Front Cover
 Title Page
 Their health is in your hands
 Table of Contents
 The person is the thing
 How you care for yourself
 Work habits
 Safety practices
 Know what you need to do your job...
 Proper use and care of food service...
 Dishwashing and sanitizing
 Storage of utensils and food
 Care of food
 Care and disposal of garbage and...
 Pest control
 Food poisoning
 Sanitation responsibilities
 The fundamental 5 of safe food...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bulletin - Florida State Department of Education ; 33-F, rev. 1965
Title: A Guide, Florida school lunch sanitation and safety
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067271/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Guide, Florida school lunch sanitation and safety
Series Title: Bulletin State Dept. of Education
Alternate Title: Florida school lunch sanitation and safety
School lunch sanitation and safety
Physical Description: 40 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Board of Health
Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: State Board of Health, State Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1965
Subject: School lunchrooms, cafeterias, etc   ( lcsh )
Food service -- Sanitation   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067271
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 22159781

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Their health is in your hands
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Table of Contents
        Page vi
        Page vii
    The person is the thing
        Page 1
    How you care for yourself
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Work habits
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Safety practices
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Know what you need to do your job well
        Page 9
    Proper use and care of food service equipment
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Dishwashing and sanitizing
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Storage of utensils and food
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Care of food
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Care and disposal of garbage and trash
        Page 25
    Pest control
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Food poisoning
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Sanitation responsibilities
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    The fundamental 5 of safe food service
        Page 41
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text




Sanitation is a uagy of
life. 3t is the quality of
living that is expressed
in the clean home, the clean
farm, the clean business anb
industry, the clean neighbor-
hoo6, the dean community.
Zeing a ulay of life it
must come from within
the people; it is nourishe6 hg
knouledge an6 grous as
an obligation an6 an i6eal
in human rel aions. N SANT AIOFODATIONa

I- I

n-,--' CO.-2 ... "'


Revised 1965
WILSON T. SOWDER, State Health Officer

THOMAS D. BAILEY, Suprintendent

C ,- :-^T


Revised 1965
WILSON T. SOWDER, State Health Officer
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Suprintendent

~~75:, c072&73~


Their Health is in Your Hands

The State Board of Health and State Department of Edu-
cation would like to pay tribute to all the school lunch employees
who have prepared and served food safely to more than a million
Florida school children. The school lunch program has earned a
reputation for clean kitchens, clean employees and wholesome
food. The purpose of this bulletin is to help maintain this good
Feeding children is an important job. Keeping informed on
good practices is the responsibility of everyone in food service.




Because of the critical position school lunch employees

hold in maintaining child health, it is felt that there is a

need for this publication.

Sound sanitation and safety practices not only safeguard

child health, but educate by example for the perpetuation of

those practices. This imposes a double responsibility.

It is my hope that School Lunch Sanitation and Safety

will be used as a reference manual in the operation of school

lunch departments.

Superintendent of Public Instruction

ITr Ic0oou wll






loriba u tate %oarh of ePaltht







The Florida State Board of Health is pleased to join the State

Department of Education in the presentation of the Sanitation and

Safety Manual. The purpose of this guide is to promote good health,

sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of school lunch


The care and education of our young people are indispensable

to Florida's health and Welfare. The School Lunch Program, through

its influence on the total development of elementary and high school

students, should make an important contribution to individual and

community health.

School food service personnel, sanitarians, and all other persons

associated with the school lunch program will find the Manual valuable.

Wilson T. Sowder, M. D.
State Health Officer

Table of Contents


Their Health is in Your Hands ........................ iii
The Person is the Thing ............................... 1
How You Care for Yourself ........................... 2
Work Habits ......................................... 4
Safety Practices ....................................... 6
Prevent Burns .................................... 7
Protect Yourself Against Cuts ...................... 7
Avoid Other Accidents or Hazards .................. 7
Know What You Need to Do Your Job Well ............. 9
Proper Use and Care of Food Service Equipment ........ 10
Ranges .......................................... 11
Ovens ........................................... 11
Refrigerators .................. .................. 11
Freezers ................. .............. ......... 12
Dish M machines .................................... 12
Steam Jacketed Kettles .......................... 12
Steam Cookers .................................... 13
Mixers ......................................... 13
Vegetable Peelers ................................. 13
Can Openers ..................................... 13
Other Equipment ................................. 13


Cleaning Tools ............ ....................... 14
Cleaning Schedules ................................ 15
Dishwashing and Sanitizing ........................... 17
Pre-W ashing ...................................... 17
Washing ........................................ 17
Rinsing ........................................ 17
Sanitizing ........................................ 18
Drain and Air Dry ................................ 18
Storage of Utensils and Food ......................... 19
Care of Food ................. ....................... 21
Care and Disposal of Garbage and Trash ................ 25
Pest Control ........................................ 26
General Methods of Controlling Pests ............... 26
Food Poisoning ....................................... 28
Sanitation Responsibilities .............................. 31
Manager ........................................ 31
School Administrator ......................... .... 31
Health Department ................................ 31
Teacher ................ ......................... 32
School Lunch Supervisor ........................... 32
Evaluation ........................................... 33
The Fundamental Five (inside back cover)

The Person is the Thing

Disease can be passed from person to person. As a school lunch
employee, your health affects you and your work, and also the
health of the children in the school.

