Bettering the environment of our world

Material Information

Bettering the environment of our world May 26, 1970
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
Bradenton Fla
Gulf Coast Experiment Station, a division of Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
35 leaves : ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Research -- Florida -- Bradenton ( lcsh )
Gulf of Mexico ( local )
South Florida ( local )
Pests ( jstor )
Crops ( jstor )
Wildlife damage management ( jstor )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


This paper describes and includes historical information about the station and lists faculty and their research areas.
General Note:
Cover title.
Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
Statement of Responsibility:
Gulf Coast Experiment Station, Bradenton.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location:
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
62511183 ( OCLC )


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The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

Gulf Coast

Experiment Station,


/' % "A


the Environment

of Our


May 26,


A Division Of
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Experiment Stations
University of Florida, Gainesville




Soil and water, food and flowers, air and forests, fish and
They are as vast as the world, but they are not limitless.
They represent the purity of nature, but they are being
They are the gifts of God, for your use, but they are being
They are foundations of your past, realities of your present,
and essentials of your future.
They are the excitement of the seashores, the composure of the
midlands, and the spectacle of the Rockies.
They have been called renewable, but the decision is yours.
How do you value a breath of clean, fresh air--the sight and
taste of pure, sparkling water--or the inspiration of fertile
fields and soaring forests?
In dollars?
Where's your soul?
These resources are indispensable.
They demand your attention and thrive on your care.
They help mold your life; condition what it is--and will be.
Everyday they serve you, surround you, sustain you.

Consider these resources. Consider them well.



Consider These Resources

List of Faculty

History & Accomplishments of the Gulf Coast Experiment Station 1-6

GCES & Bettering our Environment

Environmental Fact Sheet 7-9

Outline of GCES, SFFL, & SVFL Programs on Environmental
Enhancement 10-12

Exploitation of Genetic Mechanisms in the Tomato to Reduce
Environmental Pollution P. Crill 13-15

Anti-Pollution Crop Protection Through Integrated Pest
Management S. Poe 16-18

Use of Fertilizers in the Modern Ecology C. M. Geraldson 19

Summary of Fluoride Air Pollution in Florida and Avenues
of Research for IFAS and Cooperating Agencies S. S. Woltz 20-21

Aesthetic Modification of the Environment Through Ornamental
Horticulture J. C. Raulston 22

IFAS Policy on Pesticides J. W. Sites 23-24
A * * *

General Aspects of Gulf Coast Experiment Station Research
Program 25-35


Gulf Coast Experiment Station 5007 60th Street East, Bradenton, Florida 33505
Phone No. 755-1568

Strobel, J. W., Plant Pathologist and Head. Breeding tomatoes for multiple disease
resistance for trellis, ground, processing and machine harvest operations.

Burgis, D. S., Associate Horticulturist. Vegetable variety testing, weed control,
& weed identification. Cultural & chemical plant modification leading to

Crill, J. P., Assistant Plant Pathologist. Genetics of pathogen variability & host
resistance in tomato.

Engelhard, A. W., Associate Plant Pathologist. Ecology, cause and control of cut
flower diseases.

Geraldson, C, M., Soils Chemist. Plant Nutrition and optimal production of crops.

Hipp, Tim, Agriculture Economics. Extension & research analysis of ornamentals
and vegetables.

Jones, J. Po, Associate Plant Pathologist. Etiology and control of vegetable diseases
with emphasis on Fusarium wilt.

Magie, R, 0., Plant Pathologist. Etiology and control of flower and bulb disease
problems chemical, breeding and therapeutic.

Marousky, F. J., Research Horticulturist (USDA). Post-harvest physiological problems
of cut flowers including keeping quality studies.

Overman, A. J., Associate Nematologist. Etiology and control of nematode problems
of ornamentals and vegetables.

Poe, S. L., Assistant Entomologist. Studies on the biology of insect and mite pests
of vegetables, and ornamentals and their control by chemical & biological

Raulston, J. C., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist. Production, harvesting & post
harvest aspects of ornamental flower crops.

Wilfret, G. J., Assistant Geneticist. Breeding genetics and development of new
varieties of cut-flowers and other ornamental crops.

Woltz, S. S., Plant Physiologist. Physiological air disorders and diseases of
vegetables and ornamentals, including pollution problems.

South Florida Field Laboratory, P. 0. Box 973, Immokalee, Florida 33934
Phone No. 657-2835

Everett, P. H., Soils Chemist (in charge). Soils problems, vegetable variety testing,
herbicide testing and nutritional relationship of watermelons, tomatoes, and
other vegetables.

Blazquez, C, H,, Assistant Plant Pathologist. Vegetable disease control with emphasis
on disease forecasting and fungicide longevity and application methods.

Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory, Rt. 2, Box 629, Dover, Florida
Phone No, 752-7649

Albregts, E. E,, Assistant Horticulturist (in charge)o Strawherry and vegetable
w'ariety testing; nutritional F, cultural rqiiirements.

Ho~ward, C Mo, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Diseases of vegetables and strawberries
and their control by fumigation and plant breeding.

Emeritus Faculty:

Kelbert, DG.A,, Professor Emeritus. Horticulture
Kelsheimer, EGo, Entomology
Spencer, E. L., Soils Chemistry

History and Accomplishments of the Gulf Coast Experiment Station

The Gulf Coast Experiment Station originated as the Tomato Disease Laboratory
in the fall of 1925.

Tomato Disease Laboratory -- This 20-acre tract, located in Palmetto on
county-owned property, was made possible with the cooperation of the Manatee
Board of County Commissioners. Money and equipment were also supplied by the
late J. P. Harllee, Sr., and other growers in the area. D. G. A. Kelbert,
associated with the Department of Plant Pathology with the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station in Gainesville, was placed in charge.

Primary objective of the Laboratory was to formulate a control for an
epidemic outbreak of nailhead spot of tomato. Later studies emphasized the
breeding for resistance to Fusarium wilt and the control of tobacco mosaic
on tomatoes.

Some 12 years later, with the expansion of the vegetable industry in this
area, the State Legislature authorized new facilities for the research program
for the Laboratory.

Vegetable Crops Laboratory -- In August 1938 the Board of County Commissioners
of Manatee County donated 80 percent of the purchase price of a 106-acre
tract of vegetable land in Manatee. This expanded program led to the
establishment of the Vegetable Crops Laboratory. Dr. J. R. Beckenbach was
appointed Truck Horticulturist in Charge.

Following this relocation, horticultural, entomological and soil studies were
initiated on such vegetables as tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, lettuce, squash,
cucumbers and sweet corn. Since the Laboratory was located in the gladiolus-
growing area, the scope was further broadened in 1942 to include disease
problems confronting gladiolus growers.

Gulf Coast Experiment Station -- At the meeting of the State Board of Control
in March 1951, the Vegetable Crops Laboratory was given the status of a branch
station and renamed Gulf Coast Experiment Station; thus ending its designation
as a field laboratory as established some 25 years earlier in 1926. Investi-
gations were then initiated dealing with chemical weed control, nematodes and
other soil-borne pests. The ornamental phase was broadened to include
chrysanthemums and other commercial cut flowers.

In the late 1950's it became apparent that the facilities on the outskirts of
Bradenton were no longer adequate for the research program. A 200-acre tract
was acquired in 1959 about 8 miles to the southeast. All of the vegetable
field experimental program was shifted to this new location.

The construction of the office and laboratory building, a residence, farm
buildings and three greenhouses were completed in the spring of 1965.
Additional experimental equipment and research facilities are now being
located at the station. A new research headhouse for the greenhouses has
been constructed.

The Gulf Coast Station has administrative and research supervision over two



field laboratories: South Florida Field Laboratory, established near Immokalee
in 1956; and Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory, relocated on a new
20-acre site near Dover in 1963

The Gulf Coast Station has undergone many changes during the 40 years since
it originated as the Tom'.tn Disease Laboratory. The many changes have been
brought about by the ever-changing diversity of production problems confront-
ing growers of vegetables and commercial cut flowers on the sandy soils of

Major Achievements of Gulf Coast Experiment Station on
Vegetable Production Problems

In the work of a research unit such as this it is seldom that a single
scientific contribution stands alone as a truly momentous accomplishment.
This is because of the breadthof the objective --- to enable growers to produce
their crops at less cost per unit or better return per dollar invested. Also
involved are the facts that (.) each contribution is dependent on much back-
ground or foundation in science in the first place and that (2) its full
utility is dependent, in nearly every case, on advancements on several other

The organization and administration of such a research unit endeavors to
take these facts into account. Thus, it seems appropriate to list the major
accomplishments in broad terms with the understanding that any interpretation
as to the order of their importance is not nccessarilyv rcfjcctcd in the
sequence in which they appear.

