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Everglades Station Mimeo 62-15 February 1962
Molakane Feed as an Ingredient of a Steer Fattening Ration.1
C. E. Haines and H. L. Chapman,. Jr.
Extensive progress has been made in the converting of waste materials of
many industries into economical and useful by-products. Some of the processed
waste materials have developed into valuable livestock feedstuffs. The rapidly
expanding sugar industry in south Florida is confronted with the accumulation
of several waste products for which currently there are not profitable outlets.
One of these waste products is termed filter cake, filter mud or cachaza which
is collected during the filtration of the cane juice while processing sugarcane.
The filter cake consists mainly of a mixture of sugarcane fibers, sucrose,
coagulated colloids, albuminoids and other insoluble solids. Its exact chemical
composition depends upon the variety of sugarcane, climate and type of soil upon
which the cane is grown. Physically, the filter cake is a soft spongy, light-
weight material of dark-brown to black color, generally containing from 55 to
70 percent moisture as it comes from the mill. For feed purposes, this material
has been processed by fermenting it in ammonical gases, drying and then adding
molasses. The finished product has been given the name Molakane Feed by its
Limited observations on the palatability of Molakane Feed indicated that
it should be studied to determine its value as a feed for cattle. The study
reported herein was conducted to evaluate locally produced Molakane Feed as an
ingredient of a steer fattening ration. The feeding value of Molakane Feed was
compared to that of dried citrus pulp since some degree of similarity in chem-
ical analysis existed.
Thirty-two Brahman crossbred steers were divided into four groups,of eight
animals each, and placed in Roselawn St. Augustinegrass pastures; each pasture
was four acres in size. Three of the steer groups were full-fed concentrate
mixtures while the fourth group was not supplied a concentrate. The experimental
design and composition of the rations is shown in Table 1. One half of one con-
centrate mixture consisted of citrus pulp and one half of each of the other two
concentrate mixtures were formulations of Molakane Feed. One of the Molakane
Feeds contained 30% blackstrap molasses and the other 50( blackstrap molasses,
by weight. Other ingredients of the concentrate mixtures were ground snapped
corn, cottonseed meal (41%) and a salt-mineral mixture. The steer group not
getting a concentrate was furnished the salt-mineral mixture free choice.
1All feedstuffs, animals and facilities were obtained and .frni shed by Mr.
Francisco Blanco Ramos, Dr. Rodolfo Lorenzo and Dr. Jose.L'is Plana of
Miami, Florida. Supervision and management of the studWere under the
direction of staff of the Everglades Experiment Statiost [, P
2 Assistant Animal Husbandman and Associate Animal Nutritionist respectively,
Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida.
Table 1. Experimental Design and Composition of Concentrate Mixtures (Ib.)
Group 1 2 3 4
Concentrate Mixture No Yes Yes Yes
Gr. Snapped Corn -- 690 790 790
Cottonseed Meal (41) 300 200 200
Dried Citrus Pulp -- 1,000
Molakane Feed -- 1,000 1,000
Salt-mineral Mix Free choice 10 10 10
Total -- 2,000 2,000 2,000
Percent Crude Protein 2 12.8 11.8 12.5
Molakane Feed contained
30% molasses for group 3 and 50% molasses for
Secured from composite sample collected during study and values are on an
oven dry basis.
A chemical analysis of the Molakane Feeds, prior to study, showed that
the 30% molasses-Molakane Feed contained 88.2% dry matter which consisted of
9.5% crude protein, 13.1% crude fiber, 6.9% fat and 11.2% ash. The 50% molasses-
Molakane Feed was 86.7% dry matter which consisted of 9.7% crude protein, 12.9%
crude fiber, 5.9% fat and 13.2% ash. Since these chemical compositions were
similar, the two Molakane Feeds were used in the same proportions in the two
The concentrate mixtures were full-fed for 112 days following a 12 day
preliminary period. The steers were group fed daily and individually weighed
at intervals during the trial. At the termination of the study, the steers
were slaughtered and certain carcass factors recorded.
