Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 How can you use this bulletin?
 Do these sound familiar?
 What is your educational point...
 A look at the developmental characteristics...
 Do you want some ideas about teaching...
 Other opportunities for health...
 How do you get started?
 What materials and resources do...
 Were you successful...what...

Group Title: Bulletin - Florida State Department of Education ; 4E
Title: Better health for Florida's children
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067259/00001
 Material Information
Title: Better health for Florida's children
Series Title: Its Bulletin no. 4E
Physical Description: viii, 101 p. : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1957
Subject: Health education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067259
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01737816

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    How can you use this bulletin?
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Do these sound familiar?
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    What is your educational point of view?
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    A look at the developmental characteristics and needs of elementary school children
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Do you want some ideas about teaching health?
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Other opportunities for health education
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    How do you get started?
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    What materials and resources do you need?
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Were you successful...what next?
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
Full Text







HEALTH' Health is a state of complete
physical, mental and social wvell-
being, and not merely the ab-
sence of disease and infirmity.

the point of view of the school
program). The process of pro-
viding learning experiences for
the purpose of influencing knowl-
edges, attitudes, and conduct re-
lating to individual and group

which designates the provision
of a safe and healthful environ-
ment, the organization of a
healthful school day, and the
establishment of interpersonal
relationships favorable to the
best emotional, social, and phys-
ical health of pupils.

school procedures which are es-
tablished to:


(a) appraise the health status
of pupils and school per-
(b) counsel pupils, parents, and
other persons involved, con-
cerning appraisal findings;
(c) encourage the correction of
remediable defects;
(d) help plan for the health
care and education of han-
dicapped children;
(e) help prevent and control
(f) provide emergency care for
the sick or injured.

is characterized by the ability to
adjust fairly easily, successfully
and happily to the conditions in
which one finds oneself.

IDefinition formulated by World Health Organization of the United Nations.
2Prepared by the Joint Committee on Terminology in Health Education representing the American Association for Health,
Physical Education and Recreation and the American School Health Association.





Tallahassee, Florida
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent


appropriate and adequate for each child
according to his developmental level is a
primary responsibility of the public schools.
How successful the schools are in meeting
this responsibility is determined by the ex-
tent to which each child lives in a more
healthful manner. This bulletin has been
prepared to assist teachers and administra-
tors in elementary schools better to serve
the health educational needs of children.
We have long needed practical and simple
suggestions as to how health education may
be integrated into the elementary school
curriculum. To assure the practicability,
simplicity, and integrity of the information
included in this publication, successful ex-
perience of teachers in Florida schools has
been used as a criterion for inclusion. Pro-
duction required the combined efforts of
many people working in all phases of the
elementary school program.
We are indebted to Florida State Univer-
sity for providing generously of their facili-
ties, material, and personnel. Without their
cooperation this bulletin could not have
been so effectively developed. Moreover, a
number of participating schools used the
material on a trial basis; two workshop
groups devoted several weeks during the
summer to the project, and personnel of
the universities contributed generously of
their time as consultants. In addition, Dr.
Wilson Sowder, State Health Officer, made
available the services of many members of
his staff.
The directors of the workshop were Dr.
Dale Draper, San Francisco State College,

Miss Charlotte Stienhans and Zollie May-
nard, Florida State Department of Educa-
tion. Special consultants not directly con-
nected with Florida public schools were Dr.
Fred Hein, American Medical Association;
Dr. Elizabeth Avery, American Association
for Health, Physical Education and Recre-
ation and Miss Elsa Schneider, U. S. Office of
Education. Dr. George Stafford, University
of Illinois and Dr. Ethel Tobin Bell, Uni-
versity of California at Los Angeles, re-
viewed the material and made many helpful
suggestions. Miss Cleo Rainwater, Florida
State University, has contributed a number
of stories which serve to define the temper
and mood of the bulletin. The art work was
done by Ivan E. Johnson, Head, Department
of Arts Education, Florida State University.
Special acknowledgment should be made
to T. George Walker, Division of Publica-
tions and Textbook Services, State Depart-
ment of Education, for editorial assistance,
and to J. K. Chapman, Deputy Superin-
tendent, for technical direction in publica-
tion of the bulletin.
To all who have participated in the work-
shops and in the production of this publica-
tion as members, specialists, consultants or
directors, our deepest appreciation is ex-
We are proud to present this Department
of Education monograph and sincerely hope
that it will result in real and lasting benefit
for the children of our public schools.

