FSSP moves ahead in development...
 Farming systems researchers can...
 Population council, FSSP call for...
 The involvement of graduate students...
 Agricultural information sources...

Title: Farming Systems Support Project newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071908/00008
 Material Information
Title: Farming Systems Support Project newsletter
Alternate Title: FSSP newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: The Project
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1983-
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- International cooperation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (spring 1983)-
Issuing Body: Issued by: Farming Systems Support Project, which is administered by: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
General Note: Title from caption.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071908
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10387162
lccn - sn 84011294

Table of Contents
    FSSP moves ahead in development of training materials
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Farming systems researchers can tap sorghum and millets resources
        Page 3
    Population council, FSSP call for case studies - Farming systems assistantships offered at Florida
        Page 4
    The involvement of graduate students in international development projects
        Page 5
    Agricultural information sources for farmers in Lesotho, Southern Africa
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text


Farming Systems Support Project Newsletter

FSSP Moves Ahead in Development of Training Materials

FSSP held a Training Units Devel-
opement Workshop at the University
of Florida in Gainesville on the
18th-23rd of February, 1985. The
26 participants included members
of the FSSP core staff, members of
the informal training advisory group,
and individuals selected for their
subject expertise. Among the latter
were representatives from the FSSP
Support Network, CIMMYT, IRRI,
CARDI, and USAID/Washington. Also
-resent were professional trainers
)om OICD/USDA who served as
training consultants. This workshop
was an important step in the devel-
opment of FSR/E training materials.
Reflexion on project experience
to date, as well as discussions at a
June, 1984 FSSP workshop to train
trainers, suggested the training "unit"
concept useful for meeting the proj-
ect's.multiple objectives. The FSSP
has moved away from the develop-
ment of training "courses" toward
the development of training "units."
As a support project, the FSSP
receives requests to train national
practitioners; responding to these
requests is a major part of the proj-
ect's work.
The "unit" concept differs from
that of standard courses in its flex-
ibility of design. Each training unit
is composed of a number of sub-
units, each addressing specific topics
within the unit. By providing dis-
irete, teachable sub-units, this format
provides the opportunity for trainers

Part of the group working with the unit on Design of On-Farm Trials met with members
of the Socioeconomic group to discuss the interrelationship of these two areas. (L to R)
Don Osborne (USAID/ Washington), Frederico Poey (AGRIDEC), John Hammerton
(CARDI), Lorna Butler (Washington State University), Dan Gait (FSSP), and Emanuel
Acquah (University of Maryland).

to develop a variety of courses
tailored to the needs of the particu-
lar audience. Each unit contains an
array of information from which
trainers can draw to develop courses
for training developing country re-
searchers. It is clear, then, that "unit"
is not synonomous with "course":
the "unit" provides the menu from
which a trainer can create courses
which vary in emphasis, level, or
The process of developing training
"units" was initiated by a training
units brainstorming workshop held
at the University of Florida (August,
1984) in which possible units were

defined and plans for their develop-
ment and testing discussed. Partici-
pants in this workshop were formed
into a committee to coordinate the
development of the units and a sub-
sequent Training Units Development
Workshop was suggested.
The proposed units, a result of
the initial brainstorming workshop,
fall into three broad groups: FSR/E
concepts, FSR/E skills, and FSR/E
implementation. First priority was
placed with FSR/E skills. These units
were given priority since they are
needed to train developing-country
research and extension practitioners
in the range of skills required to carry

out the farming systems research
and extension process at the field
The ultimate goal of the Training
Units Development Workshop was to
provide a basis for the continuing
development of FSR/E skills training
units in 1) Diagnosis, 2) Agronomic
Experimental Design and Analysis,
3) Socioeconomic Analysis, and 4)
Management and Administration.
These units have been designed such
that trainers independent of the FSSP
can employ them to develop courses
to train developing country research-
ers in the skill of farming systems
research. The specific goals of the
workshop were: 1) to determine
FSR/E content for each unit, and 2)
to determine appropriate training
techniques and develop their associ-
ated activities or detailed notes on
suggested activities.
To attempt the above goals in a
five-day period was a major under-
taking, and required much pre-work-
shop activity. This pre-workshop
activity by participants was especially
helpful in expediting consensus on the
FSR/E content for each unit. The
workshop was very successful, and
resulted in a solid foundation for a
dynamic set of currently scarce
FSR/E training materials. The work-
shop resulted in three units: 1)
Diagnosis, 2) Agronomic Experimen-
tal Design and Analysis, and 3) Man-
agement and Administration; the
socioeconomic supporting materials
were incorporated with the other
Each unit consists of an outline,
an overview, and sub-units with
associated activities. The unit overview
gives the goals, rationale, and key
points for that unit, and also con-
tains a bibliography and a short test
summarizing the unit. Each sub-unit
provides learning objectives, defini-
tions, key points, a short text, sug-
gested training activities, a bibliog-
raphy and in some cases the actual
supplemental readings that support
the sub-unit activities.
The following outline of the Agro-
nomic and Experimental Design unit
provides a sample of the materials
developed (sub-units are indicated by
Roman numerals).