One steer was removed from the group finished on pasture only because of
difficulties in keeping it confined in the pasture. Thus, data from this group
includes only seven steers.
Steers consuming pasture only, gained an average of 1.12 Ibs. per day com-
pared to 2.28 Ibs. for steers on the control ratio containing the citrus pulp.
The gains of steers receiving the mixtures containing the Molakane Feed were
between those for the steers on the control ration and those on pasture alone.
The average daily gains for the steers on the 30% molasses-Molakane Feed ration
and the 50% molasses-Molakaie Feed ration were 1.62 and 1.65 lbs., respectively.
Steers receiving the control ration ate the most feed and were the most
efficient converters of feed to weight gains. Consumption rates and feed
efficiency were similar for both groups eating the Molakane Feed mixtures.
Differences in concentrate consumption rate between the control group and the
two groups supplied the Molakane Feed mixtures suggests that Molakane Feed may
have decreased the palatability of the concentrate mixtures.
The final market value of the steers on the control ration was the highest
for any group. This was because the steers in this group produced carcasses
that graded the highest and also weighed the most. Steers on only pasture
produced the lightest carcasses and graded the lowest. The steers on the
Molakane Feed rations produced carcasses of intermediate value. We assumed
that the average standard steer (grade of 7.0) would be worth $19.75/cwt but
that low standard (6.0) and high standard (8.0) steers would be of less and
greater value per 100 Ibs. respectively. Thus, using $19.75 as a basis, it
was calculated that steers grading 5.4 would bring $15.32/cwt, those grading
6.6 would bring $18.62/cwt. and those grading 8.0 would be worth $22.57/cwt.
The average data are summarized in Table 2.
Table 2. Summary of Average Gains, Feed Efficiency and Slaughter.Data, in
Experimental Pasture Citrus pulp 30% molasses- 50% molasses-
treatments only mixture Molakane Feed Molakane Feed
No. of steers 7 8 8
Days on test 112 112 112 112
Initial wt. 598.6 605.0 596.9 604.4
Final wt. 723.6 860.0 778.1 789.4
Total gain 125.0 255.0 181.2 185.0
Daily gain 1.12 2.28 1.62 1.65
Daily Concentrate/Steer ----- 18.4 16.3 16.0
Concentrate/lb. of Gain ---- 8.1 10.1 9.7
Carcass wt. 384.7 521.0 454.3 467.9
Dressing Percent 158.2 63.8 62.1 63.0
Carcass grade 25.4 8.0 6.6 6.6
Market value 3 $110.86 $194.60 $144.88 $146.99
1. Calculations based on preslaughter weight and warm carcass weight.
2. Grade of 5 = high utility; grade of 6, 7 and 8 = low, medium and high
3. $19.75/cwt. used as value for a medium standard grade slaughter steer.
Final live weights were multiplied by $15.32, $18.62 and $22.57 for
average market grades of 5.4, 6.6 and 8.0, respectively.
Thirty two crossbred steers were used to evaluate a processed by-product of
the sugar industry, called Molakane Feed, as an ingredient of a fattening ration.
The steers were divided into four groups and kept on pasture. Three of the
groups were full-fed concentrate mixtures. The Molakane Feed replaced citrus
pulp in the control concentrate mixture. Two different Molakane Feeds were used;
one contained 30% molasses and the other 50% molasses.
During the 112 day test period, the steers receiving the Molakane Feed
rations ate less concentrate and gained less than steers consuming the control
ration. Steers on pasture, without concentrate supplementation, showed the
lowest gains. Final market values of carcasses were the highest for the group
receiving the control ration and the lowest for steers on pasture only. Values
for the carcasses of the Molakane Feed fed groups were between those from the
control group and those on pasture only. The results tend to indicate that the
Molakane Feed depressed the palatability of the concentrate mixture which in
turn affected consumption, weight gains, feed efficiency and carcass weights