Historic note
 Dates to remember
 Beef-forage emphasis program...
 Current situation
 Economics and performance of pigs...
 No clear-cut link between meat,...

Animal science
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067783/00001
 Material Information
Title: Animal science
Portion of title: Animal science NL
Alternate title: Animal science newsletter
Animal science news letter
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: August 1978
Subjects / Keywords: Livestock -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
General Note: Description based on: August 1978; title from caption.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 72704418
lccn - 2006229418
System ID: UF00067783:00001

Table of Contents
    Historic note
    Dates to remember
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Beef-forage emphasis program update
        Page 4
    Current situation
        Page 5
    Economics and performance of pigs weaned at 3, 4 and 5 weeks of age
        Page 6
        Page 7
    No clear-cut link between meat, heart disease: pearson
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




AUGUST 10-12









4-H Southern Regional Horse Championship Show
and Judging Contest Montgomery, Alabama
Annual Extension Conference Gainesville

Beef Cattle and Forage Field Day ARC, Ona
Florida Chapter of the Range Management Society -
ARC, Ona
Pure Bred Bull Sale, University of Florida,
9:00 12:00 a.m., Livestock Pavilion Gainesville
Cattlemen's Tropical Forage Field Day St. Lucie Co.
Ag. Center
Swine Field Day Armory Marianna
16th Annual Bull Sale ARC, Brooksville
North Florida Fair Feeder Pig Show North Florida
Fair Tallahassee

Youth Swine Evaluation Contest N. Fla. Fair -
4-H and FFA Market Hog Show N. Fla. Fair Tallahassee
Beef Cattle Show N. Fla. Fair Tallahassee
Open Breeding Hog Show N. Fla. Fair Tallahassee
Animal Science's In-Service Training for Extension
Agents Gainesville

Florida Meat Packers Association Short Course -
Reitz Union Gainesville


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Beef Cattle Management Calendar

Cut corn silage
S Cut hay
Apply lime for fall and winter crops
Harvest Bahiagrass seed
Check mineral and salt feeder
Update market information and marketing plans
Check for army worms, spittlebugs and mole crickets.
Treat if necessary
Check dust bags
Check for external parasites and treat if needed.
Wean calves and cull cow herd
Watch for evidence of abortions
Observe animals regularly for signs of diseases
If cattle grubs were found on cattle last winter or heel
flies were observed in the pasture, treat for cattle grubs
this month.

Cut hay
Heavy grazing on pastures to be interplanted to cool season
Check mineral and salt feeder
Check for mole crickets, spittlebugs and grassloopers.
Treat if necessary.
Check dust bags
Check for external parasites and treat if needed.
Wean calves and cull cow herd
Train cowboys to observe normal and abnormal behavior
and signs of diseases
Be sure any replacement purchases are healthy

Plant cool season legumes
Plant small grain pastures
Check mineral and salt feeder
Check for spittlebugs and grassloopers. Treat if needed.
Check dust bags
Check for external parasites and treat if needed
Watch condition of cow herd, maintain adequate nutrition
Isolate any additions to the herd for 30 to 60 days and
observe for signs of diseases; retest for brucellosis and
S Be sure you have adequate handling facilities in good repair.

Georgia Cattle Stocker Finisher Conferences co-sponsored by the
Georgia Cattlemen's Association and the Extension Animal Science
Department, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Georgia will
be held August 3, 1978, at the Macon Coliseum, Macon Georgia. A
copy of the program can be obtained from Clyde Tripplett, Extension
Animal Scientist, Rural Development Center, Tifton, Georgia 31794.


University of Florida Purebred Bull Sale:The annual sale of coming
2 year-old purebred bulls from the Animal Science Department's Angus
and Brahman herds will be held Saturday, October 14, 1978 at the Live-
stock Pavilion. It is anticipated that 40 bulls will be available
for the sale.

Brooksville Experiment Station Bull Sale: The annual Bull sale
featuring 125+ Hereford, Angus, Brahman and Brangus bulls will be held
Friday, October 27, 1978. Additional information is available form
Cal Burns, Sale Manager, Box 246, Brooksville, Florida 33512.


Chipley Beef Demonstration Unit: The April 6, 1978 Field Day at the
Beef Demonstration Unit was a huge success. However, this is a
dynamic unit things are growing, conditions are changing. In order
to follow and have an understanding of the production practices used
at the unit, return visits during the year are essential. Points of
interest now include:

a) Winter legumes still growing
b) Improved varieties of permanent grasses
c) Sod seeded millet vs. conventional seeding
d) Crossbred calves resulting from matings to
Brangus, Hereford and Simmental bulls.