I. Handling Researchable Priorities
A. Farmer's production systems
B. Grouping objectives and/or
C. Farmers' management practices
D.Selection of trial type
1. By function in the research-
extension process
a. Exploratory stage
b. Refinement stage
c. Validation stage
2. By management types
a. Researcher planted/re-
searcher managed
b. Farmer planted/researcher
c. Farmer planted/farmer
3. By agronomic subject
a. Variety evaluation
b. Plant nutrition
c. Plant protection
d. Other practices
E. Location of trials
1. On-station
2. On-farm
F. Number of trials
G. Organization
1. Planning
2. Schedule and personnel
II. Treatment Selection
A. Selecting subsets of treatment
1. Agronomic considerations
2. Economic considerations
3. Social considerations
B. "Balancing" subsets
C. Choosing check treatments
D. Treatment specifics
E. Specification and choice of
management levels of the
non-experimental variables
F. Trial types
II. Farmer Participation
A. Pre-acceptability of treatment
array and design
B. Selecting farmers and farms
C. The role of the farmer
1. Risk
2. Relative participation accord-
ing to function of trial
D. Crop management
IV.Statistical Methods
A. Variability and sources of
B. Analysis of variance (ANOVA):
completely randomized designs

C. ANOVA: randomized complete
block designs
D.The paired T-test: experiments
with only two treatments
E. The least significant different
(LSD) and multiple range tesL
F. Coefficient of variation (CV)
G. Linear regression and the cor-
relation coefficient
H. ANOVA: the factorial array
I. ANOVA: contrasts with single
degrees of freedom

V. Field Techniques
A. Dialogue with farmers
1. Opinions about trials
2. History of plot, field, farm
and farming practices
B. Timing issues
C. Labor measurements
D. Field practices
1. Locating trials in fields
2. Blocking issues
a. Slopes and other problems
in fields
b. Plot location
c. Row spacing and planting
3. Layout techniques
4. Measuring techniques
5. Border row considerations
6. Sampling issues and
VI. Experimental Design
A. Design definitions and choices
1. Completely randomized
2. Randomized complete block
3. Incomplete block design
4. Single factor
5. Factorial arrangement
6. Split plot arrangements
B. Replications
1. Within farms
2. Among farms
C. Criteria for design choices
1. Trial function
2. Homogeneity
3. Plot and block size
4. Management

VII. Experimental Analysis
A. Data recording
1. Categories of data
a. Environmental setting
b. Social and economic
c. Primary experimental data
d. Secondary experimental

2. Data collection priorities
according to trial function
B. Data handling
C. Techniques of analysis
1. Analysis of variance
2. Covariance analysis
3. Regression analysis
4. Modified stability analysis
5. Combined analysis (across
a. Stability parameter
b. Treatment x environment
6. Social and economic analysis
D. Analysis interpretations
1. Means comparisons
a. Duncan's multiple range
b. Least significant difference
c. Single degree of freedom
2. Coefficient of variation (CV)
3. Significance level
The workshop results attest to the
high enthusiasm and interest of the
participants as well as the demand
for the product. The state-of-the-art
Sf FSR/E is evolving; the training
materials are such that they too can
evolve and thus reflect the needs and
demands evidenced through their use.
The product is not "finished"; it will
continuously incorporate change and
grow through use. The units and
materials are a dynamic resource for
use in providing a variety of FSR/E
training courses. Once the units are
fully devleoped, potential users might
include agricultural development
funding organizations, international
centers, universities, national govern-
ments and general trainers of field-
level to higher-level scientists. Each
course can be scaled to the content
and emphasis desired. As these units
are used, we request to be notified of
any adaptations, or new material used
in the unit, in order that this infor-
mation can be included in the unit
to strengthen it as a training resource
for other users.
Currently, the FSSP is in the tech-
nical editing stage of the materials
development process. Still to come
are field testing, activity refinement
and editing by professional trainers.
Considerable testing and refinement
are needed before these materials will
be ready for general distribution. E

