held in the past as fact. We 7122 or email to concern of government; and federal must question the sustainability of order a copy.) funds should be made available." the Vannevar Bush social contract."
That policy framework has lasted He suggested we focus attention on Pielke, the author with Radford more than 50 years. Today, how- questions such as:
Byerly of "The Changing Ecology of ever, there are many calls for 0 "How does Federally supported
United States Science" (Science vol. change, including from prestigious science contribute to the national 269:1531-1532), reviewed the social institutes and policy makers. Pielke welfare today? contract that has prevailed in science offered three reasons for the "Is the effective application of policy since World War II and changes: existing knowledge more imporVannevar Bush's seminal report, 0 "the end of the Cold War, which tant than generating new knowlScience: The Endless Frontier. "In took with it the end of a serious edge?
its simplest formulation," according and large justification for much "If the linear model of innovato Pielke, this social contract as- of federal research; tion is wrong, can we in fact
serted "that if the scientific commu- 8 "the pressures on the federal model the delivery of benefits? nity received public funding and bu't; a nd e "In what ways can social
relative autonomy, then society budget;problems be translated into
would benefit as a result." This 0 "calls for improved government researchable scientific questions?
social contract is important "because performance and accountability." 0 "How can this be done without it shapes the expectations that the political bias?
public and policy makers have for The process of change, according to 0 "How can the U.S. better what science can do, and it also Pielke, reveals that "the categories appropriate the benefits of the shapes the justifications that scien- [of basic and applied research] are research it supports?" tists use when they come before somewhat murky and not always
policy makers to request funding." ideal in describing the relationship Pielke exhorted the scientific comThis recent social contract "stands in between science, technology, munity to "lead the debate because if sharp contrast" to the prior science innovation and the real world," and it does not, then others with less policy, the "Doctrine of Useful that the linear model of innovation knowledge and less concern for
Knowledge." Under this doctrine, fails as "research doesn't always science certainly will." He suggested so-named by historian Bruce Smith, progress from basic to applied to that a new social contract "would "the scientific community had to first development. Sometimes it works in agree science is essential to the show some benefit before funding reverse." Pielke introduced the national welfare...; would require [of
would be received. A good example term, "use-inspired basic research," science] a more robust and responof this was the Department of coined by historian Donald Stokes, sive relation with its environment
Agriculture's response to Texas cattle "meant to encompass both consider- than the misleading and isolating fever in the late 19th Century. Cattle ation of practical uses and advance- reservoir model; and science would were dying, no one knew why, and ment of knowledge." This term be more problem oriented." Science
Europe closed their beef markets to 17 would be use-inspired. *

Focus, on National R & E Policy
Review Ahead for Federal Research Facilities
Dr~ Anne J'idaver Head, Dept. of Plant Pathology
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
FJN'le 1996 Farm Bill directs USDA to develop a
5"Strategic Planning Task Force" which will conduct above. These capabilities shall be compared, insofar as ..a research facilities study. The duties of the possible, with capabilities of other research institutions, Strategic Planning Task Force as stated in the Farm Bill such as other Federal laboratories, universities, contract are as follows: laboratories, and industrial laboratories.
"The task force shall review all currently operating
agricultural research facilities constructed in whole or in + Alternative management and funding options for part with Federal funds, and all planned agricultural agriculture research to enhance quality, cost-effectiveresearch facilities proposed to be constructed with Federal ness, and increased responsiveness to national needs; funds, pursuant to criteria established by the Secretary, to alternatives may include privatization of laboratories or ensure that a comprehensive research capacity is main- programs within laboratories. tained."
+ Relations between parent agencies and partners with
Interpretation of this statement suggests the Strategic attention to layers and detail of management that may put Planning Task Force has four basic functions to perform: unnecessary cost and quality burdens on the research effort.
1 Define the "comprehensive research capacity" of the
nation; + Methods agencies use for selecting their research
2. Apply review "criteria" established by the Secretary; laboratories versus other research institutions of perform3. Develop a review process based on these criteria; and ing agricultural research activities (e.g. peer review of
4. Carry out the review process. proposals for fundamental scientific research.
The task force must work with the various partners in + The process agencies use for performing work at the design, development and implementation of this review so facilities under review for other agencies and for nonthe final product, a 1 0-year Strategic Plan for agricultural government entities, and opportunities for lowering research facilities, is viewed as credible, of value, and barriers to inter-laboratory and interagency cooperation. useful to all partners.
+ Redundancies and possibilities for restructuring,
The primary focus of the task force will be the review of consolidation or closure, redirection, or reassignment to federally owned and funded agriculture research facilities other agencies in the total system. to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Federal investment responding to national priorities. At this time + New facilities required to advance agricultural research these priorities are: where current facilities are inadequate for the purpose.
+ An agricultural system that is highly competitive in
the global economy; The 15 members appointed by the Secretary to this task
+ A safe and secure food and fiber system; force will be from nominations submitted by the National
+ Healthy, well-nourished population; Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Eco+ Greater harmony between agriculture and the nomidcs Advisory Board; 48 names have been submitted
environment; and to the Secretary from a total of 144 nominations. The
+ Enhanced economic opportunity and quality of life status of nominations and the task force will be discussed for Americans. at the March meeting of the Advisory Board. The
appointment of the task force is to be complete within 6
Decisions about the future of these laboratories have months of passage of the 1996 Farm Bill and the report major implications for the nation's entire agriculture of the task force is to be submitted to the Secretary and research enterprise. The review of the federally owned congressional agriculture committees no later than 2 years and funded agricultural research facilities is expected to after the task force is established.* address the following issues:
Anne Vidaver is a member of the REE Advisory Board,
+ Comparative advantage, or special capabilities, includ- and the Board of the Wallace Institute for Alternative ing physical infr-astructure, of the various laboratory Agriculture. systems in meeting each of the national needs outlined

Fund for Rural America: The Land Grant Lobbying
Research, Education and Tightrope
Economics RFP Update Mike Hogan
Extension Agent and Sustainable Ag Coordinator
Juli Baker Ohio State University Extension
Center for Rural Affairs
"llr most people the term lobbying conjures up
nthe 1996 Farm Bill, Congress set aside $ 100 million I-mgso iigaddining andlbestowing gifts and
Jayear for the next three years for special rural .L favors upon legislators. While most agricultural
Development and research/extension initiatives. Sixty- scientists, Extension personnel and other land grant
six million of this money, called the Fund for Rural university employees do not engage in these stereotypical America (FRA), was divided between the two mission lobbying activities, many do express opinions or provide areas: Rural Economic and Community Development, information to legislators from time to time. Do these (formerly Farmers Home Administration) and Research, types of activities constitute lobbying? Are these activiEducation and Economics (REE, home to Cooperative ties legal or ethical? The answer is a resounding maybe! Extension and Agricultural Research Service, as well as
other programs). Allocation of the remaining money wa For example, some at USDA will argue that any indileft to the Secretary of Agriculture's discretion. vidual who receives federal funding such as a grant, should not engage in lobbying efforts with legislators.
