Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The air age and modern living
 Air age education in the elementary...
 Air age education in the secondary...
 Teaching aids
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bulletin - Florida State Department of Education ; no. 51
Title: Developing understandings for living in an air age
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067267/00001
 Material Information
Title: Developing understandings for living in an air age a curriculum guide for air age education in Florida elementary and secondary schools
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 36 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: State Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1946
Subject: Aeronautics -- Study and teaching -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: "January, 1946."
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067267
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 21384967

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Front Matter
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    The air age and modern living
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Air age education in the elementary school
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Air age education in the secondary school
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Teaching aids
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Back Cover
        Page 38
Full Text




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A Curriculum Guide for Air Age Education
in Florida Elementary and Secondary Schools

Tallahassee, Florida

Colin English, State Superintendent Public Instruction
W. T. Edwards, Director, Division of Instruction

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of Bulletin








C or centuries people have thought
of the world as consisting of many parts-oceans, continents, islands,
arctic regions, deserts, urban and rural areas. The human world has
also been considered as consisting of many parts-nations, languages,
religions, customs, and races. It has been a world in which people faced
the obstructions of coastlines and mountain ranges.
Today we are faced with a new reality, that of an air world which
has few barriers or boundaries, no static physical divisions. Air provides
universality in the physical relations of the earth and demands oneness
in human relations. In spite of this new reality, however, the separations
on the earth's surface will continue to dominate attitudes toward world
problems unless we make a deliberate effort to reshape our thinking
to include the new situation.
The function of this bulletin, Developing Understandings for Living
in An Air Age, is to focus the attention of educators upon the need for
observing the impact of technological advances upon our social, economic,
and political ways of living. The material presented should serve as a
guide to curriculum study in connection with education for an air age
and to the constant curriculum revision that is necessary if schools are to
respond to new demands which are outgrowths of an ever-changing civil-
ization. Throughout the bulletin emphasis is placed upon the thought
that developing understandings for living in an air age is a part of the
regular educational program and that many opportunities for its inclusion
already exist within the framework of the curriculum.
Grateful acknowledgment is made to Skyways Magazine for the
cover picture, and to Pinellas County Schools, the Air Scouts of Florida,
and the Civil Aeronautics Administration for the other illustrations.



The Young People of Florida Face a World Made Small
and Interdependent by Rapid Communication and

Part I

The Air Age and Modern Living

Social and Economic Implications
The world's entrance into the air age has created a unique situation
with attendant opportunities and problems. The advent of the air-
plane. and its rapid technological improvement have combined with
the older forms of transportation and communication to make the
world seem smaller. People and nations are closer together in terms
of travel time. No spot on earth is more than 60 hours from the
nearest airport. There are no longer remote or isolated parts of the
world as were common a few years ago. The Brazilian, the Russian,
the Malayan are literally our neighbors. Whether we wish it or not,
we have suddenly become an international people!
Within our own country it is possible for any air traveler to reach
his destination on the same day he leaves home. Inland cities will
become great terminal points or ports for passenger and freight
service. Significant shifts in population are occurring because of
new vocational opportunities in aviation.

Florida and Aviation
Florida will doubtless be particularly influenced by aviation.
With more good flying weather and fewer natural hazards than are
common elsewhere, Florida has everything to facilitate air travel
and nothing to retard it. Florida's position at the corner of the
continent places it at the crossroads of air routes to the other Ameri-
cas, Africa, Europe and Asia. Florida's perishable crops will
stimulate the growth of cargo transportation. Winter vegetables,
strawberries, grapefruit, oranges, tropical fruits, and flowers can be
taken by refrigerated air express to all parts of our own country and
to European cities as well.
Three peculiarities of air travel account in large part for the social,
political, and economic impacts made by the development of aviation.
One is that aircraft are able to travel in any direction, unimpeded by
surface obstructions. Another is their typically high speed. A third
is their rapidly increasing capacity to carry heavy loads over long

distances. Aviation will not, of course, supplant older methods of
transportation; but, by adding the means of high speed passenger,
express, and light freight traffic, it will supplement these. As in
other departures from older systems, the new means will make more
business and while aviation will absorb a proportionate share of the
increased total load, the general gairi in trade and traffic will prob-
ably give the older systems more rather than less business to handle.

Educational Implications of the Air Age
Since many of the economic and social impacts of modern aviation
are already apparent, it is urgent that school people discern the
educational implications for the present and immediate future.
Rather suddenly, aviation has become a significant part of our
environment and as such demands the attention of every teacher
and of every curriculum committee. Education for the air age is not
primarily a matter of introducing new subjects into the curriculum.
It is more a matter of reorganizing certain aspects of existing sub-
jects in terms of new emphases and new illustrative materials. But
if such reorganization is left to chance and time, a serious gap occurs
between the work of the classroom and the realities of living. Conse-
quently, teacher planning has become of vital necessity. The children
now in school, the adults in the community who can be reached by
special classes, teachers themselves-all who are living in the air age
need to adapt their thinking to the many changes and problems
brought about by aviation, and in order to do so need the guidance
that good planning brings.
If we were living in an autocracy, these problems would need to
concern the common man very little. They would be solved-for good
or ill-by the autocrat. But we are living in a democracy. Problems
in our nation are solved by the democratic processes of group dis-
cussion, co-operative thinking, and legislative experimentation by the
representatives of the people. Hence, the rank and file must awaken
to their responsibilities.
To attack any problem successfully, however, requires an intelli-
gent understanding of the framework of basic facts, ideas, and points
of view in which the problem is embedded. This fact points the course
.of direction the schools should take. The schools can and should make
important contributions to the development in their pupils of the

elements of this framework. Such understandings should be the
possession of every citizen in a democracy.
Following are some of the problems of far-reaching importance
which already need attention:
A. What modifications in present living will have to be made in order
to adjust to an era of greatly accelerated travel.and commerce on a
local, state, national, and international scale?
B. "What changes will be necessary to adjust to a way of life based
on the need for a high degree of competency in handling rapid
speed precision machines and instruments?
C. What adaptations will be necessary because of increased contact
with people from other localities, with their varying interests,
languages, occupations, nationalities, and governments?
D. How well will our citizens of tomorrow be prepared to adapt and
adjust to a new system of interstate and international air trans-
portation and the attendant relationships?
E. What problems of a more specific nature impinge upon the elemen-
tary school curriculum? For example, skills such as reading and using
maps, charts, tables, and time schedules become imperative. Such
important geographic factors as the relation of people to resources,
industries, transportation, take on new significance.

Planning for Air Age Education
The need of curriculum changes to take into account the impact
of aviation on our modern world has now reached the point of action.
It has been shown both by research and experience that the best
way to overcome the natural inertia in making curriculum changes
is to have them worked out by teachers rather than by distant experts.
When a series of suggestions for change are worked out by others and
then merely handed by the school administrators to the teachers,
these suggestions mean little and consequently may be regarded in-
differently. Success is more likely to result when school systems or
individual schools arrange for committees of teachers in various
curriculum areas to study the changes which should be recommended
and to give specific help in making these changes effective. With
respect to aviation, the action of such committees may result in
formulation of suggestions for aviation emphases paralleling ac-
cepted topics and units for each area of study. The names of useful
books and pamphlets may be listed, and lists of visual materials may
be prepared as a part of committee contribution. If each teacher had
at hand a series of curriculum suggestions, made in part by himself
as a committee member, or by a colleague representing him, the intro-
ducing of aviation education into our schools would be prompt and

SFollowing are a few suggestions for activities that any county
curriculum committee, principals' organization, classroom teacher
group, or local faculty might initiate in order to give impetus to
developing understandings for living in the air age. Other activities
will occur to the alert teacher.
1. Establish a Materials Bureau Exchange. Homemade equip-
ment, mock-ups, and other illustrative material can often be
2.' Sponsor a Teachers' Fair. When a number of teachers dis-
play the materials they have used in aviation education,
everyone who sees such materials will gain new ideas.
3. Secure Air Age News, Classroom Clipper, or a similar news
sheet for each teacher, so that he may keep informed as to
current developments in aviation.
4. Let each faculty "spot" a social studies or science unit re-
lated to aviation at each of the four levels-primary,
intermediate, junior high, senior high.
5. Sponsor a model airplane contest, possibly with the help of a
civic club.
6. Encourage a year long study by faculty groups.