Farming Systems Researchers
Can Tap Sorghum and Millets Resources

Editor's note: In the semi-arid tropics,
sorghum and millets are major cereal crops
providing food for people and feed for live-
stock. In these regionsmore than 50percent
of the world's sorghum and 80 percent of
the world's pearl millet is produced. This
article is published with special thanks to
L. J. Haravu, Manager, Library and Docu-
mentation Service at the International
Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics (ICRISA T) for providing informa-
tion about the Sorghum and Millets Infor-
mation Center (SMIC). There is considerable
research effort throughout the world aimed
at improving grain yield, the quality of
these cereals and farming systems in the
semi-arid tropics to increase and stabilize
production of these crops. The Sorghum
and Millets Information Center provides
an opportunity for researchers to access
and contribute to this growing body of

This specialized information center
is located at the International Crops
Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics (ICRISAT) at Patancheru,
India. It was established through the
financial support of the International
Development Research Centre
(IDRC), Canada, to provide informa-
tion support to researchers through-
out the semi-arid tropics. SMIC's
information products and services
have grown significantly over the
past eight years, in a continuing
effort to meet the needs of sorghum
and millets researchers.
Bibliographical Services-SMIC has
produced comprehensive bibliog-
raphies on sorghum and millets
covering the period from 1970
through 1980. The sorghum bibliog-
raphies have indexed more than
11,900 items and the millets bibliog-
raphies include 6,249 entries. The
Center is working on bibliographies
from 1981 to date.
Information Dissemination Service
-Another service offered by the SMIC
is a Selective Dissemination of In-
formation (SDI) for sorghum and
millet researchers in India and a
number of African countries. The

service alerts scientists to current
literature that has a high probability
of usefulness to them, and is tailored
to meet individual needs. Input for
this service comprises current primary
journals received at ICRISAT, secon-
dary abstracts journals and output
from computer-readable data bases.
Information Search Service-SMIC
receives requests for comprehensive
as well as problem-oriented informa-
tion searches from researchers. Center
staff responds to these requests by
searching the SM IC's and other data
bases for pertinent information. The
search output provides a list of refer-
ences, including abstracts whenever
Information Analysis Service-The
Center collaborates with sorghum
and millets scientists to produce
special reviews, which are edited and
published for wider use. SMIC infor-
mation specialists interact with scien-
tists to dilineate a subject area and
then conduct a comprehensive search
of relevant literature. Original docu-
ments-identified as useful by the
cooperating scientists-are secured
for their use and for inclusion in a
special subject review publication.
Document Delivery Service-SMIC
provides copies of the documents in
its collection to sorghum and millet
researchers at their request. The
Center also requests photocopies of
original articles from researchers,
national and international libraries,
documentation and information
centers, and other information ser-
vices in order to fulfill requests from
sorghum and millets researchers.
SMIC Newsletter-Information on
current research in sorghum and
millets is published every four months
in the SMIC Newsletter, which also
features abstracts of current literature
and a selected bibliography. The
Newsletter is distributed throughout
the semi-arid tropics. It is published
in English and French, particularly
to serve readers in the francophone
countries of Africa.m

Directory of Sorghum and Millets
Research Workers-In order to facili-
tate communication between scien-
tists within and between regions o'f
the world, the SMIC has compiled
and published a worldwide directory
of sorghum and millets researchers.
The directory contains 2,223 entries
and is kept up-to-date.
Sorghum and millet researchers
anywhere in the world are welcome
to write to the Sorghum and Millets

Information Center and request their
services (there is no charge for SMIC

Patancheru, P.O.
Andhra Pradesh 502 324

Sorghum and millets researchers are
invited to contribute to the SMIC's
database by sending papers, reports,

manuals and the like, for inclusion in
its collection. Field test reports, re-
views of research, progress reports,
seminar papers, annual reports and
manuals for use by farmers or ex-
tensionists are some examples of
literature that the SMIC would
appreciate receiving. Literature that
is produced in local institutions,
particularly non-conventional liter-
ature that is not widely distributed,
is of particular interest to the Center.