USDA issues its request for proposals (RFP) in late Others point out that since such federal funding may not January 1997 for funds designated for Research, Educa- constitute the single source of funding for most agricultion and Economics, a minimum of $33 million per year. tural scientists or Extension personnel, such persons This call will emphasize proposals that address the should not be prohibited from lobbying. following three areas: environmental stewardship; rural
economic enhancement; and global competitiveness, farm It's A Fine Line profitability and/or fhrm efficiency. USDA reviewers will
give highest priority to those proposals that intersect all It is often difficult to distinguish lobbying from legitimate three areas and second-highest priority to those that link attempts to educate legislators about a public institution's two. Proposals that address only one of the three areas efforts and impact. Many units of land grant universities will be assigned a lower priority. (experiment stations, Extension Services) now have
highly visible, coordinated efforts to educate legislators at
One innovative aspect to the RFP will be the availability all levels of government about the scope and impact of of planning grants. These short-term mini-grants are the work they do. The current environment of accountintended to "level the playing field," allowing organiza- ability demands that institutions and agencies engage in tions or groups unaccustomed to the grant application these types of activities, but also makes it more difficult process to use it to develop and refine their grant propos- to distinguish between lobbying and providing informaals. USDA hopes one outcome of these planning grants tion. A now retired state Director of Extension once will be innovative partnerships developing in rural areas. referred to the fine line between lobbying and education
Evaluating the ERA grant proposals will require a large a dnigo h deo i" cadre of reviewers with diverse expertise. This is an Do Your Homework important opportunity for people interested in sustainable
development to help guide USDA research funding. Many universities and agencies of government have very Review panels may need not only individuals with specific guidelines and policies on how employees may academic backgrounds but business people, rural comimu- interact with legislators when acting as official representanity leaders and others with expertise in such diverse tives of the university or agency. Being aware of these areas as agricultural production systems, and rural policies and communicating with department heads, economic and community development. We encourage directors, and other administrators is clearly the best way CSARE members with demonstrated expertise related to to determine the most appropriate behavior in individual the three areas outlined above to volunteer for these situations. review panels. *
To obtain the REP or to submit your name as a possible Ctzn a ob reviewer, contact Dr Colien Hefferan at USDA REE: Most employees also have the right to lobby legislators as TEL: 202/720-4423; ADDRESS: Rm. 305A, Whitten private citizens. In fact most employees probably have
Bldg, USDA, Washington DC 20250; EMAIL: more latitude and potential for impact when lobbying as Continued on page 25

I well as his enjoyment and respect for ( _SARE member Dr. Rick Welsh People and Places labor is a combination that is all too %._,has recently become the Direcrare. It is a combination that I'm sure tor of the Southern Region USDAhelped Jack keep things in perspective. SARE program, while CSARE We would do well to pursue this blend Governing Council member Paula rJeath takes two cherished in our own lives. Ford has left her position with that
1.sadvocates of sustainable Charlie Eselgroth, 1FO President
agriculture research and education: program (more on her in April).
Jack and Louise Warner also were Welsh is a 1995 graduate of Rural
Father Norman White In Grati- among the founding members of Sociology at Cornell, where he
tude for a Generous Life CSARE. They participated in an early worked with Judy Green in the
workshop during which I remember Farming Alternatives Program. Most
After a heart attack and surgery, Jack's comments blowing away the recently Welsh was a Postdoctoral
Father Norm White died Wednesday chaffof rhetoric to get to the critical Associate with the Policy Studies
noon, August 28. We thank this great kernel with both humor and aplomb. Program of the Wallace Institute for man for the strength of his love for Look for a feature on Stratford in the Alternative Agriculture where he land, people and church. April issue. Elizabeth Bird, Editor authored a report on the industrialNorm was a leader with warmth and ization of U.S. agriculture. Welsh's
conviction, committed to care for wife, Mary Graham, is on the faculty
"hurting farm families" and speaking at Georgia State University.
up for justice. We of the Churches' ('PARE member Dr. Leonard Bull Center for Land and People have k.d. e Associate Vice Provost "r Dennis Keeney and Dr.
benefited from his generous sharing, for International Programs atNC State L.Atephe Gilbert have been inspired by his nerve and verve. He last August. In that role he is respon- selected for the Council for Agriculhas been friend and mentor, affecting sible for all student, faculty and tural Science and Technology (CAST) circles and circles through his preach- institutional programs dealing with Phase II Coordinating Team for ing and teaching, his participation in International activity for the University. "Scientific Societies: Conversations on boards of rural organizations, his Prior to this post he was Assistant "Sci en e is Direto on pastoral presence to many. We will Director ofthe NC Agricultural Change." Keeney is Director of the
miss him greatly, May he rest in peace. Research Service, and he remains the Leopold Center for Sustainable Assistant Dean ofthe College of Ag Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, and Chair of
-Miriam Brown CCLP and Life Sciences for International CSARE's Reward Systems Task
Programs. Bull is President-Elect of Force. Gilbert is ICM Project ManNorm White was among the founding the American Society of Animal ager/Crop Advisor, Androscoggin
members of CSARE, and a wireless Science and a member of the National Valley Soil and Water Conservation
supporter of our work. His commit- Research Council Board on Agricul- District, South Portland, Maine. ment and optimism never failed to ture. He headed Animal Science at Following a March 1997 workshop,
brighten a day's work. Elizabeth NC State for 7 years. the Team will continue for 2 years the
Bird, Editor. process started in 1995 to examine
critical changes in the workplace, and
f'ISARE member Dr. Bob Miller needed visions, strategies and direcDr. Jack Warner In Memory retireded last summer from his post tions within scientific societies, their
as Dean of the College of Resource membership, and land grant universiWe've lost a member of our IFO Development at the University of ties.
