Group Title: Animal science newsletter
Title: Animal science newsletter ; April 2008
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 Material Information
Title: Animal science newsletter ; April 2008
Series Title: Animal science newsletter
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Department of Animal Sciences, IFAS
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Department of Animal Sciences, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: April 2008
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067334
Volume ID: VID00075
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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oril 2008

r Dates to Remember


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Celebrating the 57th Annual
Florida Beef Cattle Short Course

Hilton University of Florida Conference Center, Gainesville, FL
April 30 May 2, 2008
Complete information, schedules, and registration can be found online at IL n',n, ., \, thii t.shtml, or contact the University of Florida,
Department of Animal Sciences at (352) 392- 1916


In This Issue...

Hcalllh Hors.1 An Educational (onfcrcncc on
Successtful Equinc Healthl (Carc
Intcicstin'.1 A' Sta titlsic. To Pondrr
2''iIX LIF IFAS Nicat Judging Tcami
Spluinin Nitrogcn .-\pplications For
Bc 'lti itdag iass
Mhore to NI\ COtO\Is than lin JLi tlarto\ in

The Institute of Food and Agncultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmatve Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information, and
other services only to individuals that function with regard to race, color sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension pubhcations, contact your
county Cooperative Extension Service office.

~ I Veterinary Medical Center
Healthy Horses:An
Conference on
Successful Equine
Health Care

Healthy Horses is an educational day with a focus
on equine health care for horse owners and enthusiasts.
The day will include lectures, lunch, tours of the hospital,
and live equine treadmill demonstrations. The topics will
include vaccination, deworming, nutrition, lameness, and
gastric ulcers just to name a few. The presenters will
predominately be the board certified faculty of UF's Large
Animal Hospital, and a brief summary book of the lectures
will be provided to all attendees. Purina and Fort Dodge
will be present as our sponsors and to answer any questions
you may have about their products. We sincerely appreciate
their sponsorship, which makes it possible for the low
registration fees for all attendees (one of the lowest for an
event of this type in the state!) Thank you for your interest
and support. We are dedicated to improving owner
education and hope you will make this an annual event.
Registration is limited, so please register soon!

Foal Care
MRI for Horses
Gastric Ulcers
Live Treadmill Demonstration
Hospital Tour
and More!
Refreshments and Lunch provided!

The conference will be held at the University of
Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine in Gainesville,
Florida from 8:30am-5:00pm. A map will be mailed upon
receipt of your registration form.

Register On Line :

Mail or Fax Completed Form To:
UF Department of Conferences
2209 NW 13th Street, Suite E
Gainesville, FL 32609
Fax: (352) 392-5437

Healthy Horses: An Educational
Conference on Successful
Equine Health Care
May 10, 2008

Participant Information:



Cni. State. Zip:




Special Needs:

Amount Due:

S Registration .............. ........ ............. $30

Method of Payment:

__ American Express

Card Number

CVV (security) Code Expiration Date
L ------------------

Interesting Ag Statistics To Splitting Nitrogen Applications For
Ponder Bermudagrass

In commemoration of National Ag Week, March 16-22,
2008, here are some interesting statistics about U.S. ag today:
* The top-five U.S. ag products are cattle and calves,
dairy products, broilers, corn and soybeans. The U.S.
produces 46% of the world's soybeans, 41% of the world's
corn, 20% of the world's cotton and 13% of the world's

* It takes the average American about 35 days to earn
enough disposable income to pay for all the food that is
consumed at home and away from home during the entire
year. By comparison, it takes consumers more than 100 days
of earned income to pay all federal, state and local taxes each

* About 190 of every consumer dollar spent on food
actually goes to the farmer. The other 810 is spent on
processing, packaging, marketing, transportation,
distribution and retail costs.

* The average U.S. farmer produces enough food and fiber
for about 150 people. This number was 19 people in 1940, 46
people in 1960 and 115 people in 1980.