Part 11

Air Age Education in the Elementary School

Curriculum Planning
In elementary school education, the air age represents a great
opportunity rather than a perplexing problem. Six to twelve year
old children accept as commonplace the achievements of science in
aviation and the influence of these achievements upon our ways of
living. Elementary school children of today are in less need than
their elders of rethinking their geography and becoming accustomed
to a small world. However, in spite of this, it is only as adults help
young people to comprehend the implications of new inventions for
our ways of living that we may adequately lessen the lag between
scientific improvement and social change.
In projecting plans for the continued adaptation of the school
program to current educational needs, three aspects of the problem
are apparent:
I. The need for teachers, supervisors, and administrators to arrive at
a full realization of the effects of developments in aviation.
II. The need for a searching, continuous re-examination of the elemen-
tary school curriculum with specific reference to purpose, content,
materials, and techniques of presentation for the effective guidance
of elementary pupils in air age education.
III. The need for teacher education programs that will develop com-
petence for instructing elementary school pupils in air age education.
The curriculum of the elementary schools is, of necessity, constantly
being modified if it is to keep abreast of the flow of interests and
needs of children as they grow in a dynamic culture. The process of
careful re-examination and evaluation of the curriculum is therefore
Education for the air age is by no means a new or additional sub-
ject in the curriculum of the elementary school. Rather, the develop-
ment of understandings for living in an air age represents a
reorganization of certain concepts and material, a new point of view,
new points of emphasis, and especially new illustrative material.
The basic understandings needed for living in an air age already have
an important place within the framework of the elementary school
curriculum, especially in the familiar fields of social studies and

science. Many opportunities will arise in all other areas, notably
language arts and arithmetic, for furthering understandings im-
portant to living in an air age. In social studies and science, however,
these opportunities are present almost constantly.

Social Studies and Aviation
Florida elementary schools use as their guide in social studies
State Department of Education Bulletin No. 30, Social Studies in the
Elementary School. The following citations from the "Outcomes"
chart, page 20, show clearly how air age education fits into the scope
of social studies. It should be recalled first that the social studies'
area is developed around the idea of the child's expanding environ-
ment. The child first studies his relationship to his home and school:
then to his neighborhood; then to the community, to the state, to the
nation; and, in the sixth grade, to the world. In the chart, the section
dealing with Growth in Social Information includes the following
under Relationship of Scientific and Social Change:
Grade I. Acquaintance with use of transportation and communica-
cation facilities.
Knowledge of places where certain services are obtained by
the family.
Grade II. Discovery of way in which machines make work easier.
Knowledge of common ways of transporting goods to and
from the local community.
Grade III. Beginning understanding of effect of invention in cutting
time and distance.
Grade IV. Discovery of reasons for differences and changes in modes of
transportation and communication in various types of
Grade V. Understanding of the effect of improved transportation and
communication upon production and consumption in different
regions agriculturee and industry).
Knowledge of the changes in economic life of regions through
use of inventions (cotton gin, refrigeration).
Knowledge of the effect of science and invention upon human
living (home life, arts, labor).
Grade VI. Interdependence of people and resources in world-wide living.
Possibilities of further world-wide cooperation through shar-
ing (art, literature, science).
Knowledge of the contribution of primitive and modern
peoples to scientific advance (tools, communication, travel,
More extended knowledge of the relationship of science to
changing beliefs and customs (fears, superstitions, beliefs).
Concept of science as a way of overcoming certain human
fears and difficulties.
Beginning understanding of the need for scientific planning
for meeting human need (regional, national and world-wide

The "Persistent Problems" chart, page 30, contains a more de-
tailed statement of the problems that arise as a child adjusts to the
world about him. Teachers are urged to examine this chart particu-
larly and the entire bulletin generally for guidance in viewing the
social studies area as a means of developing understandings for
living in the air age.

Science and Aviation
Science is another major area in which important understandings
for the air age can be developed-especially understandings related
to principles of flight, safety, health, weather, and communications.
Indeed the relationship between science instruction and aviation is
a reciprocal one. The technological developments in aviation are the
result of applied science. At the same time it is from aviation that
many current, fascinating illustrations can be drawn to make clear
a great variety of important principles in science. Thus, principles
of science involving gravity and air pressure are dramatically illus-
trated by the development of aircraft design and the present
projections for future designs. Again, the scientific principles in-
volved in internal. combustion engines are clearly demonstrated by
the difficulties that had to be overcome to make high altitude flying
In State Department of Education Bulletin No. 47, A Guide to
Teaching in the Intermediate Grades, the section related to science
summarizes the aims of science in the elementary school as follows:
I. To cultivate a scientific attitude, including:
A. A desire for truth
B. The habit of basing judgment on facts
C. A willingness to revise opinions when new evidence is
D. A realization of the relationship between cause and effect.
II. To introduce certain fundamental science concepts.
III. To open new avenues of interest.
IV. To develop desirable social attitudes, especially toward such matters
as personal health and safety, and the health and safety of others.
Even a brief consideration of the above summary will bring to
mind many instances in which the material from aviation would help
achieve the aims of science instruction. Thus, the continuous develop-
ment of the airplane with the many changes noticeable even to the
lay person is itself a result of the use of the scientific method, and
illustrates the fact that the nature of our scientific era is not static
but dynamic.

Aids to Instruction
Textbooks. In respect to printed material, the state-adopted text-
books give considerable attention to flight and its effects. The fol-
lowing chart indicates the aviation material already' included in the
state-adopted science and social studies textbooks:

Grade Science Social Studies

I We Look About Us
Air and Water, p. 57-78
II Out of Doors Susan's Neighbors
Story of Weather, p. 95-120 Airplane Workers, p. 222-223
III Our Wide, Wide World
Air Around Us, p. 257-294
IV The Earth and Living Things Story Pictures of Transportation
How Air Becomes Wind Traveling by Air, p. 129-152
p. 112-119 Around the Year (Safety Educa-
The Airport, p. 110-119
V Learning About Our World Our Nation Grows Up
What is the Weather, The Airplane, p. 304-314
p. 95-109
Magnets and Compasses,
p. 111-129
The Sky, p. 143-194
VI Our Earth and Its Story Who Travels There (Safety Edu-
Messages by Radio, p. 334 cation)
Men Fly, p. 367-388 Stop and Go at the Airport,
Future of the Earth and of p. 225-230
Man, p. 424-428

In addition to the texts in social studies and science, the textbooks
in other areas also contain considerable material related to aviation.
For instance, the sixth grade arithmetic book, Arithmetic We Use, has
exercises centered around the weather bureau, p. 50; building model
planes, p. 143; traveling by airplane, p. 149. The fifth grade lan-
guage book, In School and Out, has an extensive section on sharing
information which uses as its illustrative material ways of traveling
in the air.
The above description of aviation material to be found in present
textbooks is included not because this material can be regarded as
necessarily sufficient or timely, but in order to show that developing
understandings for living in an air age can be accomplished through
social studies, science, and the other areas. To achieve this purpose

it is not necessary to add or to impose a new subject upon the existing
The library. The library should be a rich source of information
on aviation. Through the library, both a variety of reading levels
and a variety of aviation material can be provided. Books covering
nearly every phase of aviation are now coming from the press. Many
of these books are well-illustrated with pictures and diagrams. Some
have been prepared for the early elementary grades, some for the up-
per elementary grades, and some for the secondary school. In addition
to providing a variety of reading levels and a variety of types of
material, the library can keep its information up to date. Because
aviation and its allied fields such as radio, navigation, and weather
forecasting are all subject to frequent technological improvements as
scientific advances are made, it is especially important that the library
keep adding books of recent publication. The library should also
provide several magazines relating to aviation and at least one of
the weekly school news sheets which usually contain considerable
aviation information.
Teaching aids other than printed materials. In developing under-
standings for living in an air age, there is an excellent opportunity
to use non-printed materials. The fact that the whole area is unre-
stricted by tradition also makes it easier for teachers and pupils to use
their own initiative and imagination in seeking material.
First-hand experiences are invaluable. Seeing an airport in opera-
tion is far more instructive than reading about the many activities
carried on there. Where real experiences are not practical, models
and mock-ups can often be used successfully. Many principles of
flight can be clearly demonstrated through models and through home
made equipment. Charts and other graphic materials are helpful.
An increasing number of schools have access to film projectors, and
the supply of good films and film strips is growing rapidly. People
too can often be used as a source of information. Other faculty mem-
bers, especially science instructors and those who have aviation as a
hobby, can be helpful. Persons connected directly with aviation, such
as pilots and stewardesses who have gone to faraway places can also
give assistance.
Ways of Working. In addition to the end values to be obtained
from developing understandings for living in the modern world, there
are also many process values that can be derived if the ways of work-

