III Silicon in Agriculture...
 III Silicon in Agriculture Conference...
 Great Gesnerlads!
 SPDN annual meeting 2005
 Big celebration

Group Title: PLP news
Title: PLP news. Volume 9, Issue 1. Spring, 2006.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067320/00025
 Material Information
Title: PLP news. Volume 9, Issue 1. Spring, 2006.
Series Title: PLP news
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Plant Pathology Department, IFAS, University of Florida
Affiliation: University of Florida -- College of Agricultural and Life Sciences -- Plant Pathology Department -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Plant Pathology Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 2006
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067320
Volume ID: VID00025
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    III Silicon in Agriculture Conference
        Page 1
    III Silicon in Agriculture Conference continued from pg. 1
        Page 2
    Great Gesnerlads!
        Page 3
    SPDN annual meeting 2005
        Page 4
    Big celebration
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text



Focus on Research and Diversity:
IIll Silicon Meeting
P Corynespora
P Gene Gun Inoculation

From the students of the
Plant Pathology Depart-
ment to our community
Volume 9 Issue I
Spring 2006

P International Trips
P National meetings
P News from Faculty, Staff, and Students

In Silicon in
Agriculture Conference
by Dr. Lawrence Datnoff



The III Silicon in Agriculture Confer-
ence was held recently from 22 to 26
October 2005 in UberlAndia, MG Bra-
zil. The event was organized by the
Federal University of UberlAndia and
the University of Florida and, in part,
with organizational support from the
Brazilian Phytopathology Society and
Brazilian Soil Society. 168 participants
attended representing researchers,
teachers, producers and students from
17 countries that included Australia,

Drs. G. Kornd6rfer, E. Epstein and L. Datnoff re-
ceiving awards at III Silicon in Agriculture Con-

Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Den-
mark, Egypt, Germany, Great Britain,
Holland, India, Japan, Mexico, South
Africa, Spain, United States and Ven-
ezuela. Leading scientists from around
the world were invited as key lecturers
to update on the status of silicon re-
search in their area of expertise. Dr.
Datnoff along with his coauthors, A.
Brunings and F. Rodrigues, presented
"Silicon Effects On Components Of
Host Resistance: An Overview And Im-
plications For Integrated Disease Man-
agement". The proceedings entitled "III
Silicon in Agriculture Conference" was
published, and included 13 oral papers
that were presented. In addition, 86
other scientific summaries were pre-

The plant pathogenic fungus Corynes-
pora cassiicola, which causes Target
Leaf Spot, has been reported on hun-
dreds of hosts, mainly in tropical and
subtropical countries. Crops that suffer
the greatest yield loss due to the fungus
include cowpea, cucumber, papaya,
pepper, rubber, soybean and tomato.
In Florida, reported losses caused by
C. cassiicola on tomato alone are over
$3,000/acre. Though the fungal spe-
cies has a wide host range, individual
isolates vary greatly in virulence and
host specificity and species distinctions
remain unclear.
In an effort to understand the diversity
within the species, isolates of Corynes-
pora have been collected from various
hosts in Guam and Florida. As a re-
sult of this study, dozens of new hosts
have been identified including several
ornamentals and native plants. A col-
laborative effort between the University
of Guam and the University of Florida
is underway to further collect and char-
acterize Corynespora with funding pro-
vided by a T-STAR grant.
Over the next three years, isolates of
Corynespora collected from American
Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, Palau, Saipan,
and Yap in the Pacific basin and from
Florida, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto
Rico in the Caribbean basin will be thor-
oughly characterized based on genetic
data, host range, and morphology.
As a final objective, Corynespora found
on different hosts around the world are
being solicited for comparison to Pacif-
ic and Caribbean isolates. Isolates will
be examined according to sequence
data, ability to cause disease on six
index hosts, morphology, and location.
This information will not only provide

UF and Israeli
Researchers Have
A Blast With New
Gene Gunl
by Jonathan Horrell

On Monday, November 28th, UF re-
searchers gathered at Dr. Raghavan
Charudattan's Biological Control labo-
ratory in building 737 to watch Israeli
scientists Avihai Ilan, PhD. and Nitzan
Paldi M.Sc. demonstrate the BIM-
LabTM inoculation machine. Dr. Ilan,
who works for the startup company,
Bio-Oz, is hoping to sell the machine
to researchers and fruit and vegetable
growers for inoculation of their crops