(Innovative Farmers of Ohio) family. In Rhode Island. After a summer of September, Dr. Jack Warner passed tennis and golf, Miller found he was Keeney hopes to explore how scientific
away unexpectedly at home on his bored with retired life and went back societies can foster innovative reward
farm. Jack and his wife, Dr Louise to work. He's currently serving as a structures that encourage scientist and Warner, are founding members and consulting administrator for UMass educator responsiveness to the
dedicated supporters of lFO. They also Dartmouth's Center for Marine changing agricultural and political
founded the Stratford Ecological Science and Technology, a newly environment. Keeney has led the
Center to help educate school children, developing academic program area. Leopold Center through a futuring farmers and University educators H ontitoarcluenthsexercise leading to the current plan of
about the great potential for sustain- His one tie to agriculture mnthisexrielangtthcuetpano able agriculture. temporary position is leading the operations, and he has chaired the
development of an aquaculture American Society of Agronomy
A highly educated and highly intelli- program. On the horizon for the Strategic Planning committee. Several
gent man, Jack also relished the Millers as soon as they're able to sell Leopold Center projects, most notably
physical labor involved with farming. their Rhode Island home, is to pur- the EPA sponsored project examining When there was hay to be baled, fence chase Betty Miller's family fam in the role of sustainable agriculture and to be built, or manure to be spread northwest Wisconsin. They'll be a the pesticide industry in the future of Jack wasn Y a supervisor At the end of welcome addition in CSARE's agriculture, have directly used future
the day his hands and clothes were as headquarters state. Bob Miller may search techniques. dirty as anyone else's, currently be reached at 508-999-8925; S; 1346 Curtis Stephanie Gilbert brings to the ConThis, I think is what made Jack unique. Comer Rd., Wakefield, RI 02879. versations a unique background as a His enjoyment and respect for ideas, as continued on page 25

Save the Fam ily Farm The concept of "sustainable survival" as opposed to
"sustainable development" was recently outlined by the
present authors in a journal that for the first time emA .uioet ica Im perative braces the phrase Global Survival in its title: Medical
and Global Survival is a quarterly launched in March
1994 and now is available on the Internet at Commentary by Van Rensselaer Potter, ww.heatet.og/MGS/GS.html>. Hilldale Professor of Oncology, Emeritus, UW-Madison
In 1988 the Journal ofAgricultural Ethics was launched. The name was changed to Journal ofAgricultural and
m has become apparent that health care and land care Environmental Ethics in 1991, providing a ray of hope in st be dealt with on a global scale. Sustainablethe two specialties. grculture and bioethics are intertwined imperatives.
One of the most successful comprehensive efforts is the
There has been an increasing awareness that agriculture, Bioethics Program at Iowa State University with Philosoto be sustainable, must be coupled with environmental phy Professor Gary Comstock as its Director. Ag protection and restoration. But "sustainable agriculture Bioethics Forum is the program's newsletter. Comstock calls for more than attention to the fragile ecosystem. We and colleagues have presented a week-long presentation are in need of a widespread realization that sustainable of the "ISU Program in Ethics and Environmental, Food, agriculture is a moral issue. The very survival of the and Agricultural Biotechnology" at the University of family farm and the local community is at stake. Up to Illinois, Michigan State University, and Purdue. The ISU now, however, the words "ethics" or "bioethics" have not Program is indeed a ray of hope for the integration of the appeared in connection with the pragmatic approach. ethical specialties.
So far, local efforts to achieve sustainable agriculture A new journal called Ecosystem Health, with Volume I in have over-shadowed global concerns. Yet the need for 1995, seems to continue the fragmented approach, not sustainable agriculture is highlighted by the fact that an mentioning "sustainable agriculture when they state their adequate food supply for the malnourished and the well- mission as "integrating ecology, ethics, environmental fed segments of the world population into the twenty- management, and medicine". However, in Volume 1 second and twenty-third centuries and beyond is not now number 3 they published an article with the title "The assured. Potential of Agroecosystem Health as a Guiding Concept
Global bioethics calls for the mobilization and coordina- for Agricultural Research". The author equates tion of agricultural, environmental, medical, and religious "agroecosystem health" with "sustainable agriculture" efforts to achieve a moral sustainable agriculture, human without, however, mentioning the threats to individual
effots o ahiee amorl sstaiabl agicutur, hman farmers and local communities. health, human dignity, and human rights on a world-wide
basis. While the efforts of agricultural, environmental, In 1991 Charles V. Blatz, professor of Philosophy at the and medical ethicists are secular, they must be open to University of Toledo performed a heroic task in assemthe contributions of religious efforts. At the same time bling the work of 53 contributors in Ethics andAgriculthe religious forces need to be open to each other and to ture: An Anthology on Currentlssues in Worl Context. be willing to cooperate with the secular forces to work The book is arranged in four major sections dealing with toward a global bioethic. The evils of the present world agriculture's goals, practitioners, conduct and developculture are not all secular. meant.
Though none has yet integrated the ethics of sustainable An article by Blatz appears in a remarkable journal, agriculture with a global bioethic as I envision it, a variety Agriculture and Human Values, in the second of two of publications of the last decade are useful resources. issues devoted to "Alternative Conceptions and Models of The Natural Step is evolving as a world-wide movement Sustainability" (Vol. 9, No. 3, Summer 1992) and "The theatrinate i Swevln Kasarld- id o met Human Dimensions of Sustainability" (Vol. 9, No. 4, Fall that originated in Sweden. Karl-Henrik Robert, M.D. 1992), with a total of 12 articles and 6 book reviews.
mobilized a broad array of professionals to take environ- Only a few dealt with ethical issues or a long time frame. mental and economic descriptors to the schools and the
citizenry, wedding economics to ecology without preach- Deserving mention is The Sociology of US Agriculture: ing morality. Robert emphasized that long term reason- An Ecological Perspective (ISU Press). The authors, as able profits required stability. It was found that the more sociologists, are more concerned with human ecology (the informed people became, the more they tended to take a society) than the non-human, biological and physical moral view. Thus it appears that instead of proceeding environment. from a global ethics to survival, the Natural Step has
proceeded from survival (stability) to an ecological ethics "Plant trees for posterity" is not just a that is an important part of Global Bioethics. figure of speech, it is a moral imperative! The answer to the old saw ../ ,
In parallel with The Natural Step, the views expressed in "vhat has posterity ever done for the book The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of me" is simple -"Posterity has done for Sustainability by Paul Hawken argue the moral and gie you s l -stileri hsL/ practical logic of sustainable business practices. given you a mission in life".