ing are carefully considered. For instance, a faculty may work
together closely in developing plans for aviation education and in so
doing have an experience in cooperative planning that will set the
pattern for subsequent experiences in cooperation. Or again, using
persons from the community as sources of assistance may set a pre-
cedent that will prove helpful later in school and community rela-
tionships. Such techniques may be applied to other instructional
Particularly important are the ways of working with the pupils.
One aspect of this technique involves the sharing of information.
The scope of understandings for the air age is so great that pupils
often acquire information that is new to their classmates. They have
something that is genuine to share with other people. A second aspect
is found in the frequent opportunities to develop a scientific approach
in thinking and to practice procedures needed for living in a
democracy. A simple instance will illustrate this aspect. Two fifth
grade boys began to argue as to the altitude record established by
planes. Each had a quotation from a book to support his claim. In-
stead of the teacher settling the argument with a statement of her
own, she asked the boys to compare the copyright dates in the books,
to consider the degree of authority possessed by the writers, and to
find out if the type of aircraft involved were the same. Thus, through
her manner of working, the teacher helped the boys develop suspended
judgment, the seeking of adequate evidence, and respect for the
opinion of others.

Teacher Education
There is a great need at the present time for workshops, demon-
strations, and other learning situations that will help teachers acquire
the basic information and experience needed to direct children in
activities significant for understandings in the air age. Colleges can
help greatly in this matter. However, there are a number of things
that teachers can do as individuals and as groups to help themselves.
Some helpful activities are:
1. Visiting airports, airplane factories.
2. Constructing and manipulating models and miniatures that will help
children clarify ideas and improve understandings. For example,
models of various types of planes, airport hangars, buildings, lights,
windsock, etc.
3. Manipulating models to learn the parts of a plane and their functions.

4. Preparing diagrams, layouts of an airport, charts and graphs.
5. Preparing exhibits and displays.
6. Evaluating materials.
7. Learning some of the rules of the airways, provisions for safety.
8. Preparing illustrated time lines showing the development of air
9. Preparing scrapbooks.
10. Developing a reading group for following trends in aviation.
11. Compiling picture files of planes and information on air trans-
12. Doing research and preparation for developing sequences of ex-
periences and activities possible for classroom use, i.e., thinking
through an anticipatory sequence for a unit of work.
13. Reviewing, evaluating, and planning for the use of films and other
visual materials.

Part III

Air Age Education in the Secondary School

Planning for Aviation Education
The secondary schools of the country are vitally concerned with
aviation education. An understanding of the effect of aviation
upon local, state, national, and international ways of living is an
essential factor in the preparation of youth to live in a constantly
changing civilization. If there is no recognition of the changes being
brought about by the use of the airplane and if there is no reorganiza-
tion of the school's curriculum in keeping with these changes, then
the school fails in its obligation to youth and society for which it
exists. Just as changes come gradually in a new advance in civiliza-
tion, so also the school should seek to modify its curriculum continu-
ously and normally rather than through revolutionary sweeps. What
is needed is, first, an intelligent analysis by each school of the impli-
cations the air age has and probably will have for the youth it
serves and, next, the development of a procedure based upon this
The foundation for developing understandings for living in the
air age is derived from concepts and facts in many fields. It has
elements drawn from mathematics, science, history, geography, health,
politics, and economics. These areas are already represented in our
secondary curriculum. It follows, therefore, that in the secondary as
well as the elementary school, sound education for the air age should
not be altogether a matter of introducing new subjects into the cur-
riculum. In part it is a matter of reorganizing certain aspects of
existing areas in terms of new emphases and new illustrative
As each faculty studies the needs of youth in its community, a two-
fold general objective may be of some guidance:
1. To enrich and' modify the curriculum by adding or weaving into
existing courses learning activities from the field of aviation
appropriate to the level and content of such courses which are in
keeping with the objectives and philosophy of the school.

2. To add to the curriculum new courses in aviation which meet the
needs of youth and society. Every large high school should attempt to
offer at least one course devoted to the study of aviation. Where
the demand exists additional courses (vocational, industrial arts, or
pre-flight training) should be provided.
Each faculty studying ways of developing understandings for
living in an air age will want to maintain an experimental attitude,
showing a willingness to attempt new procedures but at the same time
withholding judgment until many suggestions have been tried. It
would be unfortunate if, in a field as new as aviation, procedures
became inflexible or too patterned at an early date. Neither should
texts nor printed courses of study, even those no more than one year
old or developed in that school the year before, be allowed to fix the
content unduly.
A faculty may also want to create a committee responsible for be-
coming acquainted with the increasing flow of publications in the
form of magazines, pamphlets, books, films, charts, and graphs and
to make selections of the most appropriate and worthwhile teaching

Education for the Air Age as General Education
Developing understandings for living in an air age is funda-
mentally a matter of general education. As pointed out earlier, the
basis for developing such understandings is already present in the
broad fields of science, social studies, mathematics, language arts,
practical arts, and fine arts. The necessary understandings can be
built in part through enrichment of present courses by infusion of
aviation concepts into the broad subject matter fields.
At the junior high school level especially, understandings can be
built through the enrichment or infusion approach. Teachers of all
subjects can capitalize widely and freely on the achievements and
developments of the air age as it relates to the activities of each
classroom group. Wherever 'it is appropriate, courses should be
modified to include aviation units, illustrations, applications, and
implications which are timely and meaningful to boys and girls of
junior high school age. Units on aviation can readily be incorporated
in the science, social science, and industrial arts areas.
The extra-class program is an excellent area for aviation experi-
ences. Here model airplane clubs can design, build, exhibit, and fly

Many Parts of the World That Were Formerly Inacces-
sible Are Now Easily Reached By Air. New Frontiers
Exist Today in Obtaining Raw Materials and Developing

planes of all types. Identification of aircraft and practice of radio
code also constitute worthwhile club activities.
The social studies and science textbooks already devote considerable
space to aviation, communication, and weather. Most classes have
also been in the habit of developing a major unit of work around
modes of transportation and their influence upon the development of
America. The grade themes for social studies in the junior high school
also show the ease with which aviation material fits into the scope of
the social studies area:1
Grade Seven-Adaptation to and Control of Geographic Environ-
Grade Eight-Development of Ways of Living in the United States
Grade Nine-Orientation to the Economic, Social, and Political
In the senior high school the enrichment or infusion approach is
still appropriate, with all areas offering frequent possibilities but
with science and social studies being especially fruitful. The grade
themes in social studies are:
Grade Ten-Social Living in Its World Relationship
Grade Eleven-Social Living in Its American Relationship
Grade Twelve-Problems of Living in Our Democracy
The fields of chemistry, physics, biology, and health offer endless
opportunities for developing principles of flight and the effects of
flight upon the human body. Essential understandings can be
developed, especially in physics and biology. In the one, the limi-
tations of the plane as a machine may be considered. In the other,
the human body is studied in its relation to the machine. Important
concepts of safety must be based on a thorough realization of what
the plane can and cannot do in flight.

A General Course in Aviation
Still within the framework of general education, since one of the
important phases of general education is the understanding of modern
science and its social implications, may be placed a general course in
aviation. Such a course should be among the electives, probably a

'See State Department of Education Bulletin No. 28, A Teacher's Guide
in the Social 8Studies for the Secondary Schools of Florida for suggestions
as to major problems and procedures at each grade level.

half unit, offered by the school and should be designed to meet the
needs of those who have a special interest in aviation but not neces-
sarily a vocational one. The purposes of a course in aviation are
inherent in the following recommended outline.
The early courses in aviation drew heavily upon the highly techni-
cal aspect of mathematics and science, in aerodynamics and naviga-
tion. The more recent trend is a redirecting of the course away from
the extremely technical toward the functional and toward the social
significance of aviation.
Any course in aviation must be kept flexible in order to accommo-
date varying needs of pupils and rapid changes in aviation itself
because of technological improvements. The following outline pre-
sents in considerable detail a high school course in "Aviation in the
Modern World." These recommendations are not to be regarded as
inflexible. They should be supplemented by teacher and pupil re-
search and they should be elaborated upon whenever time permits.

