FSSP is closing down operation...
 Farming systems research symposium...
 New publications
 On-farm evaluation of "rodade"...
 Demonstration of the parboiling...
 Nutrition in agriculture cooperative...

Title: Farming Systems Support Project newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071908/00017
 Material Information
Title: Farming Systems Support Project newsletter
Alternate Title: FSSP newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: The Project
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1983-
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- International cooperation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (spring 1983)-
Issuing Body: Issued by: Farming Systems Support Project, which is administered by: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
General Note: Title from caption.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071908
Volume ID: VID00017
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10387162
lccn - sn 84011294

Table of Contents
    FSSP is closing down operations
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Farming systems research symposium 1987
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    New publications
        Page 6
    On-farm evaluation of "rodade" resistant tomato bacterial wilt Swaziland, S.E. Africa
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Demonstration of the parboiling of rice using an improved fuel efficient wood stove
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Nutrition in agriculture cooperative agreement
        Page 12
Full Text

Volume Five, Number Two
Second Quarter, 1987

Farming Systems Support Project Newsletter

FSSP is Closing Down Operations
by Steve Kearl*

No one can' say for sure when it
was decided, or who decided, that
the FSSP would go out of business.
But the message from the project's
sponsor is clear: a decision has been
made. There is USAID funding, at a
reduced level, through December,
1987. Beyond that, nothing is visible
on the horizon.
Now, it's easy to question or down-
grade any report that runs contrary
to our hopes and beliefs. And it's
easy to overestimate the losses or
benefits surrounding the termination
or a project such as the FSSP. That is
not the intention of this editorial,
rather, there is an obligation to let
you know the status of the project
and what or what not to expect from
the project in the coming months. As
things stand:
E Personnel reductions have made it
difficult for you to reach us and
for us to be responsive to you.
FSSP ordinarily operated with 6
FTEs (full time equivalent employ-
ees) in the core, as high as 7.5
when program delivery warranted
that level. The project is now
operating with 2.75 FTEs, only
one of which represents a full-time
O There will be two more issues of
the FSSP Newsletter in English,
Spanish and French.
E The Bibliography of Readings in
Farming Systems ends with the
*Editor, FSSP Newsletter

Spanish and French versions of
Volume III when they are issued
at the end of June, and with the
English version when Volume IV
is issued in September.
0 The Networking Paper Series has
been terminated.
l The Farming Systems Research
Symposium will be held October
18-21 this year, and for two years
after that, through the collabora-
tion of the University of Arkansas
and Winrock International. (See
the article beginning on page 3 of
this newsletter).
E There are no FSSP funds to sup-
port symposium participants or to
support attendance at the project's
annual meeting.
E There will be an FSSP Annual
Meeting in conjunction with the
annual farming systems symposium
in October. Once again, the future
of the farming systems support
network will be topical.
E FSSP Biodata service is no longer
functional. (It was not updated
after the mid-course evaluation
suggested it terminate).
E FSSP visitors'programs and FSR/E
orientation at the University of
Florida is available strictly on a
paid basis.
El FSSP initiatives for the remainder
of the year, apart from the training
development and delivery schedule,
can only be considered on a total
buy-in basis.

O By year's end, FSSP training
materials will include volume III
on management, incorporation of
livestock considerations in existing
volumes I and II, and an econom-
ics sub-unit in volume II. These
efforts are underway.
E The Intra-household Dynamics and
FSR/E Case Studies will be avail-
able by the end of 1987, complete
with conceptual framework and
teaching guides.
O FSSP training for the remainder of
the year is scheduled to include:
a short course in Niger in April;
a training for trainers workshop
with UF/WIAD in May;
a Honduran course in May and
a short course for CRSPs in July;
a Methods Short Course at
Florida is tentatively scheduled
for July;
a planning session for discussing
training activities for West
Africa will take place in Uni-
versity Centre, Dschang, Cam-
eroon in July;
a Management and Administra-
tion course for Cameroonian
participants based in the U.S.
is being planned for August;
a methods short course in Cam-
eroon is being scheduled for
sometime in the Fall;
participation is scheduled for a
workshop at ISNAR in Sep-
tember; and
(continued on page 2)


ICRA is a post-academic course
for young agricultural scientists
working in developing countries. Its
aim is to prepare them for applying
their specialized training to research
designed to produce results which
are appropriate to the circumstances
of farmers and which are compatible
with the broader aims of governments.
The ICRA training will provide
participants with the necessary back-
ground knowledge and awareness of
opportunities for and constraints to
change in agriculture and enable them
to use this knowledge in their own
research programs.
The course combines theoretical
training in Wageningen with a three
month field study in a developing
country. This provides participants
with a case study of the processes
at work in agricultural development
and gives them the opportunity to
make an interdisciplinary study of
farmers' production systems with a
view to identifying priorities for
agricultural research.
Scholarships are available covering
all travel costs, tuition, board and
lodging at Wageningen and in the
field, health insurance, and modest
allowances for incidental expenses.
For more information, please write:
The Director of Studies
P.O. Box 88
The Netherlands