Nitzan Paldi and Gabriella Maia inocu-
late Tropical Soda Apple plants with virus.
Photo credit: Mark Elliott.

with hypovirulent strains of virus to in-
duce cross-protection. In addition to in-
oculating plants with virus, the device
can also be used to introduce fungal
spores, bacteria, infectious clones, or
transient expression constructs.
Looking somewhat like an artist's air-
brush, the BimLab is a form of particle
inflow gun (PIG) directing a powerful
spray of pressurized water at the plant
tissue to be inoculated. Abrasives such
as carborundum, or carriers such as
tungsten are used to penetrate the cu-
ticle and gain access to the plant cells
inside the leaf. The first so-called "gene
guns" were crude, and used actual 0.22
caliber bullet cartridges to fire the car-

Collaborative re-
search in Pacific and
Caribbean basins
on Corynespora
by Linley Smith

Page 2

sented, 9 orally and 77 by poster. A
"round table discussion" on methods for
silicon analysis in soils, plants and fer-
tilizers also took place. During the con-
ference, the attendees participated in a
"field day" at Guaira Sugar Mill, SP to
view the use and application of silicon
in sugarcane and how variable rates
are applied through GPS. During the
conference, Drs. Datnoff, Epstein and
Korndbrfer received Plaques of Recog-
nition for their contributions to the study
of Silicon in Agriculture from the orga-
nizing and general committee of the III
Silicon in Agriculture Conference. As
this was the III Silicon in Agriculture
Conference, the attendees once again
showed the numerous contributions of
this element to plant biology especially
under conditions of stress. Many plant
scientist from the fields of agronomy,
plant pathology, plant physiology, plant
biochemistry, soil science demonstrat-
ed new findings about silicon that now
included transporter genes are involved
in moving this element across root
membranes; phytolexins, peroxidases
and PR-1 proteins are involved in plant
disease defense and that the element
binds with plant cell walls making them
smaller and denser, suggesting a sig-
naling to the organic matrix of plant
cells. In addition, other interesting and
fact finding topics were presented which
included a) general aspects of silicon in
agriculture; b) importance of silicon in
microbiology; c) silicon in plant nutrition
and protection against pest and dis-
eases; d) legislation for the production,
trade and control of products contain-
ing silicon for use in agriculture; and)
agronomic efficiency of silicon sources
for use in agriculture; d) chemistry of
silicon in the soil and plants; d) meth-
ods for silicon analysis in soil, plants
and fertilizers. The IV Silicon in Agricul-
ture Conference will be held in South
Africa in 2008.

II Silicon in
Agriculture Conference
Cont. from pg. 1

a better understanding of the species
distinctions within Corynespora, but will
also provide a means to evaluate the
diversity within C. cassiicola with impli-
cations for quarantine, plant breeding,
and bioherbicides. This cooperative re-
search effort will hopefully set the stage
for future collaborations between the
two universities.

UF and Israeli
Researchers Have
A Blast With New
Gene Gun I
Cont. from pg. 1

rier projectiles into the tissue.
After showing a brief video about the
machine, and modifications allowing
scale-up for greenhouse and field use,
Nitzan Paldi, demonstrated the device
on live plants, infiltrating tropical soda
apple (Solanum viarum) and different
species of tobacco with Tobacco mild
green mosaic virus (TMGMV), recom-

Top: N. benthamiana leaf inoculated with projec-
tiles carrying 30BGFPC; 4 dpi. Bottom: Control
leaf inoculated with projectiles only; 4 dpi. Photo
credit: J. Horrell

binant tobamoviruses, and various
transient expression vectors.
Results of one experiment, inoculation
of the tobacco, Nicotiana benthami-
ana with the recombinant tobamovirus
30BGFPC are shown above.