Time Management: Many farmers in West Florida have been busy
planting their crops for several months now and some will soon start
harvesting. What has happened to the beef herd during this time?
They are left to fend for themselves.

A year-round total farm management calendar can help organize time.
Less hectic periods for field work can be utilized for more intense
beef management operations; such as, calving and weaning. A limited
breeding season (90 days) at the proper time, will permit calving


and weaning during these periods of reduced labor requirements for
field crops.

Improved beef cattle management techniques can be more easily followed,
thereby improving production and income from the beef herd.


AUGUST: Time to treat for cattle grubs. Reports are coming more
frequently and from more locations of cattle grubs and heel flies.
-August is the best month to treat for Grubs from spring strikes before
the larva migrate. Use a pour on or spot on labelled for this purpose
and follow the directions on the label--especially withdrawal time
before slaughter on cull cows. As additional data becomes available
it is beginning to look like more than one treatment per year may be
needed as a result of our mild winters allowing flies to live over.
As soon as enough data is accumulated to make this a recommendation,
you will be informed.

---PK & RSS---

BEEF-FORAGE EMPHASIS PROGRAM UPDATE: Things are beginning to move
rapidly in several areas. Status of the various study groups is as

1. Government Regulations having a tough time getting started.
Several activities in this area are already underway.

2. Brucellosis Committee has met and discussed the upcoming
Series of educational program planned by Drs. Abbitt and
Meyerholz. There will be a preview of this program during
0 the noon hour Wednesday, August 30 in rooms 150 C & D, Reitz
Union. This is during the Annual Extension Conference, so
V go through the cafeteria line and bring your lunch up and
help preview this important program.

3. Pests Off to somewhat of a slow start in comparison to
some others, Dr. Koehler has been busy preparing Integrated
Pest Management materials for Livestock and requesting
funds for a pilot program.

4. Marketing Alternatives Met via "Conference Call". Members
of this committee will be going to Chicago in August to
visit the Chicago Mercantile Exchange as their guests. Also
attending will be the hosts for 4 training sessions to be
held next winter. The training sessions will be conducted
by the CME and are on Hedging as a Marketing Tool. Several
publications and materials are being developed around on
"Ranch Marketing Decisions and Alternatives".


5. Forages Met and divided into 2 groups responsible for
developing a recommended forage package for north and south
Florida respectively. Hope to have initial drafts ready for
study and discussion in August.

6. Overall Management Met and was assigned job of reviewing
"Beef Production Handbook" and list of fact sheets to be
published for it. Looking for additional subjects that need
to be covered as well as for ones that need to be adjusted
to our conditions ("Floridaized"). They also discussed
program delivery systems and will be looking at how we reach
our audience and for ways to do this more effectively. Two
areas being investigated are (1) feedstores and supply
houses as a source of information and (2) livestock markets
with the idea of possibly having regular scheduled times
monthly when the Extension Agent would have a "field office
at the market".

Your interest and suggestions about this program are welcomed. Please
feel free to contact Dr. Bob Sand if you have questions or suggestions.


CURRENT SITUATION: The U.S. Cattle industry is subject to cycles of
about 10 years in duration. The cattle herd reached a record high
132 million head as of January 1, 1978, and will decline further this
year. The rebuilding phase of the cattle cycle will soon begin but
several years are required for increased domestic beef supplies to reach

Since 1974, many livestock producers have experienced losses. For 15
of the past 23 quarters cattle feeders have suffered net losses. How-
ever, returns in producers are now above cost and prospects for the
next 2 to 3 years are for a continuation of this situation.

Retail meat prices, stable for the past three years with record meat
supplies, have increased about ten percent during the first four months
of 1978. This price increase is in response to the reduced cattle
inventory and adverse winter weather, combined with strong demand
stemming from record employment levels and increased earnings.

Retail beef prices declined in 1976 and remained about the same in
1977 due to record beef supplies. However, choice beef prices have
risen about 14 percent during the first four months of this year alone.
These higher prices have contributed to the 5.9 percent increase in the
Consumer Price Index for food during the first four months of 1978.