A Recommended Outline for a Course in "Aviation in the Modern World"
Unit I. Why mankind has advanced in industrial science.
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
Man's ability to think; his abilities to use objects in his sur-
roundings to achieve his purposes; to cooperate with others
to achieve common purposes; etc.
B. Problems for Student Solution.
1. Why has mankind turned his intelligence largely to the
solving of industrial problems?
2. What are some of the more significant outcomes of such
thinking ?
3. In general, how have transportation and communication
needs influenced such thinking?
4. What is the most significant industrial development re-
sulting because of thinking concerning the needs of
transportation and communication?
5. What are some fields of human activity other than in-
dustry which are influenced by developments of
industrial science ? .,

Unit II. Why mankind has promoted the development of trans-
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
Man's urge to explore and to travel. His need to supply
himself with materials produced outside the geographical
area in which he lives; to send his produce to the outside
areas; to meet the demand for haste in transportation as
the tempo of production and distribution changed and as
the nature of his social organization changed; etc.
B. Problems for Student Solution.
1. (a) What has been the course of the development of
different modes of transportation? (b) How has war
affected such development?
2. Has any one of these ever displaced a former means of
3. Will the airplane displace other methods of transporta-
tion or will it stimulate transportation by other means?
4. What has been the course of the development of aviation?
5. In addition to transportation, what other every day
activities have been affected by the development of the
airplane ?

Unit III. How the development of the airplane has changed man-
kind's ideas about the earth on which he lives.
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
The airplane knows no natural barriers to travel such as
rivers, oceans, jungles, mountains, or deserts. Control of
positions strategic from the point of view of land and ocean
commerce and/or defense has become less significant. New
types of maps and charts aie needed for air navigation. New
navigation instruments need developing; distances appear
less; strange peoples become our neighbors; strange customs
and languages assail us; attitude of broad tolerance need
to be cultivated; centers of culture are brought closer to
provincial districts; small nations are enabled to assert
themselves; closer. international understanding will need
to evolve; etc.
B. Problems for Student Solution.
1. In. what direction or directions would one travel in

order to follow the shortest route to Tokyo, Japan ? What
is a great circle route? In what direction does a given
great circle extend?
2. (a) Of what specific value are maps and charts? (b)
What is meant by the term projection when used with
reference to maps? (c) Which projection is commonly
used to produce a (1) road map? (2) an airman's chart?
(3) seaman's chart?
3. How does one locate a position upon a globe repre-
senting the earth ?
4. In what ways do aviation and air commerce bring us
closer to people in foreign lands?
5. In what ways does aviation weld together the different
sections of our own country?

Unit IV. How aviation has influenced progress in communication.
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
The airplane has made possible air-mail service; stimulated
improvement in radio communication, and in radio direction
finding equipment; it may contribute to the development
of an international language system; etc.
B. Problems for Student Solution.
1. What has been the course of development of the means
of communications ?
2. What has been the history of airmail service?
3. (a) In what way has the airplane come to depend upon
radio communication? (b) In what way has the airplane
stimulated the development of radio communication and
of radio communicating instruments?
4. What is done by the Civil Aeronautics Administration
to enable communication with aircraft in transit?
5. (a) What information is communicated to aircraft in
the air? (b) How is weather information gathered and
transmitted to aircraft flying the civil airways?
Unit V. The general influence of aviation on industry and commerce.
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
Transportation and commerce are interdependent. Air
commerce opens up areas impossible to reach by other means;
enables development of suburban areas; enables distribution

of perishable agricultural products; promotes development
of manufacturing industries whose products are used in
aircraft and distributed by aircraft. The airplane becomes
a farm implement. Crop pests are controlled through its
use; seeding is done by airplane. It can do the miscellaneous
chores demanded by such industrial fields as forestry ser-
vice, fish and game service, and the like. New occupations
result not only because of the aviation industry itself but
also as a result of the stimulus it brings to industry gen-
erally; etc.
B. Problems for Student Solution.
1. In what ways has the airplane opened up new markets
for goods?
2. (a) What industries and occupations are directly af-
fected by aviation? Indirectly affected? (b) What new
occupations have resulted because of the development of
aviation in the aviation industry itself? Outside of
such industry?
3. (a) Specifically, how can the airplane be used by the
farmer? The rancher ? The oil-man? The forest ranger?
People in other industries?
4. (a) Why do you believe that eventually .the airplane
may stimulate suburban industry? Decentralization of
industry? (b) In what general ways would such even-
tualities benefit society? Or would they be of benefit?
5. Do you believe aviation might influence your own vo-
cational future ? In what way ?
Unit VI. How aviation is influencing such matters as recreation,
education, and general culture.
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
Aviation makes travel to far-away places easier; travel time
is shortened; flying light aircraft for pleasure is becoming
popular. School courses are being modified because of tech-
nological developments in aviation. Special courses in both
general and vocational education are made necessary. Adult
education is stimulated as a result of the rapid growth of
aviation. Educational advantages result from travel. Cul-
tural influence is more easily communicated. Aviation brings
all cultures into contact one with another; etc.

B. Problems for Student Solution.
1. What are some of the resort areas in the United States
and neighboring countries which can be more easily
visited because of air travel?
2. (a) What new materials has the development of the
airplane brought to the .subject matter of the schools?
(b) Do people know all about the airplane that they
should ? Do they know how its development has affected
their lives?
3. What is meant by the statement, "some South American
countries, because of the airplane, will go directly from
the ox cart stage to the airplane stage of social evolu-
tion ?"
4. (a) Would it be better if all countries had the same
standards of measurement? (b) Do you believe that
aviation might bring this about? How?
5. (a) In what way might aviation change our music, art,
and literature? (b) In what way can it better acquaint
us with the artistic achievements of other countries?
Unit VII. How the progress of aviation affects standards of living
and health.
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
New employment, exchange of ideas, development of re-
sources, lessening of isolation-all of the events facilitated
by aviation which offer employment react favorably toward
raising living standards.
Health problems result because of advance in transportation.
Greater spread of disease likely to occur. International con-
cern relative to health standards indicated. Emergency ser-
vice facilitated; etc.
B. Problems for Student Solution.
1. (a) What conditions help to make standards of living
high? (b) How does aviation contribute to these con-
2. How can aviation help develop living standards and
health standards in under-privileged countries?
3. (a) Why is the spread of disease made, easier because of
air transportation? (b) What controls should be estab-
lished to prevent the spread of disease?

4. In what instances of emergency concerning health mat-
ters can the airplane be of service?
5. (a) What do you think should be done to raise living
and health standards on an international scale? (b) Do
you believe such standards in our own country should
be our first concern? (c) How does the development of
aviation bear upon these problems? (d) As an indi-
vidual, what action can you take which will help in the
solution of these problems?

Unit VIII. Why government needs to control aviation.
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
The need for safety specifications of aircraft; pilot qualifi-
cations and safety in commercial aviation. Weather ser-
vice in relation to safety. Air traffic control, control of
aviation and the general public welfare; ports of entry;
immigration regulations; tariff regulations and transporta-
tion taxes; aviation and interstate commerce. Federal, state
and local controls of aviation; the civil airways; safety
legislation; etc.
B. Problems for Student Solution.
1. (a) What do you imagine would result if there were no
laws and regulations controlling aviation? (b) Are
there regulations of other types of transportation?
2. (a) What are the regulations that contribute to safety
in aviation ? Those concerning aircraft? Those concern-
ing pilot certification? (b) Do all aircraft need to have
regular periodic inspection and repair? Is this required
by law? Who makes the inspection? Who does the
3. What are the air-traffic regulations?
4. What interest might immigration and naturalization
authorities have in government control of aviation ?
5. (a) What will you need to do before you can secure a
Civil Aeronautics Administration certificate which en-
titles you to carry passengers in an aircraft and receive
pay for such service? (b) Can you justify these

Many High School Age Students Pursue Their Interest
in Aviation Through the Air Scouts of America

Unit IX. How important is private flying?
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
The family airplane; the operational cost of the light plane;
the light plane and the small business; the family plane and
recreation; the small airport and landing strips; who can
fly a small airplane; commercial aviation and the light
plane; hangar service for the light plane; etc.
B. Problems for Pupil Solution.
1. (a) Do you think there will come a time when every
family can own an airplane? (b) What changes in gen-
eral conditions will need to occur before this situation
can prevail?
2. In what types of small businesses can the light airplane
be of value ?
3. Name the services that the airplane can give such busi-
ness men, as a merchant, a farmer, a trapper, a rancher,
4. What recreational activities can the airplane encourage?
5. Does every small town need an airport? Give adequate
support to your answer.