Subject Index of Articles in Consortium News
SUBJECT Title Author Newsletter Page
ASSESSING SUSTAINABLE AG A Case Study ofResearch Relevancy Classification Bird, George W. No. 5, March 1995 9
Commentary: The Idea ofPrecise Farming Alessi, Sam No. 9, Apr. 1996 5
Farm Monitoring Tools Boody, George No. 1, Feb. 1994 4
Other Efforts to Assess Sustainability ofResearch Bird, Elizabeth No. 1, Feb. 1994 5
Reviewing Commitments to &4 Research Bird, Elizabeth No. 1, Feb. 1994 3
Simple Frameworkfor Evaluating Sustainability Stockle, Claudio No. 1, Feb. 1994 5
Social and Economic Issues Related to Precision Farming Hewitt, Tracy & Smith, K. No. 9, Apr. 1996 5 Sustainability Scale to Target Farm Program Benefits? Painter, Kate No. 1, Feb. 1994 4
Where Do You Stand on SITs? Ventura, Steve No. 9, Apr. 1996 5
COMMENTARY Educational Environments Duesing, Bill No. 10, Aug. 1996 6
Is Australia the Future for USAg Policy? Worstell, Jim No. 8, Jan. 1996 8
Ken Taylor A Rich Legacy Stark, Margo No. 5, March 1995 2
Land Grants Lost: Special Interests and the Public Good Gerber, John No. 4, Dec. 1994 1
Perspective: Strategic Science Voland, Rick No. 2, May 1994 10
Science Issue Round Tables: Perspective from Canada Barrett, Katherine No. 13, Jan. 1997 5
SWCS Takes Position on SA Bird, Elizabeth No. 8, Jan. 1996 8
CSARE NEWS A Review of Consortium Mission and Objectives Bird, Elizabeth No. 7, Oct. 1996 13
A WordAbout the Consortium's Name Bird, Elizabeth No. 1, Feb. 1994 7
Accommodating Diversity in the Consortium Bird, Elizabeth No. 2, May 1994 5
Bass, Jones, Lengnick, North andRusmore Win CSARE Elections No. 12, Nov. 1996 1
Benefits of Consortium Membership Bird, Elizabeth No. 2, May 1994 5
Branch Station Closures Guldan, Steve No. 4, Dec. 1994 2
Candidate Bias & Statements No. 10, Aug. 1996 insert
Consortium Ballot Results Bird, Elizabeth No. 6, June 1996 1
Consortium Director's Report Bird, Elizabeth No. 5, March 1995 3
Consortium Gathers Steam Bird, Elizabeth No. 7, Oct. 1996 1
Consortium History and Purpose Bird, Elizabeth No. 1, Feb. 1994 1
Consortium Memberships Bird, Elizabeth No. 4, Dec. 1994 2
Consortium Transition Klemme, Rick No. 8, Jan. 1996 1
CSAREBylaws Bird, Elizabeth No. 2, May 1994 6-8
CSAREMembers Invited to Madison in June Bird, Elizabeth No. 13, Jan. 1997 28
Elections Background Bird, Elizabeth No. 5, March 1995 4
Farm BillAction Network Bird, Elizabeth No. 4, Dec. 1994 2
Governing Council Elections. Bird, Elizabeth No. 10, Aug. 1996 1
Governing Council Nominations Bird, Elizabeth No. 4, Dec. 1994 2
Governing Council Nominations Open Bird, Elizabeth No. 9, Apr. 1996 1
LookingforMore than aFew Good People Bird, Elizabeth No. 13, Jan. 1997 28
Member Dues Critical Bird, Elizabeth No. 7, Oct. 1996 1
Membership Reminder No. 13, Jan. 1997 1
NewActivities Planned Bird, Elizabeth No. 7, Oct. 1996 2
Newsletter Soon to be Member Privilege Bird, Elizabeth No. 9, Apr. 1996 1
Nominees for Election to 3 Year Terms on GC Bird, Elizabeth No. 5, March 1995 5
Organizational Structure Bird, Elizabeth No. 2, May 1994 5
Projects Getting Under Way Bird, Elizabeth No. 1, Feb. 1994 2
Results of Organizing Meetings Bird, Elizabeth No. 1, Feb. 1994 2
Results of Survey Bird, Elizabeth No.3, Aug. 1994 2
Rewards for Sustainable Ag Research & Education No. 11, Oct. 1996 1
SocialDimensions of SA Task Force Bird, Elizabeth No. 12, Nov. 1996 7
Survey Results to Date Bird, Elizabeth No. 2, May 1994 5
Who is the Consortium? Bird, Elizabeth No. 1, Feb. 1994 1
Who Is the CSARE Steering Committee? Bird, Elizabeth No. 1, Feb. 1994 7
IDENTIFY RESEARCH NEEDS Do Grassroots and Prof Soc. Research Agendas Mesh? Bird, Elizabeth No. 7, Oct. 1996 3
Farmers in Transition: Rose for Extension? Staritzky, Kim No. 13, Jan. 1997 8
Fish Are Agricultural Products, Too. Goldburg, Becky No. 8, Jan. 1996 11
Fresh Breezes A Sea-Change at the Joint Council? Bird, Elizabeth No. 4, Dec. 1994 3

SUBJECT Title Author Newsletter Page
IDENTIFY RESEARCH NEEDS Members Identify Research Gaps and Opportunities Enshayan, Kamyar No. 4, Dec. 1994 3
INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE Can Learning Become the Center? Campbell, Gery No. 13, Jan. 1997 9
Community Outreach:A Central Role for UniversityFaculty? Bird, Elizabeth No. 11, Oct. 1996 1
Extension Role in Information Transfer Wilson, Ted No. 13, Jan. 1997 15
Extension's Opportunities Hesterman, Oran No. 13, Jan. 1997 14
NESAWG Dialogues with Northeast Region Land Grant Directors Ruhf Clarke& Lawrence No. 12, Nov. 1996 2 Public Research for the Public Good Buttel, Frederick No. 12, Nov. 1996 13
Transforming Extension Gerber, John No. 13, Jan. 1997 13
NATIONAL POLICY ANALYSIS 1995 Appropriations Krome, Margaret No. 4, Dec. 1994 12
Analysis -New Directions for USDA Bird, Elizabeth No. 6, June 1996 1
Campaign for Sustainable Ag Bird, Elizabeth No. 3, Aug. 1994 3
Chapter 3 Update DeWitt, Jerry No.3, Aug. 1994 8
Do Grassroots and Prof Soc. Research Agendas Mesh? Bird, Elizabeth No.7, Oct. 1996 3
Energy andAgriculture Bird, Elizabeth No. 8, Jan. 1996 6
Extension Roles in Information Transfer Wilson, Ted No. 13, Jan. 1997 15
Farm BillAction on Research andExtension Bird, Elizabeth No. 7, Oct. 1996 Insert A
FederalAppropriations Update Krome, Margaret No.3, Aug. 1994 1
Focus on the 1995 Farm Bill Bird, Elizabeth No.3, Aug. 1994 2
Fresh Breezes -A Sea-Change at the Joint Council? Bird, Elizabeth No. 4, Dec. 1994 3
Fund forRuralAmerica Hassebrook, Chuck No. 9, Apr. 1996 3
FundForRuralAmerica Bird, Elizabeth No. 8, Jan. 1996 13
Fund forRuralAmerica Hoefner & Bird No. 12, Nov. 1996 17
FundforRuralAmerica Update Baker, Juli No. 13, Jan. 1997 19