It is fair to state that pathological investigations were the primary reason
for establishing the station here in the first place. When gray leaf spot
of tomato became epidemic, fungicide testing over several seasons lead to the
recommendation of bordeaux spray as a control. Soon after this the bacterial
diseases spot and speck were differentiated.

In 1946 organic fungicides were tested and recommended for the control of
late blight of tomato seedbeds. With the advent of these modern fungicides
carbamatess) copper deficiency became a problem but researchers were quickly
able to solve and give a control measure for this.

Continuing experimental study of (1) compatibility of modern spray material
mixtures and (2) differential reactions of varieties and breeding lines to
pesticides in contributing much to the recommended safe use of pesticide

Extensive vegetable variety trials followed close on the heels of pathological
studies. When nailhead spot of tomato became epidemic, varieties originating
elsewhere were tested, found resistant, and recommended to growers. Fifteen
years ago disease-resistant cucumbers were shown to be adapted to the south
Florida area. Pioneer efforts with new crops considered potentially useful
resulted in the discovery that the sweet corn variety loana was productive
and it was recommended in 1943. Continuing trials with cantaloupes, onions,
cabbage, pepper, etc. have resulted in the availability of adanted varieties.
Pole bean breeding at the Station resulted in the introduction of the
disease-resistant variety Florigreen.

The recent success of the pink-harvest phase of the tomato industry today is
directly connected to the participation in programs for development of
improved varieties started at the Tomato Disease Laboratory, including
cooperation in STEP trials for 20 years. In 1942 a full-fledged breeding
program was initiated which has resulted in the combining of Pan American
resistance to Fusarium IJilt with other available resistances. This same
breeding program has given us the Manalucie variety (6 resistances in combina-
tion) and the recent release, Floradel.

Fertility investigations dealing with the interaction of major and minor
elements were initiated in 1938. The effort to develop rapid soil testing
methods, which had its beginning in 1940, culminated with the development of
an acceptable procedure of soil solution testing which measures nutrient
concentration and balance for the best progress of the crop.

As a result of soil fertility studies fertilizer practices worn recommended
for the Sarasota muckland. Recent studies of effects of highly-concentrated
applications of fertilizer in conjunction with the use of plastic and
high water table are being used as a guide for grow-ers using plastic mulch on
sandy soil.

Without modern insecticides the production of certain crops would he virtually
impossible. The development of dependable control measures for corn earworm
and pepper weevil through the use of DDT, together with the recommendation
of parathion for use on vegetable crops, all came about as a result of work
at the Station. The study of the possibility on soil residues resulting from
repeated applications of insecticides to crops in sandy soil was also studied

Testing of herbicides for adaptation to crops and soils of this region dates
from 1945. Recommendations for the control of nutgrass were developed in
this early period and the task of finding even better control measures are
still being pursued. Chemical weed control treatments have been tested and
recommended for tomatoes, peppers, cucurbits, crucifers, beans, etc. New7
herbicides investigations on cut flowers are underway.

Development of information requisite for successful use of soil fumigants on
old land has contributed much to the establishment of (1) modern seeded
practices involving fumigation, (2) in-the-row application of soil fumnigants
for the economic control of nematodes, soil fungi -nd weeds, (3) the use of
plastic mulches to enhance the effectiveness of in-the-row fumigation treat-
ments and (4) the allyl alcohol-Trichoderma reaction on soil fungi.

A recent outgrowth of fumigant testing has been the determination that Race 2
of Fusarium wilt of tomato has become established in several arcs of Florida.
Already a new variety with resistance to Race 2 has been released. It was
named WALTER in honor of the late Dr. Jim Walter. A soil fumign.nt is recommended
for its control.

The discovery in 1955 of calcium deficiency as being the cause of the
physiological disorder known as black-heart of celery has been followed up
by development of control measures that have virtually eliminated this problem.
In a few more seasons, similar measures were proven effective in control of
blossom-end rot of tomato and pepper. Together with the recommended spray

and soil amendment practices, a contributing factor in control of blossom-end
rot of tomato is resistance in modern varieties that have become available
since 1950.

In summary, the day has arrived, as a result of the studies listed -
provided the crop encounters reasonably favorable weather a marketable
yield of 2000 bushels of tomatoes per acre can be attained by a grower using
old sandy soil in the southern half of Florida. In order to realize such a
yield the grower must, of course, make proper use of the latest information
on every facet of pertinent studies covered in this short history.

Major Achievements of Gulf Coast Experiment Station on
Cut Flower Production Problems

Although the gladiolus flower industry of Florida began in a small way in the
1920's, the great demand for flowers during the Second World War boosted the
acreage to several thousand. Immediately, the industry was faced with a
giant-size problem, the Fusarium disease. Corms costing over $1,000 per acre
rotted so severely that flower profits often disappeared. The growers
appealed to the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station for help and studies
were begun at the Vegetable Crops Laboratory in 3.942. Continual experimental
work to the present has given the growers some new disease-fighting "weapons"
including Spergon dust for corms, Dowicide B and Elcide corm dips, treatment
of corms after harvest instead of only. before, and the bot-water
treatment of cormels.

Since the most satisfactory way to control the disease problems of gladiolus
is to breed resistant varieties, this approach was not neglected. Many
years of selecting and crossing gladiolus under disease-producing conditions
gave disease-resistant stocks which are being used to breed varieties more
suitable to commercial use in Florida.

Many thousands of acres of frost-protected land are no longer used for
replanting gladiolus because the planted corms carried diseases and nematodes
from field to field. Gladiolus growers often move their plantings to soil
not previously used for that crop every 2 or 3 years because replanting
risks severe crop losses and because fumigation or steaming the soil is
expensive. Chemical treatments tested and recommended by the Gulf Coast
Station to control soil-disease problems are beginning to be used by gladiolus
growers who wish to reuse their better lands for flower production.

The problem of nematodes being carried from field to field in corms was
solved by the finding that nematodes were killed by soaking the corms in a
xylol emulsion of parathion. The parathion treatment, applied alone or with
the fungicidal dip, was found also to stimulate significantly the growth
and flowering of gladiolus.

Some flower production problems such as soil-disease accumulation and the
Fusarium disease complex tend to intensify year after year while others such
as thrips and "physiological bud rot" have all but disappeared. In the 1930s
the gladiolus thrips was the major insect problem but the use of DDT and
other modern insecticides made it difficult to find the insect after 1955.
Damage from Curvularia flower spot and Stcmphylium leaf spot also became
rare after the Gulf Coast Station's spray recommendat:?ons worn adopted by.

growers. The sporadic but severe losses from physiological bud rot were found
to be caused by a calcium deficiency.

An intensive study of the effects of fluorides and air pollution on the life
processes of gladiolus and other plants has been in progress for several years.
Severe physiological disturbances in leaves caused by minute trace of fluorine
were studied in relation to chemical reactions inside the leaf.

Also being conducted are several other studies of basic nature such as the
relationships of gladiolus corms to the disease fungi and other microorganisms
found in the corm tissue. Fusarium and other pathogens are found in practically
all corms. Such infestation by microorganisms is only one of several factors
that complicate the study of Fusarium disease.

Several outbreaks of insect pests on flower crops were found to be controlled
by some of the new pesticides being tested each year. Erper.iments on
control of chrysanthemum insect problems have continued since the emergence
of chrysanthemums as a major crop of Florida.

The spectacular growth during the 1950's of Florida's out-door chrysanthemum
flower production from several acres to a 7-million dollar industry seldom
has been paralleled in other crops. The usual problems of soil management,
disease and insect control were greatly magnified by the intensive culture
of this crop. One of the first requirements of successful pompon and mum
production is fumigation or steaming of the soil before cnch crop. Since the
same soil is used year after year, the possibility of 'killing" the soil by
repeated, intensive use of soil fumigants was investigated over a 7-year
period. It was found under Florida conditions that such repeated use is
practical because of normal soil processes necessary to soil productivity
were found to be altered only temporarily.

What appeared to be a threat to modern chrysanthemum production in Florida
occurred sporadically in the 1950's until research revealed that certain
amino acids produced by soil micro-organisms were acting as antimetabolites
when taken up by the plants. This alarming and strange malady, ca3led yellow
strapleaf, slows plant growth and distorts young leaves.