Superintendent of Public Instruction




Dr. Dale Draper, Associate Professor of Education,
San Francisco State College
Zollie M. Maynard, Consultant, Physical Educa-
tion, Health, Driver Education and Recreation,
State Department of Education
Charlotte Stienhans, Consultant, Elementary Edu-
cation, State Department of Education

Alice M. Andrews, Teacher, Fern Creek Elemen-
tary, Orlando
J. W. Borders, General Supervisor, Okaloosa
Mary H. R. Cadman, Principal, Azalea Park School,
Mrs. Eleanor F. Carlan, Teacher, DeFuniak
Springs Elementary, DeFuniak Springs
Earl Cathcart, Principal, Warfield School, Indian-
Mrs. Morita Clark, Principal, Lake Silver School,
Mrs. Mary Findley, Teacher, Jay Elementary
School, Jay
Mrs. Louise W. Greene, Teacher, Moore Haven
School, Moore Haven
Mrs. Annie H. Havens, Curriculum Assistant, Lit-
tle River Elementary School, Miami
Mrs. Eileen A. Johnson, Principal, West Central
School, Orlando
Mrs. Ruth G. Kyte, Special Service Teacher, Palm
Beach County
C. Lee Moon, Principal, Lillian C. Ruediger
School, Tallahassee
Mrs. Ruby Moreland, Teacher, F. E. Brigham
Elementary, Winter Haven
Mrs. Hazel Nowakowski, Assistant Supervisor,
Health and Physical Education, Dade County
W. E. Rice, Principal, Nautilus Elementary and
Junior High School, Miami Beach

L. P. Stephenson, Teacher, Neva King Cooper
Elementary, Homestead
Mrs. Estelle Taff, Teacher, Crawfordville School,
Mrs. Odelia M. Williams, Instructor, Florida State
Nelle Wright, General Supervisor, Leon County

Out of State Consultants
Dr. Elizabeth Avery, Consultant in Health Educa-
tion, American Association for Health, Physi-
cal Education and Recreation
Dr. Fred V. Hein, Consultant in Health Education,
American Medical Association
Elsa Schneider, Specialist, Health, Physical Edu-
cation and Safety, Department of Health,
Education and Welfare, Office of Education,
Washington, D. C.

Florida State University
Mary Virginia Alexander, Associate Professor of
Physical Education
Dr. Eugene M. Boyce, Principal of University
School, Professor of Education
Dr. Helen Cate, Professor of Food and Nutrition
Dr. Howard Danford, Professor of Physical Edu-
cation for Men
Mrs. Bessie Daughtry, Instructor in Library Science
Ivan E. Johnson, Head, Department of Arts Edu-
Fay Kirtland, Associate Professor of Education
Dr. T. B. Phinizy, former Professor of Health
Cleo Rainwater, Associate Professor of Education
Dr. Marion C. Riser, Jr., Assistant Professor of
Health Education
Mrs. Dora Sikes Skipper, Associate Professor of
Dr. Louise Smith, Professor of Health Education

Dr. Walter D. Smith, Associate Professor of Psy-
Mrs. Sara K. Srygley, Assistant Professor of Library
Dr. Mode L. Stone, Dean of the School of Edu-
Dr. Mildren Swearingen, Associate Professor of
Dr. William J. Tait, Associate Professor of Physical
Education for Men
Dr. Malvina Trussell, Associate Professor of Edu-
Glenna Williams, Instructor in Physical Education
for Women
Mrs. Martha Willson, Instructor in Education
Dr. Ralph Witherspoon, Professor of Psychology
and Director of Child Development Program