You Should:

Meet the same health standards required of the other mem-
bers of the school staff and other food service personnel in
the community.

Stay away from work if you have a cold, sore throat, or any
other communicable disease.

Stay away from work if you have open sores, boils or an
infected cut.

Have the approval of a physician before reporting for work
if you have been exposed to a communicable disease or
have an infectious disease (such as measles, dysentery or
scarlet fever) in your home.

Sick Person ""


Carrier of Disease insects YOU
(sick or well person)
rats & mice

Diseased Animal
Only Healthy People Should Handle Food.

How You Care for Yourself

Clean clothing and clean hands lessen the chance of contami-
nating food and utensils during handling. Good health and
sanitary practices help to protect you and those you serve.

Here are some rules for food handlers

Use plenty of soap and hot water.
Keep your body and clothes clean.
Use a deodorant.
Keep hair clean, simply styled and

* Keep fingernails short and well trimmed.

everywhere to keep in

covered by an invisible

Wash hands:

Before After
Using the toilet
Beginning work Using handkerchief
Coughing or sneezing
Handling hair or face
Touching food Handling money
Handling raw poultry
Picking things off the floor
Serving food Handling anything dirty

Use combs, makeup kits, and nail files in the rest room;
never in the kitchen or dining room.
Refrain from using tobacco while on duty.

Look professional by:

Wearing a clean, white uniform.
Wearing comfortable, low-heeled shoes, properly cleaned
and in good repair.
Using makeup sparingly.
Using colorless nail polish, if you use nail polish.
Refraining from wearing jewelry when you are in uniform.

Look Professional and Act Professional.

Work Habits

Clean people make clean places
Dirty people make dirty places
It is not the place that makes the people
It is the people who make the place!

Keep kitchen free of clutter.
Keep tables clear and clean while working.
Wash and put away equipment when no longer needed.
Use paper towels for drying hands.
Use spatulas to scrape food from bowls or pans.
Use a clean spoon to taste food-never the mixing or stir-
ring spoon.
Wash before using again, any utensil which has dropped
on the floor.
Handle plates or serving trays so that fingers do not touch
eating surface.
Handle silverware by handles.
Use tongs, spoons, forks or "throw-away" plastic gloves for
Handle food as little as possible.
If mixing is done with hands, use plastic gloves.
Discard plastic gloves after use.
Use disposable tissue rather than cloth handkerchief.
Keep fingers away from mouth, hair and face.

Do not eat while preparing or serving food.
Do not chew gum while working.
Keep purses, shoes and clothing in employee lounge.
Clean rest rooms at the close of the work day.

Do Your Habits Reflect the Clean or the Dirty Person?

Safety Practices

Every kitchen should be equipped with a well supplied first aid
kit. Keep the kitchen a safe place in which to work.

Prevent Falls By:
Wearing low-heeled, comfortable shoes.
Keeping floors dry and free from litter.
Wiping up spilled food, water and grease at once.
Reporting for immediate repair, any hazard.
Keeping traffic aisles and passages clear.
Using a stepladder or a low stool for climbing-never a
chair, box or shelf.
.I. -, : -' ,




Prevent Burns By:

Turning handles of pans on range
so that they cannot be knocked off
or caught in clothing and pulled

Using caution in removing lids --
from steaming kettles.

Preparing a place to put hot pans
before removing them from range
or oven.

Using dry pot holders.

Keeping papers, plastic aprons and other inflammable ma-
terials away from hot areas.

Protect Yourself Against Cuts By:

Keeping knives in a knife holder, not loose in a drawer.

Cutting away from you, never towards you.

Using can openers which leave no jagged edges.

Disposing of broken glass promptly.

Careful handling of cutting equipment including slicers,

Careful handling of cutting equipment including slicers,
choppers and cutter-mixers.

Avoid Other Accidents or Hazards By:

Learning how to operate all equipment and carefully follow-
ing the directions for its use.

Turning off electric switches and gas jets when not in use.

Keeping all dangerous substances clearly marked and away
from the kitchen. Never store them with food supplies, dishes,
utensils or cleaning supplies.

* Discarding without tasting, any food which appears spoiled.
Spoilage is evidenced by leaking or bulging cans, off odor,
cloudy appearance or mushiness. "If in doubt, throw it out."
* Placing dishes, cans and containers firmly on shelves to pre-
vent their falling. Do not overcrowd or overload shelves.
* Getting help to move or lift heavy equipment, cases, boxes
or bags.
* Using dollies whenever possible for handling crates, boxes,
storage cans and other heavy things.
* Lifting with your back straight and knees bent to prevent
* Stooping instead of bending.
* Excluding from the kitchen all persons not doing school
lunch work.
* Moving cautiously rather than too hastily.