FSSP. (continued from page 1)
two management short courses
are under negotiation for Sep-
tember in Venezuela.
From FSSP's vantage point there
has been no decline in the requests
for farming systems support to pro-
jects in the field and in support of
national programs. Nor is one antici-
pated. The traffic in farming systems
work has increased over the past few
years. This traffic consists of projects
and project components, publica-
tions, symposia, training programs
and the development of training
materials. It involves national pro-
grams and international agricultural
research centers and their research.
It includes a network of U.S. uni-
versities and agricultural consulting
firms, their personnel and the com-
mitment of resources to garner and
extend expertise in this area. Farm-
ing systems activities also include
college courses teaching farming
systems methodology, farming sys-
tems minors, student assistantships
and dissertations. All of this traffic
in farming systems has involved or
influenced major donor organiza-
tions in agricultural development
and technical assistance. It has
involved the USDA, USAID, state
governments, even Congress.
With the fiscal constraints under
which the FSSP is now operating,
the project has accepted an am-
bitious workload as it closes out.
Project objectives are budgeted and
planned to the end of the contract.
Still, the FSSP continues to be
responsive to requests for its services.
The capability to do so has been
acquired over the life of the project.
So has a commitment to delivery, on
the part of the project's program
associates throughout the network.
The organizational structure of the
FSSP is without parallel in this
country, involving more than 600
program associates at 21 universities
and 4 consulting firms. Mechanisms
have been devised to assess field
needs, identify appropriate support
and to employ the network in re-
sponse to expressed needs. The
strength of the FSSP network is in
its program associates and their

representative institutions. These in-
dividuals have wide-ranging experi-
ence and represent many different
disciplines and backgrounds. Pro-
gram associates not only support
FSSP's ability to perform, with
their skills employing the farming
systems methodology, they are the
Given the sustained level of re-
quests for support services through
the project, the level of traffic in
farming systems research and ex-
tension, and the support capability
of the FSSP, the timing of the demise
of the project is curious. Still, while
it's silly to dive for cover whenever
a cloud appears in the sky, it's just
as silly to ignore the Weather Bureau's
flood warnings. From an editorial

viewpoint, this means if any of you
intend to publish your work in the
FSSP Newsletter, now is the time
to submit it; with two more issues
there is still an opportunity to do so.
Within the FSSP support network
a certain optimism exists that there
will be a Phase II. Discussions over
the past year with support entity
representatives have indicated an
interest in maintaining some parts
and functions of the network. Train-
ing capability, an annual symposium
and a newsletter are recognized as
elements worth assimilating. Apart
from a commitment of the University
of Arkansas and Winrock Internation-
al to host and support a symposium
for three years, no other definitive
solutions have been forthcoming
from the network itself. Clearly
the farming systems network that
has been formed and functioning
through the FSSP is not going to
disappear overnight, and the inertia
to maintain salient parts of it is
well-directed. But without some
central support or core funding, co-
ordinating leadership will be nearly
impossible, as will its function as a
The current AID Project Manager
for FSSP, Roberto Castro, suggests
that concern for future AID support
to farming systems research and ex-
tension should be expressed to your
AID mission or AID representative
with whom you work.E

Farming Systems Research Symposium 1987

The seventh annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium will be held at the University of
Arkansas in Fayetteville, October 18-21. It will be hosted by the University of Arkansas in collaboration with
Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, and will take place at the Center for Continuing
Education, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas.

Symposium Theme and Sub-Themes
The theme of the 1987 symposium
is "How Systems Work." Sessions
will be organized around five sub-
themes: a) Information and Com-
munication Systems, b) Macro Sys-
tems, c) Agroforestry Systems, d)
Crop/Livestock Systems, and e) Crop
Systems. More detailed definitions of
the sub-themes are provided below.
Opportunities will also be provided
for practitioners to present projects,
case studies, or issues of special
Call for Papers
Several different types of papers
and presentations are invited.
(1) Contributed papers are invited
for each of the five sub-theme
sessions. Peer review will be used to
select the best and most appropriate
of these papers for major presenta-
tions of about 30 minutes each, and
for publication in Symposium pro-
ceedings. It is anticipated that a total
of about 25 papers (5 for each sub-
theme) will be selected. Those offer-
ed but not selected may be presented
in the brief sessions described below.
(2) Contributed papers are also

invited for brief presentation (10 to
15 minutes) without peer review.
Abstracts of these papers will be
published in Symposium proceedings.
(More extensive distribution of these
papers will be the responsibility of
the authors.)
(3) Project presentations and dis-
cussions, and special topic sessions are
also invited. These provide potential
participants opportunities to be crea-
tive, to try new ideas, and to system-
atically describe FSR/E projects and
their accomplishments. Abstracts of
these presentations will be published
in Symposium proceedings.
(4) Poster sessions are also invited.
Abstracts of poster presentations will
be published.
Individuals or groups are invited
to make more than one presentation
(e.g., a contributed paper and a re-
lated poster session). However, if the
number of proposed presentations
exceeds the time available, the num-
ber of times individuals appear on
the program will be limited.
An abstract form is attached.
Please use this-and respond to all of
the questions asked-to indicate the

type of presentation you plan to

Deadlines and Procedure
Abstracts for papers seeking peer
review and publication should be sent
immediately using the Abstract Form
provided with this article. Final
papers submitted for peer review are
due July 15th. Peer review results
will be announced August 15th.
Abstracts for other presentations,
and papers not seeking peer review,
are due June 30th. We hope to mail
the preliminary program and call for
registration August 15th. The dead-
line for pre-registration will be
September 15th.
Training Opportunities
The 1987 Symposium will feature
special training opportunities immed-
iately before and/or after the Sym-
posium. The final announcement of
what will be offered, along with cost
information, etc., will be mailed as
soon as possible, but at least by the
time the preliminary Symposium
program is issued. The following are
under consideration:

Program Announcement

Call For Papers

Microcomputers and Microcom-
puter Statistical Packages. Plans are
being made for a two and one-half
day training program on microcom-
puters and the use of statistical
analysis packages on microcomputers
under consideration). This training
program will include an overview
session and an intensive introduction
to one of several statistical packages
(participants will select the package
they wish to study).
Agroforestry.Winrock Internation-
al and University of Arkansas staff
will offer a two and one-half day
training course in agroforestry tech-
niques. This will occur either before
or after the Symposium.
Description of Symposium
Communication and Information
Systems. FSR/E is an innovative
information management scheme. It
provides a framework to adapt and
strengthen traditional research-exten-
sion-academic roles and to draw the
farmer and his/her family into the
decision-making process of agricul-
ture development. Thus the FSR/E
approach, per se, is designed to
develop, process, analyze, and relay
Papers invited in this area include
(but are not limited to): Institutional
Structures for Effective FSR/E Com-
munication; Information Manage-
ment in National Programs and
FSR/E Projects; Effective Processing
and Analysis of Data; Roles of Com-
munication and Information Scientists
within the FSR/E approach; and
Evaluating Information and Com-
munication Processes within FSR/E.
Macro Systems. Farming Systems
Research and Extension has been
criticized for being too narrowly
focused. FSR/E tends to ignore the
importance of non-farm income, the
influence of local input and output
markets, the impact of fertilizer
price subsidies or food price controls,
and the effect of over-valued currency
and artificial interest rates.
Many FSR practitioners realize
that their research must take into
consideration how these issues out-
side the farm gate affect the behavior

of the farm family. A number of
studies are underway that examine
the linkages between these farmers
and local, national, and international
factors that influence their decisions.
These sessions will give researchers an
opportunity to present such research.
Examples of types of studies that
could be presented are: credit and
availability of inputs; marketing
studies; and policy issues such as
land reform, price policies and their
impact, subsidies, etc.
Agroforestry Systems. Agrofores-
try (A/F) can improve economic
returns and long-term productivity
of small farm holdings, especially in
marginal upland areas of the tropics.
It is also effective for reclaiming
tropical wastelands, or for social
or public forestry projects. Systems
oriented agroforestry research in-
cludes both biophysical and social
science components. The papers
invited include, but are not limited
to, the following topics: qualitative
and quantitative methods of A/F
research, management of A/F
research, social forestry technology,
and outreach and extension of A/F
Crop/Livestock Systems. This sec-
tion will emphasize the use of sys-
tems analysis methods to address the
interaction between crop and live-
stock components of agricultural
systems in both temperate and
tropical environments. There will
be. a place for presentation of re-
search using models as well as on-
farm research results of particular
interest to interdisciplinary teams.
Emphasis will be more on presenta-
tions of results and evaluation of
interventions and less on systems
descriptions and diagnosis of con-
straints. Examples of expected topics
concerning direct crop/livestock rela-
tionships are the use of crop residue
and byproducts for livestock feed
and the use of manure and animal
traction for crop cultivation. Less
direct crop/livestock relationships
are the use of livestock to store and
add value to primary plant products
such as the grain-based animal pro-
duction systems that have evolved
in many developed countries.

Crop Systems. This section will
emphasize the presentation of re-
search results concerning general
principles that explain how crop
systems function. Examples of
general principles that could be
addressed are: the relationships be-
tween types of cropping patterns and
environmental patterns, land/time re-
source use, weed and pest relation-
ships in crop systems, rotation
effects, nutrient cycling, and selec-
tion of varieties for different crop
systems. Papers on annual crops,
perennial crops, and mixed animal
and perennial crop systems are
How You Can Help Us
We are optimistic that appropriate
funding will be secured to allow the
University of Arkansas and Winrock
International to host the FSR Sym-
posium for a three year period. Your
comments and suggestions are im-
portant in the shaping of the next
three years as we continue to develop
the Symposium. In particular, we are
seeking feedback on the following
Training. Training will be designed
for FSR/E (and other) project per-
sonnel. We hope project funds can
be used to make it possible for per-
sonnel to participate. We need your
feedback on this. Do you have
interested personnel in your project/
agency? How many? What are their
specific training needs?
Conference dates. It has been sug-
gested that more FSR practitioners
and overseas personnel would be
available to attend the Symposium
if it were held during the summer
months. Would you like to see the
dates changed for '88 or '89? If so,
what months are best? Should the
Symposium be extended beyond the
standard 2/3 days?
Future Themes. We have made pre-
liminary selections, but what themes/
concepts would you like to see
addressed at future symposia? What
approaches have not been taken that
should be considered in the future?
Comments/feedback should be sent
to FSR Symposium, P.O. Box 2100,
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville,
Arkansas 72702, Telex 314000.i


(Senior author) (Last name first) (Middle name and/or initials)

(Second author) (Third and additional authors)

(Address of department, institution, street, city, state, zip code) (Country)

(Telephone Number) (Title and Sub-title of paper)

(Type the entire abstract in the space below. It may be single spaced.)

