AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
BELLE GLADE, FLORIDA
MIMEO REPORT EV71-11 SI
,CI ES FOR SUGARCANE IN THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES1'
J. R. Orsenigo--
SRecommendations and suggestions given here are based
on research conducted by the Agricultural Research
I 0 Un' Oi at ion Center Belle Glade. Growers are urged
v\F.S.- j -tso-tr've the manufacturer's label and precautions
L- for commercial use of herbicides in sugarcane.
Herbicides are effective, economical
substitute for good management. The best
these guides: THE RIGHT CHEMICAL for the
TIME, in the RIGHT AMOUNT, WAY AND PLACE.
tools in sugarcane production but do not
chemical performance is obtained with
particular weed problem at the RIGHT
The economics and potential of weed control chemicals must be evaluated by
each grower for his particular situation. Initial use of these chemicals should
be restricted to a limited acreage for familiarization.
Many preemergence herbicides are effective only against germinating weed seed
and small annual weed seedlings. These chemicals generally do not control emerged
weeds and should be applied promptly after planting or to freshly weeded soil.
Preemergence chemicals perform best when applied to a moist soil surface or when
application is followed by moderate rainfall.
Broadcast-overall herbicide application is indicated in plant sugarcane since
the conventional ridge-and-furrow planting system does not permit ready tillage
of row middles when chemicals are applied to the drill. Less pronounced ridge-
and-furrow to flat planting are desirable if preemergence herbicides are to be used.
Herbicide rates in this mimeo report are stated on a PER TREATED ACRE basis
in terms of the usual commercial formulation. Thorough, uniform ground or weed
coverage is necessary. The customary active ingredient content of herbicides men-
tioned in this report is given in the Glossary along with herbicide nomenclature a
RECOMMENDED herbicidal treatments (chemical, rate, manner of use) are those
generally reliable for commercial production when used as specified. Growers with-
out prior herbicide experience should confine initial applications to a limited
SUGGESTED herbicidal treatments represent cleared chemicals and combinations
not fully evaluated locally. Growers should use these on a very limited trial
SA revision of EES70-1 and earlier Mimeo Reports.
2/ Professor (Plant Physiologist), University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade,
CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL FOR SUGARCANE
PREEMERGENCE TO ANNUAL WEEDS IN PLANT CANE (See plant cane note at end)
3 to 10 qts/A
4 to S lbs/A
"AAtrex" 4 to 5 lbs/A
2 to 4 lbs/A
Usually requires a postemergence broadleaf weed
control treatment at 1 to 2 months after appli-
cation. Read Glossary note.
This combination will provide good grass and
broadleaf weed control for several months under
average soil moisture and rainfall conditions.
A commercial formulation of "Randox" and 2,4-D
acid. Read Glossary note.
Duration of good annual grass and broadleaf weed
control is 2 to 4 months after fall or spring
application. The combination also has post-
emergence activity against small grass and broad-
leaf weeds. Cane foliage contacted by the
combination will be "burned" but future growth
Provides good annual grass weed control which has
continued into the ratoon crop following applica-
tion. Usually requires a postemergence broadleaf
weed control treatment 1 to 2 months after appli-
cation and in the following crop.
Good soil moisture or light rainfall is essential.
Broadleaf weed control may be superior to annual
grass weed control. May be used as a split appli-
cation: 2 1/2 Ib/A preemergence and 2 1/2 Ib/A later
as required. Application schedule may be delayed
until small weeds and cane have emerged.
Control of broadleaf weeds better than grasses
especially under low soil moisture. An additional
directed postemergence spray of 2 lb/A may be applied
to prolong weed control.
PLANT CANE NOTE:
A. Early-fall planting (mid-August to mid-October): Use flat planting or a modi-
fied ridge-and-furrow and apply herbicides immediately after covering and
bedding when mature seed of good quality is planted at the proper rate. Use
procedure "B" if seed cane quality is poor or planting rate is low.
B. Late-fall planting (after mid-October): Cultivate until need for replanting
"skips" can be determined. After replanting "skips" in stand or after a
decision not to replant: clean-cultivate to a modified ridge-and-furrow or
level soil and apply herbicides immediately with a directed or semi-directed
spray to minimize wetting the cane foliage. Granular formulations may be
applied over the plants.
PREEMERGENCE TO ANNUAL WEEDS IN RATOON CANE:
C. Before or after emergence of stubble growth:
SUGGESTED FOR ALL SOILS
After fertilization, tillivate row middles, then apply chemicals listed for
plant crops above. Apply soon after ratooning in early fall and late spring
harvest; do not delay more than 2 weeks during remainder of season. Tillivate and
apply herbicides to trash rows when trash has decomposed. Tillage machinery
should not throw weedy soil on chemically treated areas.