Funding VictoryforSustainableAgPrograms Krome, Margaret No. 7, Oct. 1996 16
GPRA Baker, Juli No. 12, Nov. 1996 17
GPRA Update Baker, Juli No. 13, Jan. 1997 1
GPRA-What tMeansforAgResearch &Ext. Bird, Elizabeth No. 8, Jan. 1996 3
HouseAg ResearchHearings Baker, Juli No. 9, Apr. 1996 3
House Research Title Update Bird, Elizabeth No. 8, Jan. 1996 13
Land Grant Lobbying Tightrope Hogan, Mike No. 13, Jan. 1997 19
NASULGC Working Groups Bird, Elizabeth No. 3, Aug. 1994 6
NewARS Integrated Farming systems Program Krome, Margaret No. 10, Aug. 1996 2
News from USDA Bird, Elizabeth No. 7, Oct. 1996 6
No Rest for the Righteous-Appropriations FY97 is Upon Us Krome, Margaret No. 9, Apr. 1996 16
NRIReviewed Bird, Elizabeth No. 7, Oct. 1996 7
NRI Update AREI Updates No. 7, Oct. 1996 5
Other News of the President's Budget Bird, Elizabeth No. 5, March 1995 11
President's Budget Bird, Elizabeth No. 1, Feb. 1994 8
Private Research Continued Faster Growth... Bird, Elizabeth No. 7, Oct. 1996 5
Professional Societies Lobbying for Research Funding Bird, Elizabeth No. 6, June 1996 8
REEEAdvisoryBoard DeVries, Brad No. 12, Nov. 1996 17
Regional S.A. Working Groups Meet to Discuss SARE Higgins, Liz No. 9, Apr. 1996 4
ReviewAhead for Fed'l Rsch Facilities Vidaver, Anne No. 13, Jan. 1997 18
SARE Chapter 3 Hoefnier, Ferd No. 1, Feb. 1994 6
Science Policy Critiqued Bird, Elizabeth No. 13, Jan. 1997 4
Searching for the "0" Word Lipsorn, Mark No. 13, Jan. 1997 1
SustainableAg Programs Down the Tubes? Krome, Margaret No. 5, March 1995 1
The REE Strategic Plan from a SustainableAg Perspective Smith, Stewart No. 13, Jan. 1997 3
USDA News Bird, Elizabeth No. 8, Jan. 1996 3
USDA SAWG Issues Report Higgens, Elizabeth No. 13, Jan. 1997 2
USDA's Science Agenda: Serving the Nat'l Interest? Bird, Elizabeth No. 2, May 1994 3
USDA-REE's Strategic Plan Baker, Juli No. 10, Aug. 1996 9
We Held Our Ground-$$ inFY97 Krome, Margaret No. 10, Aug. 1996 1
Word from Washington, DC Hoefner, Ferd No. 6, June 1996 1
PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS CASA: California Alliancefor SA Mundy, Victoria No. 12, Nov. 1996 1
Center for Sustaining Ag andNatural Resources Granatstein, David No. 4, Dec. 1994 10
CIAS andMultidisciplinaryResearch Bronsdon, Jennifer No. 9, Apr. 1996 2

SUBJECT Title Author Newsletter Page
PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Cuba's Sustainable Agriculture Wagner, Lowell No. 6, June 1996 4
Extension for Sustainable Communities Ikerd, John No. 7, Oct. 1996 15
Farming Systems Research in Beltsville Baker, Juli No. 12, Nov. 1996 5
Goals ofthe World SustainableAgAssoc. Madden, J. Patrick No. 10, Aug. 1996 8
IFS ProjectsAcross the U.S. Build Local Leadership Mundy, Victoria No. 10, Aug. 1996 5
IPM-SustainableAgriculture Coalition Plans Activities Sorensen, Dr. A. Ann No.6, June 1996 10
Role of Weed Science in Sustainable Agriculture Mortensen, Dave No. 10, Aug. 1996 5
S4 Research at the ARS-Beltsville Center Baker, Juli & Hall, John No. 12, Nov. 1996 4
Science & EnvironmentalHealth Network Raffensperger, Carolyn No. 8, Jan. 1996 10
SharedLeadership, SharedResponsibility Francis & Carter No. 13, Jan. 1997 8
Shared Visions Mundy, Victoria No. 13, Jan. 1997 5
State of the South Worstell, Jim No. 1, Feb. 1994 6
Status ofBoard on Ag Study Bird, Elizabeth No. 4, Dec. 1994 1
RESEARCH NETWORKING A Farmer's Perspective on Farming Systems Research Rosmann, Ron No. 9, Apr. 1996 1
Committee for Sustainable Farm Publishing Bird, Elizabeth No.7, Oct. 1996 14
Community Research Bird, Elizabeth No. 12, Nov. 1996 20
Evolutionary Learning Rusmore, Barbara No. 10, Aug. 1996 7
Farmer Participatory Research: from agpractices... Rusmore, Barbara No. 12, Nov. 1996 3
Farmer Research andNetwork Building Rusmore, Barbara No.7, Oct. 1996 1
Farmer Research and Network Building Rusmore, Barbara No. 6, June 1996 3
Farmer-Researcher Organizations as Scientific Societies Rusmore, Barbara No. 13, Jan. 1997 7
REVIEWS Better Row to Hoe Bird, Elizabeth No. 4, Dec. 1994 10
Change in Mission ofthe Land Grants Bird, Elizabeth No. 4, Dec. 1994 9
Community Outreach: A Central Role for University Faculty? Bird, Elizabeth No. 11, Oct. 1996 1
Land Grant Study Schaller, Neill No. 8, Jan. 1996 2
NESAWG Dialogues with Northeast Region Land Grant Directors Ruhf Clarke & Lawrence No. 12, Nov. 1996 2 Planting the Future Bird, Elizabeth No. 4, Dec. 1994 10
Planting the Future with Helpfrom Coop. Ext. Bird, Elizabeth No.6, June 1996 5
Science Policy Critiqued Bird, Elizabeth No. 13, Jan. 1997 4
The Future ofthe Land Grant Colleges ofAgriculture Bird, Elizabeth No. 10, Aug. 1996 3
The Way: An Ecological World-view Bird, George W. No. 1, Feb. 1994 7
USDA SAWG IssuesReport Higgens, Elizabeth No. 13, Jan. 1997 2
SOCIAL ETHICS Constituting Nature, Manufacturing Plants Busch, Lacy, etal. No. 12, Nov. 1996 9
Public Research for the Public Good Buttel, Frederick No. 12, Nov. 1996 13
Save the Family Farm Potter, Van No. 13, Jan. 1997 21
SURVEYS & SIGN-UPS Campaign for SA Bramel-Cox, Paula No. 3, Aug. 1994 insert
Farm BillResponse Form Bird, Elizabeth No.3, Aug. 1994 insert
Incentives andBarriers to Public Interest Research No. 11, Oct. 1996 7
Survey to Determine Consortium Direction Bird, Elizabeth No. 1, Feb. 1994 insert
SUSTAINABLE AG EDUCATION Agroecology Graduate Program Swisher, Mickie No. 9, Apr. 1996 insert
B.S. in SA Univ. Vermont Bird, Elizabeth No.3, Aug. 1994 8
Consortium's Education Task Force Francis, Chuck No. 2, May 1994 1
Education for SA Year Long Electronic Conference Schuck, Nancy Grudens No. 5, March 1995 12