Language of presentation (

Your Our
Response Response

1. Peer reviewed for major presentation (published in full) ..........................(
2. Non-peer reviewed for minor presentation (abstract published ......................(
3. Poster session (abstract published)........................................(
Check.the topic of paper: ( ) How Systems Work ( ) Crop Systems
() Crop/Livestock Systems ( ) Info/Comm Systems ( ) Macro Systems
4. Project presentation or other (abstract published) ..............................(
5. Poster session (abstract published) ........................................
6. Please indicate any audio-visual equipment needed (
----- -------------------------------------------------

Send to: FSR/E Symposium, P.O. Box 2100
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72702, USA Telex 31400

) (
) (


Soybean in Tropical and

Subtropical Cropping Systems

The Soybean in Tropical and Sub-
tropical Cropping System is a sym-
posium proceedings that gives an
extensive review of soybean crop-
ping systems research from inter-
national, national, and regional
programs. It also includes a number
of papers presented by experts in
soybean research from the private
sector. The book provides a thorough
and scientific review of the most
important tropical soybean cropping
systems, breeding of soybean for
specific cropping systems, and the
development of complementary
management practices. It also includes
topics on diseases and insects that
affect the soybean plant especially

in the tropics and subtropics, plant
nutrition, photoperiodic and thermal
requirements of soybean, and the
economic potential of the crop. The
book is a revised edition and is
published by the Asian Vegetable
Research and Development Center
(AVRDC), P.O. Box 42, Shanhua,
Tainan 74199, Taiwan. It has been
technically edited by S. Shanmugas-
undaram and edited for publication
by E. W. Sulzberger and B. T. McLean.
The book is 18x25.5cm, paper-bound
perfect, contains 489 pages and is
available from AVRDC for US$25
(from developed countries) and
US$18 (from developing countries),
including surface postage.

Perspectives on Farming Systems
Research and Extension, ed.
by Peter E. Hildebrand. L. Rienner,
1986. 167p ill bible 86-10029. 20.00
ISBN 0-931477-93-X. S 494. CIP

A collection of readings mostly
from the 1980s selected to provide
background on farming systems and
extension services, using a multidis-
ciplinary approach taken from the
biological, social, and economic
sciences. Many articles are abbrevi-
ated but some were written specifi-
cally for this book. The authors are
leading experts in their area and most
articles are adequately referenced.
The book will be helpful for anyone
interested in its title, and it will save
a great deal of time in locating and
condensing the available information.
Level: upper-division undergraduate
and graduate-H. W. Ockerman, The
Ohio State University.

Farming Systems Assistantships

at the University of Florida

The Institute of Food and Agri-
cultural Sciences of the University
of Florida has selected three more
recipients of its Farming Systems
Assistantships. They go to Michael
Bannister to study for a PhD in
Agroforestry, Janneke Blijdorp to
study for a MS in Agronomy and
Extension, and Thomas Fattori to
study for a PhD in Poultry Science.
Michael, who speaks Spanish and
Haitian Creole, has three years'
experience in Central America and
four years in Haiti. His Guatemalan
experience came during his time as
a Peace Corps volunteer when he
worked on a resource conservation
project. Following the completion of
a MS degree at Oregon State Univer-
sity he went to Haiti where he work-
ed on a USAID-funded Agroforestry
Outreach Project. Michael was born
in Iowa, USA.
Janneke, from the Netherlands,
did her undergraduate work at the

Agricultural College in Dronten. From
1982 to 1985 she was a lecturer at
the Botswana Agricultural College.
She speaks Dutch, French and Ger-
Tom, who hails from New Jersey,
USA, spent most of his international
time in Zaire in both agriculture and
business. He also spent two years in
Belgium as a company representative.
In his various capacitiees he has ob-
tained an interest in poultry produc-
tion and becomes our first graduate
assistant in the animal sciences. Be-
sides French, Tom speaks Tshiluba
Farming Systems Assistants who
are graduating this year are Bill
Fiebig and Wayne Niles, both with
an MS degree in Agronomy. Wayne
was born in Zaire and spent much of
his life there and Bill spent about 10
years in Zaire in the Peace Corps, as
a farmer, and as a private consultant
for USAID. Although both are eager
to return to Zaire, they have both

opted to finish a PhD degree before
doing so and have obtained other
sources of funding.
Those assistants currently studying
are John Russell, PhD in Agronomy;
B. K. Singh, PhD in Soils; and Jim
O'Connor, PhD in Food and Re-
source Economics. John is presently
negotiating with IITA and USAID to
do his research in Cameroon. B. K.
is formulating research he will con-
duct with CIMMYT in Mexico, and
Jim will be doing his research with
a new farming systems research sta-
tion in southwest Florida.
Based on availability of funds, it
is anticipated that additional Farm-
ing Systems Assistantships will be
available beginning in August, 1988.
Persons interested can obtain infor-
mation and application forms from
P. E. Hildebrand, Food and Resource
Economics Department, 2126
McCarty Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA.