* 99% of all U.S. farms are family farm businesses owned
by individuals, partnerships and family corporations. These
family-based farm enterprises account for about 94% of all
the U.S. ag products that are sold each year.


Corn & Soybean Digest
Release -March 19, 2008

Bermudagrass growers can save money by splitting
nitrogen (N) applications, suggested Dennis Hancock at a
recent Hay Production School in Waynesboro, GA.

"Usually on a long-term average, splitting N applications
rather than providing a one-time N application will generate
between 1,200-2,400 lbs./acre additional yield," he says. "That
strategy also increases N-use efficiency by 25-30%, which can
be a big deal both economically and environmentally." Splitting
N applications can also be beneficial when drought hits.

"Another topic of concern is our inability to get reliable
sources of ammonium nitrate. We've been comparing different
N sources. As producers look to reduce their N rates, and as we
get down into those lower rates, urea-based products are less
efficient at the lower rates. We are both reducing our rate and
we are reducing our effectiveness at that rate," he adds.

Georgia hay growers have been showing interest in
integrating legume crops with bermudagrass, either with annual
crops such as crimson clover, or by interseeding perennial
legumes such as alfalfa into the bermudagrass.

"The annual legumes can add 75-100 units of N during
the winter, then the N is released during the following production
year," Hancock explained. "Generally speaking, the perennial
legumes we would grow as a companion crop, like alfalfa, would
provide yields equivalent to adding 200 units of N. That's a
significant amount of N added to the system."


2008 UF/IFAS Meat Judging Team
The University of Florida Intercollegiate Meat Judging Team
returned recently from their initial competitive activity, the Houston
Livestock Show and Rodeo Contest in Houston, TX. In this year's contest,
67 contestants representing 18 teams from 10 universities participated.
This was our first spring contest compared with most other team's
3rd and final spring contest. Despite our inexperience, these students had
numerous bright spots. Expect big things from these students at our second
contest, the Southeastern, coming in April. Until then, we will strive to
University of Florida at

mmy Estevez and their
special efforts in support

Okeechobee, Danelle Brewer, Arcadia, Nick Londono, Medelln,
Columbia, Jessica Murphy, Myakka City, John Spann, Okeechobee
Coach, Dr Chad Carr (notpictured)

Hay & Forage Grower
hplll \\\w\
Release March 19, 2008

you are cordiaCy
invitecto thefirst
annualalljudging team
reunion luncheon to be
hieldin Gainesvile on
April26t1 t at 11 am.

for information, please
e du/calendcar.sfitm


AfSteAch More to Mycotoxins
than Just Aflatoxin

If you can remember the droughts of 1977 and 1980 in the
Southeast United States, then you most likely remember the infectious
toxins that accompanied the low moisture season. In those two years,
the aflatoxin problems in both corn and peanuts reached extreme
proportions, damaging the sale of crops and causing severe losses in
livestock where the contaminated products had been fed. The 1980
outbreak alone is estimated to have cost $100 million to the agricultural

While aflatoxins continue to be a sore subject in the Southeast,
mostproducers have learned some type of damage control for avoiding
repercussions. By keeping the feed fresh and equipment clean, using
proper storage techniques and establishing programs for testing and
sampling, many producers have educated themselves as to how to
combat the infamous toxin. But what most agricultural professionals
in the South have missed in their attack plan is their awareness and
defense plan against other types of mycotoxins.

One family of mycotoxins that producers should be more
attentive to is the Fusarium toxins. While Fusarium molds normally
thrive in temperate climates and are more common in the Corbelt and
Southern Canada, this species can make its way south through interstate
commerce. The mycotoxins produced by Fusarium are less eminent
than the Aspergillus-produced aflatoxin, but can be more harmful to
animal health.

A faculty member for more than 30 years at Guelph, Dr. Trevor
Smith has devoted much of his research to the characterization and
dietary treatment ofFusarium mycotoxicoses. While mycotoxins are
nothing new to the animal feed industry, the research on toxins has
greatly expanded. Once thought of as individual toxins, scientists have
now determined that mycotoxins can form compounds and increase
toxin responses in livestock.