Collaborative re-
search in Pacific and
Caribbean basins
on Corynespora
Cont. from pg. 1

Drs. Datnoff and Prakash
Temple, Bangalore.

at the Hare Kishna

con supplements have recently become
available in India, but researchers are
unsure of the crucial information such
as specific benefits, application rate,
and application timing. There is no na-
tional database on silicon availability in
Indian soils. Dr. Prakash invited Datnoff
to UAS to present a seminar on The
role of silicon on plant disease sup-
pression and to finalize the collabora-
tive program with UAS during the week
of 22-30 May 2005.
Under the cooperative agreement, fac-
ulty will seek joint funding for research
and the establishment of a joint spe-
cialized "referral laboratory" on silicon
in agriculture with a vision to recognize
the importance of silicon across numer-
ous plant species.

A growing awareness internationally
of the importance of silicon in the life
of plants and crop performance is the
foundation of an exchange with Univer-
sity of Agricultural Sciences (UAS) in
Bangalore, India and the University of
Lawrence Datnoff, UF/IFAS lead re-
searcher on the role of silicon in plant
disease resistance, is the program
manager for the cooperative agree-
ment, which will foster the exchange of
research information.
Bangalore Associate Professor Nag-
abovanallik Prakash contacted Datnoff
last year because of a growing aware-
ness in India of the role of silicon in
plant health and crop production. Sili-

Page 3

Gesneriaceae is a family of over 2,500
mostly tropical species named after
the Swiss naturalist Conrad Gess-
ner (1516-1565), that includes some
of our most familiar and appealing
houseplants and ornamentals. Walk
into nearly any grocery store, and you
can find a gesneriad. With appealing
fuzzy or glossy leaves, and flowering in
a rainbow of colors, gesneriads make
good houseplants because they enjoy
the same temperatures that people
do, and usually adapt well to indoor
conditions. Gesneriads come from di-
verse habitats such as the entrances
of caves, or deep forest, and are found

From left clockwise: Sinningia, Episcia, Strep-
tocarpus, Saint paulia. All are members of the
Gesneriaceae family.

growing happily in pockets of humus
that collect in the forks of trees and
rock crevices. Such places may resem-
ble the challenging conditions of indoor
cultivation, such as limited root space,
and low light levels, that would cause
other plants to grow poorly. In addition,
even if they have very tiny, wind-borne
seeds, most gesneriads are easy to
propagate vegetatively; often only a
leaf or leaf fragment is required to re-
generate several plants.
In this way, from the wild, gesneriads
have managed to colonize our window-
sills and desktops.
Appearing in a variety of sizes and
shapes, all gesneriads have one thing
in common the petals of their flow-
ers are fused into a tube, even those of
the familiar African violet! The familiar
gloxinias and lipstick plants are also
gesneriads. These are among the most
spectacular and eye-catching house-
plants a hobbyist can grow.
As a matter of fact, collecting gesneri-
ads can become quite an addiction!

"People collect the darn things just like
orchids!" said Dr. Francis Zettler, a U.F.
professor who discovered tobamovirus-
es infecting gesneriads in the 1980's.
"They just go crazy over them."
Graduate student Abby Guerra collects
unusual African violets (Saintpaulia
sp.), a hobby he says he started when
he encountered a gesneriad enthusiast
breeding the plants for fun. There was
this guy who I worked with who made
hybrid African violets. I started with a
few plants and now it's a hobby." Like
the growers of orchids, succulents, and
other collectable plants, gesneriad en-
thusiasts have banded together to cre-
ate their own fanciers' societies. One of
the biggest is the American Gloxinia &
Gesneriad Society (AGGS), which puts
out the colorful publication "The Gloxin-
ian"* on a quarterly basis (http://aggs.
org/). The website maintained by Ron
Myhr, (http://www.gesneriads.ca/), has
a beautiful and extensive photo gallery
of gesneriads for those who are inter-
Gesneriad plants are hearty, and face
few diseases, but plant pathologists
should know that they sometimes suf-
fer from crown rot (Phytophthora sp.),
root rot (Phytophthora and Pythium
sp.) These conditions are usually in-
curable, and infected plants should be
discarded. Bud rot (Botrytis cinerea)
and powdery mildew (Oidium sp.) are
also occasionally a problem. The bac-
teria Erwinia and Pseudomonas have
been isolated from diseased gesneri-
ads. Obamoviruses have been isolated
from several vegetatively propagated
gesneriads, and the tospovirus, TSWV
occurs in the florist's gloxinia (Sinningia
speciosa). Gesneriads are occasion-
ally bothered by mealybugs, mites (Cy-
clamen mites), aphids and caterpillars.
In addition, some species of gesneri-
ad, come from climates characterized
by long dry seasons, and respond by
going dormant (dying back) for a few
months. The familiar florist's gloxinia
falls into this category. These plants are
usually presumed dead and discarded,
but may be saved if watering is discon-
tinued and the plant is allowed to rest in
a cool, dry place for awhile. Usually, af-
ter a few months, new growth appears,
the plant returned to the windowsill,
and watering can be resumed. More
information can be found at http://edis.