On-Farm Evaluation of 'Rodade'

Resistant Tomato Bacterial Wilt

Swaziland, S.E. Africa

Robert F. Bevacqua1
Malkerns Research Station, P.O. Box 4
Malkerns, Swaziland, Africa

Farming systems research (FSR) methodology
(Figure 1) is being used to improve vegetable produc-
tion in a developing area of Africa. FSR methods,
which center on on-farm research, were used to evaluate
'Rodade' bacterial wilt [Pseudomonas solanacearum
(Smith) Smith] resistant tomato (Lycopersicon
esculentum Mill.) (Figure 2).
Bacterial wilt is a major problem for tomato growers
in tropical and subtropical regions. It is a soil-borne
disease favored by warm, humid conditions. 'Rodade'
was released by the Horticultural Research Institute of
South Africa in 1982 (1) and is resistant to bacterial
wilt Race 1.
The goal of the present study was to train Swazi
research staff in FSR methodology (2) while assessing
'Rodade's performance in farmer's fields before listing
it as a recommended cultivar.





* small holders with limited

diagnostic, experimentation,

S farmers and scientists in
on-farm research

compatible with
farmer's circumstances

Figure 1. Farming systems research (FSR) provides the metho-
dology for the on-farm horticulture research in Swaziland.
'Present address: Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University,
Corvallis OR 97331.

Figure 2. The steps in the on-farm evaluation of 'Rodade' bac-
terial wilt resistant tomato using a farming systems research
(FSR) approach.

In 1984 and 1985 'Rodade' was grown in on-station
variety trials in Swaziland to insure it possessed com-
mercially acceptable qualities. The fresh market prefers
a firm, red colored fruit that is round to flat-round in
shape and has a mass of 100 to 150g.
In October of 1985 a survey was conducted to locate
areas infested with bacterial wilt. The test (3) used to
identify the disease was to cut the lower 10cm of the
stem of a wilted tomato plant and place it in a bottle
of clean water. The disease was present if a milky
substance flowed from the cut surface of the stem.
In January of 1986 17 research assistants attended
a 2 day training event that included lectures and
hands-on practical training in the techniques to be used
in the on-farm evaluation of 'Rodade'.
In February of 1986 24 farmers were enlisted as co-
operators. Plots consisting of 10 plants of 'Rodade',
the new resistant cultivar, and 10 plants of 'Karino',
a widely grown cultivar with no resistance to bacterial
wilt, were planted on each farm. The tomato seedlings
were propagated at a central research station and
transported to the famer's field in styrofoam trays.
Researchers installed the plots and, thereafter, the
farmers managed them.


83 79



Rodade Karino Rodade Karino

4 wks 8 wks
Figure 3. Survival rates (%) for 2 tomato cultivars, 'Rodade' and
'Karino', recorded at 4 and 8 weeks after field planting in the 7
farms where bacterial wilt was verified during the growing season.

At 4 and 8 weeks after field planting the survival rate
was recorded for each plot (Figure 3). At these times
and at harvest the major diseases and insect pests were
noted (Table 1 & Figure 4). The most common prob-
lem was late blight [Phytophthora infestans (Mont.)
Deby], followed by bacterial wilt, cutworm, (Agrotis
spp.), early blight (Alternaria solani Sorauer), root
knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), and bollworm
(Heliothis spp.).
During the growing season positive tests (3) for bac-
terial wilt were documented on 7 of the cooperating

Figure 4. This on-farm experiment enabled researchers to docu-
ment the major diseases and insect pests of tomato in Swaziland.

Table 1. Major diseases and insect pests, noted at 4 and
8 weeks after planting and at harvest time,
ranked in descending order of prevalence. For
example, late blight was the most commonly
noted problem.
Common Name Scientific Name
Late blight Phytophthora infestans
Bacterial wilt Pseudomonas solanacearum
Cutworm Agrotis spp.
Early blight Alternaria solani
Root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp.
Bollworm Heliothis armigera

Table 2. Cooperating farmers' assessment of 'Rodade'

Which cultivar do you choose as best for the following
fruit characteristics?


(n =16)
(n = 11)
(n = 12)



Will you grow 'Rodade' in the future (n = 27)?
Did you sell any of the 'Rodade' fruit (n = 21)?
Was 'Rodade' acceptable to your buyers (n = 12)?


farms. At these locations the survival rate at 8 weeks
after planting was 79% for 'Rodade' and 23% for
'Karino' (Figure 3). However, at 4 of these 7 loca-
tions where 'Rodade' had shown resistance to bacterial
wilt the plants died during the flowering and fruiting
stages of late blight.
After harvest, 22 of the cooperators completed a
farmer's assessment (Table 2). It revealed they were
favorably impressed with 'Rodade's fruit qualities and
marketability, but its susceptibility to late blight was a
major drawback.
In summary, this on-farm evaluation of 'Rodade' has
verified its resistance to bacterial wilt, a major disease
threat for tomato growers. However, the cultivar's
value is tempered by susceptibility to late blight, a
common tomato disease in Swaziland. This study has
also demonstrated that FSR, which is normally associ-
ated with agronomic crops, can provide useful metho-
dology for improving vegetable production in develop-
ing regions of the tropics and subtropics.i