University of Florida
Dr. Clifford Boyd, Associate Professor of Physical
Education and Health
Dora Hicks, Associate Professor of Physical Edu-
cation and Health
Dr. E. Benton Salt, Professor of Physical Education

Voluntary Agencies
Jerome Baker, Executive Director, Florida Heart
Marian V. Miller, former Health Educator, Na-
tional Foundation for Infantile Paralysis
Frances Neel, Director of Field Services, Florida
Tuberculosis and Health Association
Harley Robertson, Program Consultant, American
Heart Association

Florida Council for the Blind
George Emanuele, Director, Prevention of Blind-
ness, Medical and Social Services
State Board of Health
Gretchen Collins, Nutritionist, Division of Nutri-
tion and Diabetes Control
Dr. Ralph McComas, Director, Bureau of Maternal
and Child Health
Helen McKey, Nurse Consultant, Bureau of Men-
tal Health
Marjorie Morrison, Chief Nutritionist, Division of
Nutrition and Diabetes Control

Dr. Paul Penningroth, former Psychologist, Bureau
of Mental Health
Elizabeth Reed, Director, Division of Health In-
Dr. James L. Wardlaw, Jr., Director, Field Advisory

Staff Members, State Department of Education
Doris Bilger, Assistant Supervisor of School Lunch
Mrs. Lucy Byrd Buckles, Consultant, Elementary
J. K. Chapman, Deputy Superintendent
W. E. Combs, Specialist in Secondary Education
Katie Sue Echols, former Consultant, Alcohol and
Narcotics Education
Mrs. Thelma Flanagan, Supervisor of School Lunch
Howard Jay Friedman, Editor, Florida School
Wilbur Marshall, General Consultant in Instruction
Dr. Sam H. Moorer, Director, Division of Instruc-
tional Field Services
Audrey Newman, Consultant, Instructional Mate-
William Pierce, Field Representative, Division of
Publications and Textbook Services
E. G. Raborn, General Consultant in Instruction
Mrs. Beatrice Shaw, Curriculum Librarian
Dr. T. Q. Srygley, former Director of Instruction
T. George Walker, Director, Division of Publica-
tions and Textbook Services

Advisory Group
Mrs. Eugenia W. Brewington, Teacher, Bond Jun-
ior High School, Tallahassee
Dr. Robert Cobb, former Professor of Health and
Physical Education, Florida A. & M. University
Mrs. Elizabeth Cooke, Teacher, Shell High School,
D. C. Grant, Principal, Sparks Elementary School,
Sparks, Georgia
Mrs. Dorothy Holmes, Supervisor, Negro Schools
of Leon County
Mrs. Cutis Jones, Teacher, Bethel Elementary
School, Colquitt, Georgia

Ulysses Kinsey, Principal, Palm View Elementary
School, West Palm Beach
-Mrs. Helen D. Long, Supervisor, Negro Schools,
Putnam County
Forrest McKennie, Teacher, Union Academy, Bar-
Evadne Priester, former Assistant Professor of
Physical Education and Health, Florida A. &
M. University
Henry W. Warner, Assistant Professor of Physical
Education, Florida A. & M. University

Dr. Ethel Tobin Bell, Assistant Professor of Health
Education, University of California, Los An-
Dr. George T. Stafford, Professor, Health and
Physical Education, University of Illinois,

Participating Schools
Allapattah Elementary School, Miami
Apopka Elementary School, Apopka
Belvedere School, West Palm Beach
Bond School, Tallahassee
Chaires School, Chaires