gth Biennial Meeting
of the Florida
by Dr. Carol Stiles and Dr. Lawrence Datnoff

The 9th Biennial Meeting of the Florida
Phytopathological Society (FPS) was
held May 2 4, 2005, at Mid-Florida
Research and Education Center in
Apopka. This society was formed in
1989 to maintain and renew contacts,
exchange news, views and informa-
tion with other plant pathologists in the
state on a regular basis regarding plant
disease issues and concerns that are
relevant and often unique to Florida
agriculture. The meeting was orga-
nized by Lawrence Datnoff (GNV-plant
pathology department, vice-president
and now president of FPS), Erin Ross-
kopf (USDA-ARS, Ft. Pierce, now vice-
president of FPS), and Don Hopkins
(MREC). Sponsors included BASF,
BAYER, DuPont, Syngenta and Valent
Biosciences. Approximately 63 scien-
tists, students and industry personnel
from UF / IFAS, USDA, the Division of
Plant Industry, and industry attended
the meeting, with about 35 technical
papers presented in five concurrent
sessions: bacterial diseases (chaired
by Dave Norman, MREC), fungal dis-
eases (chaired by Phil Harmon, GNV-
plant pathology department); virus &
virus-like diseases-I & II (chaired by
Dennis Lewandowski, CREC / Scott
Adkins, USDA), and biological and
chemical control (chaired by Richard
Raid, EREC).

Dr. Stiles (left) and PLP students

An opening general session included
invited talks ranging from aerobiology
to astrobiology: X. B. Yang, Department
of Plant Pathology, Iowa State Univer-
sity presented an "Update on the Sta-
tus of Soybean Rust" while A. Schuerg-

Page 4

9th Biennial Meeting
of the Florida
Cont. from pg. 3

er, Plant Pathology Department, Space
Sciences Laboratory, Kennedy Space
Center presented "Microbial ecology,
survival and growth of terrestrial bacte-
ria on spacecraft surfaces during robot-
ic missions to mars: Implications for the
future of plant pathology in human ex-
plorations of Mars." Jay Scott, GCREC,
also an invited speaker, provided a hu-
morous monologue on "A plant breed-
ers' view of plant pathologists" during
the evening banquet. Awards were also
presented at this meeting, L. W. (Pete)
Timmer received a Service Award in
recognition of outstanding contributions
to FPS and Tom Kucharek received a
Career Achievement Award in recog-
nition of over 30 years of Outstanding
Contributions to Plant Pathology in
The graduate student research paper
competition was organized and moder-
ated by Carol Stiles (GNV-plant pathol-
ogy department), with ten plant pathol-
ogy graduate students participating.
First, second, and third place received
plaques and were given award checks
at the dinner banquet during the meet-
ing ($400, $300, $200 for first, second,
and third place, respectively).
Congratulations to the following gradu-
ate student award recipients:

Adriana Castaheda,
Wayne M. Jurick II

Matthew O. Brecht, and

First place:
Matthew O. Brecht Ecology and
pathogenicity of Bipolaris and Curvu-
laria spp. on bermudagrass putting
greens in Florida.
Second place:
Adriana Castaieda Functional analy-
sis of avr homologues found in Xan-
thomonas campestris pv. campestris

strain 528T.
Third place:
Wayne M. Jurick II Cloning and
Analysis of an Adenylate Cyclase
Gene (SAC1) from the wide host
range necrotroph Sclerotinia sclero-