Population Council, FSSP Call for Case Studies

The Farming Systems Support
Project at the University of Florida
and the Population Council announce
a call for case studies on "Intra-
Household Dynamics and Farming
Systems Projects". We are looking
for material which will document
cases where specific attention to
inter- and intra- household questions
has improved the effectiveness of
farming systems projects in diagnos-
ing constraints to agricultural pro-
duction, designing ways of alleviating
these constraints, testing appropriate
new technology on farmers' fields,

and diffusing beneficial recommen-
The case studies should document
actual farming systems projects. They
are intended as training materials for
farming systems practitioners as well
as others engaged in agricultural
development and for self-instruction.
It is anticipated that they will be
published for distribution in the
developed and developing world.
Awards of up to $3000 will be made
for preparing the case studies and
expenses also will be paid for case
writers to attend a training workshop
in early June.

Applications are encouraged from
individuals or project teams interested
in preparing case studies or from
project teams who wish to nominate '
themselves to work with a case writer
supplied by the project. For more
information and application forms,
Hilary S. Feldstein
Managing Editor
Intra-Household Dynamics and
Farming Systems Case Studies
RFD 1, Box 821
Hancock, NH 03449
(603) 525-3772

Farming Systems Assistantships offered at Florida

Students initiating a graduate pro-
gram at the University of Florida with
an emphasis in the area of farming
systems now have the opportunity to
apply for assistantships at either the
master's or doctoral level. The farm-
ing systems assistantships will be
one-third time, with a 12-month
stipend of $7,500 for master's can-
didates and $8,250 for doctoral
candidates. Out-of-state fees will be
Recipients will minor and do re-
search in farming systems while
majoring in one of the academic
departments of the Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS)
such as Agronomy, Dairy Science,
Vegetable Crops, Food & Resource

Economics, Mechanized Agriculture,
Animal Science, Entomology & Ne-
matology, and Soil Science. Research
may be conducted in Florida or in an
appropriate foreign country. Research
in both domestic and international
areas is conducted under University
of Florida faculty supervision and is
available to graduate students as
thesis and dissertation opportunities.
The University of Florida has had
years of experience in Farming Sys-
tems Research and Extension (FSR/E),
both domestic and international. It
has one of the greatest concentrations
of faculty expertise in farming sys-
tems of any location in the world.
Inquiries about the Farming Sys-
tems Program and applications for

assistantships should be sent to:
Farming Systems Assistantships
International Programs
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
3028 McCarty Hall
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Requests for information about
admission to the Graduate School of
the University of Florida should be
sent to:
Office of the Registrar
Admissions Section
135 Tigert Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611




Donald J. Lee*

Research and extension projects in
developing countries can gain valuable
benefits by involving graduate students
from technologically advanced coun-
tries. The participation of these stu-
dents enables senior expatriate ad-
visors to explore important problems
that otherwise would receive little or
no attention because of lack of per-
sonnel. The Farming Systems Re-
search Project in Lesotho has been
able to conduct several in-depth
studies only because of the involve-
ment of U.S. graduate students. From
he student's personal standpoint
he experience can be very rewarding
and the experience gained helps equip
them for careers in international
The involvement of a student in an
international project requires consid-
erable more planning and coordina-
tion than the typical domestic
graduate program. Certain conditions
must be met in a timely manner if
such a program is to be successful.
Although rather obvious they are
sometimes overlooked and when
that occurs both the student and the
project are likely to suffer. Items that
should be included in the preparation
of programs for graduate students
who will be doing thesis research
abroad are listed below.
a) Approval of host country offi-
cials should be obtained. This
should be the first step in the
process. Be certain that involv-
ed host country administrators
approve of an ex-patriate grad-

*Team leader of the FSR project in Lesotho,
Southern Africa. On assignment from Washington
State University.