Unit X. What everyone should know about an airplane.
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
The names of the parts of an airplane and the purpose of
each; the air as a fluid; forces affecting an airplane in
flight, and how each is produced; forces in equilibrium;
the work of the airfoil and the control surfaces; the problem
of aircraft stability; how inherent stability of the. aircraft
is secured; the wind tunnel and wind tunnel experiments;
slots and flaps as controls; rate of climb and angle of climb;
stalls and spins; stress; load factors; the power plant; type
of aircraft; the evolution of military and commercial air-
craft; the glider and lighter-than-air aircraft. Radical
aircraft design; aircraft design, and foolproof flying; air-
craft and engine instruments; etc.
B. Problems for Student Solution.
1. What makes an airplane fly?
2. (a) What is the special influence of each of the com-
posite forces that affects the airplane in flight? (b)


What is the function of the power plant? (c) Of the
3. What is the effect upon the aircraft of acceleration?
How is acceleration effected?
4. What problems confront the designers of helicopters?
5. (a) What is the relationship between speed and lift?
(b) What happens when lift is lost?

Unit XI. How to find the way in an airplane.
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
The services of the Civil Aeronautics Administration; the
aeronautical charts and their use; piloting and "dead"
reckoning; radio navigation; the basic problems of dead
reckoning and their solution; the magnetic compass and its
errors; the effect of the wind upon aircraft in flight and
upon a heading from a given course; how to find ground
speed and fuel consumption.
B. Problems for Student S6lution.
1. If you were undertaking a flight, how would you pro-
ceed in order to learn your compass heading for the trip,
the time which will elapse during the trip, and the
amount of fuel and oil necessary to complete the journey?
2. What navigation instruments will you need to solve the
above problem?
3. How will you use the chart to help solve the above
problem ?
4. (a) How can you use the chart so as to "bracket" your
trip by the use of land-marks? (b) Can land-marks be
used to estimate ground-speed? Can these be used to
determine position after drifting off course? Explain.
5. How would you proceed in order to take advantage of
radio or other aids established by the Civil Aeronautics
Administration ?

Unit XII. The importance of weather to aviation.
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
Why we have weather; the nature of the atmosphere; pres-
sure systems in the atmosphere and the effect of these;
weather hazards; how the Weather Bureau serves the avia-
tor; how to find the most favorable winds; the effects of

gusty air upon the aircraft; moisture, in the atmosphere;
how to read the weather map; weather minimums; etc.
B. Problems for Student Solution.
1. How is it possible for the Weather Bureau to serve the
2. (a) What does a pilot need to know before he can profit
by the services offered by weather bureau stations?
(b) Should he have meteorological skill beyond just that
of finding out what the weather man predicts and ad-
vises? Why ?
3. What are the weather hazards that a pilot is likely to
encounter? What causes these? What observations can
be made by the pilot which help him predict the occur-
rence of these hazards?
4. What results because of the movement of "pressure-
systems"? What causes these systems? How often do
they occur? What is their relation to air-mass move-
ment? To frontal activity? What types of pressure
systems are there? What types of fronts? What cloud
formations characterize each of the frontal types?
5. What are the weather minimums? To what meteorolo-
gical elements do these pertain? How is information
concerning the several elements gained from the weather
map? From a teletype report?
Unit XIII. The airplane in Peace and War.
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
The airplane as a weapon; bombs-even atomic bombs must
be transported to their target; the acceleration of aircraft
development brought about by the war; aviation policies and
defense; air forces of the future; air-power and world sur-
vival; is permanent peace a possibility; industrial and avia-
tion developments aimed toward a permanent peace;
air-power and international policing.
B. Problems for Student Solution.
1. (a) In what way has the airplane and other aircraft
been employed in warfare? (b) Does such employment
discourage or encourage war-making ,as a national
policy ?

2. In what ways has warfare accelerated progress in indus-
try generally and in the aviation industry particularly?
Is such acceleration good? Does it have some bad
aspects? Explain.
3. Does the fact that accelerated progress sometimes re-
sults because of war-making justify this activity? Discuss.
4. How can the airplane be used as an implement of peace?
5. How important in peaceful pursuits has been the es-
tablishment of air bases and airports in foreign countries
and on Pacific and Atlantic Islands?

Unit XIV. Research and Aviation Planning.
A. Topics for Teacher Presentation and Student Discussion.
The nature of scientific research; opportunities for research;
*research and advance in aviation intelligent planning based
on research; planning affects all aspects of aviation; etc.
1 B. Problems for Student Solution.
1. (a) Does this nation need more airports than it has at
present? How do you know? (b) Are there types of
airports particularly suited to a certain type of com-
munity? How can the appropriate type of airport a
community needs be determined?
2. (a) What research should be undertaken by a com-
munity desiring to develop its aviation potentialities?
(b) Of what importance is airport management?.
3. To what aspects of aviation should research be applied?
4. What agencies support research in aviation?
5. As an individual and as a member of a community what
are your responsibilities toward research activities gen-
erally? To aviation research in particular?

Laboratory Work in the Course in Aviation
The teacher should give careful consideration to selecting experi-
ments to be performed by individuals and groups in laboratory work.\
Laboratory work -provides a means of taking care of individual dif-
ferences, of learning scientific methods, of economy in learning, and
of motivating the work in the course.
Flight experience as a part of the laboratory work has been pro-
vided by some schools. Such flight experience is not flight training.

Its purpose is to give the student first-hand experience in observing
the actions of the plane under flight conditions and to demonstrate
what has been learned in the classroom. A pilot, especially trained for
the work, takes a student up in the plane (usually for a total of four
hours) and demonstrates the principles of flight, navigation, com-
munication, and weather conditions 'that the student has studied.1
The details of flight experience as part of the laboratory work vary
from school to school, but in every instance the program must make
proper provision for safety, cost, and competence of the pilot in ex-
plaining the principles of flight.

Aviation Courses in the Small High School
In the small high school the elective course in aviation may have
to be offered only in alternate years in the eleventh and twelfth
grades in order to insure sufficient enrollment. In the extremely
small high school where it may be impractical to offer the course, the
individuals interested in aviation may be able to obtain the course
from the extension division of a university or from a correspondence

Electives in the Large High School
In the large high schools a number of other electives related to
aviation may be offered in addition to the elective described above.
Students with highly specialized or technical interests may desire
such courses as navigation, meteorology, radio, and radar. Secondary
schools should be prepared to present such courses when the need for
them develops.

Vocational Education
It is assumed that high schools offering vocational work will
develop and offer courses connected with aviation in terms of the
job opportunities in aviation in the particular community or area and
in terms of the number of people wanting such training. Aviation
mechanics is the most frequently offered course at the present time.
Where the vocational school extends through grades thirteen and
fourteen additional courses for aircraft technicians may prove

'A mimeographed syllabus outlining the laboratory aspects of the avia-
tion course will be sent upon request.

Adult Education
Education does not cease with graduation. If the schools are to
serve the educational needs of the community, consideration should
be given to an adult education program that will enable boys and girls
to continue their aviation training after leaving school. Also, since
the airplane has an almost hypnotic appeal for a large number of
people, it is probable that certain aviation courses would be well
received in some communities where citizens desire further knowledge
in aviation. Some of the courses which have been found to be suc-
cessful in adult programs are:
Aviation cadet refresher course Radio code
Radio fundamentals Meteorology
Aviation mathematics Air Navigation
Aircraft engine repair and maintenance Ground school preparation