SPDN Annual
Meeting 2005
by Carrie L. Harmon

The Fourth Annual Regional Meeting
of the Southern Plant Diagnostic Net-
work was held October 27-28, 2005, in
Atlanta, GA. Thirty-nine state represen-
tatives, diagnosticians, administrators,
and others attended the two-day meet-
ing. Guest speaker Consuelo Estevez,
University of Puerto Rico, talked about
new and emerging threats to agrigul-
ture and horticulture that she has seen
in the Juana Diaz plant disease labora-
tory in the past year. Harald Scherm,
and epidemiologist from the University
of Georgia, spoke about the impact of
epidemiology and the tools at our dis-
posal. Meeting attendees spoke about
developments within their states and
goals for the next few years. Several
opportunities for networking included
a dinner reception, breakout sessions
for entomology, diagnostics, training
and education, and a special evening
session on the state and regional diag-
nostic sample databases. The next re-
gional meeting aill be in Orlando, FL, in
early 2007. This meeting will be a joint
meeting with the other four regions of
the National Plant Diagnostic Network
during the first national meeting of the

Dr. Howard Beck discusses changes to the IT
and Communications protocols with the attend-
ees of the 4th Annual SPDN Regional Meeting in
Atlanta, GA. Photo by Larry Halsey, UF.

From Pete Timmer's
lab at CREC
by Dr. Pete Timmer



F. Collison Brentu, a doctoral student at
the University of Ghana in Accra, spent
6 months in Pete Timmer's lab from
September 2004 to February 2005. His
dissertation will be on citrus black spot,
a recently introduced disease in Ghana.
At CREC, he worked with Guignardia
manguiferae, a saprophytic species of
Guignardia, rather than the pathogen
G. citricarpa. He also worked with S. N.
Mondal in Timmer's lab on greasy spot
and melanose.

Renato Ferrari dos Reis

New Post-doc in
Dr. Jones' lab
by Abby Guerra

Mizuri Marutani, native of Japan is a
new Post-doc working with Dr. Jeff
Jones.She received her PhD in March
2005 from Okayama University. Her
PhD studies focused on the hrp system

Dr. Jones and M. Marutani

and flagellin of Pseudomonas syringae
pv tabaci. She joined Dr. Jones Lab in
June 2005, and will be working on the
characterization of bacteriocins of Xan-
thomonas perforans. Good luck in your

Page 5

From Pete Timmer's
lab at CREC
Cont. from pg. 4

Antonio Vicent Civera

Renato Ferrari dos Reis, a doctoral stu-
dent from Sao Paulo State University in
Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, is spending 10
months at CREC learning techniques
for handling foliar fungal pathogens
of citrus. Renato did his MS degree
at that university on the weather con-
ditions affecting infection of citrus by
Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent
of black spot. He is currently working
on the environmental conditions affect-
ing Alternaria black spot of tangerines
and management of the disease for his
doctoral dissertation. He is supervised
in Brazil by Antonio de Goes.

Antonio Vicent Civera from Polytecnic
University in Valencia, Spain is spend-
ing 3 months at CREC with a similar
purpose. In Spain, the lab Toni is in is
the reference lab for introduced fungal
pathogens and handles identification of
specimens received at ports of entry.
Toni is working on Guignardia, Elsinoe,
Alternaria and other citrus pathogens
at CREC. He is doing his doctoral
research on epidemiology and man-
agement of Alternaria brown spot. He
works with Jose Garcia Jim6nez.

Big Celebration
by Abby Guerra

Amandeep S. Kahlon, a native of Pun-
jab state in India, obtained his Master
degree in August 2005. Aman's re-
search focused on the Molecular Char-
acterization Of The Population Diversi-
ty Of Selected Isolates And Subisolates
Of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) From

Florida. Aman's advisor was Dr. Ronald
Brlansky. After graduation, Aman not
only gained admission to the University
of California at Riverside (UCR), but
he also obtained a full Fellowship from
the UCR Plant Pathology Department
to start his PhD studies. The PLP fam-
ily wishes him all the best in his future
career. Go Indian Gator!