Meat production for 1978 will total approximately 51.1 billion pounds.
About 1 percent below year earlier levels. Although beef production is
expected to be down 4 percent, pork production will be up 2 percent and
poultry output will expand about 7 percent.

Source--Fact Sheet on Meat Imports
USDA 1636-78

One of the best possibilities for improving overall production efficiency
is to increase the number of pigs raised per sow per year. This can be
accomplished by weaning more pigs per litter and/or shortening the
farrowing interval. Physiologists have demonstrated that the sow can
be successfully rebred on first heat following weaning if the pigs are
approximately 21 days of age or older. Pigs can be successfully weaned
at 3 weeks of age but they require a more precise environment and
nutritional program than those weaned at 4 or 5 weeks of age. We plan-
ned and conducted a trial last fall in an effort to determine the most
optimum weaning age with "average" environmental conditions and feeding

Litters from 42 fourth-litter sows were equalized as near as possible
by transferring pigs within 48-hours after birth. Sows were scale fed
(1 pound per nursing pig per day plus three pounds for the sow) a 15%
sorghum-soy diet from 5 days postfarrowing until the pigs were weaned.
Creep feed (20% complex starter diet) was offered when pigs were 10 days
of age. One third of the sows were weaned when the pigs were 3, 4 and
5 weeks of age. At weaning, pigs were placed in a confinement nursery
pen and fed until they reached approximately 63 days of age.

The number of pigs weaned per litter was very similar (8.50, 8.64, 8.64
for those weaned at 2, 4 and 5 weeks, respectively). Average weaning
weights for the 3, 4 and 5 week pigs were 10.8, 13.3 and 15.4 pounds.
Pig performance was measured over three time periods: first 7 days,
first 14 days and the entire test period (42, 35 and 28 days for pigs
weaned at 3, 4 and 5 weeks, respectively). Measured over the first 7
or first 14 days, pigs weaned at 5 weeks consumed more feed than the
3 and 4-week groups which resulted in higher daily gains. Gains for
the 4-week group were also superior to the 3-week group. Differences
in performance among the 3, 4 and 5-week groups was less when measured
over the entire test period, but pigs weaned at 3 weeks had a lower
feed intake, lower gains and less desirable feed efficiency than those
weaned at 4 and 5 weeks of age. This resulted in pigs weaned at 3
weeks having lower 63-day weights (36.3 pounds) than those weaned at 4
weeks (40.6 pounds) and 5 weeks (39.1 pounds).

Sow feed intake during lactation, creep feed intake and pig feed from
weaning to 63 days of age were determined and multiplied times the
price of each diet to determine the total feed costs for the different
weaning regimes. Average sow feed intake increased from 216 pounds when
pigs were weaned at 3 weeks to 307 and 388 pounds for sows weaned at 4
and 5 weeks. Creep feed intake per litter also increased greatly from
3-4-5 week weaning (.90, 3.0 and 5.7 pounds, respectively). The total
cost for sow feed and creep diet per litter increased from $11.96 for
3-week weaning to $17.17 for 4-week weaning to $21.85 for 5-week weaning.
Feed costs incurred during the postweaning test period on both a per
pig basis and per pound of pig produced basis were also determined. As
expected, pigs weaned at 3 weeks (which were on test for 42 days) had
the highest feed cost per pig ($4.31), followed by those weaned at 4
weeks ($4.21) and 5 weeks ($3.45). When sow feed, creep diet and intake
during the postweaning performance were totalled on a per pig basis, the


3-week group had the lowest total cost ($5.72) followed by the 5-week
($5.98) and 4-week ($6.20) groups. However, when total feed costs
were expressed on a pound of pig produced basis, the 4 and 5 week groups
were the same (15.3 cents) which was slightly less than for pigs
weaned at 3 weeks (15.7 cents).

Another important economic consideration of weaning at various ages
is the reduced sow weight loss experienced with earlier weaning. The
average weights for sows taken within 24 hours after parturition and
on the day of weaning showed that the sows weaned at 3 weeks gained
3.6 pounds during the 21-day lactation while sows weaned at 4 and 5 weeks
lost 12.6 and 17.7 pounds, respectively. This advantage in weight loss
must be considered in evaluating the overall economics of the different
weaning systems.

General conclusions included the following:

1. Feed intake and resulting daily gains are greatly influenced
by weaning weight. Performance of pigs weaned at 4 and 5
weeks of age were very similar and more desirable than those
weaned at 3 weeks.