uate student doing research in
a specified area of study before
any contact is made with pro-
spective participants.
b) Relevant administrators at both
the participating university
and on the in-country team
should be involved from the
beginning. This assures the
availability of funds, necessary
support services for the partici-
pants, and that a student's
research activities will fit into
those of the project Proceed-
ing without approval from key
administrators can be very un-
fair to the student if plans have
to be abruptly changed or
c) The student's thesis research
problem should be described
in considerable detail by the
in-country advisor before the
student departs his/her home
university. First, this permits
the student to determine if
the planned research is in
agreement with his/her inter-
ests. Second, it allows a stu-
dent to begin work soon after
arriving in-country. Time is
usually an important consid-
eration and a student doesn't
have the luxury of shopping
around for a research problem
after arriving at post, especially
if seasonal field trials are in-
volved. Third, the person who
will be advising the student's
day-to-day research is in a
position to know the needs of
the country, limitations of
research facilities, and environ-
mental conditions. He/She is

the logical person to develop a
realistic research proposal.
d) The in-country advisor and the
academic department at the
student's university must agree
that the planned research meets
the criteria for the degree
sought. This is another reason
the proposed research problem
should be described in detail
before the student leaves for
the foreign post. There-should
also be frequent correspon-
dence between the in-country
advisor and the student's home
department while the research
is underway to keep all parties
informed of progress, and
e) The terms of the student's con-
tract should be clearly delin-
eated and explained prior to
his/her departure. Travel ar-
rangements, housing, amount
of stipend, insurance, leave,
student status, and what is
expected when the student
returns to the university should
be described in writing.
To summarize, the successful parti-
cipation of graduate students in
international projects requires careful
planning by personnel at both the
degree granting institution and in the
host country. Rewards to both the
student and the project are well worth
the extra effort. 0
The views expressed in this paper are those
of the author and do not necessarily repre-
sent those of the Research Division of the
Ministry of Agriculture in Lesotho, or
Washington State University, the project

Agricultural Information Sources for Farmers in Lesotho, Southern Africa

Richard W. Tenney and
Thomas F. Trail *

Background of the Study
The baseline survey of the Lesotho Farming Systems
Research (FSR) prototype areas was a collaborative effort
of the Lesotho Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) Research
Division and Washington State University's Farming
Systems Research Project. The project's thrust was
adaptive on-the-farm demonstrations to stimulate farm-
ers' interest and adoption.
Prototype Areas
The Government of Lesotho designated three FSR
prototype areas. These areas represented the three
ecological areas of Lesotho in which applied farming
systems research was taking place. The areas were:
1. The Mountain Area-Molumong. An area of 18,000
acres with a total of 26 villages and 655 households;
2. The Foothill Area-Nyakosoba. An area of 14,800
acres with 41 villages and 1,044 households;
3. The Lowland Area-Siloe. An area of 23,500 acres
with 40 villages and 1,231 households.
The purpose of the baseline study was to identify
better methods of providing technical agriculture
information to farmers. The survey was to determine:
1) what communications channels and sources of agri-
cultural information farmers used in three prototype
areas; and 2) what channels or sources of agricultural
information farmers preferred.

The FSR baseline survey was conducted using personal
interviews with a structured Lesotho language question-
naire. Interviews were conducted with a 14 to 18 percent
sample of household heads in each prototype area. Data
were collected by establishing a "trainer team" which in
turn trained a team of village interviewers in each of the
three prototype areas. Members of the trainer team also
were responsible for interviewer training, questionnaire
development, data collection, and preparation for analy-
sis. The questionnaire was pretested in each of the three
prototype areas with 66 people, none of whom partici-
pated in the research sample.
* Richard W. Tenney is assistant professor of Agricultural and
Occupational Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
Thomas F. Trail is staff development specialist, Cooperative
Extensive, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.

Training of Trainers
A 7-day orientation course on how to implement the
survey and to train village interviewers was organized so
that the trainers could experience the concepts to be
taught in the field. Part of the sample was drawn during
the course in order that trainers would better understand
sample selection.
The Sample
The three prototype areas were visited and every vil-
lage, chief, and household were listed. With a total of
2,900 households in the three areas, a decision was made
to have a final sample of no less than 15 percent of this
Interviewer Recruitment and Training
The help of local leaders and MOA extension staff was
solicited for interviewer recruitment. Candidates lived in
or near prototype area villages and had at least a Junior
Certificate level education or equivalent. Selected parti-
cipants were paid a training allowance during the 10-day
course and 25 interviewers were selected at,the end.
During the same period, meetings were held with local
leaders in each area to legitimize the survey.
Analysis of Data
Because of the observed differences in farming prac-
tices and styles of living among these prototype areas,
the data analysis is broken down by prototype area for
the majority of observations.
Sources Used
Respondents were asked to indicate whether they or
anyone in their household had heard any useful agricul-
tural information from any source during the past year.
Those who answered "yes" were then asked to indicate
the source of this information. Overall, 57 percent of the
sample households had heard useful agricultural informa-
tion. This ranged from a high of 69 percent in Siloe to
approximately 50 percent each in the Nyakosoba and
Molumong areas.
Radio was ranked first by those who heard informa-
tion, followed by village meetings, extension agents,
other individuals, and clinics (see Table 1).
Household heads in Siloe mentioned the village meet-
ing as the most frequent source. Respondents in Nyako-
soba indicated that the major source for useful agricul-