POSTEMERGENCE TO SUGARCANE AND ANNUAL WEEDS: ALL SOILS: PLANT OR RATOON CROPS
D. For emerged annual grasses only: Alexandergrass, crabgrass, goosegrass, etc.
+ 2,4-D amine
1/2% by vol.
"AAtrex" 1 lb/A
+ 2,4-D amine 1/2 lb/A
oil 2 gpa
1/2 to 1 lb/A
Apply as directed or semi-directed sprays to avoid
wetting cane foliage. Apply 2 or 3 times at 7 to
14 day intervals. Bermudagrass and other perennial
grasses will be controlled also. Serious yield
reduction can occur if sugarcane foliage is wet
repeatedly. Grass weeds die slowly following treat-
Apply only to seedling grass (and broadleaf) weeds
2 to 3 inches tall and with not more than 3 expanded
leaves. Semi-directional equipment preferred. With
good soil moisture or light rainfall this treatment
will provide some residual control of annual grass
and broadleaf weeds, especially on sandy soils.
Apply tank-mix combination as semi-directed spray
to annual grass and boradleaf weed seedlings not more
than 3 inches tall. 2,4-D may be omitted in fields
near sensitive crops. May be applied 2 or 3 times
as required by weed growth. Effectiveness diminishes
in April and when applied to established or tillering
Apply tank-mix combination as semi-directed spray to
annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings not more
than 3 inches tall. Use and performance similar to
combination listed immediately above but may control
slightly larger weeds.
Apply ONLY as a directed or semi-directed spray to
annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings up to 3
inches tall. Especially effective against Alexander-
grass. For mixed infestations, particularly with
other annual grasses, activity is increased by adding
1/2 lb/A 2,4-D amine and/or 1/2% v/v surfactant to
the tank mix. Repeat once as needed.
"Fenac" 1 1/2 2 1/2 lb/A,
+ 2,4-D 1 to 1 1/2 lb/A
"Fenac-Plus" 1 gpa
+ 2,4-D amine
a.i. Apply tank-mix combination as semi-directed
spray to annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings not
more than 3 inches tall. May be repeated within 2
or more weeks as required by weed growth. Annual
grass seedlings not killed will have restricted root
Apply tank-mix combination ONLY as directed spray to
to annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings not
more than 3 inches tall. 2,4-D may be omitted in
fields near sensitive crops. May be repeated once
as required by weed growth.
E. Spot treatments to control emerged and perennial grasses.
"Dowpon" 7 to 10 lb.
per 100 gal.
Apply as light foliage wetting spray to clumps or
individual plants of annual or perennial grasses,
especially Napiergrass, paragrass, Bermudagrass,
barnyardgrass, johnsongrass, sudangrass, giant
foxtail, Alexandergrass, crabgrass, goosegrass and
others. These "spot sprays" should be applied 1 or
2 times. Hand gun booms may be fitted with inverted
funnels which can be used to push cane leaf cover
F. For emerged broadleaf weeds;
For 2,4-D susceptible weeds: 2,4-D up to 2 lbs/A amine salt preferred.
For 2,4-D resistant weeds (dog fennel, ground cherry, nightshade, ragweed):
silvex up to 1 lb/A
For mixed broadleaf weeds: 2,4-D + silvex at 3/4 lb/A each in tank mixture.
For pellitoryweed (Artilleryweed) and young broadleaf weed seedlings
a. "AAtrex", "Karmex" or "Telvar" at 1/2 to 3/4 lb/A
b. 2,4-D amine at 1/2 lb/A
c. Surfactant at 1/2% by volume
Note: The 2,4-D component may be omitted in fields near sensi-
tive crops or where other broadleaf weeds are not a
These combinations should be applied with directional spray
G. For mixed annual grass and broadleaf weeds:
For small seedling weeds: Use "D" recommended or "D" suggested combinations
For larger established weeds: Use "Dowpon" plus 2,4-D or silvex as "D"
and "F" above.
GLOSSARY AND STATUS OF HERBICIDES FOR SUGARCANE
(Based upon EPA's Summary of Registered Agricultural
Chemical Pesticide Uses at time of writing. Current
commercial labelling should be observed by growers)
Chemicals recommended or suggested for Florida
ex atrazine, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-S-triazine.
Geigy "AAtrex", an 80% wettable powder.
on dalapon, sodium salt of 2,2-dichloropropionic acid. Dow "Dowpon",
a 74% acid equivalent soluble powder. Or, the equivalent from
D Formulations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid containing 4 lb/
gal acid equivalent, amine salt preferred. Adjust treatment
rates when using 6 lb/gal formulations.