One of the first requisites in growing quality flowers is adequate and
balanced fertilization, a complex problem in sandy soils with heavy rainfall.
In experiments, testing excessive and deficient amounts of minor elements on
growth of chrysanthemums and gladiolus, symptoms of nutrient imbalances and
deficiencies were produced in the greenhouse making it possible to identify
field symptoms. Optimal ranges for major nutrient requirements for
chrysanthemums and carnations grown in beds and in pots, end for gladiolus
flower and cormel production, were established. Excessive nitrogen nutrition
was shown to reduce keeping quality of chrysanthemum flowers and to increase
plant susceptibility to Botrytis disease.

Many flowers are ruined by Botrytis rot just before or after they are cut
and shipped. Some new methods of control were developed including the use
of ozone gas in storage rooms and treatment of flowers with 2-aminobutane,
carbonated, which produces a vapor. Much needed research work on improving
the keeping quality of cut flowers has begun. To help in this work a new
staff member associated with the Agricultural Research Service of the U. S.

Department of Agriculture is devoting full-time to the problems of post
harvest physiology of cut flowers.

The acceptance of a Florida-oriented rose root-stock has boosted the cut-
flower industry in recent years. To protect these perennials from nematode
damage, several non-phytotoxic nematicides were recommended. Contributions
were also made in the development of insect and nematode control practices
which protect the longevity of lawns and help to insure production of
certified sod by the many nurseries located over the State.

The control of weeds is a serious problem in growing lilies, gladiolus and
roses. Some herbicides were found to be safe and effective for those crops,
making it possible to practically eliminate weeds without cultivation. In
most experiments cultivated check plots show somewhat lower production in
comparison to the best herbicide-treated plots, probably because of root
injury by cultivation. Growing gladiolus cormels on 1wendy soils generally
would be unprofitable without the use of recommended herbicides.

Experiments with slowly soluble fertilizer showed that one application is
enough to grow a crop of flowers, thus reducing further the need to disturb
the soil around plants. Furthermore, placement of the fertilizer where the
crop roots can get it, may make it less available to weeds.

Another segment of the flower production industry, plant propagation, is
rapidly developing in Florida and some of its special production problems
are being studied at the Gulf Coast Station. Propagation of gladiolus corms
and of disease-free chrysanthemums and carnation cuttings is a relatively
new multi-million dollar business in this State, requiring unusual
attention to control of diseases and of the environment, both in the growing
and storing.

The increasing interest of commercial growers of potted and cut flowers in
marketing better quality flowers is noteworthy and praiseworthy; and is a
continuing challenge to research.

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Gainesville, Florida

Agriculture has always been concerned about good soil, clean air, a fresh
water supply, and disease and insect-free crops. It is literally dependent
upon natural resources and has always been sensitive to the stewardship of
the soil -- and to man's proper relationship to the total earth environment.

It would seem appropriate, therefore, that the Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences provide some factual input and join with student
groups, government agencies, and concerned conservationists in drawing
attention to the problem of pollution. The facts presented here are
intended to be helpful as a springboard for discussion or as resource
material for teachers, speakers, extension directors, or the mass media.

Pollution is Everybody's Business

Are alarmists correct in their dire predictions of an uninhabitable
environment in a couple of decades? Are cynics right in saying pollution
is just another young people's fad following in the wake of the War on
Poverty, or Vietnam? Probably not, for pollution has been with us all
along, a shadow following man through history. But three new factors make
pollution everyone's business today, a condition that demands and deserves
the concerted and intelligent attention of all of us. These are:
1) the staggering rate of our increase in population;
2) the increasing concentration of this population in urban areas; and
3) the increase in American affluence; the more goods, the more waste!
This should put environment in proper perspective. It's the total milieu
in which we live -- physical and social. It involves a total way of life.
Man must maintain a balance with his surroundings. It is imperative that
we have, at this time, sound information; that we soberly evaluate the
benefit/risk equation. Let us look, then, at some of the key areas being
discussed and see what agriculture has and is doing to contribute to the
quality of out total environment.

i. WATER -- Farmers historically have been water conservationists. Water
is a precious resource (it must be found, tapped, transported,
and used properly) and for years farmers have used wells, canals, drainage
ditches, and pipelines to make the most of this natural resource. However,
its ready availability in Florida has probably led to some careless
practices. Agriculturalists must join with industry and municipal waste
treatment systems to decrease contamination, run-off, and waste, and to
develop wiser water management practices.

Both the quality and quantity of our water are greatly influenced by the
millions of forested and planted areas. Plants and soil play an important
role in recycling water. Tree and plant root systems keep soils open and
create root channels. Both enhance downward movement of pure water for
ground water recharge. Plants move large volumes of pure water from earth
to air thus recycling water.

II. FORESTS -- The annual retail value of wood products manufactured in
Florida is over one billion dollars. Agriculture has joined
with foresters and other preservationists in the quest to provide acceptable
means of managing our urban sprawl. Productive forest lands have had to

give way to airports, shopping centers, industries, housing developments
and new cities. Farmers and ranchers have planted 18 million acres of new
forest and improved another 13 millich acres. Florida is consistently a
leader in this effort. These restored fotests are designed to minimize
run-off and provide habitat for wildlife and for 6ur recreational use. Can
you imagine how long it would take Nature to reforest an area destroyed by
fire? Agriculturalists and the Forest Service move in early and sow grass
and plant seedlings. Trees -- in fact all plants -- in themselves combat
pollution by generating pure oxygen and consuming carbon dioxide Growing
young trees release substantial amounts of oxygen in the air, thus improving
the quality of our environment by helping to recharge our oxygen supply.

III. SOIL -- Research work in soil and water conservation has been conducted
for more than 40 years by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in
cooperation with land-grant universities and experiment stations. Two
million farmers and ranchers in the U.S. are practicing soil and water
conservation on their own land. They fight erosion by contour rows,
terracing, and shelter belts. The food producer has always valued soil; to
mis-use it means loss.

IV. PESTICIDES -- Yes, farmers use pesticides; they have since the 1860's.
In 1968 there were 900 basic pesticide chemicals
formulated into thousands of brand-name products -- used by homeowners and
food producers. All are registered with the Pesticides Regulation Division
of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. The Federal Food and Drug Administration
has cleared 250 for specific uses for food and feed production and
agricultural producers rigidly follow the recommendations and restrictions.

Pesticides are used in the production of food, fiber, sod, forests, and
ornamentals; for the protection of man against insect pests that transmit
diseases such as malaria, encephalitis, typhoid, plague, and yellow fever;
against pests that bite, sting or annoy us, but more importantly, that
destroy our homes, food, furniture and clothing. They harm wildlife and
natural resources and even destroy our own beneficial insects. Did you
know that more than 10,000 species of insects have been classified as
public enemies? Termites and moths are perhaps the best known in the home.
We are utterly dependent upon insect control for the long, healthy, disease-
free, comfortable, affluent lives we live!

Without pesticides, farm exports would be wiped out and the price of food
would go up as much as 75%. Instead of averaging 16.5% of our disposable
income, our food basket would take about half of our income. Pesticides,
like autos, electricity, or ice picks, can be harmful when mis-used.
Agriculture has been a front-runner in the campaign to get people to use
pesticides properly and safely. Agricultural scientists are intensifying
their research on biological control; finding insects and animals that can
keep the population of our public enemy insects under control. Research
goes on continually to find more efficient pesticides -- ones that work
without upsetting the environmental balance. Furthermore, use of certain
pesticides is being drastically reduced. Producers in Florida, for example,
voluntarily reduced the amount of DDT used at least 75% in the last four or
five years.

V. WASTE -- Many call this our #1 pollution problem. In addition to built-
in obsolescence in our home appliances, we have 7 million junked
cars each year; 20 million tons of paper, 48 billion cans and 28 billion
jars, not to mention 172 million tons of smoke and fumes. Animal and human

waste add to this problem. Agricultural engineers are continually working
to find the most efficient disposal of waste materials from feed lots.
They have already designed dikes, diversion ditches, holding ponds, and
sewage lagoons. Farmers and homeowners to a lesser degree have made use
of certain wastes as plant food, producing a dual benefit to man and
improving the quality of his environment. It is expected that agricultural
technology can lead to further advances in the solution of the organic
waste problem.


Environmentally, it might be said that America has three faces. First,
before man clogged the by-ways, it was relatively unadulterated and
displayed a virgin beauty. Second, with industry and proliferating man,
there was hasty development, abuse, and waste. Third, emerging in the
1940's, is an America committed to work with nature, through science; not
to conquer or tame the land, as though it were an inert mass, but to
understand the living, changing, soil, the climate, the waters, the animals
that live and the plants that grow.