Education for SA Year-Long Electronic Conference Schuck, Nancy Grudens No. 7, Oct. 1996 9
Education Task Force Proposal Francis, Chuck No.3, Aug. 1994 1
Extension andEducationMaderialsfor SA Bird, Elizabeth No. 2, May 1994 2
Graduate Minor in Sustainable Agriculture Sheaffer, Craig No. 2, May 1994 1
Has Teaching Been Changing in LG Universities? Francis, Chuck No. 2, May 1994 12
K-12 Education in S.A. Helm, Tom No. 2, May 1994 2
On-line S.A. Education Conference Schuck, Nancy Grudens No. 6, June 1996 3
Public Education for SA Thomas, Shan No. 2, May 1994 2
Report ofSAEd-Share-L Electronic Conference Grudens-Schuck, Nancy No. 12, Nov. 1996 6
Research Methods in EcologicalAg Francis, Chuck No. 8, Jan. 1996 9
SA education for Beginning Farmers Fraas, Wyatt No. 2, May 1994 11
Undergraduate Education in 4SA Francis, Chuck No. 2, May 1994 2

CSARE Members Invited, continued frm backpage. Shared Leadership continuedfivn page &
the Reward Systems Task Force (how to proceed from the The full-range leadership model that incorporates transforsurvey results); the Social Dimensions Task Force (how to mational elements has been widely tested in commercial promote tools for integrating social considerations into industry, universities, and other organizations. It appears to research planning and extension activities); theMulti- have good potential for application in our designing learning Dimensional Research TaskForce (planning capacity- and decision making environments in sustainable agriculture.
building workshops); and National Research Policy Task The 116 participants in workshops in Wisconsin (June 24Force (strategies to shift national resources toward sustain- 26) and North Dakota (July 24-26) were enthusiastic about able agriculture). (Ifyou've indicated an interest in these or the ideas and applications for our future training programs in others, we'll be in touch.) agriculture. The workshops were sponsored by the North
Central Sustainable Agriculture Training Program funded
The AFHVS/ASFS conference will have a great line-up of through SARE Professional Development Program (Chapter activities. The meetings will begin Thursday with a tour of 3) funding. nearby dairy rotational grazing farms. Tentative plans
include a presentation by Willie Lockeretz of Depression-era Follow through on the ideas and materials presented in the farm and rural life art; a local foods picnic/banquet with programs was enhanced by training materials contained in 3panel discussion by area farmers and food entrepreneurs; ring binders distributed to participants. In the North Central and a "Rural Voices" play. Keynote speakers will include region, you can locate one of these resource binders through Harriet Friedmann, expert on the global food system and the state sustainable agriculture coordinator in Cooperative currently working with the Toronto Food Policy Council. Extension, who can also tell you who attended from your state. An abridged version of the binder has been assembled
Proposals for papers or panels are still welcome (at least and can be ordered from the Center for Sustainable Agriculthrough mid-February), so if you want to participate, call the tural Systems, University of Nebraska (ask for Green Book, CSARE-Madison office for information. Volume 5). TEL: 402-472-1581. *
A Few Good People! continued from backpage.
We also need information about these service opportunities. Shared Visions, continued from page 5. If you know of an event or situation where the sustainable
agriculture community might benefit from having a Consor- production practices, labeling laws, and other regulations. tium member participate, please let us know!
To provide or request information, contact Juli Baker, Other Shared Hsions groups concentrate on alternative CSARE Policy and Outreach Director. To volunteer, send crops and innovative production practices. There are two your resume to Betsy Didrickson at the Madison CSARE beginning farmer groups. One group uses HRM as a office Find addresses in planning tool. Some groups concentrate on managementConsortium News credits, p. 27. intesivegrazing.
Think about it. We need more than a few good people to There's a lot more happening with Shared 1sions than will serve. fit in one column! These folks clearly are busy, committed,
serve..._ and excited. That's something sustainable farmers have in
common no matter where they are. *
Tightrope, continuedfrom page 19.
private citizens, as opposed to when they act as official Reprintedftom the Nebraska Sustainable
representatives of an institution. When lobbying as a Agriculture Society Newsletter
private citizen, employees should refrain from using
official letterhead, penalty mail, or other resources of the People and Places, continuedfiom page 20. institution. While identifying yourself with a particular
job title and institution is likely acceptable in such in- dancer and design teacher as well as crop specialist. She is stances, it must be clear that you are not claiming to particularly interested in helping to redefine the agricultural officially represent the institution. In some instances even professions, their research tools, and purposes. Gilbert this type of behavior may not be acceptable to individual serves on the Northeast Regional SARE Planning Committee administrators and institutions. Common sense and good and has recently played a major role in organizing a 2-day judgment typically substitute for the lack of institutional participatory research and education workshop in sustainable policies in this area. agriculture. She also initiated the first Maine farm study
circles in on-farm crop research.
