Historic note
 Use it more carefully
 Warnings and recommendations for...

Group Title: Sub-Tropical Experiment Station - mimeograph report ; no. 15.
Title: Choose an insecticide and fungicide carefully
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067808/00001
 Material Information
Title: Choose an insecticide and fungicide carefully use it more carefully
Series Title: Mimeograph report
Physical Description: 3 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wolfenbarger, D. O ( Daniel Otis ), 1904-
Conover, Robert A
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Homestead Fla
Publication Date: 1956
Subject: Pesticides -- Application -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fungicides -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: D.O. Wolfenbarger and Robert A. Conover.
Funding: Mimeographed report (Sub-Tropical Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067808
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71832902

Table of Contents
    Historic note
    Use it more carefully
        Page 1
    Warnings and recommendations for using parathion
        Page 2
        Page 3
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

Mimeograph Report o 1.5 October 1949

e ,. University of Florida
SUB-TROPICAL : T -.I: -,T STATION Sub-Tropical Experimient Station
Homestead, Florida Route 1, Box 560
Hornete-.- f 'rida

Use It More Carefully

D. 0, Wolfenbarger and Robert A. Conover

Suggestions or simple rules to follow in order to obtain more effective and safer
use of insecticides and fungicides,

1. As a grower or user you are responsible for the safe application and use of
pesticides; i, e., insecticides and fungicides, and for the palatability and safety
of food marketed from plants or soils treated with pesticides.

2. Do some careful thinking about your pest control problems. ,hen you have h
pest, select the most suitable pesticide and apply it thoroughly to do the job.

3. Remember the long-established as well as the new pesticides, Sach has its
uses, advantages, and disadvantages.

4. Evaluate what you read and hear, and learn to classify such as recommendations,
or as reports, suggestions, or irre-po.nsible offerings,

5. Learn about residue and off-flavor problems. Consider timing of applications,
dosage, and residue removal in relation to harvesting of the product, Palatabil-
ity and safeness of the crop for use as food is more important than pest control.

6. Discuss your particular problems with agricultural specialists, including
supply house representatives, then use your own best judgment.

7. The State and Federal regulations regarding registration, sale, and use of
economic poisons are intended for the benefit of the most people. Let's respect
and abide by the spirit of these regulations.

8, Uncontrolled dust and spray treatments nay drift to the neighbor's crops.
Those allowing such drift are liable for court action. Let the neighbor administer
his own crop protection--unless he hires you.

9, Since pests breeding in your field are also a hazard to the neighbor's crop,
you have a moral responsibility for controlling them. Don't allow seedbeds or
fields to become breeding grounds for insects and diseases that may threaten the
entire area. If everyone applies the best control measures the problem will be
less for all and the hazard of serious loss greatly reduced,

10. Note and obey any warnings and precautions on the label or in the literature,
Most pesticide materials are poisonous to man--accept the others as being poison-
ous also--in one way or another. If one pound of pesticide per 100 gallons of
water is recommended, use 16 ounces, not 24 nor 32 ounces,


11, Susceptibility to pesticide materials varies considerably among individuals,
Some persons work with one material after another without being affected, others
are affected by very small amounts of a material, Rotenone, for example, which is
rated as a non-poisonous insecticide cannot be used by certain people, Sulfur,
another "non-poisonsous" pesticide is dangerous under certain conditions, and is
offensive and eye-irritating to many people. In view of these differences, it is
recommended that he who is susceptible to a material refrain from working with it,
He should do other work while those not affected by a material do use it. The im-
portance of this appears not to have had sufficient emphasis,

Warnings and Recommendations for Using Parathion

Parathion has proved to be one of the most potent of insecticides. As such, how-
ever, it is capable of severe poisoning resulting in violent and quick death. A
number of fatalities to workers and users of parathion have been reported; a study
of these cases indicates that the advised precautionary measures were not taken,
Not a single serious illness caused by parathion, however, is reported by the com-
pany which claims to have produced over 2,000,000 pounds of the technical para-
thion, This is attributable to their having kept the material from contact with
their workers and from contaminating the air in which they work. Experiences in
testing parathion at the Sub-Tropical experiment Station have indicated that it
can be used safely under field conditions, Our men have sprayed in the avocado
grove with dilutions of 1, 2, and 4 pounds of 15% parathion per 100 gallops of
water for up to five and six hours at a time without any report or complaint of
illness, One man, however, has reported headaches from the use of parathion in
the greenhouse, Although he has been instructed to get someone else to use the'
insecticide, he still makes the applications but says the headaches are not bad,

Two other insecticides, tetraethyl pyrophosphate and tetraethyl dithiopyrophosphate,
the latter not yet obtainable commercially, are similar in action and toxicity to
parathion, Precautionary measures used with parathion shozSd also be applied when
using these materials,

In giving these symptoms and treatments for parathion poisoning and precautions
for the use of this insecticide it must be pointed out that they are brief, perhaps
incomplete, and that variations among individuals and situations may results in
different effects. It should be remembered that parathion is a new material and
has not been used generally enough to permit a complete list of all of its effects.

Parathion is an excellent insecticide for certain purposes and experience has indi-
cated that it can be used safely in the field if ordinary reasonable precautions
and good common sense are used,

Some characteristics of parathion, and symptoms of parathion poisoning are pre-
sented as follows:

1. Parathion is a poison. Toxic effects result from skin contact, oral ingestion
(by mouth) and inhalation (breathing).

2. Parathion is volatile, evaporates readily, releasing a gas that is poisonous.
At the low concentrations ordinarily used, one pound of 15% material per 100
gallons of water or one percent in dust form, the fumes dissipate to low levels
in a relatively short time,

-.3 -

3. Parathion poisoning is usually fatal within a few hours after exposure to
lethal amounts, Recovery from sub-lethal exposures is also rapid, occurring
within several hours or a few days according to present understanding, It is
said to decompose rapidly in the body without leaving accumulations in the fatty
tissues or other parts of the body, One who has been affected by parathion seems
likely to be more easily poisoned and killed by a second exposure,

4, Parathion has a characteristic odor similar to garlic or onions, that gives
warning of its presence,

The following precautions and recommendations are made for the benefit of those
using parathion;

1. Stay out of enclosed spaces such as buildings, greenhouses, tree enclosures
or canopies, or other similar places phere parathion is being dispersed or has
been used recently. Take advantage cf the wina direction to avoid drifting spray
or dust particles,

2, Plan to use approved masks;, rubber gloves, and other bodily protection in
-- rous situations.

Hands or other parts of the body contacting parathion should' be washed im-
mediately and thoroughly with large quantities of soap and water,

4, Clothing contaminated or wet with parathion should be changed and the body
washed immediately,

5. Provide atropine tablets--obtainable from the local druggist without a doc-
tor's prescription--for employees who night be accidentally exposed to parathion,
After taking the maximum dose of atropine which is listed as one one-hundredth of
a grain, report to a physician immediately for his advice and treatment,

6, Severe'parathion poisoning results in a series of symptoms and signs, First,
there is giddiness: some people report headaches. This is usually accompanied by
pinpoint pupils of the eyes, After a time nauses begins, then abdominal cramps,
vomiting, diarrhea, muscular twitching, coma, convulsions, and possibly death,

7. Get the patient to a physician as soon as possible after the first symptoms
are known, or after exposure to unusual quantities of parathion,

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