For example more than 100 tricothecenes have been chemically
identified. The most common is deoxynivalenol, vomitoxin or as it is
often referred to, DON. DON and its associated compounds can
influence behavior causing reduced feed intakes resulting in reduced
milk production. The compounds can also trigger bleeding and ulcers
in the digestive tract leading to reduced nutrient absorption. Finally
the compounds are known to initiate immuno suppression and increased
susceptibility to diseases including mastitis and increase somatic cell
counts in milk.

"The greatest cost arising from feeding these materials is reduced
disease resistance, failure of vaccination programs and lack of response
to medications," Smith said.

With research on these types of molds continuing each year,
scientists are finding more and more harmful effects that can be linked
to the notorious toxins. According to the 2007 Journal ofDairy Science
article, "Effects of Feedborne Fusarium Mycotoxins on the
Performance, Metabolism, and Immunity of Dairy Cows" by
Korosteleva, Smith and Boermans, feeding a combination ofFusarium
mycotoxins in naturally contaminated feed can increase the incidents
of immunosuppression and reduced utilization of nitrogen.

According to Smith, while DON is the most prevalentFusarium
mycotoxin, livestock producers should also be on guard against
zearalenone and fumonisins. Zearalenone is estrogenic and causes
infertility and abortions in dairy cows. Fumonisin is a recently
discovered mycotoxin that can cause kidney and liver damage, decrease
animal performance; impair the immune system and even cause death.

Mycotoxins are never found in isolation. The mycotoxins
mentioned above and much more can be present together in the feed
ingredients and complete feed. When they are present together, they
exert additive or synergistic interactions and cause significant adverse
effects on livestock and poultry. DON has been shown to interact
with T-2 toxin, fusaric acid and aflatoxin, while fumonisins interact
with T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol (Devegowda and Murthy, 2005).

With the increased research in mycotoxins each year, the
agricultural industry is also improving their knowledge in finding
solutions to the mycotoxin problem. Mycotoxin control begins by
managing mold growth from pre-harvest to post-harvest and sustaining
a low mold count throughout feeding.

In the recent article, "Methods for preventing, decontaminating
and minimizing the toxicity of mycotoxins in feeds," Jean Pierre Jouany
made mention of twenty-one different areas in the battle to prevent
and then deal with molds and mycotoxins throughout the production
and feeding chain. During pre-harvest, he suggests examining areas
such as crop rotation and tillage, chemical and insect control and plant
breeding, as these can potentially have a large impact on the crop.

During harvest and post-harvest, the producer must consider
the age of the plant, combine harvester setting, humidity and
temperature level during storage, the physical treatment of the grain,
biological treatments and adsorbents. Biological methods such as
bacteria, enzymes and live yeast have shown the ability to detoxify
certain mycotoxins. One challenge with these technologies is their
high degree of specificity that is not always applicable to the wide
degree of possible mycotoxin contamination found typically in

Adsorbents are seen as the last step. When all preventative
measures have been taken the use of adsorbents is the final chance of
preventing the mycotoxin negatively impacting animal health and

For Smith, there is only one absolute answer to mycotoxicoses.

"The only complete solution to the problems arising from
mycotoxins in dairy feeds is to avoid the feeding of mycotoxin-
contaminated feedstuffs," Smith said.

Mycotoxins are a leading area of study at Alltech. Through 28
years of research-driven product development, Alltech has created a
range of natural solutions for the feed and food industries. For more
information, please visit the Web site at lihni ili li or
li]!11i '*"*" 1.!!,1 '1 h i!!!I. I,'. !!!i


Billy Frey
Alltech Biotechnology Center
Nicholasville, KY
Phone: (859) 881-2236
Email: bfrey@
Release February 15, 2008

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