Geigy "Evik", an 80% wettable powder.
fenac, salts of 2,3,6-trichlorophenylacetic acid. Amchem "Fenac",
a sodium salt formulation with 1.5 Ib/gal acid equivalent;
Tenneco "Trifen", a dimethylamine formulation with 2.5 Ib/gal
fenac plus 2,4-D. Amchem "Penac-Plus" contains 1.5 + 1.0 Ib/gal
fenac and 2,4-D, respectively.
diuron, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,l-dimethylurea. duPont "Karmex"
an 80% wettable powder.
nonphytotoxic paraffinic crop or spray oils, preferably in the
90 to 110 SUS viscosity range, formulated with emulsifier and
intended for use as herbicide adjuvants.
CDAA, 2-chloro-N,N-diallylacetamide. Monsanto "Randox" contain-
ing 4 Ib/gal active.
Low volatile esters of 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid.
Formulations containing 4 Ib/gal acid equivalent are available
from Amchem, Chipman and Dow.
non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, or others of similar activity.
ACL-209 (Adju-Saf base) has been effective and has minimized
monuron, 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-l,l-dimethylurea. duPont "Telvar",
an 80% wettable powder.
Cleared chemicals not suggested for use in Florida
Diquat diquat, 1,1'-ethylene-2:2'-dipyridylium dibromide. Chevron
"Ortho Diquat". Not cleared for Florida use.
Herban norea, 3-(hexahydro-4,7-methanoindan-5yl)-1,1-dimethylurea.
Hercules "Herban". Not cleared for Florida use.
Princep simazine, 2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine. Geigy "Princep".
Sinbar terbacil, 3-tert-butyl-5-chloro-6-methyluracil. duPont "Sinbar".
Not cleared for Florida use.
TCA, STCA, sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid. Available from many suppliers
NaTCA in formulations containing about 80% TCA equivalent.
Treflan trifluralin, a,a,a-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine.
SHORT GLOSSARY OF HERBICIDE TERMINOLOGY
Band application Using an herbicide in a narrow, continuous strip in, over or
along the crop row rather than over the entire field.
Broadcast application Using an herbicide over an entire field or area.
Contact herbicide An herbicide that kills primarily by direct contact with
plant tissue rather than by translocation within the plant.
Directed application Using an herbicide in a restricted location such as the
crop row or bed at the base of plants to avoid wetting plant
foliage. Semi-directed sprays contact some low and lateral
Overall application Applying an herbicide from directly above plants.
Postemergence treatment Application after crop plants emerge. Treatments may
also be specified as postemergence to weeds or both crop and
Preemergence treatment Application after a crop is planted but before it emerges.
Treatments may be specified preerergence to weeds or both crop
and weeds. Treatments may be speci':ied preemergence to weeds
but postemergence to the crop. Usually, preemergence treat-"ents
are made before both crop and weeds emerge. Contact preemrgence
treatments kill emerged weeds by contact action and are applied
before the crop comes up. Residual preemergence treatments kill
weeds as their seed germinate or as seedlings emerge, either
before or after crop come-up.
Preplanting treatment Application of an herbicide before planting a crop.
USE CAUTION WHEN APPLYING 2,4-D and silvex
Chlorophenoxy herbicides are capable of causing severe injury to
sensitive vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops several miles from the actual
spraying site. The degree of hazard in the use of these chemicals is related
directly to the manner of application and weather conditions. Aerial application
is most hazardous. Ground equipment should be operated with low spray volume and
at low spraying pressure.
Not more than 10% of a farm unit should be treated per day.
Chlorophenoxy herbicides should not be applied within one-half mile of susceptible
crops except under the most carefully controlled and supervised conditions. These
chemicals should not be applied when wind velocity exceeds 8 mph in isolated
areas nor when wind exceeds 4 mph when sensitive crops are grown less than 2 miles
downwind. The safest formulations are the salts, particularly amine salts. The
above rules-of-thumb are guides not guarantees for prevention of damage. For
more detailed information refer to Mimeo Reports EES64-12 and EES65-21.
READ THE LABEL
Labels on herbicide containers should be read and understood prior
to use of the chemical contained therein. This is the final and most appropriate
guide to economical and successful chemical usage.
EQUIPMENT FOR SUGARCANE HERBICIDE APPLICATION
A separate mimeographed report, EES64-9, contains information on
basic spraying equipment, calibration, shielded-sprayer design and methods of
application. Calibration procedures are detailed in Florida Extension Circular
275A. Florida Extension Circular 353, "Sugarcane for Sugar" is a production
Guide for the crop.