At this stage pollution is a problem, not a disaster. It is imperative that
agriculture, along with industry, the educational community, government
at all levels, and the public at large recognize the problem and wage a
concerted and intelligent attack on environmental degradation. It won't
be easy. DDT has been credited, for example, with saving five million
lives and preventing 100 million illnesses during and after World War II.
Malaria, typhus, sleeping sickness, and yellow fever have been brought
under control by pesticides which control the insects which spread these
diseases. This is often the first link a developing nation uses in
forging a viable, healthy, and productive economy. Without a population
freed from the ravages of large-scale disease, a country cannot build the
industry, agricultural production, and technological knowledge required to
compete (or even survive) in today's world.

Since there is at present no generally acceptable alternative to continued
use of agricultural chemicals, the public must be helped to recognize that
the various county, state, and federal regulatory agencies, using rigidly
scientific methods, are doing a sound job of guiding this nation toward the
best possible balance between a reasonably clean environment, on the one
hand, and an adequate, nutritious, wholesome food supply at reasonable
prices, and freedom from disease on the other. There is no place for
emotionalism ... or pressure from vested interest groups. Constructive
action, based on facts, recognizing the consequences of alternatives, is
called for.

Action programs must be developed with care. It will take money, a reshaping
of our values, sweeping changes in some of our institutions, national
standards of quality for the goods we produce, a humanizing and redirection
of our technology in some cases, and immediate attention to the compounding
of the problem through overpopulation. The solution starts with the
individual. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, through its
varied resources of research, instruction, and extension, is committed to
the third face of America, the face of healed scars and green fields. The
face of verdant grasslands, tall forests, clean streams, productive land,
and wisely-planned suburbs. It is the face of hope and an even more
promising future for America and Americans.


at the
Gulf Coast Experiment Station,
South Florida Field Laboratory,
Immokalee I
Strawberry & Vegetable Field Lab, I
,.. :". / -':,, .: ,i
Our research relates in numerous
direct and indirect ways to our en-
vironment and its enhancement. Al- ''
though our primary goals are to assist
the agriculture community in its quest to ". '.
produce more and better food and orna- .'
mental products, we are extremely cognizant
of the very important role our research plays
in the ecological balance of our total environment. The relationship
between agriculture and the urban community is a delicate one and mutually
interdependent. Certainly we must constantly recognize our need to pro-
duce quantities of nutritious, safe food. At the same time the challenges
posed by increasing urbanization and an expanding population are a serious
consideration for the modern agriculturist as he faces his mission. The
scarcity of land and other necessary natural resources are but a few of
his problems. Too often he is indicted rather than helped by the com-
munity as a whole.

The broad outline below is presented to illustrate the nature of
some of our research efforts, which we feel are making significant contri-
butions to agriculture's broad mission to provide for the present and future
needs of society.


A. Disease resistance in ornamentals and vegetables
1. reduces the need for chemical treatments for soil borne
2. reduces the need for chemical treatments for diseases of
leaves, stems, flowers.
3. reduces the expenditure of money to produce quality crops
in abundance.
4. preserve soil productivity under intense monocultural crop-
ping by retarding build-up of high populations of pathogens
in the soil.

B. Insect resistance in ornamentals and vegetables
1. Can reduce the need to use extremely toxic insecticides
2. Can reduce the use of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons
lepidopterouss larvae).
3. could give longer lasting control of pests which become
tolerant of certain chemicals.


A. achieved through utilization of genetic mechanisms reduces need
for chemical treatments.


B. reduces need of chemical treatment by exploitation of existing
or importation of parasites and predators of insect pests.
C. reduces need of chemical treatment by exploitation of existing
or importation of parasites and/or predators of plant pathogens
and weeds.


A. Soil pH adjustment
1. reduces significantly the incidence of diseases (Fusarium
and Verticillium wilts of tomatoes and watermelon).
2. enhances the efficacy of needed chemical treatments con-
3. to a pH of 7.0 prevents excessive leaching of minor elements
into our water systems.
4. permits maximum production per unit of land and is dependent
on proper soil management.

B. Crop production on bed mulches (plastic, paper-plastic combina-
tions and others).
1. prevents excessive leaching from rainfall and thereby main-
tain optimum fertility level in root zone of the plant.
2. controls excessive fertilizer movement into the water system.
3. protects the foliage and fruit of the crop from the soil which
protects quality and also discourages disease and insect de-
4. enhances pest control practices such as fumigation for control
of pests and weeds by reducing quantity of pesticide required.
5. prevents the growth and development of weeds in the vicinity
of crop plants.

C. Crop rotation, cover crops and follow-up crops.
1. discourage buildup of high populations of pests including weeds
by interrupting the life cycles of pests through scheduling of
hosts and non hosts.
2. may permit crop production without aid of chemical soil treat-
ment through scheduling of crops resistant to pests prevalent
in infested fields.
3. are presently being practiced very successfully in certain
crop rotation programs.
4. produce economic gain & preserve soil activity by utilizing
residual fertilizers from one crop to another which might
otherwise be lost through leaching run-off.

D. The cultural or physical handling of crops can aid in preventing
losses due to pests as well as enhance overall production by
altering the microclimate to discourage pest buildup.
1. see section on mulches.
2. by using crop supportive methods such as stakes. Crops suffer
less soil rot, and can be sprayed easier, thus reducing the
need for pesticides.
3. The microclimate in the vicinity of the crop
4. by favoring weed control programs that can eliminate weed pests
as reservoirs of pests from season to season. Heavy weeds al-
so affect moisture and light around crop plants conditions
that favor pest buildup.


E. Control or manipulation of crop nutrition is essential for maxi-
mum production and also has dramatic effects on certain diseases.
The condition or 'health' of a crop can be affected by:
1. the addition of calcium to sandy soils which controls the
Botrytis disease of tomatoes.
2. adjusting nitrogen fertilization which has a dramatic effect
on wilt diseases.
3. regulating minor element nutrition to affect the development
of plant diseases such as Fusarium wilt.


A. Continued search for new efficacious and safer pesticides (fungi-
cides, nematicides, herbicides and insecticides).

B. Search for safer, more effective application methods has resulted
1. low gallonage application techniques that can reduce volume
of pesticides applied. They can be applied by:
1. aerial equipment
2. ground equipment
3. new procedures for treating bulbs, seeds and other plant

C. Residue research.
1. relates the amount of material on a plant to quantity and fre-
quency of future spray needs.
2. helps determine the effect on plants of accumulations of chemi-
cals (some from pesticide sprays) in our agricultural soils.
3. helps determine the effect on plants of accumulations of
chemicals from sprays on plant parts.

D. Disease and insect forecasting would aid in more accuracy in the
timing of needed chemical controls.
1. Its success is dependent on knowledge of residues on foliage
and the length of time these materials are effective.
2. Residues must be correlated with known buildup of pests in a
given area and with weather forecasts.

E. The efficiency of the above elements (A, B, C, D) is dependent
on basic studies on the delicate physiological relationships
that exist between pest and crop host.


A. GCES programs are evaluating the effects of pollutants, princi-
pally fluorine on various vegetable and ornamental crops. Varie-
ties show different levels of tolerance.

B. Efforts are focused on the effects of these contaminants on yield
and quality of plant produce (marketability; nutritive value,
fluoride content, etc.).

C. Research efforts under A and B involve natural pollution effects
induced under controlled environments.

Exploitation of Genetic Mechanisms in the Tomato to Reduce
Environmental Pollution

Pat Crill

Tomatoes are subject to attack by a tremendous number of disease inciting
pathogens and pests. There are 185 diseases of tomato which have been
recognized plus various insects and nematodes which must be controlled if
the farmer is to be successful in producing a tomato crop. These various
diseases and pests are not all equally devastating to the crop. Some
completely ravish and destroy tomato crops over large areas while others
only reduce yields slightly.

There are two methods which can be used to combat diseases and pests. First,
use various fungicides, bactericides, nematocides or other pesticides to
control the disease or pest. Second, grow varieties which are resistant to
the specific disease or pest.

In the past, chemical control of disease and pests has been relied upon
almost exclusively by the farmer and in general, the use of chemicals by
Florida tomato growers has been essential for crop production. At present,
the use of chemicals for disease and pest control in tomatoes is still
essential. The primary disadvantages of chemical control are (1) control
is usually not absolute, (2) effective control of any disease or pest is
expensive, (3) some diseases do not respond to any known chemical treatment,
and (4) chemicals used for control are sometimes harmful to other crops or
other plants and animals in the area. Any such chemical is considered an
environmental pollutant.