Protect Yourself and Be with Us Tomorrow.

Know What You Need

To Do Your Job Well

Safe, sanitary food cannot be prepared, stored or served using
insanitary facilities. Only quality products properly prepared
and handled in a clean environment can be depended on to
produce a safe lunch.

Floors should be free from dirt, litter and moisture and
should be properly cleaned daily.
The walls and ceilings, including windows, doors and light
fixtures should be kept clean.
Exposed pipes should be kept clean.
Screens on windows, doors and outer openings should be
kept closed and clean.
Exhaust fans and hoods should be properly operated and
kept clean.
Rest rooms, including fixtures, should be scrubbed daily,
or more frequently if necessary. An adequate supply of paper
towels and soap should be provided at all times.
All counters, shelves, tables, refrigeration equipment, sinks
and other equipment or utensils should be so constructed as
to be easily cleaned.
Cracked or chipped glassware and dishes should be dis-
Work table tops should be clean and free from cracks.
Equipment should be placed a cleanable distance from walls
and floors. Do not neglect to clean that area.
Don't Be Half Clean!

Proper Use and Care of

Food Service Equipment

Food cannot be kept clean and safe if it comes in contact with
utensils and equipment which have not been properly cleaned
and sanitized. Eating and drinking utensils may be responsible
for spreading contagious diseases. Germs may be coughed or
sneezed on food, dishes, and utensils; they may be left on
utensils which come in contact with the mouth.

Ranges should be cleaned daily.
Let cool. With a putty knife, scrape off any burned ma-
With cloth wrung out in detergent solution, wash top of

Wipe dry.
Wash, rinse and dry exterior as needed.


Ovens should be cleaned after each use.

Scrape up any spills.
Wash if necessary.
Wash, rinse and dry exterior as needed.


The Sanitary Code of Florida requires that each refrigera-
tor be provided with a thermometer.
Air temperature in all parts of the refrigerator must be
400 F or below.
The inside of the refrigerator should be kept clean and dry.
Wipe up spills immediately.
Wash interior at least once a week with warm water to
which a little baking soda has been added.
Wipe dry.
Wash, rinse and dry exterior as needed.


Use only for storage of frozen products.
Defrost and clean interior as needed.
Wash, rinse and dry exterior as needed.

Dish Machines:
Dish machines should be cleaned after each use.
Scrub inside of machine.
Rinse with hot water, using a hose.
Scrub scrap trays and leave on dish table to air and dry.
Scrub curtains and leave out to air and dry.
Leave dish machine doors open or the curtains off, to permit
air to circulate in machine.
At least once a week, remove wash and rinse tubes and
clean, making sure that the openings are not clogged. In do-
ing this, follow the manufacturer's instructions.
Wash, rinse and dry exterior as needed.

Steam Jacketed Kettles:
Immediately after use, fill kettle with water above the cook-
ing level, to soak until washed.
Heat soaking water, if food contained fat.
Scrub interior with long-handled stiff brush.
Drain scrub water.
Partly fill with hot detergent solution.
Scrub interior, hinges and lid.
Wash outside of kettle and legs.
Open valve and scrub valve with bottle brush as solution
Rinse and dry.

Steam Cookers:
Clean daily.
Remove shelves and wash sides and shelves with hot water
and detergent.
Flush drain line.
Leave door ajar when not in use.
Clean boiler at least once a week.

Wash bowl and beater after each use.
Dry and store in clean place.
Clean beater shaft and body of machine with warm water
and detergent.

Vegetable Peelers:
Clean after each use.
Flush inside with water.
Remove the disc and rinse the inside thoroughly.

Can Openers:
Clean can opener at least daily.
Remove shank and scrub with brush in hot detergent water.
Rinse in hot water and dry.
Wipe the base.
Inspect the cutting blade. Replace if nicked or dull. Dull
blades produce shavings which can fall into the food and be
very dangerous.

Other Equipment:
Counters, shelves, tables, hoods and sinks should be kept
clean and free from dust, dirt, insects, and other contaminat-
ing material.

Cleaning Tools:

It is the responsibility of the employee to take care of the
tools and supplies provided.

if -: t Il- i :i
\I L_- I -ii.
_--- 7 i


Wash thoroughly after each use in fresh, hot detergent wa-
Rinse in clean hot water to which a sanitizer has been added.
Wring out.
Hang mop to dry thoroughly.


Mop Buckets:
Rinse out the bucket immediately after use.
Allow to drain.
Store upside down.

Run clear water through wringers after use.
Open wringer, allow to dry.

Wash thoroughly in fresh, hot detergent after each use.
Rinse in hot running water.
Dip in water to which sanitizer has been added.
Shake and hang to dry.