2. Total feed costs per pound of pig produced (63 days of age)
were essentially the same for pigs weaned at 3, 4 or 5 weeks
of age.

Source--T. D. Tanksley, Jr. from Texas
Agricultural Extension Service's
Prescriptions for pigs June 1978


meats, save for liver, have never been popular with American consumers,
so these very nutritious meats are primarily processed into by-products.
New research, however, may provide a means of utilizing organ meats
for human foodstuffs. Some 80% to 90% of protein in tripe can be extracted
by soaking in a special solution and precipitating the protein. Process,
developed at Oregon St. Univ., could potentially yield additional 60,000
tons of high-quality animal protein from current annual cattle slaughter.

Source--Meat Board Reports, Monday
June 26, 1978


one country isn't jumping on the eat-less-meat-eat-more-grain bandwagon.
During a recent tour of the Soviet Union, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Secretary Robert Bergland learned that Russians plan to boost livestock
production to increase domestic meat consumption. According to Boris
A. Runov, All Union Deputy Minister of Agriculture, "Right now our meat
consumption is 55 kilograms (121 lbs.) per person (per year). By 1980
we want to raise it to 75 kilograms (165 Ibs.)." And just how do the

Russians plan to boost livestock production? By expanding their use
of grain feeding, which they have found is the fastest way to increase
the supply of meat.

Source--Meat Board Reports, Monday,
June 26, 1978


disease risk by replacing animal fats with vegetable fats in diets is
unlikely, says A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Mich. State Univ. food scientist.
Pearson offered positive aspects of meat eating in a paper presented
June 20 during American Meat Science Assn.'s Reciprocal Meat Conference
at the Univ. of Conn.

"All available evidence suggests there is no clear-cut relationship be-
tween meat consumption and cardiovascular disease," said Pearson. In-
creased rate of coronary heart disease in the U. S. since first decade
of this century has often been blamed on meat consumption. But animal
fats consumption declined by 9% in that period, while vegetable fat
consumption increased three-fold, he said. This implicates, but does
not prove, that vegetable fats contributed to the increase in heart
disease, he said.

Flesh foods (meats, fish, poultry) make their major contribution by
supplying an abundance of high quality protein, appreciable amounts of
vitamins, minerals, Pearson pointed out. It is nearly impossible to
obtain the recommended daily allowance of Vitamin B12 without including
flesh foods in the diet. A majority of premonopausal women need flesh
foods to stay in positive iron balance.

* * *

diet (see story above) is "by far the most important" factor increasing
the risk of heart disease, according to Dr. Alton Ochsner, Emeritus
Professor of Surgery at Tulane University. Writing in Executive Health,
Dr. Ochsner cites research showing men who smoke have sharply higher
death rates from coronary artery disease than non-smokers. Male smokers
between 45 and 54 years old had 3.3 times death rate as non-smokers;
those 55 to 64 had 4.8 times death rate; at 65 to 74 years, smokers
chances "improve," they had only about twice the death rate as non-

Nicotine and carbon monoxide found in smoke are suspected heart disease
culprits. Nicotine known to cause spasms of small blood vessels, may
be involved in abnormal heart beating (ventricular fibrillation) and
also may be a factor in arteriosclerosis. Carbon monoxide enters blood,
inhibits ability to carry oxygen. Smoking also known to increase
"Stickiness" of blood platelets, boosting risk of blood clots leading
to coronary thrombosis.
Source--Meat Board Reports, Monday
June 26, 1978

A- .


1978-79 Steer Show Season: Steer Show chairmen should make prepara-
tions to obtain identification tags and birthdates of steers for the
1978-79 Steer Show Season. Mr. Harold Herring, Gainesville Stockman's
Supply Co. and Mr. John Hunt, International Minerals, will sponsor
the Champion Carcass Value Award for the champion carcass from County
Carcass Contests. The Champion Carcass will be selected by committee
from nominees for all carcasses nominated from the County Carcass
Contests. Value will be determined on the basis of quality, yield, and
hot carcass weight per day of age. Carcasses nominated will be re-
quired to have proof of age of the steer nominated. The Award will
be presented at the 1979 Animal Science Short Course.


1964 Meat Import Act: The 1964 Meat Import Act was passed to control
the growth of imports of fresh, chilled, or frozen beef, veal, mutton,
and goat meat.