The use of varieties which are resistant to the various pests and diseases
of tomatoes is undoubtedly the best disease control method for farmers to
use. The control obtained with resistant varieties is often absolute and
has many times been proven to be least expensive to the taxpayer. If
disease control chemicals are not used they can not become factors in
environmental pollution. For some diseases such as bacterial wilt, bacterial
canker and all the virus diseases the only feasible control measure at
present is the use of resistant varieties. University of Florida IFAS
plant pathologists have been searching for genetic resistance to the many
tomato diseases and pests for a number of years and have been quite
successful. Genetic resistance is available as a control measure for many
of the pests and diseases of tomatoes which now plague Florida tomato
growers. The resistancesnow known are outlined in Table 1.

The Florida tomato breeding program was initiated in 1924 by Dr. George
Weber at the specific request of tomato growers in the state. The objective
of this program was to produce a tomato variety which had desirable
horticultural characteristics and was resistant to the Fusarium wilt and
nailhead spot diseases. Weber in conjunction with D. G. A. Kelbert released
three such varieties in 1940.

The Florida tomato breeding program has since solved many disease problems
for tomato growers not only in Florida, but all over the world by combining
desirable horticultural characteristics with genetic resistance to disease.
The Pan-America type of resistance was incorporated by James M. Walter into
genetic material developed by Weber and Harrison to produce the Manasota
variety in 1949. The variety Manahill was released the same year and
contained genetic resistance to Alternaria diseases and Stemphylium leaf

spot. The variety Manalucie was released by Walter in 1953 and contained
all the genetic resistances of both Manasota and Manahill. With this
variety Dr. Walter demonstrated it was possible to combine into a single
plant the many genes for desirable horticultural characteristics with the
genes for resistance to 8 specific pathogens. Many plant pathologists and
plant breeders considered this an impossible feat to accomplish until Dr.
Walter showed the way. Various other genetic resistances have been
incorporated in Florida varieties and breeding lines including resistance to
race 2 Fusarium wilt, resistance to Verticillium wilt and tolerance to
tobacco mosaic virus.

It is not possible to estimate the value of this program to the state of
Florida, the United States or the world but a few pertinent facts can be
singled out for consideration. The tomato growing industry in Florida is
a $92 million industry this industry would not exist if it had not been
for the University of Florida and pioneer scientists such as George Weber
and James Walter. Tremendous amounts of pesticides are required to produce
the crop annually despite the genetic resistances available. These
pesticides and fertilizers may be construed by some to be environmental
pollutants but because of their cost no farmer uses any more than absolutely
necessary to accomplish control. Florida tomato growers are probably as
conscious of the hazards of indiscriminate pesticide use as any group of
farmers in the world because of their close contacts with research through
the University of Florida Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, the Indian River
Field Laboratory, the South Florida Field Laboratory and the Gulf Coast
Experiment Station.

In 1969 Florida tomato growers spent an estimated minimum of $185,000 on
chemicals to control the various diseases and pests in their crops. This
estimate is the absolute minimum and is based upon 55,000 acres production
using the most economical chemical applications for Florida production.
Nematode control is not included in this estimate. Neither are the costs
of the spray equipment nor the labor costs. If these three costs were
included the cost would be many times greater. In addition to these costs
there are also an estimated minimum of 350,000 pounds of disease and pest
control chemicals washed off the tomato plants or turned into the soil
annually. There is no scientific evidence available indicating any of these
chemicals have any lasting effect as environmental pollutants; however, long
term effects are not known.

Extensive research is being conducted in this laboratory to further and
enlarge upon the concepts developed by Weber, Walter and other scientists.
Experimental hybrids which are resistant to 15 different pathogens are
being evaluated on a field basis for horticultural performance. The more
genetic resistances that can be combined into a single variety the fewer
pesticides necessary to produce the crop.

One of the most serious pests of tomato is the leaf miner. This pest
requires extensive spraying with insecticide if a tomato crop is to be
produced. Two sources of resistance to this pest have been isolated and
are being incorporated with desirable horticultural characters and disease
resistance as rapidly as possible. Other sources of resistance under
current investigation are those to bacterial wilt, bacterial canker and
several virus diseases. The attack in all cases is a two-pronged one. First
the genetic mechanism is investigated and the source is then combined with
other desirable character via various breeding techniques. In some cases
considerable effort will be made to determine the biochemistry of the

resistance with the overall objective of relating this to safer and more
specific pesticides.

It is the responsibility of University of Florida IFAS plant pathologists
to develop tomato varieties which contain all of these genetic resistances
as well as possessing desirable horticultural characteristics. The
development of such varieties will contribute much to lessening
environmental pollution as well as reducing the costs necessary to produce
tomatoes. Both these factors are very important, not only from the grower
and farmer's standpoint, but also the consumers. If the farmer can produce
the same amount of tomatoes with less cost he, as well as the consumer,

Table 1. Chemical Control Materials and Genetic Resistance to Some Serious
Diseases and Pests of Florida Tomatoes.

Nailhead rust
All Alternaria diseases
Gray leafspot
Leaf mold
Fusarium wilt (2 races)
Verticillium wilt
Botrytis graymold
Late blight
Bacterial leafspot
Bacterial wilt
Bacterial canker
Virus diseases
Leaf miner
Lepidopterous larvae

Chemical Control
Maneb, Dyrene, Polyram
Dyrene, Thiram, Ferbam
Maneb, Polyram
Maneb plus Tribasic Copper
Guthion, Cygon, Parathion
Sevin, Thiodan

Genetic Resistance

Table 2. Recommended Rates and Cost per Acre for Various Chemicals Used to
Combat Diseases and Pests of Florida Tomatoes.
Chemical Recommended Rate* Cost per Acre*
At Recommended Rate
Vorlex-201 35 gallons per acre $265.00
Chloropicrin 35 gallons per acre 350.00
Maneb + Zinc 1-2 pounds/100 gals HOH .80 1.65
Dyrene 1 pound/100 gals HOH 3.80
Polyram 1.5 2 pounds/100 gals HOH 1.30 1.70
Thiram 2 pounds/100 gals HOH 1.40
Ferbam 3 pounds/100 gals H1OH 1.50
Zineb 2 pounds/100 gals 11OH 1.20
Tribasic Copper 4 pounds/100 gals 1OH 2.00
Guthion 2 pounds/100 gals HIOH 3.40
Cygon i pint/100 gals HoH 2.75
Parathion 2 pounds/100 gals HOH .60
Sevin 2 pounds/100 gal 11HOH 1.10
Thiodan 2 pounds/100 gals HOH 4.00
EDB 6 gallons/acre 36.00
DD 25 gallons/acre 30.00
*Based upon 1969 recommendations and retail prices for bulk lots. The use
of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the products
named and does not signify they are approved to the exclusion of others of
suitable composition.


Anti-Pollution Crop Protection Through Integrated Pest Management

Sid Poe

Recently the furor of public clamor and concern for mans environment has
brought about considerable reevaluation and thinking concerning newer and
less hazardous practices in pest control. Agricultural crops, whether
grown for food, fiber or beauty are dependent upon some form of adequate
pest control. It is highly desirable that as we combat crop pests we do not
ourselves become a pest and a menance to our environment through chemical
contamination and pollution.

Formerly, the best method of assuring high crop yields has been to tailor
a chemical pesticide program and make applications by spraying or dusting
at regular time intervals. Why have chemicals been so long the one answer
to adequate pest control? They are rapid and effective thus enabling
farmers to produce the quality products demanded by consumers. The applica-
tion of a chemical can reduce insect populations from crop damaging levels
to zero in a matter of hours. Secondly, chemicals designed for specific
purposes have been developed, are marketed and are easily acquired, often
easily applied and require little extra effort or skill on the part of the
agriculturalist. As for expense, farmers are prepared to pay since control
is essential.

Although chemicals have served agriculture and public health so well in the
past man has become aware of severe limitations to continui'-g programmed
use. Certain drawbacks are forcing a closer look at present pest management
practices and a search for alternatives has evolved. Not only are chemicals
expensive and hazardous but they often lack the desired specificity, thus
kill many non-target and beneficial organisms in the crea of application.
Another serious limitation to pesticides is that genetic resistance has
developed in pest species at an alarming rate, forcing a continued search
for newer and more effective compounds. Pests have evolved through genetic
alteration to live in a chemically permeated environrmnt.

No less a problem to agriculture has been the development of new more
desirable varieties of crops more desirable for man and pests. In
addition new horticultural skills and fertilizer practices have contributed
to growing the most productive, most succulent crop any pest could desire.
Without adequate natural control agents continued and expanded use of
chemicals is necessary.