Rags and Sponges:
Begin each cleaning job with clean cloths or sponges.
After use, wash thoroughly in hot detergent water.
Rinse in clean hot water to which a sanitizer has been
Wring out.
Dry thoroughly.

Cleaning Schedules:
Include everything that needs to be cleaned, in a cleaning
Make sure that somebody has the responsibility for cleaning
each item.
For a sample cleaning schedule, see page 16.

Take Care of Your Equipment.


Floors Mop Scrub Apply seal if necessary
Walls Clean as needed
Hood Wash
Filters Wash
Windows Wash
Light Fixtures Wash
Rest Room Clean fixtures and floor
Storeroom Sweep Mop Scrub thoroughly Wash shelves
Garbage Area Hose Scrub
Range Clean Remove top sections
and clean
Oven Clean inside and out Apply rust Clean burner
preventive compartments
Steamer Clean compartments Blow down boiler Manually clean
Steam Kettle Wash inside and out
Work Tables Clean thoroughly
Mixer Clean thoroughly
Peeler Clean thoroughly
Dishwasher Clean scrap trays. Hose Remove & clean De-lime, if
inside, wipe outside. Wash & rinse arms & necessary
Refrigerator Wipe up spills immediately Wash thoroughly
Can Opener Wipe outside
Garbage Pails Scrub
Loading Zone Sweep & hose Scrub

Dishwashing and Sanitizing

The rule is wash-rinse-sanitize. Give special attention to
tines of forks and bowls of spoons. It has been shown that
disease organisms can be transferred from infected persons to
eating utensils and that disease germs may survive poor dish-
washing methods.

Prior to washing, eating and other utensils should be pre-
scraped and pre-flushed and, when necessary, pre-soaked to
remove gross food particles and soil.

Modern detergents have been developed for various cleaning
operations. Be sure the detergent you use is capable of do-
ing the job.
(Hand Method) Wash in water 1000 F-1200 F or as reason-
ably hot as your hands can stand. Be sure to start with
proper amount of detergent in wash water. Fresh wash water
should be made up as needed.
(Machine Method) Equipment and eating utensils should
be placed in racks, trays, and baskets so that all surfaces
touched by food are subjected to a direct spray of wash and
rinse waters.
Directions for operation may vary with different dish ma-
chines. Follow the instructions that accompany your equip-
ment. Remember dishwashing machines give satisfactory re-
sults only if operated according to manufacturer's directions.
Add detergent when necessary. Keep dishwashing machines
clean and in good repair at all times.

All rinsing should be done with clear, hot water.

This is the application of a substance or condition to a
utensil for the purpose of destroying bacteria.
Total immersion of utensil in clean hot water at least 1700 F
for 1/ minute or more.
Total immersion of utensil for a period of at least one min-
ute in a clean sanitizing solution containing-
(a) At least 50 parts per million of available chlorine at a
temperature of not less than 750 F, or
(b) a minimum of 121/2 parts per million of available io-
dine at not less than 75' F, or
(c) any other chemical sanitizing agent that has officially
been approved by the county health department.
Dish machines. The final fresh water rinse shall be at a tem-
perature of at least 1800 F.
Fixed equipment or that which is too large to be treated by
immersion may be sanitized by spraying or swabbing with a
solution at least twice as strong as required for immersion

Drain and Air Dry:
Utensils should be stored in such a manner that they will
not be contaminated by dust, etc.

The Dishwashing and Sanitizing Operation is
Not Complete Until All Facilities Used for This
Operation are Cleaned.

Storage of Utensils and Food

Properly cleaned utensils and equipment will become contami-
nated unless properly stored and handled.

Shelves used for utensils should be kept clean. Cloth, paper,
oilcloth or similar material should not be used for shelf
covering since they provide insect hiding places.
Containers and utensils should be stored at a sufficient height,
not less than 12 inches above the floor, in a clean dry place,
protected from insects, splash, dust, overhead leakage,
condensation and other contamination.
Drain racks, trays, and shelves should be made of non-
corrosive material, and should be kept clean.
Utensils should not be handled by the surfaces which come
in contact with food or drink. Fingers should not touch the
drinking or eating surface of glasses, cups, dishes nor the
bowls of spoons, tines of forks, or the blades of knives.
Paper cups, plates, spoons, straws, forks and other single
service utensils should be purchased in sanitary containers
and stored in a clean, dry place until used.
Cartons containing single service paper utensils should be
opened in such a manner as to prevent contamination of
those not used.
Straws should be individually wrapped or dispensed in such
a manner that germs cannot be transferred from one person
to another.
Ventilation is necessary for good food storage. Let cool air
in, warm air out.
Store loose bulk foods such as sugar, flour and beans in cov-
ered metal containers.
Older foods should be moved to the front when new sup-
plies are stored. "First in first out."