Lisa Graduatesl
by Abby Guerra

Lisa A. Nodzon just passed her Ph.D.
defense on Nov. 15th and finished
all requirements for her PhD. Her
dissertation's titled "A Member of the
Arabidopsis thaliana XBAT Family of
Ubiquitin Protein Ligases, XBAT32, is
a Positive Regulator of Lateral Root
Development". She was working under
Dr. Song's supervision.

The Nuc-u-ler Option
Plant Pathology
Chili Cook-off
by Andy Hutchins

Before leaving for work on January
31st, I quickly surveyed my medi-
cine cabinet for two over-the-counter
meds: Tums and Pepto Bismol. I had
both. Fortunately, this contingency plan
proved unnecessary.
The culinary prowess of the chefs, the

intestinal fortitude (literally) of all those
who took part in the voting process, and
the overwhelming multi-department
turnout of hungry chili-heads, made the
annual Plant Pathology Chili Cook-off a
hot and fiery success.
Kris Beckam's "Kool Beano" and Dr.

Charudattan's "Chilitillo" (my personal
favorite) tied for third place. "Nuc-Ler,"
a concoction by Mark Ross, took sec-
ond place; however, I suspect it was his
skillful social networking, in addition to
his tasty ingredients, that helped him
win the runner-up position. And finally,
before leaving for the Wild West, Man-
junath secured a permanent position
in the Chili Cook-Off hall of fame with
his "Chili Mysore" taking Best In Show.
(Surprisingly, no one in his marketing
department was fired for this naming
faux pas.)

Page 6

Here are some honorable mentions to
entice you for next year: Guacho, Run
for the Border, Just Chili, Italian Sau-
sage, Chicken Chili, Mom's, Mushroom
and Bean, Original Texas Chili, La-
Crosse, Slightly Smoky, Smokey Trail,

Chili Verde, The Experiment, and Wid-
ow Maker. They ran the gamut, from lo-
cal to ethnic, cold to hot, and veggie to
meaty, but all were hearty and original.

The Nuc-u-ler Option
Plant Pathology
Chill Cook-off
Cont. from pg. 5

Contacts and

Birthdays from
January through April

Two new PLP PhDs
on the Market
by Abby Guerra
TwO O OUr gradUae StUens o ined
their respective PhD degree in August
2005. Dr. Adriana L. Castafeda, a na-
tive from Colombia (South America),
was working in Dr. Dean Gabriel's lab.
Her dissertation title was: Identification
And Characterization Of Genes Unique
To Systemic Xanthomonas Pathogens.
Dr. Matthew O. Brecht, a native from
Maryland (USA), was working under
Drs. Lawrence Datnoff and Carol Stiles
supervision. His thesis title was: Ecolo-
gy And Pathogenicity Of Bipolaris Spp.
And Curvularia Spp. Associated With
Decline Of Ultradwarf Bermudagrass
Golf Putting Greens In Florida, USA.
Matthew accepted a position with Syn-
genta as a turf and ornamental sales
representative. Here in the picture Dr.
Tom Kucharek is together with Adriana
and Matt.

Dr. Bartz
Gail H.
Dr. Datnoff
Mike M.
Dr. Gabriel
Dr. England
Dr. Charudattan

If you would like to contribute a short piece, article, or photo please send submissions to:
PLP News
1453 Fifield Hall
P.O. Box 110680
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 392-3631
News Team and Collaborators for Spring 2006:
Abby S. Guerra (Editor) Jose F. Figueiredo (Assistant Editor)
Abby S. Guerra, Lauretta Rahmes, Andy Hutchens III, Linley Smith, Lawrence E. Datnoff, Carol
M. Stiles, Pete Timmer, Jonathan Horrell, and Carrie Harmon.
Digital and computer support: Mark Ross
If you no longer wish to receive this newsletter, please email aguer-
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PLP News is available online at: http://plantpath.ifas.ufl.edu/
The opinions expressed in this newsletter are not necessarily those of the PLP News Staff


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