Davie School, Fort Lauderdale
Drummond Park School, Panama City
Fairlawn Elementary School, Fort Pierce
J. J. Finley School, Gainesville
Grand Avenue School, Orlando
Kirby-Smith School, Gainesville
Lake Como School, Orlando
Lake Silver Elementary School, Orlando
Lincoln Elementary School, Tallahassee
Nautilus School, Miami Beach
Nettie Baisden Primary School, Live Oak
Niceville Elementary School, Niceville
Norwood Elementary School, St. Petersburg
Palmetto Elementary School, West Palm Beach
Santa Rosa County Elementary Schools
South City Elementary School, Tallahassee
South Hialeah Elementary School, Hialeah
Southside School, Sarasota
South Ward School, Clearwater
Truman Elementary School, Key West
Warfield Elementary School, Indiantown
Webster Avenue School, Lakeland


Some suggestions for the teacher, principal, supervisor, librarian,
superintendent and members of organizations.
CHAPTER II. DO THESE SOUND FAMILIAR? ....................... 4
Common-place episodes utilized for health education.
A point of view about health education as related to the general
purposes of education.
CHILDREN .............................................. 26
Characteristics and needs of children and the implications they have
for health education.
HEALTH? ........................... .................... 31
Suggested objectives, activities and materials.
Body Structure and Function ............................... 33
Activity and Rest ................ ......................... 37
Body Care and Grooming .................................. 43
Prevention and Control of Illness and Disability ............... 49
Food ......................... ........ ............. 55
Mental Health and Personality Adjustment .................... 61
Safety and First Aid ....................................... 69
Community Health ......................................... 76
A Sample Unit ................ ........................... 81
EDUCATION ................... .......................... 82
Making use of environment, services and classroom climate to en-
rich health education.
CHAPTER VII. HOW DO YOU GET STARTED? ..................... 86
Development of a Health Program.
NEED? ................ ................................. 90
The use of materials and how to locate them.
Evaluation and its use.


F OR MANY YEARS educators in Florida
have felt that materials should be de-
veloped to assist elementary school teachers
in improving the health education program.
This conviction was shared by teachers, the
State Courses of Study Committee, those
working in teacher education, and members
of the State Department of Education staff.
A group of twenty principals, teachers and
supervisors, representing all geographic areas
of the State, worked together during the
summer of 1952 trying to think through the
problem of how best to help teachers and
school administrators improve health edu-
cation programs. This workshop prepared
the original report which was used as a
basis for this bulletin.
The group sought advice and information
from many sources. Consultants, visitors,
and advisers who met with the group rep-
resented general education, health educa-
tion, psychology, physiology, homemaking,
physical education, recreation, medicine and
dentistry. The State Board of Health and
other official and voluntary agencies also
contributed help. After a tentative draft

had been completed, it was presented to
various staff members in the State Depart-
ment of Education; State Board of Health;
and the Office of Education, Department of
Health, Education and Welfare. After a
tryout in a number of classrooms additional
changes were made by a group of school
people in consultation with representatives
from the Office of Education; The American
Medical Association; American Association
for Health, Physical Education and Recre-
ation and the State Board of Health. Now
the manuscript faces its real test as it goes
into the schools of Florida.
The material departs from the usual pat-
tern in several ways. First, it is brief, simple
and informal. Second, the traditional se-
quence of a bulletin, has not been followed.
Some classroom incidents which show how
health education can be related to every-
day living and the total school program
precede the statement of beliefs concern-
ing a health education program. Charts
suggesting a sequence of learning and some
possible experiences come before discussion
of the use of outside agencies and materials.

Chapter I


YOU MAY ASK is this bulletin a course
of study? Must I cover all the materials
suggested? Am I expected to use the experi-
ences suggested? No, this bulletin presents
a point of view about health, it suggests
procedures, materials, experiences, objectives
and the like which may be useful to you.
However, each school, and each community
has different problems in health education.
No group, nor state course of study commit-
tee, nor book could outline for you the best
program for your school and your class.
Your county school system may wish to use
this bulletin as a basis for planning its own
program or perhaps best results can be ob-
tained by faculties of individual schools.