,l ,I .I' T --- aL- -1-Q ,

Properly Handled and Stored in a Clean Place.
I ..1 ; -1II -

A Clean Item Cannot Be Kept Clean Unless
Properly Handled and Stored in a Clean Place.

Care of Food

Lack of adequate refrigeration can be responsible for the
spread of food infection and food poisoning outbreaks.

Refrigerator temperature must be below 40 F in the warm-
est part of the storage area. A thermometer should be per-
manently located at this point and checked-especially when
the kitchen is warmest.
All foods should be kept covered while in the refrigerator.
Large quantities of food should be stored in thin layers in
shallow pans rather than in deep containers.
Space should be left between storage items to allow for
circulation of air.
Sliced, boned, hashed or other cooked meats should not be
kept at room temperature for more than one hour after cook-
ing. Infected meats may appear satisfactory to the sight,
touch and smell.

( >Y

I I fl(1('


Hands and equipment must be thoroughly washed after han-
dling uncooked poultry.
When ice is used, it must be from sources approved by the
health department. Only clean equipment and utensils should
be used for storing and handling ice.
All pre-cooked food should be refrigerated at 40' F or less.
Potentially hazardous* foods must always be kept at a safe
temperature, below 400 F or above 150' F.
Frozen products should be stored at or below 0 F. Never
refreeze products once they are thawed.
Frozen foods must be thawed in the refrigerator at 400 F
or below, or under cold running tap water, or as part of the
cooking process.
Raw fruits and vegetables should be thoroughly washed be-
fore being used.
Only those foods which are commercially processed and sub-
ject to inspection are recommended for school lunch pur-
All meat, milk and other dairy products must be from a
source approved by local or state health authorities.
Only pasteurized milk and milk products may be used.
All milk must be served in the individual, original container
or from an approved dispenser.

* (Potentially hazardous foods include all custard and cream
fillings; poultry; egg products; shellfish; salads or creamed
dishes containing meat, fish, eggs or milk products.)

* Leftover foods should be avoided by proper planning. Under
no circumstances should they be used after 24 hours.
* Pork should be cooked until it is no longer red or pink.
* Margarine, peanut butter, honey, syrup, butter, jams, jellies,
and similar items should be served in individual portions,
and not in bulk unless from approved dispensers.
* Paper napkins should be provided.
* Straws should be individually wrapped or dispensed so that
there is no possibility of spreading germs.
* Do not serve plates in advance of lunch period. Serve chil-
dren as they pass down the line.
* To keep food supply fresh and at proper temperature, re-
plenish service counters at frequent intervals.
* Food, even though in containers, should never be placed on
the floor.
* All milk must be refrigerated until served.

Care for Yourself and Children by Taking Care
of the Food You Prepare and Serve.





*fruits (except Processed
-*. "vegetable or
S*-eggs fruit salads
-' ^ "*^dairy foods


*cooked foods
(especially meats)
*food prepared in



*food prepared in advance

Low temperatures stop or slow down the growth of bacteria,
yeasts and molds. Proper refrigeration and handling keeps spoil-
age at a minimum and food poisoning and food-borne diseases are
less likely to occur. Keep these perishable foods refrigerated un-
til prepared and served.

Care and Disposal of Garbage and Trash

All garbage and refuse are potential breeding places of disease
producing germs and disease bearing insects and serve as a
food supply for rodents.

Garbage and trash should be kept in tight, nonabsorbent,
easily washed containers, of not more than 20 gallon ca-
Garbage cans should be provided with tight-fitting lids that
are kept on when not in actual use.
Paper liners for garbage cans aid in cleaning and prolong-
ing the life of these containers.
All garbage receptacles should be washed with hot water
and detergent and rinsed with clean water daily.
A rodent and vermin free area large enough to hold all out-
door garbage cans should be provided.
Insecticides can be used effectively in and near garbage and
waste areas. Only those recommended by the county health
department should be used.
Trash and paper waste should be disposed of.

We Don't Get Paid for Feeding Insects and Rats!

Pest Control

The school lunch department should be free of all pests, par-
ticularly flies, roaches, ants, mice and rats. The reason for
preventing and eliminating rodents and insects is that they
spread disease. They walk and feed on all kinds of filth, pick-
ing up germs on their feet and bodies then depositing them on
any food and utensils they touch.
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Good house-
keeping is a must in controlling pests. No amount of insecticides
and no extermination program can overcome the effects of poor
daily housekeeping.

General Methods of Controlling Pests:
Unless a licensed commercial exterminating firm is em-
ployed, use poisons only under the direction and supervi-
sion of the health department.
Soaps and cleaning powders must not be stored with dan-
gerous substances, and neither should they be stored with
Storage items should be 12 inches above the floor or on
movable dollies. Equipment should be placed a cleanable dis-
tance from walls.
All cracks and crevices should be sealed.
Keep all food covered.
Keep garbage cans covered tightly. Empty and clean them
Dispose of trash promptly and clean the trash cans.
Clean up spilled foods immediately.
Clean shelves and drawers frequently.
Keep walls, floors, and ceilings clean and well lighted, no
dark corners.