Literature Cited
1. Bosch, S. E., A. J. Louw, and E Aucamp. 1985. 'Rodade'
Bacterial Wilt Resistant Tomato. Hort. Science 20(3):
2. Hildebrand, P. E. and F. Poey. 1985. On-farm agronomic
trials in farming systems research and extension. L. Rienner
Pub., Inc., Boulder, Colorado.
3. Bosch, S. E., B. H. Boelema, and B. W. Young. 1982. Bac-
terial wilt diseases in tomatoes. Farming in South Africa
leaflet series: H6. Hort. Res. Inst., Pretoria.

Demonstration of the Parboiling of Rice

- Using an Improved Fuel Efficient Wood Stove m

H. Marvin Wilson*

The introduction of the parboiling of paddy rice was
attempted by the APP agronomist among growers of
the Zio River Irrigated Perimeter (ZRIP) in October
1985. This attempt to introduce a new technology was
a failure in that a year later none of the farmers in the
area is utilizing the technique. APP has attempted to
analyze why a technique that offers so many potential
benefits was not adopted, even though the technical
aspects were successfully demonstrated.
Test Description and Results
Two sacks of paddy were taken from a pile of newly
harvested rice. One sack was parboiled and dried while
the other was dried without being parboiled. Both
samples were milled at the same mill. The parboiled
sample yielded 69% of white rice versus 63% for non-
parboiled. The volume in relation to weight increased
4% which is an advantage for sellers in Togo as they
sell by the bowl (volume), but purchase by weight
(100 kg sacks). Samples of each of the two treatments
were placed in open containers in the APP office and
kept for three months. The non-parboiled sample was
severely attacked by insects but there were no insects
or damage to the parboiled sample. There was consider-
able improvement in quality as the parboiled had much
less broken grain. The question then is: why has this
technology that was shown to have so many advantages
not adopted by ZRIP rice producers?
The Importance of Selection and Follow-Up
The first demonstration was conducted with a group
of "Young Farmers" who had completed a special
course in agriculture. These were school leavers who
were not from the local area but were selected for the
program by the government in an attempt to provide
employment skills and access to land, tools and other
productive resources. Due to difficulty of access to
land in the local area the government decided to relo-
cate the group to another part of Togo outside the APP
project zone. The test was repeated with an individual
farmer but this time the PfP agent was transferred into
a new zone so follow-up was not continuous. This
experience has underscored the need for a critical
selection process and good follow-up when new tech-
niques are introduced.
Reintroduction Adding a Wood Efficient Stove
The APP agronomist felt that there were enough po-
tential benefits to warrant another attempt at introduc-
tion. This attempt would carefully select the clientele,
be necessary to enhance adoption potential. The agron-
omist began by publishing a brief technical bulletin or

"Fiche Technique" explaining the process and the
benefits of parboiling.
Selection of Target Population
The target population selected was the rice producers
group in the village of Assome. This group is made up
of individuals who are life-long residents of the local
area and have recently organized themselves into a
formal producers group. The zone of the perimeter
where these farmers have their rice fields was the first
area chosen by APP to work intensively, so there is a
longer period of collaboration with these producers.
This group works together for the maintenance of the
irrigated infrastructure, with penalties applied for those
who do not pull their weight in executing the work.
Selection of Elements for the Trial
This technology will require larger quantities of fuel
if it is widely adopted by area farmers. There are
periods during the year when fuel wood is scarce in
the villages so it was decided that fuel wood conser-
vation and production should be promoted as an
overall part of the trial. A Peace Corp Volunteer who
works with the development and promotion of improv-
ed fuel efficient wood stoves was enlisted to participate
in the program. It as also decided that production of
fuel wood should be included in the program to insure
its long term viability. Three separate training sessions
were decided upon to introduce different aspects of
the overall program. These sessions are presented in
some detail to illustrate how a program with several
components can be introduced.
A. Introduction of Fuel Efficient Stoves
The PC Volunteer who promotes improved stoves
held a training session in the Assome village with the
wives of the rice producers group, the APP agent, the
APP agronomist and PC Volunteer assigned, to APP
working in group formation and training. Advantages
of the improved stove and the steps used in construct-
ing it. were explained. The women then constructed a
stove model adjacent to the rice drying floor and
warehouse used by the village. The group was informed
that the stove would be used later to demonstrate
parboiling of rice. Each woman was encouraged to
construct an improved stove at her residence for family
food preparation. A part of the presentation was
devoted to the need to plant trees to replenish their
fuel wood supply.
*H. Marvin Wilson is Project Agronomist with the Association Pour la
Productivit[ (APP) in Togo. The project is funded by USAID under a
cooperative agreement with CARE.