The need for agricultural scientists, Extension personnel
and other agency employees to provide information to CAST disseminates information on agriculture technology legislators for decision-making is real, especially in light of issues to policy makers and the media. CAST membership the plethora of often opposing viewpoints which legisla- includes scientific societies, private corporations, nonprofit tors get from various agricultural lobbyists and organiza- groups, and over 3000 private individuals. The Conversations. How to provide such information in an effective, tions on Change Program is supported by the W.K. Kellogg coordinated, and ethical fashion is the dilemma. In an Foundation, Farm Foundation, University of llinois and upcoming issue we'll take a look at how some institutions WorkSpan, Inc. handle this dilemma.*

poultry and meat industries in U.S. Growing Together: Community Publications No charge. USDA, Agricultural Gardening and Food Security.
Marketing Service, Information Staff, Sustainable Food Center. 35 page Pi s d e rt P.O. Box 96456, Washington, DC handbook covers details of establishMasculinit at Risk:20090-6456; phone (202) 720-8998; ing a community garden. Free!!
. ....x.... (202) 720-7135. Call 800-882-5592 or write SFC,
Pesticides and Male Fertilty, attn. Garden Guide, 434 Bastrop 1996. Caroline Cox. Presents Non-Governmental Organizations Hwy., Austin, TX 78741. Other
overview of pesticide impacts on and Biotechnology: A Directory, SFC publications include a how-to male fertility. US$3. Northwest 1996. Center for Applied Studies in manual for starting a farmers market Coalition for Alternatives to Pesti- International Negotiations (CASIN). and Growing Smart, a compilation cides (NCAP), P.O. Box 1393, Brief summaries of more than 200 of Texas sustainable ag success
Eugene, OR 97440; 541-344-5044; NGOs from around the world that stories. fax 541-344-6923; work on biotechnology issues, including contact information, staff, Knee Deep in Grass: A survey of Pesticide Risk in Groundwater, budget, objectives and activities, twenty-nine grazing operations in 1995 Marco Vighi and Enzo Funari CASIN, Programme on Non-Govern- Minnesota. MISA and Minnesota (eds.) Technical overview of issues mental Organizations, 1 A, Avenue Extension Service. Farm families related to pesticides in groundwater, de la Paix, 1202 Geneva, Switzer- say their quality of life improved including monitoring pesticide levels, land; phone (41 22) 734-8950; fax after adopting MIG! $5 + shipping. evaluating groundwater vulnerability, (41 22) 733-6444. Minnesota Extension Service Distrihealth implications of contamination bution Center, Univ. of Minnesota,
and pesticide management. $79.95. Local Crop Development: An 1420 Eckles Ave., St. Paul, MN
Specify Catalog Number L439 OB Annotated Bibliography, 1996. 55108-6069, 800-876-8636.
73714393, CRC Press, Inc., 2000 W.M van der Heide and R. Tripp, Corporate Blvd. NW, Boca Raton, eds. Summarizes more than 250 FL 33431; 407-994-0555 or 800- books, journal articles and mono272-7737; fax 407-998-9114,or graphs related to conservation and
800-374-3401. development of crop genetic diversity Conferences
by farmers worldwide. Overseas
Critical Condition: Human Development Institute, Regent's
Health and the Environment, College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park,
1993. E. Chivian, M. McCally, H. London, NW1 4NS, England; phone February 20-21,1997, Hu and A. Haines (eds). Examines (44 171) 487-7413; fax (44 171) Louisville, KY. Worldviews: health impacts of global environ- 487-7590; email; Global Forms of"Being" mental degradation, including global Through Indigenous Knowlwarming, ozone depletion and toxic edge. Contact: National Center for
pollution of air, water and soil. For ALL Generations: Making Diversity, Louisville, KY, 502-227Includes discussion of pesticide World Agriculture More Sustain- 5904. hazards due to water and food able, edited by J. Patrick Madden
contamination. $15.95. The MIT and Scott G. Chaplowe. Available February 28-March 1, 1997, Press, c/o Uniserv Inc., 525 Great from the World Sustainable Agricul- Lawrence, KS: Science and its Road, Littleton, MA 01460; (617) ture Association, 8554 Melrose Ave., Critics. Contact: John Pattinson, 625-8569,toll free (800) 356-0343; West Hollywood, CA 90069, 310- Univ.of Kansas, Continuing Educa- /
mitpress-orders@MIT.EDU 657-7202. Ii tion Bldg., Lawrence, KS 66045- ,
2607, 913-864-3284, or visit:
English/Spanish Spanish/English Cyberspace i
Illustrated Agricultural Dictio- -yee-baringer/scicrit.html
nary, 1993. Robert Rice, Jr.
Provides translation for range of
agricultural terms, including tools, The Agriculture Fact Book, New Web Site!
processes, insects and other words 1996, is now available at the University of'Wisconsin
related to plants, soil and crop USDA Home Page: Centerfor Integrated
production. $27.95 Thomson Agricultural Systems
Publications, P.O. Box 9335,
Fresno, CA 93791; phone (209) Includes program information,
435-2163; fax (209) 435-8319. Corporate Watch Web Site Online full text research briefs, and
http://www. corpwatch. org publication ordering information
Concentration in Agriculture: A as well as other hot ag links
Report of the USDA Advisory The site is designed to provide up to check it out!