* Keep screens on all openings closed.
* Report breaks in screens of windows and doors, cracks in
walls, ceilings and floors.
* Report all openings around wiring, drain pipe, vents and
* Keep food in metal or other approved containers with tight-
fitting lids.
* Keep the inside and outside of the buildings clean.
* Inspect and unpack produce on arrival. Cockroaches may be
brought into school lunch department in crates or cartons
of food.
* Clean up outdoor insect and rodent breeding places such as
rubbish, scrap lumber and tin cans.
* Many chemicals for the control of pests are available on the
market today. The use of these in any food establishment is
an indication of some insanitary condition.
* Never use any poison, chemical, or insecticide unless ap-
proved in writing by the county health department.

Insects and Rodents Spread Disease.
Don't Let Them Live with You.


Food Poisoning

Food poisoning is a general term, not exact in itself, but often
used to describe any type of disease or illness caused by taking
into the body spoiled, contaminated, or adulterated food or
drink. Mistakenly, it has many times been referred to as
"Ptomaine Poisoning."

Food prepared far in advance + poor refrigeration + careless
handling = sickness

Almost all reported cases of food-borne disease are caused by
bacteria or by poisons produced by bacteria. This poison is formed
in food before it is eaten and cannot be detected by taste, odor,
or color.
The Salmonella germ is found in the intestines of birds and
animals-including rats, mice, dogs and cats-and is sometimes
"carried" by a healthy person.
The Staphylococcus germs-sometimes referred to as "Staph"
or "pus-forming" bacteria are found in the nose and throat, in
sores and boils, and on the skin of man.
Botulism is the most deadly type of food poisoning. It is caused
by a poison produced by the germ Clostridium botulinum. Found
everywhere in the soil, this germ is very resistant to heat and
cold. It can also live and grow without air. Since it can grow
without air, the conditions found in canned non-acid or low-
acid foods are ideal for growth and manufacture of its powerful,
deadly poison. The germ itself does not cause disease, but the
poison it produces is usually fatal to man. A mere taste of food
containing the powerful poison causing botulism has been known
to cause death. Doubtful non-acid food should be destroyed.

Trichinosis, a condition of infested pork, can cause illness when
pork has not been cooked sufficiently. Trichinosis is due to a
round worm found in the muscles of some meat-eating animals.
The most common host to this worm is the rat. Animals which
prey on or occasionally eat rats, such as the pig, dog and cat,
may become infested with them. Careful investigations have
shown that these encysted worms found in pork are killed when
the meat is sufficiently heated or frozen for varying periods.
Therefore, all pork products should be thoroughly cooked. A
change to a light color is a good indication that pork has been
sufficiently cooked to render the cyst harmless. Pork should
never be served when pink meat is visible. Purchase government
inspected meats and cook well.

Undulant fever (Brucellosis) is contracted from the raw milk
of infected cows. Septic sore throat, dysenteries and scarlet fever
may be transmitted by means of contaminated milk. These latter
three conditions may be caused by improper handling of any
milk. To avoid these milk-borne illnesses, milk should be pas-
teurized and handled under the health department's approval.

Disease producing bacteria are spread:

By bacteria carriers; such people may seem well but carry
bacteria that make other people sick.

In the air when a person sneezes or coughs.

By their presence on improperly cleaned and sanitized eat-
ing and cooking utensils and equipment.
By the hands that have not been properly washed.
By fingernails not properly cleaned.
By contamination of food, utensils and equipment from
flies, insects, rats and mice.
By improper handling and preparation of food.
By use of common towels.
By serving improperly cooked food.
By poor personal hygiene practices of food handlers.
By use of foods from unapproved sources.


Only 1 After 20 min-
utes 2 bacteria
from the first

After 40 min-
utes 4 bacteria
from the first

0 ***

.00 bacteria

After 3 hours
500 bacteria
from the first

Hundreds of Different Kinds of Bacteria Can Cause
Disease. Don't Use Contaminated or Questionable Food.

Sanitation Responsibilities

Call all sanitation and safety hazards to the attention of prin-
cipal immediately.
Request from proper authorities facilities, materials and sup-
plies needed in connection with sanitation and safety.
Check department at regular intervals.
Keep up to date.
Train school lunch personnel. Practice what you know.
Cooperate with others responsible for program.

School Administrator:
Provide facilities, materials and supplies needed.
Provide special personnel as needed.
Delegate responsibility and authority as necessary.
Make training possible and require participation.
Cooperate with school lunch personnel and others concerned.

Health Department:
Inspect school lunch departments regularly.
Discuss improvements and problems with manager, prin-
cipal, school lunch supervisor and superintendent.
Furnish copy of inspection reports to manager, principal,
and county superintendent.
Assist in securing sanitation materials and supplies.
Cooperate with school officials in planning and conducting
training programs.