Fortunately, the treadmill of crop production pest control, feed populations
can be halted and alternatives to purely chemical control applied.
Agricultural geneticists have developed strains of higher yielding crops
that are also resistant to pest attack or damage. Intensified efforts in
this area should be most productive. Preventive programs of pesticide
application should be exchanged for a remedial program applied when
established crop damage thresholds have been reached. Excellent crops could
be produced with fewer applications of pesticides than is often practiced.
It would be necessary to establish damage thresholds and scouting programs
to regularly evaluate the specific and immediate needs of pest control.

Biological control agents of crop pests parasites, predators, and pathogens-
have been known for many years but proper efforts have not been directed
toward their utilization. This has been primarily due to ready access to

an effective chemical. However, with the use of chemicals becoming
restricted, entomologists must take a closer and more careful look at these
agents, study their biology, make evaluations and if possible incorporate
them into pest management practices.

The use of natural agents as the use of chemicals has disadvantages. The
most effective way to utilize biological agents is often not known due to
lack of basic study of the pest and natural enemy in a given crop situation.
The local environment must be given time to re-adjust to the absence of
excessive chemicals, for the native non-target populations to re-establish
and a state of balance in the community to be present before noticeable
pest species reduction will be observed. This process may take several
years and during this interim period crop yields must certainly suffer.
Also, consumer demands on quality would need to be less stringent.

Judicious timing of spray application can often preserve beneficial
organisms. For example a spray for aphids applied when their wasp parasites
are developing within the mummified aphid will often not harm the emerging
parasites. On the other hand perfect pest control would result in
biological agents with no host population. Thus often the presence of two
pest species or an alternate host has been conducive to biological control.

In permanent situations where perennial crops are grown the pest
population as well as the natural enemy population do not fluctuate from
zero. With both forms present permanently it is possible to develop pest
management practices integrating biological controls with resistant crop
varieties and spray application to hold pest populations below damaging
levels. In citrus, avocado, peach and apple production integrated programs
have been developed over a period of several years to maintain low pest
populations. Such a program is possible only because of the diversity of
the flora and fauna within the grove or orchard. Many native weeds, grasses
and animals are well established in the area and the community tends to
remain balanced as to the populations present.

Growing annual crops proves to be much more difficult. First it is a
monoculture grown from seed to maturity within a short period. Such a
system of farming begins clean and pest free. The major pests are not
present in the environment but enter from some nearby center of dispersal
usually in response to the crop being cultivated. The use of diversity
of crops in monocultural practices has recently encouraged investigators
that pest populations can be managed by adding cultural practices to other
sound pest control agencies.

An ideal pest management program would begin by developing a resistant or
tolerant variety. This crop should be grown with other crops to encourage
diversity of native populations and encourage biological agents to establish
in the area. A sound scouting program, such as was developed for cotton
boll weevil, could establish the population level and damage of pests and
recommend timed application of remedial measures. The chemical of choice
should be one which is least toxic to the beneficial organisms and will also
leave surviving pests as food for the former populations. If possible when
pest outbreaks occur only local treatments should be applied either as a
chemical or to inundate the area with a natural enemy. With a more
naturally balanced crop situation pest outbreaks would be less common and
the need for chemical treatment less urgent.

Needless to say such an ideal program has been developed for few crops.

Many facets of the program have been practiced on different crops but no
single crop has favored the entire program. Few crops lend themselves to
the program due to the nature of culture grown, the absence of natural
enemies of its pests or the local environment where the crop is grown.

The program has been set in motion at the Gulf Coast Station with the pest
management practices growing strawberries. Genetic crosses of mite
resistant strains of strawberries have been discovered and biological
studies of a phytosedid mite predator are being done. Hopefully mite
resistant stocks can be grown, predacious mites and chemical controls
utilized to manage pest populations on this crop. A search is underway for
chemical materials that are not excessively toxic to predator or pest.
Laboratory rearing operations are being developed to mass produce the
predator for release in field situations.

The potential for pest management by biological means is much less where
crops are grown for their beauty. Control of aphids by wasps leave
harmless but unsightly mummies on flowers resulting in crop loss. The
slightest pest damage is intolerable, hence low populations of thrips,
mites or an occasional leafminer can mar the beauty and render unmarketable
otherwise perfect plants. Here the alternative to multiple chemical sprays
is to begin with clean stock, make spray coverage complete and thorough and
maintain high standards of sanitation. Where disease and mite problems
hinder bulb, corm or rhizome production, biological control might be
feasible if necessary. However, necrosis from the presence of bacterial
and fungal pathogens creates a situation where saprophytic organism can and
do abound. While these are often classified as "pests" the truth of the
matter may reveal them to be incidental to plant decay and not directly
contributory to economic loss.

The greatest challenge and promise is to grow crops using a myriad of
practices to manage and hold pest populations below economically damaging
levels. The greatest strides in this effort can be made through genetic
studies, establishing economic damage levels to various crops and through
intensive biological studies of the beneficial and pest species.

Use of Fertilizers in the Modern Ecology

C. M. Geraldson

Despite the recent horrendous and alarming clamor concerning the present
contamination of food, water and air, the fact indisputably remains that all
food, all water and all air is contaminated and to varying degree is there-
fore polluted all the time and always has been. The fact remains that with
our modern western agriculture, we actually live in a healthier environment,
eat cleaner, nutritious and more abundant foods, drink safer water and live
in a relatively sanitary environment which effect is revealed in longer,
more secure and productive lives compared to any other contemporary nation
on earth or since history began.

However, as populations increase, pollution will continue to become an ever
increasing problem, and the ecology of any world must change as certainly
as the population is going to increase. In my opinion, the selection of a
combination of factors which provide the most suitable ecology for man's
existence is the major consideration.

To be more specific, how should the use of fertilizer be considered in this
development of an ecology. There can be no doubt that more fertilizer is
required to obtain more food. Because of a rising need for protein, the
use of nitrogenous fertilizers will have to increase with the population to
maintain and enhance the standard of living. However, it has been pointed
out that nitrate accumulation in plants and ingested by animals or humans
can cause an oxygen deficiency which can be fatal. Maximum tolerance for
human infants has been set at 20 ppm B.W. N03-N. Certain vegetables have
shown N03-N readings above the danger limit. Increasing nitrate nitrogen
in the aquifers and waterways is recognized and at present are mostly safe
except for the isolated instance. Such cases are generally identifiable as
to source and indicate that municipal industrial, septic tank and animal
waste effluents and soil erosion are the principal causes. Because various
factors such as excess N03-N in the soil and other contributing factors do
affect NO3-N levels in plants, monitoring is necessary. Cultural procedures
to avoid excesses of N03-N in the soil and to prevent leaching into the
water supplies are also a necessity.

This can be accomplished by utilizing a system designed to obtain the
maximum production (a primary objective in the changing ecology) and at the
same time avoiding undesirable excesses in food and water supplies. The
Intensity and Balance concept includes a method to evaluate the ionic root
environment (including N03-N) and culture procedures (fertilizer quantities,
ratios, sources and placement in conjunction with moisture) to establish and
mulch to maintain the desirable ionic environment. Because the concept was
designed for optimal production, both deficiencies and excesses can be
avoided and the desirable ecology of maximum production and minimum pollution
can be obtained.

As an example, trellis tomato growers in the Delray Beach area of Florida
use an average of 300 dollars worth of fertilizer and obtain an average
production of 20 tons per acre. Utilizing the above mentioned concepts 50
tons of tomatoes have been consistently produced with 100 dollars worth of

Summary of Fluoride Air Pollution in Florida and Avenues of
Research for IFAS and Cooperating Agencies

S. S. Woltz

I. Background

Fluoride air pollution has been a continuing problem in areas of Florida.
Due to the efforts of industry, technology advancement, regulatory
procedures by the Florida State Board of Health, and public pressures, the
rate of fluoride emission into the atmosphere has been decreasing, according
to the Florida State Board of Health.

The extent of the adverse effects of this type of pollution cannot presently
be estimated. It is clear that limited areas of citrus are being adversely
affected. Gladiolus plantings suffer damage, but less than in former years.
The culture of gladiolus is not attempted in areas of heavy fluoride air
pollution because of obvious excess damage that has occurred in small
plantings. The bulk of the gladiolus industry is located by grower choice
in Hillsborough, Manatee, Lee and Collier Counties, with smaller areas on
the lower coast and in North Florida. There is a definite but
unassessed damage and devaluation of property due to fluoride effects on
native vegetation and dooryard ornamentals.