It is not the intent of this bulletin to pre-
scribe your program. It is hoped that the
bulletin will serve as a guide which may
offer helpful resources and ideas for all those
interested in a health program.

If you are a teacher you will receive the
most help if you will take time to get ac-
quainted with the entire bulletin. The
teacher, more than anyone else in the edu-
cational organization, will influence the learn-
ing experiences of children. Hence, the bul-
letin has been prepared primarily as an aid
for teachers.
After you have read this bulletin you will

probably refer to it often as you and your
class meet specific problems. If you are an
experienced teacher, you will have many
ideas in the field of health education that
are as good as, or better than, those pre-
sented here. However, you may find addi-
tional techniques, outcomes and materials
that will be valuable to you. A new teacher
should find here suggestions and procedures
that will supplement his preparation in the
field of education.

Much of the success of the school health
program will depend upon the educational
leadership at the school and county levels.
For this reason it is important for principals
to get acquainted with the bulletin in order
to help teachers carry on more meaningful
classroom programs. Materials necessary for
the health education program also are sug-
gested and may be helpful to you as an
Since an effort has been made to cover
the field of health education for elementary
schools, the bulletin will offer the admin-
istrator an overview which will aid him in
working with his faculty as they develop a
health education program. You may get
some ideas about how administrators, teach-
ers, custodians, nurses, school lunch depart-
ment personnel, and organizations and agen-
cies which work with the school can help
make the health program truly effective.
Schools which have taken time to study
and discuss bulletins at professional faculty
meetings have obtained the most help from
them. A teacher can give an excellent pro-
gram in his classroom but it takes an entire
school working and thinking together to
make a real impact on the education of boys
and girls. Faculties will find it helpful to
form study groups and combine their col-
lective experiences with the content of this
bulletin. After study, a faculty may be in-

terested in evaluating the school's health
program, using this bulletin to assist them.
Current understandings of the health pro-
gram may be used as points of departure
toward the improvement of health educa-
tion in the school.

As a supervisor you will be called on to
work with individual teachers and faculties
as they gain ideas, inspiration or challenge
from the material presented. In your posi-
tion as a member of professional commit-
tees for the improvement of instruction you
can point out the resources found here and
suggest faculty or county-wide discussion.
It will be your responsibility to see that
all instructional personnel have access to
copies of the bulletin. Perhaps teachers
would be interested in spending some pre-
school or post-school planning time getting
acquainted with it and forming policies or
a course of study of their own.

As a librarian or materials specialist, you
will need to become acquainted with the
entire bulletin in order to give effective help
to the principal, teachers, boys and girls.
Chapter VIII gives a list of sources of
material which will be of help. Other sug-
gestions for desirable materials will be found
under "materials" after each chart in Chap-
ter V. Materials are listed there which are
helpful in a particular area of health educa-
tion. These lists will be an easy source of
reference to you as you work with teachers.

If you are a superintendent, the ultimate
success of any part of the educational pro-
gram depends upon you, since you are in
a position to interest more people in these
suggestions than anyone else in the county.

Your interest, your understanding and your
support can encourage faculty or county-
wide study and provide the implementation
of an effective program of education in this
This bulletin may suggest to you ways
that you can help in the promotion of a
good health education program. Chapter
VIII suggests resource materials and agen-
cies; Chapter VI discusses environment,
classroom climate, and services that are im-
portant to the program. Chapter III deals
with a point of view about health and health
If you take time to read the entire bul-
letin, it will give an overview of a health
education program; moreover, it will permit
you to recommend practical ways that the
material in the bulletin can be used.