Teach pupils proper personal sanitation habits through ex-
ample and class activities.
Assist in making the school lunch a positive learning ex-

School Lunch Supervisor:
Work with those concerned in developing standards, poli-
cies and practices regarding sanitation.
Work with administrators and teachers in making the sani-
tation aspects of school lunch a positive learning experience
for children.
Solicit aid from the health department personnel when
help is needed.
Assist in securing "built-in" sanitation for school lunch de-
Plan and conduct such training programs as are necessary
for the maintenance of established sanitation standards.
Prepare or secure suitable materials for sanitation educa-


Sanitation and safety depends on the desire of school lunch
personnel to employ good practices rather than their depend-
ence on outside enforcement.

The following check list is designed to assist in self-evaluation:

I LI 1. Are the entrance ways clean and orderly?
LI D 2. Are all inside doors clean?
D D 3. Are the screens in good repair?


O O 4. Are the windows and window sills clear, clean
and free of dust?

O F] 5. Is the floor clean?
DO 6. Are floor drains clean and in good working or-

O D 7. Are all corners and baseboards clean?
]O 8. Has dirt collected above the hoods? In the
openings of the air vents?

D ] 9. Are all tables clean and orderly?
O O 10. Are dining room tables in place?
O O 11. Are the legs and undersides of the tables clean?
O O 12. Are the chairs free of dust and food particles?
]D ] 13. Are all clean glasses inverted to prevent dust

Q 14. Is silver placed in the containers with the han-
dles up?

FO O 15. Are serving utensils handled in a sanitary man-
F F 16. Are clean serving utensils handled in a sanitary
O O 17. Are suitable serving utensils available?
O O] 18. Are all dishes properly handled for the service
of food?
]O O 19. Are scoops, scales and other dispensing equip-
ment routinely cleaned?
-I L 20. Is the drinking fountain always clean?
LO L 21. Is the counter kept attractive, clean and or-
derly during the complete serving period?

L7 L 22. Is the counter cleaned daily?

L L] 23. Are readily perishable foods refrigerated?


F ] 24. Are dairy products always kept at proper tem-

O O 25. Are all refrigerators kept clean-inside and out?
-O 26. Are refrigerators maintained at the correct tem-

E 27. Are milk and ice cream cabinets regularly de-
frosted and cleaned?

nO O 28. Is all spilled food wiped up immediately?
Q E 29. Is the entire storeroom kept clean and neat at
all times?

FO O 30. Are all supplies stored above the floor level?
E F 31. Does storeroom arrangement allow for free cir-
culation of air?

-O O 32. Is the old stock used first?
F 33. Are all drums and other bulk containers kept

FO O 34. Are shelves and platforms kept clean?
O O] 35. Are cleaning compounds stored apart from

]O O 36. Are employees provided with proper and ade-
quate cleaning equipment?

E] ] 37. Are all cleaning operations and procedures
checked routinely?

F ] 38. Does any equipment need repair?
El ] 39. Has the proper local authority been told of
needed repairs?

n ] 40. Are garbage and trash containers kept covered?

Do We:

F E 1. Always keep hot food HOT? Always keep cold
food COLD?


[ 2 2. Thoroughly cook all pork and pork products,
whether fresh or cured?
F 3. Thoroughly wash all fruits and vegetables?
E ] 4. Obey the rule, "Never re-freeze products once
they are thawed?"
F 5. Cool pre-cooked food in shallow pans, then re-
frigerate them as soon as possible?

D D 6. Avoid all unnecessary handling of food?
Q Q 7. Eliminate leftovers through wise planning?
] 8. Have an ample supply of clean pot holders?
D[ ] 9. Routinely discard chipped or cracked utensils?
FO O 10. Make certain that all eating utensils are clean
and sanitized?

E ] 11. Change the wash water as necessary to keep it
F ] 12. Pre-rinse, wash, rinse and sanitize all cooking

F ] 13. Permit utensils to air dry?
EL ] 14. Keep the pot and pan rack neat and clean?
] [] 15. Keep the pot sinks clean?
-O E 16. Immediately empty the peel trap of the vege-
table peeler after each use?
EO 17. Thoroughly clean all hidden spots, such as:
E Q Behind counters?
D] F In corners?
O OE The base of mixers?
D F The base of peelers?

O 7 Under slicers?

F El Under food cutters?


L F] Behind and between fixed equipment?
F] F The top of equipment?
[] F 18. Keep the refrigerator door tightly closed?
O ] 19. Thoroughly wash, rinse and dry the mops and
scrub brushes after each use?
FO F 20. Use the correct cleaning equipment for each
F] F 21. Have garbage removed daily?
F] F 22. Scrub garbage cans after they are emptied?
FO F 23. Keep the garbage can covers clean?
F] F 24. Keep the covers in good condition so that they
fit the cans?
F] F 25. Practice what we know?
F] F 26. Change our way of work when necessary?