Table 1. Source of Useful Agricultural Information
Reported by Percentage of Household
Heads in the Three Prototype Areas.

Prototype Area (N=249)
Source Siloe Nyakosoba Molumong
% % %
1. Clinic 15 17 7
2. Extension Workers 19 3 35
3. Other Individuals 12 28 3
4. Radio 40 70 47
5. Pamphlet 3 10 3
6. Farm Training
Center Course 4 6 0
7. Village Meetings 51 38 47
8. Demonstration 1 3 3
9. School 0 4 3

tural information was radio. In.the Molumong areas the
village meeting was tied with radio as the most frequent-
ly used source.
Examination of Selected Sources
The question, "If you need agricultural information,
for example about a new variety or how to treat a crop
disease, what people do you get if from?" was asked to
determine what specific individual a respondent might
used as a source of agricultural information. Approxi-
nately half of the sample could identify a specific
individual Responses were classified as either extension
agent, blood relative, friend or neighbor, prominent
citizen/chief, or other. In Siloe, respondents reported
blood relatives (38 percent) and extension agents (35
percent) as the most frequently consulted persons. The
most frequently mentioned source in Nyakosoba was
blood relatives (34 percent). The person most often
named in Molumong was the extension agent (68 per-
cent). Overall for the three areas, extension agents were
the most frequently mentioned, followed by blood
relatives, then friends or neighbors.
Extension Agent
Respondents were asked if they could name their
Ministry of Agriculture extension agent. If they could
not name him or her they were asked to indicate if they
knew the person even if not by name. One 24 percent of
all household healds could identify the local agent by
name. There were sharp contrasts between the prototype
areas. A total of 56 percent in the Molumong area identi-
fied the agent by name as contrasted with only 3 percent
of those interviewed in the Nyakosoba area.
A total of 43 percent of the household heads interview-
ed reported having a radio in their home. This ranged
Tom 53 percent in Siloe to 30 percent in Molumong.
.Jinety percent of the respondents in each area reported
their radios in working order. Reception quality of Radio
Lesotho-the principal government radio station located
in the capital of Maseru-was reported by respondents

as 24 percent clear and 73 percent variable in Siloe; 51
percent clear and 47 percent variable in Nyakosoba; and
48 percent clear and 51 percent variable in Molumong.
In general, news and music type programs were the
-most popular in all three prototype areas, followed by
agricultural news programs (see Table 2).

Table 2. Types of Radio Programs Listened
to as Reported by Percentages of
Household Heads

Prototype Areas Listeners (N=207)
All Project
Type of Respondents
Program Siloe Nyakosoba Molumong N-(441)
% % % %

1. News 35 79 60 30
2. Music 38 72 55 29
3. Stories/Plays 13 37 32 14
4. Agriculture 25 34 53 21
5. Nutrition 11 41 35 14
6. Other
Domestic 12 38 32 13
7. Other 12 62 8 14

Preferred Sources of Information
Respondents were asked to answer the following ques-
tion, "If you had one choice of how to receive agricul-
tural information, what source would you choose? In
answer to this question, respondents overwhelmingly
indicated the extension agent as their most preferred
source (see Table 3).