Certain areas have been rendered unfit for cattle production. The same is
probably true for other grazing livestock such as horses, which consume
large amounts of pasture forage, but this latter observation does not seem
to be of much significance because of the nature and distribution of the
Florida livestock industry.

The effect of Fluoride air pollution on human health has not been studied
to any significant degree. There does not appear to be any large problem;
this type of research is very difficult to carry out. The medical profession
has established that fluoride air pollution is directly damaging to human
health and life in various areas of the world. Florida, fortunately, does
not appear to be, in the main, in this category. Some effort should
probably be made in the public interest, however, to obtain information on
this subject. Food quality of produce from areas of fluoride air pollution
appears to deserve study. Excess inorganic fluorides are undesirable,
organic fluorides that may be produced by plants are exceedingly toxic
(LD50 = 1 mg/Kilogram) and disruption of plant metabolism may adversely
affect food quality in terms of nutritive value. The effect on food
quality is probably not too important, except that Dr. C. D. Leonard has
shown a decrease in economic value of citrus fruit due to lowered sugar

II. Potential Areas of Research

A. Effects on plants
1. Yield
2. Quality of plant produce
a. Marketability
b. Nutritive value
c. Content of inorganic fluoride in food or forage
d. Presence and content of organic fluorides such as
fluoroacetate or fluorocitrate which are exceedingly toxic.

3. Measurement, estimation or prediction of damage to plants
a. Visible
b. Invisible
B. Effects on animals
1. Quantitative and qualitative estimate for livestock and test
2. Economic evaluation
3. Establishment of criteria for the feasibility of livestock
production according to area and degree of fluoride pollution
4. Quality of produce
C. Effects on humans
1. Effect of fluoride air pollution relative to prolonged inhalation
of fluorides
2. Esthetic (welfare) effects, more in relation to general air
pollution, the knowledge thereof and the desirability of a
given location, as a place to live or (for Florida) for tourism.
3. Inorganic fluorides in the diet.
4. Organic fluorides in the diet (fluoroacetate, etc.)
III. Desirable or potentially productive areas of research
A. Cooperative programs as under II for IFAS and the Medical College.
If apparently desirable, planning to be undertaken at some time in
the future.
B. Program for GCES
1. Measurement of degree of damage to gladiolus and vegetable crops
according to fluoride content and visible injury (leaf scorch).
a. Field plots, HF simulated fumigation (seem to be acceptable).
b. Food quality measurement, fluoride content (organic and
inorganic), chemical assays of nutritive value.
c. Potential feeding trials with other IFAS units.
C. Cooperative with CES (Dr. Leonard)
1. Measurement of metabolic effects of fluorides in 6 controlled
experimental areas (photosynthesis, respiration and chlorophyll
to explain yield reduction and hidden injury if any).
2. Chromatography of Valencia leaves and orange juice to determine
metabolic and fruit quality effects.

Aesthetic Modification of the Environment through Ornamental Horticulture

J. C. Raulston

Much of the ornamental horticulture research program at the Gulf Coast
Experiment Station is oriented toward solving the production problems
of commercial growers of ornamental plants. However, this information
also finds use by Extension Service personnel in making recommendations
to aid amateur and professional horticulturists throughout the state as
they strive to modify and improve their environment through use of ornamental
flowers and plantings.

Use of these ornamentals can modify a local environment to make that area
more liveable, more pleasing to view, more restful, more conducive to con-
ducting business, or more desirable for shopping, dining, or conversation
with friends and acquaintances.

In other situations, the landscape architect and ornamental horticulturist
may combine their talents to create golf courses, parks and other re-
creational facilities that modify the local environment so that the public
may be revitalized by use of such facilities. Highway plantings and proper
roadside developments form other examples of the important nature of proper
use of ornamental plants in creating a safer environment for vehicular

As we become more concerned with population pressures, the restoration of
our cities, slums, and ghettos, and in the prevention of further degra-
dation of industrial, business, and residential areas we must recognize
the essential nature of ornamental plants and landscaping plans in modify-
ing what is often an undesirable environment in which to live.

Examples of research at the Gulf Coast Experiment Station is of direct
benefit to homeowners and developers of ornamental plantings would include
such items as:

(A) Nutrition studies which develop the fertilizer recommendations
that make possible the growth of vigorous and beautiful plantings of
ornamentals on Florida soils which are generally sandy and infertile.

(B) Herbicide investigations which will make it possible to reduce
or eliminate the unsightly weeds which are problems in home and public
ornamental plantings.

(C) Breeding and development of new varieties of ornamental flowers
which are more specifically adapted to Florida's environmental conditions
than are varieties developed in other areas for northern climates. Test-
ing and introduction of new species of ornamentals to add novelty and
variety to ornamental plantings.

(D) New and safer insect and disease control measures developed for
commercial producers of plants are also of great value to homeowners since
they seek means to control similar pests in their own plantings.



John W. Sites
Dean for Research
January 16, 1970

The University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
(IFAS) has a state-wide responsibility of developing programs in agricultural
education and research dedicated to the production of high quality foods, the
conservation and efficient management of our natural and renewable resources
and the development and enrichment of the lives of Florida citizens.

Its responsibilities and areas of interest are broad. Although it is fre-
quently associated chiefly with agricultural production, its programs, in fact,
extend much beyond this specific interest. They include education and research
programs concerned with the conservation and management of natural and renewable
resources. The pollution of air, water or soil is of vital concern and interest
for these three are the cornerstones upon which the production of safe human foods
must depend.

The quality of life of the individual, the family and the development of the
community is manifested through IFAS programs of recreational, economic and voca-
tional guidance and through management and protection of forests and wildlife.

Our programs are concerned with improving all of these areas to the best
public interest and well being.

The responsibility of Federal and State agencies and of IFAS with respect to
pesticides and their uses may not be generally and clearly understood.

a. The Food and Drug Administration is the federal agency responsible for
public health and safety and for concurring in the registration of pesti-
cides and establishing the allowable tolerances for the use of pesticides
in food production.

b. The Federal and State Departments of Agriculture are responsible for see-
ing that registered compounds are correctly labeled and regulated through
channels of commerce.

c. It is the responsibility of IFAS research scientists within the toler-
ances and restrictions established to devise the most effective and
efficient ways of using these materials in the production of safe,
high quality foods and for other uses. Our scientists are constantly
exploring ways to reduce the application of pesticides, ways to reduce
the need for persistent, or slowly degrading compounds and to develop
through biological control methods of completely eliminating their use
whenever possible.

Concerns of IFAS on Pesticide Problems

1. That agriculture be permitted to provide safe, high quality foods in plenti-
ful supply.

2. That persistent pesticides be eliminated from agricultural production recom-
mendations and from other recommended uses whenever and wherever this is
documented to be in the best public interest, economy and safety.

3. That each pesticide be judged on its own merits and demerits for each has
different characteristics and qualities and there is not sufficient scienti-
fic or useful basis for grouping these compounds together.

4. That a determination of use based on absolute needs for public health, food
and fiber production, and public safety be made for all compounds judged to
be persistent pesticides and that the use of each of these materials be spe-
cifically restricted to these uses.

5. That there is no logic for banning. Let us use our knowledge and information
to regulate and restrict as needed but still keep available for use when abso-
lute needs are necessary. Just as the disuse of DDT may be appropriate under
present conditions, ten years from now it could be the salvation of man.
Knowledge should be used to benefit mankind under all conditions. Complete
banning of a compound makes the use of knowledge impossible and eliminates
from the public good the benefit of thousands of hours of research effort.

Position of IFAS

The position of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is that the
public well being must determine the use of pesticides. That banning of pesti-
cides not be resorted to. That efforts to eliminate their need be continued and
increased so that ultimately a minimum pollution of the environment from these
sources will exist. The development and use of knowledge is the most singular
advantage man has over other animals in his environment. We should use it to
man's ultimate advantage, but whether by restriction or advocation must be deter-
mined by the conditions and needs in any given point in time. The resources for
making these determinations are available to the people of Florida through their
educational institutions and the regulation of restrictions can be carried out
through existing governmental agencies. It should be the position of the legis-
lature then to use these resources in such a way that the greatest public good
is accomplished.







Ornamental Horticulture Research at G.C.E.S.

Research on production and post harvest problems of ornamental plants -
principally cut flowers is an integral part of the mission of the Gulf
Coast Experiment Station. This program is oriented with heavy emphasis on
solving problems of concern to Florida cut-flower producers and shippers.
GCES researchers keep abreast of the statewide needs of the cut flower
industry since many of the research advances are applicable in all of
Florida's production areas.