B. Parboiling of Rice
Actual parboiling of rice was the next phase of
the demonstration trial. A quantity of rice harvested
eight months previously was divided into two parts.
One part was set aside without any treatment while the
other part was parboiled on the stove constructed
several days earlier. Careful records were kept for the
time required and wood consumption to determine
costs. The rice producers and several of their wives
were involved in this trial along with APP staff and the
PC Volunteer promoting the stoves. The parboiled rice
was then dried for three days and both quantities were
milled at the same mill. The parboiled rice gave a
milling yield of 68.7% versus 61.5% for the untreated.
There was obviously less broken grain in the parboiled
part, which would raise the quality by a grade, thus in-
creasing its value. The need to plant trees for provid-
ing wood was again stressed.
C. Cooking and Taste Test
A third trial was conducted to illustrate the advan-
tages presented in parboiled rice (beyond the increase
in milling yield and quality of the grain) that may not
be fully appreciated by consumers or buyers and
sellers. The project agronomist proposed having the
producers' wives prepare and cook some of the par-
boiled and untreated rice and observe which had the
best consumer appeal. About 71/2 kgs of each sample
was prepared.
This trial was done in the village on market day. Sev-
eral market women were invited to observe the various
aspects of the test so they could identify parboiled rice
and recognize its advantages. The women who prepared
the rice reported the following advantages:
1) The untreated rice had several grains with hulls
remaining which had to be picked out. There
was no need to pick parboiled as there was no
grain with hulls remaining.
2) Untreated rice had to be winnowed to remove
chafe but this was not necessary for parboiled
3) Cooking time was less for parboiled rice (saving
of wood).
4) There was considerably less dust or bran in the
wash water of the parboiled rice.
5) Less parboiled rice stuck to the pot (which burns
and wastes rice).
The general conclusion of the women who prepared
the rice was that there was less time and effort required
to prepare and cook the parboiled sample.

After the rice had been cooked a bowl of each was
placed on a table side by side and people were asked to
choose which one they preferred and to give reasons
why. Parboiled was chosen to-a-person for various
reasons, some of which are given here:
a) Parboiled rice does not stick and lump.
b) Women who sell cooked rice and sauce can make
a presentable plate with less of the parboiled.
c) Parboiled can be re-heated and sold later if some
is left, whereas, untreated would be a solid lump
that could not be sold.
d) The sauce mixes easier with parboiled rice.
e) Parboiled rice tastes better.
f) Parboiled has better nutritional value.
The people were asked to take some of each sample
to compare the taste, texture, etc. It was observed that
everyone took only the parboiled until it was completely
gone before starting on the untreated. The people here
voted with their bowls and plates, without question
preferring parboiled to untreated rice.
a) Several improved stoves have been built in the
village since the initial demonstration. The
project agronomist saw the stoves in four differ-
ent quarters on a recent visit. Each woman
who had built them reported that neighbors
had asked for assistance in constructing stoves
for their families.
b) Several rice producers have decided to parboil a
part of their next harvest.
c) The producers have decided to build three more
stoves for parboiling their rice and a shelter to
protect the workers from the sun.
d) The group has applied for a loan to buy 4 metal
drums and have them modified for parboiling.
e) The group has decided to plant leucaena trees
on land near their warehouse and drying floor to
provide wood.
f) The group has suggested improvements in the
parboiler and methods used. This shows evidence
of analytical thinking and the problem solving
ability necessary for testing new ideas and exper-
D. Implications for Development Practitioners
This trial has broad implications for development
workers. It is suspected that many persons would have
concluded that this technology is not appropriate in
this situation or that the local people will not accept
it. When a critical second look revealed there were
perhaps some real weakness in the way the technology

Author's Note: An irrigated perimeter of 600 hectares in the Project Zone makes rice production an important
aspect of the activities of the project. Parboiling had not been adopted by producers and in fact most had no idea
of the process. Technical training in improved production techniques have raised average yields from 1.5 to nearly
4 tons per hectare in two years.

was first presented, a decision was reached to try a
second time. This time project staff had more time to
prepare and follow-up on the test. Exactly how much
the introduction of other elements such as improved
stoves and tree planting influenced adoption is not
known, but it is suspected it did have a positive influ-
ence. That all three aspects have been adopted to
some degree would indicate each is somewhat inter-
E. Economics of Parboiling
Records kept during the trial indicate that two
persons using three stoves can parboil one ton of
paddy rice per day. If rice is treated immediately after
harvest, drying time can be reduced as the grain is
heated and the germ is killed during treatment. Par-
boiled paddy rice can be stored for a long time before
milling, or milled immediately after it is dry. Wood
consumption was approximately 1,000 FCFA per
ton of paddy. For our calculations we assume a
typical producer has one hectare from which he will
harvest two crops averaging four tons of paddy each.
Assume the higher quality of parboiled rice will bring
a 1,000 FCFA higher price over non-parboiled:
4,000 kgs/crop x 2 crops = 8,000 kgs paddy total
8,000 kgs x 68.7% milling = 5,496 kgs milled

yield parboiled
8,000 kgs x 61.5% milling = 4,920 kgs miller
yield untreated
Assume 150 FCFA/kg for untreated and
160 FCFA/kg for parboiled.
5,496 kgs @ 160 FCFA/kg = 879,360 FCFA