If you are an officer or program chairman
of a teachers' organization, you might sug-
gest a panel discussion or a review of the
bulletin at one of your meetings. If you
do not have official responsibilities you might
make this suggestion to the program com-
mittee. Many of the suggestions included
in this material may be helpful to the mem-
bers of various organizations in planning for
adult study groups. Members of the staff of

the County Health Department, your Parent
Teachers Association or other people inter-
ested in the welfare of children will find
material presented here that will assist them
in determining their role in the school health

It is recognized that no bulletin can pre-
sent a formula to guarantee a vital and
worthwhile program. This bulletin is simply
a tool that may be used effectively by the
educator who is aware of his responsibilities
and opportunities as he works with and for
By building on best practices, you can
help build a better program of health edu-
cation in Florida. As you use this guide
you will have reactions, criticisms and sug-
gestions to make that would be valuable in
improving the program. Working with your
children you will develop good ideas con-
cerning classroom practice and procedure
that would help other teachers and schools.
These would be of value to the people in
the State Department of Education as they
visit other schools and should be shared
through professional meetings and publica-
tions. It is hoped that this guide will prove
to be of practical help as we work together
for the improvement of Florida's Elementary
School Health Education Program.

Chapter II


three "stories" or incidents that are
typical of many classrooms in Florida. They
describe how teachers developed learning
experiences out of situations that could hap-
pen in almost any classroom. You may find
in these episodes many practical suggestions
for health activities. They may also remind
you of many incidents that you have used or
might have used for health education in
working with your particular group.

"Oh, come quick, Miss Jones, Jack has
been hurt," said Jimmy excitedly. Sure

enough, as Miss Jones went with Jimmy
into the hall, she met Jack. He was bleed-
ing profusely from his face. He really had
been hurt. There was a great deal of ex-
citement on the part of the children. Miss
Jones took a look at Jack and knew exactly
what to do. According to established proce-
dures for emergency care, Miss Jones ap-
plied immediate first aid, and sent Jimmy
to ask the principal to get in touch with
Jack's parents.
After the excitement was over and the
boys and girls were back in the room they
naturally wanted to discuss what had hap-
pened. "What happened to Jack?" asked

Miss Jones tried to answer the children's
questions and calm their fears. She said,
"Jack has been badly hurt. The doctor had
to sew up the cut in his head but after a
few days rest in bed, he will be back in
school again."
Several days later Jack returned to class,
proudly wearing a sizeable bandage above
his right eye. The children were all very
anxious to talk about the accident.
"What happened, Jack?" asked Miss
"I was running and bumped into some-
thing," said Jack.
"Did someone push you?" asked John.
"No," he said, "I hit a projector being
rolled out of a room."
"Do you think there is anything that we
should do to keep something like this from
happening again?" asked Miss Jones.
The children discussed for some time the
dangers of running in the halls. They de-
cided finally, that before they would recom-
mend anything they needed information.
They made the following plans:

1. One group would look over the
safety regulations for the hall to
see what they thought of them.
2. Another group would also look to
see if there was anything in the
halls that might cause accidents.
3. A third group would figure out a
way of handling the projector to
prevent accidents.
4. Another group would watch the con-
duct of the girls and boys in the
5. A fifth group would go to the prin-
pal to see if there had been any
other accidents in the halls. They

would also ask the teachers if the
boys and girls in their rooms were
having any trouble as they went
from place to place.

After they gathered all the information,
they would decide what they thought needed
to be done and make their recommendations
to the student council.
As a result of this committee work, the
children became interested in improving
their safety program. They found out many
things that they had not thought of before
and the whole school benefitted by their
recommendations. They formed a school
safety council and developed their own
safety regulations. Then Jack felt very im-
portant and said, "Maybe my accident did
more good than harm after all."