Part IV

Teaching Aids

Books and Printed Materials for General Reference
Air Scout Manual. Boy Scouts of America, New, York. 1942. $.50
Allan, Hugh. The Story of the Airship. The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.,
Akron, Ohio. 1942. $1
Andrews, John Paul. Gliding and Soaring. Robert M. McBride and Co.,
New York. 1944. $2.75
Barr, E. U. Flying Men and Medicine. Funk and Wagnalls, New York. 1943.
Bartlett, Hall. Social Studies for the Air Age. The Macmillan Co., New York.
1942. $.60
Bauer, H. A. Globes, Maps and Skyways. The Macmillan Co., New York.
1942. 84 pp. $.40
Baughman, Harold E. Baughman's Aviation Dictionary and Reference Guide.
(Second Edition). Aero Publishers, Glendale, California. 1942. $6.50.
Bishop, William. Winged Peace. Viking Co., New York. 1944. $2.75
Civil Air Regulations-Parts 20, 43, 60. Government Printing Office, Wash-
ington, D. C. 1945. $.10, $.05, $.05, respectively
Civil Aviation and the National Economy. Civil Aeronautics Administration,
Washington, D. C. 1945. $.55
Cleveland, Reginald M. and Neville, Leslie E. The Coming Air Age. McGraw-
Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. 1944. $2.75
Development and Regulation of Civil Aviation. Chamber of Commerce of
USA, Washington, D. C. Free
Elements of Pre-Flight Aeronautics for High Schools. Aviation Education
Itesearch Group, Teachers College, University of Nebraska. The Mac-
millan Co., New York. 1943. 555 pp. $.96. Teachers' Manual. 1942.
113 pp. $.72
Englehardt, N. L., Jr. Our Global World. Noble and Noble Publishers, Inc.,
New York. 1943. $1.50.
Fisher, Irving and Miller, O. M. World Maps and Globes. Essential Books,
New York. 1944. $2.50
Fosdick, Raymond B. The Old Savage in the New Civilization. Doubleday
Doran and Co., Garden City, New York. 1928. $2.50
Grimm, D. H. Junior Aviation Science. Noble and Noble Publishers, Inc.,
New York. 1944. $.90
How Planes Fly. Aviation Research Associates. Harper and Bros., New
York. 1943. $1
Introduction to Earth. U. S. Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, Training Division.
lMcGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. 1943. 77 pp. $1
Isard, Caroline and Walter. Economic Implications of Aircraft. (The Quar-
terly Journal of Economics). Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
Massachusetts. February 1945
Jordanoff, Assen. Your Wings. Revised Edition. Funk and Wagnalls, New
York. 1942. 294 pp. $3
Langwiesche, Wolfgang. Stick and Rudder. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New
York. 1944. $3.75
Lissitzyn, Oliver James. International Air Transport and National Policy.
Council on Foreign Relations, New York. 1942. $5

National Airport Plan. House Document No. 807, 78th Congress, 2d Session.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. $.20
Packard, Overton and Wood. Our Air Age World. The Macmillan Co., New
York. 1944. $2.80
Pogue, L. W. International Aviation's New Charter. Address of February 10,
1945 by Mr. Pogue. Civil Aeronautics Board, Washington, D. C. Free
Pope, Francis and Otis, Arthur S. The Airplane Power Plant. World Book
Co., New York. 1944. $1.40
Pope. Francis and Otis, Arthur S. Elements of Aeronautics. World Book Co..
New York. 1941. 660 pp. $2
Robinson, Pearle T. and others. Before You Fly. Henry Holt and Co., New
York. 1943. 560 pp. $2
Security and World Organization. Fourth Report of Commission to Study
the Organization of Peace. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,
Division of Intercourse and Education, New York. Single copy $.05; $.25
for one year; $1 for five years
Shields, Bert A. Air Pilot Training. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 1943.
602 pp. $3.50
Smith, G. Geoffrey. Gas Turbines and Jet Propulsion for Aircraft. Aero-
sphere, Inc., New York. 1944. $1.50
Van Zandt, J. Parker. The Chicago Civil Aviation Conference. Foreign
Policy Reports for February 15, 1945-Volume XX, No. 23. Foreign
Policy Association. Inc., New York. $.25
Van Zandt, J. Parker. Civil Aviation and Peace. The Brookings Institution,
Washington, D. C. 1944. $1
Van Zandt, J. Parker. The Geography of World Air Transport. The Brook-
ings Institution, Washington. D. C. 1944. $1
Van Zandt, J. Parker. Transportation and National Policy (Air Transport
Section). National Resources Planning Board, U. S. Government Print-
ing Office, Washington, D. C. 1942. $1.25
Vetter, Ernest G. Visibility Unlimited. William Morrow and Co., New York.
1942. $3.50
Warner, Edward. The Chicago Air Conference (Foreign Affairs. April 1945).
Council on Foreign Relation. Inc., 10 Ferry St., Concord, N. H. $5 per year
Wings Over the World. Annual Report for 1944. Pan American World Air-
ways, New York. Free
Wright, Quincy. A Study of War. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago,
Illinois. 1942. $15-Volumes I and II
Wright, T. P. Aviation's Place in Civilization. The 1945 (33rd) Wilbur
Wright Memorial Lecture. Superintendent of Documents, Government
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. $.15
Zim, Herbert S. Air Navigation. Harcourt, Brace and Co., New York. 1943.

For Teachers
The Age of Wings. Denver Public Schools, Denver, Colorado. $.25
Arey, Charles K. Elementary School Science for the Air Age. The Macmillan
Co:, New York. 145 pp. $.72
Aviation Education in ,Secondary Schools, Bulletin No. 126. National Associa-
tion of Secondary School Principals, Washington, D. C. 1944. $1
Aviation Education Source Book. CAA Research Group, Stanford University.
Hastings House, New York. 1945. $6
Frederick, John H. Commercial Air Transportation. Richard D. Irwin, Inc.,
Chicago. 1942. 493 pp. $4.50
Keempffert, Waldemar. The Airplane and Tomnorrow's World. No. 78. Pub-
lic Affairs Committee, New York. 1943. $.10

Mieville, A. L. Astronomical Navigation Without Mathematics. The Mac-
millan Co., New York. 1945. $.65
Renner, George T. Human Geography in the Air Age. The Macmillan Co.,
New York. 1942. $.64
Rosenberg. Albert J. Instructional Tests in Aeronautics. World Book Co.,
New York. 1944. $.52
Thompson, W. H. and Aiken, M. L. 1000 Pre-Flight Problems. Harper, New
York. 1943. 160 pp. $.88
What Your Town Needs. Piper Aircraft Corporation, Lock Haven, Pennsyl-
vania. Free
Wright, T. P. Aviation's Place in Civilization. The 1945 (33rd) Wilbur
Wright Memorial Lecture. Superintendent of Documents, Government
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. $.15

For High School Students
Cross, E. A. Wings For You. Anthology. The Macmillan Co., New York. 1942.
366 pp. $.76
Hinkel, Ralph E. and Baron, Leo. An Educational Guide in Air Transpor-
tation. Transcontinental and Western Air, Inc., Kansas City, Missouri.
1944. $.75
I're-Flight Study Manual for Civil Air Patrol Cadets. A.A.F. Office of Flying
Safety. (Obtainable only from Civil Air Patrol).
Renner, George T. and Bauer, Hubert A. The Air We Live In. The Mac-
millan Co., New York. 47 pp. $.36
Renner, George T. Human Georgraphy in the Air Age. The Macmillan Co.,
New York. 1942. 252 pp. $.64
Rodmah, Selden. The Poetry of Flight. Anthology. Duell, Sloan, and Pearce,
New York. 1941. 190 pp. $2.50
Saint Exupery, Antoine de. Flight to Arras. Reynal and Hitchcock, New
York. 1942. 225pp. $2.75
Saint Exupery, Antoine de. Wind, Sand, and Stars. Reynal and Hitchcock,
New York. 1939. 308 pp. $2.75
Science of Pre-Flight Aeronautics (Revised Edition). Aviation Education
Research Group. The Macmillan Co., New York. 1944. $1.32
Shields, Bert A. Principles of Air Navigation. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.,
New York. 1943. $2.20
Shields, Bert A. Principles of Aircraft Engines. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.,
New York. 1942. $1.88
Shields, Bert A. Principles of Flight. 'McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York.
1942. $1.88
Zim, Herbert. Air Navigation. Harcourt Brace and Co., New York. 1943. $3
Zim, Herbert. Man in the Air. Harcourt Brace and Co., New York, 1943. $3

For Elementary Pupils
Adams, Joan and Kimball, Margaret. Heroines of the Sky. Doubleday, New
York. 1943. $2.50
Aviation Reading Series. The Macmillan Co., New York. 1945.
Brown, W. C. Airplane Models and Aviation. D. C. Heath, Boston. 1943. $.48
Elementary Art. A bulletin to supplement aviation program in art, grades
4, 5, 6. 19 pp. mimeographed. Address: Mr. Harold H. Church, Superin-
tendent of Schools, Elkhart Public Schools, Elkhart, Indiana
Exploring Aviation, Primary Series. Extension Division, University of
Nebraska. Units on aviation studies for elementary schools, illustrated
with drawings and pictures. 1 to 4 sets, 60 cents per set; 5 to 50 sets, 40
cents per set; over 50 sets, 30 cents per set. Single units, 10 cents.
Address: Editor, Exploring Aviation, Extension Division, University of
Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska

Fraser, Chelsea C. Heroes of the Air. Crowell, New York. 1942. 888 pp.
Gray, William S. and Arbuttnot. People and Progress. Stories of airplanes
used in fire-fighting and rescue work. Scott, Foresman, New York. 1943.
How Planes Get There. Aviation Research Associates. Harper and Brothers,
New York. 1943. $1
Hurley, Beatrice. The Story of Flying. American Education Press, Columbus,
Ohio. $.15
Johnson, Mary Ellen. Airplanes. American Education Press, Columbus, Ohio.
1941. $.15
Moore, Lillian E. Elementary Aviation. D. C. Heath, Boston. 1943. 222 pp.
Phillips, Josephine. On the Air Ways. Row Peterson, Evanston, Illinois.
1942. $.28
Rotter, George E. Jimmie Learns About Airplanes. Universal Publishing Co.,
New York. 1944. $.44
Smith, Nila B. and Schweig, Rhoda C. Balloons and Airships. Silver, Bur-
dett, and Co., New York. 1938. $.12
Smith, Nila B. and Schweig, Rhoda C. Gliders and Airplanes. Silver, Bur-
dett, and Co., New York. 1938. $.12
Smith, Nila B. Round About You. Silver, Burdett and Co., New York. 1940.
Sorenson, F. E. and Rotter, G. E. Now We Fly. John C. Winston Co., Phila-
delphia. 1944. 184 pp. $1.50
Tatham, Campbell. The First Flying Book. Franklin Watts, Inc., New York.
1944. 42 pp. $1

Sources of Free and Low Cost Materials
Pictures, pamphlets, booklets, maps, post cards, posters, menus, schedules,
stickers, log books, folders, and other materials that can be obtained free or
at low cost from the following agencies:
Air Express Division of the Railway Express Agency, 230 Park Avenue,
New York City
Air Transport Association of America, 1515 Massachusetts Avenue, N. W.,
Washington, D. C.
All American Aviation, Inc., 200 West Ninth Street, Wilmington,
American Airlines, Inc., Pershing Square Building, 100 East 42nd Street,
New York City
Boeing Aircraft Company, Georgetown Station, Seattle, Washington
Braniff Airways, Inc., Love Field, Dallas, Texas
Chicago and Southern Airlines, Inc., Municipal Airport, Memphis,
Civil Aeronautics Administration, Aviation Education Division, Wash-
ington 25, D. C.
Colonial Airways, Inc., 630 Fifth Avenue, New York City
Consolidated-Vultee Aircraft Corporation, San Diego, California
Continental Air Lines, Inc., Municipal Airport, Denver, Colorado
Curtiss-Wright Corporation, Buffalo, New York
Delta Air Lines, Municipal Airport, Atlanta, Georgia
Division of Air Mail Service, U. S. Post Office Department, Washington,
D. C.
Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc., Santa Monica, California
Eastern Air Lines, 10 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, 1705 Victory Place, Burbank, California

National Airlines, Inc., Municipal Airport, Jacksonville, Florida
SNortheast Airlines, Inc., Commonwealth Airport, East Boston, Massa-
Northrop Aircraft, Inc., Northrop Field, Hawthorne, California
Northwest Airlines, Inc., Municipal Airport, St. Paul, Minnesota
Pan American World Airways System, Chrysler Building, New York City
Piper Aircraft Corporation, Lock Haven, Pennsylvania
The Official Aviation Guide Company, Inc., 008 South Dearborn Street,
Chicago, Illinois
Transcontinental and Western Air, Inc.. 10 Richards Road, Kansas City,
United Air Lines. Palmer House, Chicago, Illinois
U. S. Office of Education, Federal Security Agency, Washington, D. C.
Vought-Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, Connecticut
Western Air Lines, 510 West Gth Street, Los Angeles, California

Globes and Maps
Denoycr-Geppcrt Map Reading Series. Denoyer-Geppert Co., 5235 Ravens-
wood Ave., Chicago, Ill. 3 wall charts, each 44"x58". Set of three charts
in -16A Simplex Case, removable, $30. J-208, Hemisphere Projections,
J-209, World Projections, and J-210. Conic Projections.
Denoyer-Geppert Co., 5235 Ravenswood Ave., Chicago, Ill. Map SS9--World,
8U"x(4", $12
Denoyer-Geppert Co., 5235 Ravenswood Ave., Chicago, Ill. Denoyer-Geppert
Meterology Series, Four maps and charts. 44"x58" in five colors. Pre-
pared by Hubert A. Bauer, Ph.).
J-219-Horizontal Distribution and Circulation of the Atmosphere
J-220-Vertical Cross Section and Morements of the Atmosphere
J-221-Air Masses and Fronts
J-222-The U. S. Weather Map
-10 Plain sticks at top and bottom, $6.25; -12. On spring roller and board,
with dustproof cover, $8.00; Folded styles (1-1), 1-L, or -VH) $8.
Mercator Projection World Map-GB-901-Goode Physical Mercator World,
Americas centered, mounted. $10.25. Rand McNally and Co., 111 Eighth
Avenue, New York.
Rand McNally Globe, 16 inch, Physical, Political, or Physical-Political, cradle
model, hand mounted, $22.; Physical-Political, Disc base floor stand
model, $38.50. Rand McNally and Co., 111 Eighth Avenue, New York.
The Air Globe, 12 inch, cradle base, $6.95. Rand McNally and Co., 111 Eighth
Avenue, New York.
Rand McNally and Co., 111 Eighth Avenue, New York, Slated Globe, No. 7331,
10 inch, $26.50.
Polar Air Age WVrld-Map J57. Azimuthal Equal Area Projection 44"x58",
400 miles to inch. Land areas colored to show economic activities: (1)
agriculture, (2) grazing, (3) forests, (4) unproductive. Plain wood
rollers top and bottom. $(.25: spring rollers and board, dustproof, $8.00;
Folded styles (ID, IL, or VH), $8.00.
United States-Centered Air World (Air Distance Time Chart) by N. L.
Englehart, Jr., scale, 485 miles to the inch. 64"x45". Hand mounted on
muslin. Constructed on the Azimuthal Equi-distant Polar Projection
with the geographical center of the United States as the pole. No. 15 R,
complete with removable case, $11.50. Nystrom and Co., 3333 Elston
Ave., Chicago 17, Ill.
World Map for the Air Age, Edited by Dr. George T. Renner. 46"x46", scale
1 inch equals 500 miles. Rand McNally and Co., 111 Eighth Avenue,
New York. Wood Rod Top and Bottom. Mounting A, $4.75; Book Cover

Folded Form, Mounting FF, $6.25; Spring roller portable steel board.
Mounting MC, $7.75; Outline maps, additional copies for class use,
5c each. 25 copies, $1; 100 copies, $3.

Aeronautics Charts, W. M. Welch Mfg. Co.. 1515 Sedgwick St., Chicago, Ill.
No. 1596, set of eight aeronaltries charts on tripod. $27.50.
Atmosphere and Weather Charts (For Science of Aeronautics and General
Meteorology) by Glenn T. Trewartha. Eight charts, 49"x38". A. J. Ny-
strom and Co., 3333 Elston Avenue, Chicago 18, Ill.
Chart No. AWl-Vertical Cross Section of the Atmosphere and Winds
AW2-Air Masscs and F'ronts
AW3-Vertical Air Movements, Temperature Changes, and Clouds
AW4-Atmospheric Moisture
AW--The Middle Latitude Cyclone
AW6-The Thunderstorm
AW7-Weather Conditions Related to Aircraft Icing
AW--United States Weather Map (Daily)
Set of eight atmosphere and weather charts in No. 06 Nyco, hand mounted
utility case. Two charts are mounted on one spring roller. Hand mounted
on muslin, $43.
Chart of the World, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington 25, D. C.
No. 5199, 30c. Shows great circle distances and azimuths from Washing-
ton, D. C. to all points on the earth's surface.
Piper Aircraft Co., Williamsport. Pa., Wall Charts and Pamphlets.
Lycombing Educational Packet, The Aviation Corporation, Lycoming Division,
Williamsport, Pa.