Do Employees:

F] F 1. Use warm, soapy water for washing the tables?
F] F 2. Use clean, unstained cloths or sponges for rins-
ing and wiping the tables?
F0 F 3. Change the soiled cloths or sponges for clean as
F DF 4. Realize the importance of proper grooming?
F] 0 5. Realize the importance of good health?
F] F 6. Realize the value of clean personal habits?
] F 7. Wear proper uniform?
F 0F 8. Wear a hair net?
FO O 9. Wear comfortable shoes?
FO O 10. Keep the hands away from the face and hair?


FO 11. Refrain from wearing street apparel while on

O [- 12. Realize the importance of protecting food from
all sneezes and coughs?

L ] 13. Wash the hands frequently and thoroughly:
7 7 Before starting work?
O O After going to the toilet?
O O After using a handkerchief?
O O Whenever soiled?
O O] 14. Keep the nails short, smooth and clean?

Check List for Personal and Safety Habits:

E ] 1. Is employees' appearance checked each day be-
fore starting work?

[ L 2. Are employees who have colds or sore throats
prohibited from working?

F F 3. Are bandaged fingers protected by rubber

F 4. Are all employees free from breaks in the skin
or infections of hands, arms or face?

O O- 5. Are soap and individual towels available?
O O 6. Are hand-washing signs conspicuously posted?
O O 7. Do employees know and practice the correct
way to wash their hands?
n F 8. Do you practice safety in your own job?
Q 9. Are faulty work practices corrected in order to
improve safety and sanitation in your location?

FO O 10. Have employees been taught safe and sanitary
job habits?

Dishwashing-Hand Method:
Hot Water Sanitization

Do You:
D D 1. Scrape and pre-rinse all dishes, trays and other
IO O 2. Use 100 F to 1200 F wash water, or as reason-
ably hot as your hands can stand it?
] D 3. Change the dish water when it becomes dirty?
O O 4. Keep the proper amount of detergent in the
wash water throughout the dishwashing opera-
D L 5. Use dish baskets for rinsing and sanitizing?
IO D 6. Check the temperature of the sanitizing bath at
frequent intervals with a thermometer?
D I 7. Maintain water at 1700 F or above for sanitiz-
D D 8. Keep each batch of dishes in the sanitizing bath
for at least one-half minute?
D n 9. Air dry the dishes?
QO I 10. Store dishes, trays and utensils in a dust, rodent
and insect free place?

Chemical Sanitization
Do You:

LI i 1. Scrape and pre-rinse all dishes, trays and other
L ] 2. Keep your wash water at 1000 F to 120 F or
as reasonably hot as your hands can stand it?
E] I 3. Change the dish water when it becomes dirty?


E L 4. Keep the proper amount of detergent in the
wash water throughout the dishwashing opera-

F D 5. Use dish baskets for rinsing and sanitizing?
D 6. Rinse in clear, warm water?
D 7. Immerse for at least one minute in the sanitiz-
ing bath?
i 8 8. Use the type and amounts of sanitizing agent
recommended by your health department?

D Q 9. Add more sanitizing agent as required when the
water becomes diluted?

F 10. Air dry dishes?
FO O 11. Store dishes in a dust, rodent and insect free

Dishwashing-Machine Method:

Do You:

O O] 1. Scrape and pre-rinse all dishes, trays and other

FO O 2. Follow the manufacturer's instructions?
F D 3. Change the dish water when it becomes dirty9
E ] 4. Keep the proper amount of detergent in the
wash water throughout the dishwashing opera-

L L 5. Rinse at 1800 F?
[ O 6. Air dry dishes?
O O] 7. Store dishes in a dust, rodent and insect free

F s.S
/L,. 33-F


These are the five fundamentals for safe, sani-
tary food service. Good food sanitation includes
other details, but if any one of these basic five
points is missing, no food service operation can
be entirely safe.
1. CLEAN HANDS-Dirty hands spread germs.
Hands and fingernails should be washed thor-
oughly with soap and water before work, after
using toilet and every time they are soiled.
2. CLEAN SERVICE-Handling utensils the wrong
way may spread disease. Paper service should be
handled carefully to keep it sanitary. Other uten-
sils should be washed clean, sanitized as recom-
mended by the health department, then carefully
stored and handled.
3. CLEAN FOOD-Food may be infected by coughs,
sneezes, handling, dirty equipment, vermin, ani-
mals, and wastes. It should be protected during
storage, preparation, display and service.
4. RIGHT TEMPERATURE-Cold stops germs
from growing; heat kills them. Cold foods should
be kept cold; hot foods should be kept hot. Pre-
pared food never should be left standing at room
temperature one unnecessary minute.
5. HEALTHY WORKERS-Food workers must be
healthy, for colds and other diseases may be
passed to others. Germs from infected cuts, pim-
ples or boils may cause food poisoning.


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