Problem solving at the Gulf Coast Station is often characterized by an
interdisciplinary, cooperative team approach (illustrated on the previous

Three faculty positions, with joint appointments with the Department of
Ornamental Horticulture, are totally involved with ornamental problems.
One of these is a USDA position. These three are:

1. Dr. F. J. Marousky, Research Horticulturist (USDA). Post-harvest
physiological problems of cut flowers including keeping quality studies.

2. Dr. J. C. Raulston, Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist. Production,
harvesting and marketing problems of ornamental crops.

3. Dr. G. J. Wilfret, Assistant Geneticist. Breeding and development of new
varieties of cut-flowers and other ornamental crops.

In addition, five other faculty are involved totally or in part with cut-
flower research and are presented at other locations in this publication.

Dr. Marousky's research is conducted under two projects entitled HC-70 -
Chemical and Environmental Influences on Cut-Flower Color.
Objective: To study the effects of exogenous chemicals, environment on
the color and anthocyanin content of cut flowers.

HC-71 Influence of Various Post-Harvest Environmental and Chemical
Treatments on the Moisture Content and Keeping Quality of Florida-grown
Cut Flowers.
Objective: To study the influence of environmental and chemical regimes on
water uptake, transpiration and post-harvest quality of Florida-grown
cut flowers.

The new programs in the Ornamental Horticulture conducted by Drs. Raulston
and Wilfret are under development and currently, are unprojected. The following
general categories are included in these three programs:
1. Variety development Developmcnt of new varieties and crops by plant
breeding, and evaluation of existing varieties for use under Florida conditions.
2. Post-harvest _anclinJg, shipping anQj ping quality Development of
techniques to improve flower quality through grower, wholesaler, shipper and
retail operations and to achieve maximum potential use of flowers by consumers.
3. Cultural modification of crops Development of new techniques and
modification of standard production practices in such areas as mulching,
fertilization, water application, and methods of pT--ntin- and harvesting.
4. Chemical modification of growth Development of chemical materials to
modify or alter natural plant growth in a desirable manner such as height control,
chemical pinching or pruning, breaking of dormancy, etc.


5. Temperature and photoperiod effects on crops Study of the influence
of these environmental conditions on present and potential ornamental cut-
flowers for Florida.
6. Herbicides Testing of new and standard herbicidal materials to
develop methods and techniques for use of these materials on ornamental crops.
7. Storage Physiology Development of methods of handling and storing
corms, bulbs, tubers, and fleshy roots of certain crops.





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Plant Pathology Research at GCES

The plant pathology research program on cut flowers at the Gulf

Coast Experiment Station utilizes an interdisciplinary approach to

problem solving, involving not only plant pathology, but also entomology,

horticulture, nematology, physiology and plant breeding, where appropos.

Research programs in the laboratory, cold storage, greenhouse, saran

house, and field are oriented toward:

a) Determining the cause and nature of plant diseases.

b) Determining the conditions under which the diseases develop and

spread (epidemiology).

c) Determining methods of control, such as chemical controls, plant

resistances, and horticultural practices.

d) Studying the interactions of fungi and bacteria with nematodes,

mites or insects in disease development and spread.

e) Studying the effects of using fungicides with pesticides and

nutrients on disease control.

State Project 502. Control of Gladiolus Corm Diseases.
Objectives: To develop more effective control measures for the prevention
of corm diseases.
State Project 506. Control of Curvularia and Botrytis Diseases
of Gladiolus.
Objectives: To develop more effective and economical control of gladiolus
leaf and flower diseases.
State Project 1441. Breeding for Combined Resistances in Gladioli.
Objectives: To develop commercially acceptable gladiolus varieties adapted
to Florida conditions with resistance to some or all of the fungi,
Fusarium, Curvularia, and Stromatinia, to root-knot nematodes, and
to adverse environmental factors.
A. W. Engelhard
State Project 1477. Etiology, Symptomatology and Control of Diseases
of Floral Crops.
Objectives: Determine the cause, life history, symptoms and control measures
for diseases of floral crops such as chrysanthemums, carnations,
asters, gladioli and others.



i^'c j 5 t ^ \ ^



Research in Nematology at GCES

The nematology program at GCES aspires to a comprehensive coverage

of nematode-oriented problems of economically important crops both

ornamentals and vegetables.

The research is concerned with the biology and ecology of the nema-

tode as well as the etiology and control of plant diseases associated

with the presence of the nematode. Laboratory, greenhouse and field

investigations are developed to answer questions in the following areas:

1. What effects do specific nematodes have on plant growth
and crop production?

2. How does land management practices influence longterm
survival and development of various nematodes?

3. What is the interrelationship of nematodes and other
soil microorganisms; how does this relationship affect
crop growth?

4. What methods of nematode control are economically and
culturally compatible with the operational management
of various crops?

Increased industrial expansion and population development is estab-

lishing a trend among Florida's ornamental and vegetable producers to

re-crop the same fields instead of migrating every two or three years

to new, uncleared land as has been their practice. Repeated use of the

same soil under monoculture season after season encourages the build-up

of organisms parasitic to the crop. Therefore, emphasis currently is

being placed in the evaluation of the role of nematodes in the "old land"

problem of sandy soils.







Research in Entomology at G.C.E.S.

The entomology research program is getting under way with the addition of a
new entomologist last fall. It is designed primarily as a problem solving
program and indeed ornamentalists, nurserymen and cut flower growers have
problems. There is a need for communication between the growers and the
researcher in handling pest problems. Growers could contribute substantially
to the program by notifying us or appropriate county agent bv letter or
telephone of serious pest outbreaks experienced in various plantings.

The major pest species encountered on ornamentals and cut flowers have been
loopers, beet armyworms, aphids, southern armyTworms, leafminers and most
importantly mites. There are several species involved when we speak of
"looper" and it is important to know the species to be able to offer control
recommendations. The same situation exists with leafminers and spidermites.

Some of the major areas of the entomology research program, the plants
involved, the pest species and what is being done are given below.

I. New materials for pest control.
The need for new materials to control insect and mite pests is continuous.
Consequently new chemicals are evaluated for effectiveness, compatibility
and phytotoxicity on field or nursery grown ornamental and cut flower crops.
Studies are also conducted on post harvest plants and flowers.

II. Integration of biological, ecological and chemical controls for more
stability and longer lasting treatments.
The current hue and cry of pesticide pollution has prompted the seeking
of alternatives to pure chemical pest control. This involves study of
biological agents parasites, pathogens and predators, crop management,
judicious application of chemicals and attempts to balance the ecology of
the crop area. Growing resistant varieties, modifying planting dates or
using trap crops are also means of integrating control procedures.

III. Biological studies of insect and mite pests.
Often knowledge of the life history of pest species provides a weak
link open to attack. Hitting pests at their most vulnerable spot should
be less expensive, provide better and longer lasting control and realize
less crop damage than indiscriminate application of control measures.
Studies of populations under laboratory and field conditions can provide
needed information to be used in pest management.

IV. Systematics and identification of pest problems.
Any pest control measure should be based on correct identification of
the pest species. With the number or resistant species increasing daily,
the need for exact diagnosis becomes more demanding and collection of all
pest species from ornamental crops is necessary and is being compiled
for aid in identification.


Mood Ornamentals

Crop Area

1. Azaleas

2. Roses

Major Pests

a) lace bugs

b) mites

a) spidermites

b) Lepidoptera

Basic Research Approach

a) identification

Control Approach

a) New chemical-

b) biology b) biological
c) collection c.Jinteqgrated
a) identification a) New chemicals-
b) biology bj ) integrated
c) collection

Cut Flow-ers

1. Chrysanthemum

2. Gladiolus

1. Chrysanthemum

a) spidermites
b) looper

c) armyworms

d) aphids
e) liafminpr

a) identification
b) biology

c) collection

a) new equipment
b) new che.icals-
Phytoto;icity &
c) resistant

a) mites (bulb) a) identification a) new chemicals
b) armyworms b) biology h) biological
c) collection c) resistant

Post-Harvest Flowers

a) aphids a) systemic hold-
ing solutions
b) spidermites _b) chemical. dips

Identification = correct diagnosis of the pest causing damage.
Biology includes life history studies, host plant preference, natural
enemies, distribution, etc.
Collection = speciments are mounted and preserved for reference, hosts
and distribution studies.
Biological control = use of parasites, predators or pathogens to control pests.
Integrated control = using biological agents, generall sanitation, resistant
stock, varied planting dates and some chemicals to
control pests.

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