Demonstration Apparatus
Aerodynamics Lift Demonstration, Central Scientific Co., Chicago, Illinois,
approximately $50.
Comet Model Airplane and Supply Co.. Inc., 129 West 29th Street, Chicago,
Illinois. Comet Air-O-Trainer. (I.'nili~ i.I built-up model with movable
controls to hlp teach the fundamentals of flying. Wingspan is 24 inches;
patterned after the Bell P-:39, $4.75.
Comet Model Airplane and Supply Co., Inc., 129 West 29th Street, Chicago,
Illinois. Comet Wind Tunnel. Designed to be used in connection with
any 16 inch electric fan. $225.
Gyroscope, Sperry Gyroscope Co., New York, approximately $15.
National Aeronautics Association, Air Youth Division, Parts of a Plane; Air
Youth Chart, No. 1, Washington, D. C. The Association, 1025 Connecti-
cut Avenue, N. W., 10c.

Film Strips
Pre-Flight Aeronautics, a slide film training course based on official ground
school material of the Civilian Pilot Training Program. Jam Handy
Organization, 230 North Michigan Blvd., Chicago, Illinois. Kits I, II, and
III, $65. For 35 mm. slide film projector.

Motion Picture Films
Each of the following films can be used to illustrate the aviation dis-
cussions carried on in a number of courses. Consult your nearest films
library for rates and availability of films.

Abbreviations used to describe films:
sd-sound film. si-silent film. min-minutes of screening time; e.g. 15
min. 16mm, 35 mm-16 millimeters, 35 millimeters. J.H.-Junior High
School.. S.H.-Henior High School.
Aerodynamics, Air Flow (No. TFI-160), Castle Films, sd. 18 min. 16 mm,
S.H., Science of Aeronautics-Aerodynamics.
Aerodynamics: A Resistance and Streamlining: Bray Pictures, Corp., 1941,
sd. 10 min, 16 mm, J.H., Industrial Arts, Science of Aeronautics-prin-
ciples of airplane structures.
Aerodynamics, Forces Acting on an Air Foil (No. TFI-161), Castle Films,
sd, 27 min. 16 mm, S.H., Science of Aeronautics-aerodynamics.
Aerodynamics; Lift, Bray, 1941, sd, 10 min. 11 mm, J.H., S.H., General
Science, IPh1-i '. Industrial Arts, Science of Aeronautics-principles of
airplane structures.
Aerodynamics; Problems of Flight, Erpi Classroom Films, 1941, sd, 11 ain,
16 mm, 35 mm, J.H., S.H.,-General Science, Physics, Industrial Arts,
Science of Aeronautics-Aerodynamics, human factors in flight.
.Arilo ralini.-: Properties of Air, Bray, 1941, sd, 10 min, 16 mm, J.H.., S.H.,
General Science, Physics, Industrial Arts, Science of Aeronautics-prin-
ciples of airplane structures.
Aerodynamics: Theory of Flight, Erpi, 1941, sd, 11 min, 16 mmn, 35 mnm, J.H.,
S.H., General Science, Physics, Industrial Arts, Science of Aeronautics-
Aerology-Ice Formation on Aircraft Part I, (MN 119A) Castle Films, Inc.,
sd, 16 mm, 48 mins. S.H., Meteorology, Navigation.
Aerology-Thunderstorms (MN 119C) Castle Films, Inc., sd, 16 inm, 41 min.,
J.H., S.H., Meterology, Navigation.
Air Navigation-Radio Aids (TF-1-327), Castle Films, Inc., sd, 30 mins, 10
mm, S.H., Navigation.
Air Navigation-Airways Flying (TF-1-328), Castle Films, Inc., 30 min,
16 mm, S.H., Navigation, J.H.. General Aviation.
The iril.7.i-. Changes the World Map, Erpi, sd, 15 min, 16 mm, 35 mm, Grades
6-8, J.H., S.H.,-Geography, Social Studies, Science of Aeronautics-Air
Airplane Structures, Pt. I. Structural Units, Materials and Loads for Which
Designed (No. TFI-211), Castle Films, sd, 7 min, 16 mm, S.H.: Science
of Aeronautics-structures of airplanes.
Airplane Structures, Pt. II, Wing Construction (No. TFI-212), Castle Films,
sd, 16 mm, 10 min, S.H.; Science of Aeronautics-structures of airplanes.
Airplane Structures, Pt. III, Fuselage Construction. (No. TF-111-213), Castle
Films, sd, 8 min, 16 mm, S.H., Science of Aeronautics-structures of
Airplane Structures, Pt. IV, Control <.,rfl..-, (No. TFI-214), Castle Films,
sd, 9 min, 16 mm, S.H., Science of Aeronautics-structures of airplanes.
Clouds, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1939, sd, 15 min, 16 mm, 35 mm, J.H., S.H.;
General Science, Meteorology, Geography, Science of Aeronautics-
Conquest of the Air, Films, Incorporated, sd. 45 min, 16 mam, Grades 0-8, J.H.,
S.H.; General Science, Physics, Social Studies, History, Geography,
Industrial Arts, Science of Aeronautics-principles of airplane structures.
The Development of Communication. Erpi, sd, 15 min, 16 mm, 35 mm, Grades
4-8, J.H., S.H.: Social Studies, General Science, Industrial Arts, Science
of Aeronautics, Communications.
Electrodynamics, Erpi, sd, 15 min, 16 mm, 35 mm, S.H.; Physics, Industrial
Arts, Science of Aeronautics--communications.
Essential Parts and Types of Planes, Bray, 1941, sd, 15 min, 16 mm, Grades
6-8, J.H., S.H., Industrial Arts, General Science, Physics, Science of
Aeronautics-principles of airplane structures.

How the Autogiro Works, Pathe News, sd, 12 min, 16 mm, J.H., S.H.; Indus-
trial Arts, Science of Aeronautics-principles of airplane structures.
Keep 'Em Flying, Hamilton Standard Propellors, sd, 30 min, 16 mm, J.H.,
S.H.; Industrial Arts, Science of Aeronautics-airplane engines.
Look to Lockheed for Leadership, Tradefilms. Inc., for Lockheed Aircraft,
sd, 45 min, 16 nun, Grades 6-8, J.H., S.II.; Social Studies, Industrial
Arts, Science of Aeronautics---principles of.airplane structures.
Methods of Flight, Bray, sd, 25 min, 16 mmn, Grades 6-8, J.H., S.H.; General
Science Biology.
Safety in the Air, Paramount Pictures, sd, 15 min, 16 mm, Grades 6-8, J.H.,
S.H.; General Science, Social Studies, Science of Aeronautics-Air
The Story of a Disturbance, Gaumont British Pictures Corporation of Ameri-
ca, sd, 12 min, 16 mm, Grades 6-8, J.H., S.H., General Science, Meteor-
ology, Physics, Geography, Science of Aeronautics-meteorology.
Thermodynamics Erpi, 1938, sd, 15 min, 16 mmi, 35 mm, J.H., S.H.; General
Science, Physics, Industrial Arts, Science of Aeronautics-airplane
The Weathcr, Erpi, sd, 15 min, 16 mm, 35 mm, J.H., S.H.; General Science,
Geography, Physics, Science of Aeronautics-meteorology.
Wcather Forecast, Gaumont British Instructional Films, sd, 25 min, 16 mm,
Grades 5-8, J.H., S.H.; General Science, Physics, Geography, Social
Studies, Science of Aeronautics-meteorology.
Young America Flies; Warner lirothers, sd, 25 min, 16 mm, Grades 6-8,
J.H., S.H.; Occupations, Science of Aeronautics-human factors in flight.

List of Film Producers
Encyclopedia Brittanica Films Bray Pictures Corporation
330 West 42nd Street 729 Seventh Avenue
New York, New York New York, New York
Castle Films, Inc. Society for Visual Education
30 Rockefeller Plaza 100 E. Ohio Street
New York 20, New York Chicago. Illinois
U. S. Army Air Forces Jam Handy Organization
Training Aids Division 2900 E. Grand Boulevard
1 Park Avenue Detroit, Michigan
New York 1, New York Erpi Classroom Films
1841 Broadwny
New York, New York

Surplus Army and Navy Aeronautical Equipment and Teaching Aids
Schools may obtain surplus and salvage aeronautical equipment at very
low cost for use in aviation courses by communicating with the Educational
Disposal Section, Aircraft Division, Annex 2, Reconstruction Finance Cor-
poration, Washington 25, D. C.
A list of surplus equipment and instructions on ordering material is
available on request. The list contains complete airplanes, engines, and com-
ponent parts, mock-ups and cut-away models of various aircraft units, as
well as disposal prices of the items listed.

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