Table 3. Sources of Agricultural Information by
Percentage and Rank for Those Used
and Preferred by Respondents

Source of
Agricultural Used (N=249) Preferred (N=445)
Information % Rank % Rank

1. Radio 28.3 1 8.8 3
2. Village Meeting 26.1 2 10.7 2
3. Extension 10.2 3 64.2 1
4. Other Individuals 8.2 4 .9 7
5. Clinic 7.7 5 .9 7
6. Pamphlets 2.7 6 6.8 4
7. FTC Course 2.0 7 4.3 5
8. Demonstration 1.1 8 2.5 6
9. School 1.1 8 .5 9

There was a significant difference between the source
used by respondents and the source preferred for receiv-
ing agricultural information. Respondents preferred the
extension worker by 70 percent in Siloe, 64 percent in
Nyakosoba, and 59 percent in Molumong. The response
was of special interest in Nyakosoba since only 3 percent
of the respondents had reported knowing the extension

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Summary and Implications
Although response rates varied between the three areas,
radio, village meetings, and extension agents where the
most frequently mentioned sources of information. The
implications are that continuing educational efforts with
radio and village meetings should be utilized and improv-
ed. These sources may be the most effective in the aware-
ness and interest stage of the adoption of FSR tecnolo-
gies and practices. These should be reinforced by indi-
vidual and group contacts with an extension worker.
Only 51 percent of the total sample could identify a
specific person as a source of agricultural information.
The extension agent was the most frequently mentioned
source in Molumong while blood relatives were the
highest ranked source in Nyakosoba and Siloe. This
suggests that improving the flow of agricultural informa-
tion via blood relatives may be helpful.
Approximately 70 percent of the respondents in the
sample could not identify their extension agent, with
significant contrast between respondents of the three
Radio listeners preferred to listen to news, music,
agriculture news, and nutritional news programs. Focus-
ing the message in a more personable and meaningful
manner may attract more listeners. Adapting stories,
songs, and plays to agricultural information is a means
to convey information in an interesting way to farmers.
Possibilities exist for using Radio Lesotho, which is
generally well-received in all three areas.
Regular agricultural news is broadcast in Lesotho to
farmers in the prototype areas but only 43 percent of
household heads interviewed reported having radios. The
Government of Lesotho might consider increasing the
number of radios in the prototype areas. There is also
literacy education via radio taking place over Radio
Lesothoin cooperation with the Lesotho Distant Teach-
ing Center. Agricultural news programs might be utilized
as a means of teaching basic education students. It has

been found that those in literacy programs must have
access to the use and application of practical materials
to maintain their literacy skills.
Extension workers were by far the most preferred
source of receiving agricultural information. This was
even true in the Nyakosoba area where only 3 percent of
the respondents knew their local agent by name. (This
may indicate that further research should be carried out
to find out why their preferred choice is an extension
worker and to verify they have not just given an answer
that they thought was "correct.")
Lionberger and Gwin (1982), referring to the use of
radio in developing countries, noted that behavorial
change attributable to mass media alone is said to be
around 10 to 15 percent, but when combined with
extension workers in the field, it goes above 50 percent.
This implies that recruitment, training, placement, and
support of extension agents in the prototype areas,
coupled with more effective use of radio, village meet-
ings, demonstrations, and clinics could enhance the
diffusion of FSR technology and recommendations.E

1. Butler, L.M. and Kullberg, V. Farming Systems Research
Baseline Survey. Washington State University, Pullman. 1982.
2. Lionberger, H.F. and Gwin, P.H. Communication Strategies:
A Guide for Agricultural Change Agents. Danville, Illinois, The
Interstate Printers & Publishers, Inc. 1982. pp. 182-183.
3. Trail, T.F. "Educational Strategies for Reaching Farmers in
the Developing Countries," Technical Report No. 6 MOA,
Maseru, Lesotho. 1982. pp. 3-15.
4. Trail, T.F. and Tenney, R.W. "Communication Channels and
Sources of Agricultural Information Utilized by Farmers in
the Farming Systems Prototype Areas of Siloe, Nyakosoba,.
and Molumong in Lesotho," International Research Report
No. 3 Department of General Agriculture and Home Econom-
ics, College of Agriculture and Home Economics, Washington
State University, Pullman. 1984.
Reprinted with permission from ACE Quarterly, Volume 68, Number 1,
January-March 1985. ACE Quarterly is published by the Agricultural
Communicators in Education (ACE).

The FSSP newsletter is published quarterly by the Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP), which is funded by AID
Contract No. DAN-4099-A-00-2083-00 and administered by the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS),
University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 32611. IFAS is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer.
The FSSP Newsletter encourages the contribution of stories, pictures and ideas, which should be sent to FSSP Editor,
3028 McCarty Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

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