Committee on Agricultural date information and analysis on
Concentration, 1996. Examines social, ecological and economic
corporate concentration in livestock, impacts oftransnational corporations. h 26

March 7-8, 1997, Sinsinawa, WI: Saskatchewan (15th-19th): XV111
Upper Midwest Organic Farming International Grassland Congress Opportunities
Conference/From the Soil to the '97: "Grasslands 2000". Contact:
Sale: Building Farms and Corn-; (403) 244munities Contact: 715-772-6819. 4487; FAX:244-2340. University of Maine Coopera"tive Extension Proposes ReApril 14-15, 1997, Athens, GA. June 25-28, 1997, Cambridge/ tive Extension Propost School. ReInteractions: Investigating Ecosys- Boston, MA: The 3rd International gional Compost School.
tem Dynamics at the Watershed Interdisciplinary Conference on the The objective of the school is to
Level. Contact: Soil & Water Environment. Contact: Demetri The objective of the school is to
Conservation Society, 800-THE- Kantarelis 508) 767-7557 or Kevin L. provide tra ning to people intmer ested
SOL, or visit: Hickey (508) 767-7296; Fax: (508) and/or involved with medium and 799-4502; large scale composting operations. 799-4502; The course will be offered as a or visit certificate program by UMCE and May 2-4, 1997, University of certificate program by UMCE and
Oregon, Eugene, OR. Public academic/conf/iicecall.html will tra personnel to be qualified
Oregn, ugen, .compost site operators.
Interest Science Conference: How Public Interest Scientists Have July 30-31, 1997, Ames, IA: The e school will be offered four times
Made An Impact From Toxics To Leopold Centerfor Sustainable The s choo l wi ll b e offered four times
Biodiversity. Contact: 541-346- Agriculture k 10th Anniversary per year. Contact: Nealist D., 2075194 or Conference. Contact: Rich Pirog, Waste Management Specialist, 207See PISC at Leopold Center for Sustainable 581-2722, Agriculture, 209 Curtiss Hall, Iowa nhallee@umce.umext.maineedu StateUniversity,Ames,IA50011. .............................
June 3-5, 1997, Manhattan, KS: 515-294-3711; A Learning Communities
Wind Erosion: An International Project seeks teams of people
Symposium/Workshop. Contact: working on sustainable
USDA's Wind Erosion Research .agriculture issues.
Unit (WERU),, Internships
Wind Erosion Research Unit, The project, Kellogg funded and
Throckmorton Hall, Kansas State following up the Integrated Farming
University, Manhattan, KS 66506. Apprenticeship for 1997 season Systems Initiative, will assist partici913-532-6495; FAX: 913-532- available from April I to Oct. 31 at pants to become more effective
6528; organic farm on Narragansett Bay. social change agents. Workshops,
College credit possible. Contact: one-on-one training, travel and June 8-19,1997, Winnipeg, Casey Farm, 2325 Boston Neck Rd., exhanges are all offered. Call
June 8-19, 1997, Winnipeg, Saunderstown, RI 02874-3820. Or Barbara Rusmore at 406-443-4095
Manitoba (8-12), Saskatoon, call 401-295-1030/ or Hal Hamilton at 606-986-5336.
Consortium News
Editor. Elizabeth Bird Production: Betsy Didrickson EditorialAdvisors. Rick Klemme, CIAS LW-Madison, John Gerber, UMASS
e mission of the Consortium is to facilitate cooperation and collaboration among researchers, extension
workers, educators, farmers, advocates, and other professionals in order to enhance their individual and
collective capacity to conduct research and education and to shape research and education policy toward a more sustainable agriculture and food system.
W5706 County Road D 1450 Linden Dr. Room 146
Montello,WI 53949 Madison, WI 53706
(608)589-5890 fax(608)589-5226 (608)265-6483 fax(608)265-3020
Policy & Outreach Director: Juli Baker Organization & Development Director: Elizabeth Bird
Executive Committee: Jill Auburn, U.C. SAREP and SAN; Lorna Butler, WSU Puyallup, Rural Sociology; Rick Klemme, Director, U. W Madison Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems; Ron Kroese, Director, National Center for Appropriate Technology; Jim Worstell, Coordinator, Delta Land and Community Inc. Governing CounciL- Sam Bass, Tri-County Coordinator and Supervisor of 1890 Ext Programs (SC); Paula Bramel-Cox, ICRISAT Director of Genetic Resources; Kate Clancy, Syracuse University; Cornelia Flora, Director, ISU North Central Regional Center for Rural Development; Paula Ford, Southern SARE/ACE Program Manager, U. Georgia; Richard Harwood, MSU C.S. Mott Foundation Chair of Sustainable Agriculture; Keith Jones, Dir for Ag and Rural Dev., Sustainable Food Center; Fred Kirschenmann, North Dakota Farmer; Laura Lengnick Research Agronomist, USDA/ARS; Matt Liebman, U. Maine Sustainable Agriculture Program; Karl North, Owner/Operator Northland Sheep Dairy; Barbara Rusmore, Organizational Consultant and Adult Educator; Savanah Williams, Virginia Farmer and Rural/Urban Organizer and Educator

Looking For More Than A Few CSARE Members Invited to Madison
Good People! in June
Juli L. Baker Elizabeth Bird
CSARE Policy and Outreach Director CSARE Organization and Development Director
e need you! Your expertise.. .your knowledge.. iA1ark your calendars for June 5-8 to come to Madison for
V your willingness to serve! /LVLCSARE Members and Task Force meetings and the
joint annual conference of the Agriculture, Food and Human Are you a farmer? A scientist? An advocate? An educator? Values Society and the Association for the Study of Food and A member or beneficiary of the research and education Society. In addition to holding business and planning meetcommunity? A concerned individual? Are you looking for a ings, CSARE will sponsor several conference sessions, way to have meaningful input about issues you hold dear? perhaps:
The Consortium is developing a nominating committee. 0 Thriving Outside the Mainstream: Building Local and The committee will identify and nominate Consortium Regional Peer-Support Networks
members and others in the sustainable agriculture/sustain- 0 Doing "Multi-Dimensional" (i.e. interdisciplinary, particiable development arenas to serve on advisory boards, patory, community-oriented and/or systems) Research:
councils, committees, as speakers at symposia and confer- Grappling with Problems in the Real World ences, and in other circumstances where citizen or expert Farmers as Collaborative Researchers and Network input is needed. This last year, we identified and nominated Builders: Learning from Each Other several members to serve on USDA advisory councils and 0 Institutional Incentives and Barriers to Sustainable Food individuals to attend government listening sessions about Systems Research and Extension: Discussion of Reward federal agricultural policy. Systems TaskForce Survey Results
0 Panel on National Agricultural Research Policy: Needs We need volunteers, both to serve on the committee and Strategies
itself and to be nominated for these advisory or speaking e Workshop: Technology Assessment as a Research positions. If you have expertise in a relevant area or Planning Tool
experience that could benefit the sustainable community and are willing to serve, please contact us! Task Force meetings will likely include the Education Task
Force (discussion on completed evaluation and next steps); continued on page 25 continued on page 25
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