4,920 kgs @ 15(
16 person days
@ 500 F
Wood 16 bundl

Depreciation of
300 FCFA/ton

Profit from part

*A metal drum
modifying dru

0 FCFA/kg = 739,000 FCFA
Advantage 140,360 FCFA
labor = 8,000 FCFA
es @ 500 = 8,000 FCFA
metal drums*
x 8 tons = 2,400 FCFA
18,400 FCFA
boiling 122,600 FCFA

costs 6,000 FCFA
m 2,000 FCFA
8,000 FCFA
x 3 drums
24,000 FCFA

Each set of three drums would last for an average
of 80 days with a production of one ton per day:
24,000 FCFA/80 = 300 FCFA/ton
F. Collaboration Potential
The collaboration between Peace Corps, APP and
the village of Assome is an important aspect of this
trial, but more important than this is to recognize
potential future collaboration. A German Volunteer
who works in forestry development has expressed an
interest in collaborating. Other Peace Corps volun-
teers, agencies who work with women' groups,
market women, etc., are all potential collaborators.
Each partner of a collaborative relationship should
benefit from the collective synergy beyond their
individual efforts even if you add the sum of their
individual achievements. This dynamic was evidently
at work in this instance.
G. Future Plans for Expansion of the Technology
APP is presently working in a second section known
as KH-1 of the perimeter, and with several individuals
outside of these two sections. A stove was recently
built in Mission Tovy and a parboiling trial is being
planned for this village. Producers from the village of
Kovie use the KH-1 sector, and plans are being formu-
lated for introducing both the stove and parboiling for
this group. This is the first acceptance of this technology
and will need careful follow-up for several months if
it is to become internalized to the point it is the norm.
H. Marketing Activities Planned
There would be a profit of 68,000 FCFA per hectare
from the increase of 576 kgs of rice due solely to the
increased milling yield, but the real possibility for
profit will come when the better quality can command
a higher price per unit. This is an unknown and untest-
ed aspect of the activity that needs further study and
testing. Better nutrition, for example, is very difficult to
demonstrate on a simple level. Better cooking quality
can be easily demonstrated and this is an area that will
be used to market the rice. The National Labor Union
has bought rice from the project and APP is planning
to do a cooking demonstration for their members to
illustrate the quality difference. Project personnel are
also exploring the possibilities of doing a cooking
demonstration for market.women and women who
sell prepared rice and sauce on the streets. For the
rice producers and sellers, the fact that parboiled rice
is much less prone to insect damage is easily demon-
strated and should be of interest. Project personnel
will demonstrate this when a strategy is developed.n



2749-I NP
GAINESVIL..i...E: FL 326.1.

The FSSP newsletter is published quarterly by the Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP), which is funded by AID Contract No. DAN-4099-A-00-
2083-00 and administered by the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida. Gainesville, Fla. 32611. IFAS Is an Equal
Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer. The FSSP newsletter encourages the contribution of stories, pictures and ideas, which should be
sent to FSSP Editor, 3028 McCarty Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

Nutrition in Agriculture Cooperative Agreement

The University of Arizona and the
University of Kentucky have entered
into a cooperative agreement with the
Nutrition Economics Group, Office
of International Cooperation and
Development, United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture focusing on
incorporating nutritional concerns in
agricultural development. The general
objectives of this agreement are to:
1) establish a cooperative framework
for technical and research support of
a program for applied and technical
assistance designed to assist develop-
ing countries improve the food con-
squences of their agricu tural projects;
and 2) to increase the capabilities of
U.S. educational institutions to devel-
op or increase expertise in this field.
The main activities under this
project will include: 1) identifying
testing and evaluating alternative
ways of incorporating food consump-
tion and nutrition concerns into the
designs, implementation and evalua-
tion of various types of agricultural
and rural development projects, in-

cluding the provision of technical
assistance as necessary; 2) identifying,
standardizing and writing case studies
on projects where consumption or
nutrition concerns have been or are
being addressed within past or current
agricultural projects; 3) developing
and testing low-cost methods for
collecting data on diets and other
relevant food related activities; 4)
developing training materials based
on the results of the above research;
5) organizing a Nutrition in Agricul-
ture Network for information dis-
semination in the area of adding
consumption and nutrition concerns
to agricultural projects; and 6) addi-
tional efforts to improve the food
consumption and nutrition conse-
quences of agricultural projects as
identified by the cooperators during
the course of the research, including
providing technical assistance to field
The first phase of this research will
focus on identifying core agricultural
projects with which to collaborate. In

addition, several case studies, working
papers and training materials will be
developed to help orient upcoming
research. The project intends to
initially concentrate its efforts in
three countries which are widely
distributed geographically. A sub-
contractor to this project is the
University of Kentucky.

Anyone interested in participating
in the Nutrition in Agriculture Net-
work or obtaining additional infor-
mation, please contact:
Timothy R. Frankenberger
Office of Arid Lands Studies
College of Agriculture
University of Arizona
845 N. Park Avenue
Tucson, Arizona 85719
Telephone: (602) 621-1955
Cable: ARIDLANDS, Tucson, A
Dr. Patricia O'Brien-Place
Nutrition Economics Group/TA
Washington, D.C. 20250

3028 McCarty Hall
Gainesville, Florida 32611

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