Since its implementation, voluntary restraint agreements have been
negotiated in six years at or below the level at which quotas would
be imposed, and on three other occasions (1972, 1973, and 1974), the
President suspended quotas entirely allowing unrestricted imports.
The quotas have been imposed once, in 1976.

Imported meat accounts for a small share of total U.S. consumption,
about 4.2 percent last year.

Source--Fact Sheet on Meat Imports
USDA 1636-78


Current Voluntary Restraint Agreements: The negotiated voluntary
restraint program for 1978 is for 1,292.3 million pounds. It includes
agreements with 12 nations and an exchange of letters with Canada.

Today's announcement, calls for a renegotiation of the agreements to
increase this amount by 200 million pounds. the country allocations
now in effect are as follows:

--in million pounds--

Australia 663.5 Belize .5
Canada 76.2 Costa Rica 56.5
Dom. Republic 15.2 El Salvador 12.1
Guatemala 36.2 Haiti 2.0
Honduras 37.8 Mexico 63.1
New Zealand 272.6 Nicaragua 51.5
Panama 5.1

Source--Fact Sheet on Meat Imports
USDA 1636-78



Economic Impacts: The economic impacts of increasing the supply of
meat by 200 million pounds during the second half of the year (July-
December) will not be large for either retail meat prices or cattle

The retail price impacts will be reflected primarily
meats and the less expensive cuts such as hamburger.
could be held 5 to 6 cents per pound below what they

for convenience
Hamburger prices
would otherwise be.

The net savings to consumers could be $500 million or more -- income
that can be directed to other goods and services.

Domestic cattle prices are not expected to be materially affected.
Impacts will be largely on utility cow price which could decrease $2
to $3 per hundredweight.

Source-- Fact Sheet on Meat Imports
USDA 1636-78


U.S. Customs Service

Monitorings of Meat Subject to Meat Import Law
1978. (In 1.000 lb.)

Country of Origin May January May
1977 1978 1977 1978

Australia 56,048 76,345 228,730 341,700
Belize -- 38
Canada 10,293 4,333 48,018 32,692
Costa Rica 3,699 6,574 43,163 26,786
Dominican Republic 149 -- 2,089
El Salvador 567 1,623 2,423 2,851
Guatemala 2,411 2,121 12,401 12,334
Haiti 207 196 574 562
Honduras 2,553 4,387 20,837 16,687
Mexico 5,990 5,415 27,124 29,832
New Zealand 35,590 32,745 108,268 114,088
Nicaragua 2,464 6,902 23,976 25,877
Panama 201 249 2,017 384
Iceland 24 -- 25
Other -- -- 1,289 -

Total 120,196 140,890 520,972 603,792

Source--Foreign Agriculture Circular
US Dept. of Agriculture
FLM MT 9-78
June 1978


Planning the Winter Feed Supply for Beef Cattle: In some areas of
the state cattlemen are ensiling corn and grain sorghum for silage.
A full feed of corn silage is equivalent to six percent of body
weight daily. In other words, a thousand pound cow will consume
approximately 60 pounds daily. These same figures apply to grain
sorghum. Ranchers should ensile at least 3.5 tons per 1000 pound

When allowed access to grass hay, a 1000 pound cow will consume
2.0 to 2.5 pounds per hundred pounds liveweight daily. A hundred
pound cow will consume from 20 to 25 pounds daily. Ranchers should
save from 3500 to 4000 pounds per 1000 pound cow.


Algae in Water Troughs: We have recently received a number of
inquiries with regards to controlling algae in water troughs.
Copper sulphate is the recommended control product. Apply at the
rate of ounce per 100 gallons of water. If possible, remove cattle
from pasture for several days. The troughs should be completely
filled and the water supply cut off.


Use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty
of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion
of others of suitable composition.

This edition of the Animal Science Newsletter edited by R. S. S d.
We welcome your comments and suggestions for improving t ef 1-
ness of this publication.

Prepared by Extension Specialist in Animal Science.

H. D. Wallace, Professor Department Chairman
J. E. Pace, Professor, Extension Beef Specialist
K. L. Durrance, Professor Extension Swine Specialist
R. L. Reddish, Professor Extension Meat Specialist
R. S. Sand, Associate Professor, Extension Livestock Specialist
B. H. Crawford, Associate Professor, Extension Horse Specialist
A. F. Jilek, Assistant Professor, Area Livestock Specialist, Quincy