"We were talking yesterday about the way
people pay taxes into the city treasury to
pay the salaries of people who protect them
and their property," Mrs. McKinney began.
"Another way in which the tax funds are
used is for the support of the city play-
ground. How many of you go there regu-
All but a few of the children held up their
"Why do you think a city has play-
grounds? she asked. "Let's think of all the
reasons we can. I'll put them on the board."
"A city wants its citizens to be healthy.
People need exercise to be healthy," Sybil
"That's a good beginning for us. I'll put
it on the board," Mrs. McKinney encouraged.
"There are a lot of things you can do
there that are not exercise," Don said.
"People play cards and checkers and chess."
"Some read," Jesse added.

"Some paint or do metal work or weave
baskets," Larry contributed.
"They are play, though, even if they aren't
exercise," Beth said.
"Reading isn't play," Bob corrected.
"It's a change from what the people have
done all day," Elizabeth continued the think-
"That's right," Mrs. McKinney added,
"And a change from one's work, whether it
is exercise or not is called recreation."
Jimmy said, "Everybody doesn't need
hard exercise after a day's work; my Dad's
a mailman."
Mary said, "My Dad lays cement blocks
and he comes home awfully tired."
"Yes," said Mrs. McKinney, "Someone
who has used a lot of physical energy may
find that the more restful things make him
happier. He may want social activity or he
may want to paint or listen to good music
or read."
"Yes," said Carl, "You can go to a recre-
ation center and get almost anything you
"I never had thought before why people
were doing so many different things," Lola
"I love to swim. That's what I go there
for," Marvin said.
"I'm learning to play tennis," Jane added.
Shy Beth said, "I'm learning to paint."
Larry continued, "My brother in high
school is learning to make radios. He's a
ham radio operator."
"What's that?" Joe asked.
"He's an amateur radio operator. They
pick up messages from everywhere and talk
to people, too."

"My Uncle just loves to play chess at the
center. He's an expert chess player. I play
checkers with some other boys when I go
with my Uncle," Hal contributed.
"I like to play baseball," Ralph admitted.
A chorus of boys agreed that is what
they liked.
"Isn't it interesting how many things
people like?" Mrs. McKinney said. "That is
the purpose of the playground or recreation
center. The city wants every one of its
citizens to be a well-rounded person so it
contributes tax money for playgrounds and
recreation centers."

Ralph was admitted to the first grade of
Harris School several weeks after school
began. Pale and listless, he disturbed Miss
O'Connor, the teacher. He did not seem
to have the energy or the desire to partici-
pate in many of the activities and his in-
terest span was unusually short. His clothes
were fairly neat and clean but he did not
have the appearance of a child who was in
good health. Miss O'Connor sent a note
home to his mother asking if she might talk
to her, but learned that she worked and did
not get home until late. Miss O'Connor
talked the problem over with Mrs. Sisler,
the public health nurse. Mrs. Sisler said she
would go by and see whoever was in charge
of the household. On her next regular week-
ly visit to the school, she told Miss O'Connor
that Ralph's father was not living and a
cousin was staying in the home to care for
Ralph's two-year old sister. She also dis-
covered that the mother's wages were small.
Mrs. Sisler had another conference with
Ralph and said she would like to get a stool
specimen from him. She made a note to
have the child examined when the county
health officer came to the school later on in
the year.

Mrs. Sisler sent a stool specimen container
home with Ralph and he brought it back a
day later. Miss O'Connor put it in the mail
for him. Two weeks later, Mrs. Sisler told
Miss O'Connor that Ralph had hookworms
and ascaris (stomach worms), and that she
had visited the home and helped the family
to make arrangements to visit the county
clinic where treatment can be obtained with-
out cost to the family. A few days later
Ralph came to school full of importance. He
had been to see a doctor! It was quite an
event in his young life. He was so enthusi-
astic about it that he recited for Miss O'Con-
nor a list of foods he must eat: ". and
an egg every day, milk, carrots, turnip greens
and all that sort of stuff." During the days
that followed, Miss O'Connor emphasized a
little more than usual foods which every
child should have and Ralph was unusually
As the days went on Ralph began to "pick
up." His color improved as did his partici-
pation in the children's games and he be-
came more alert. His pleasure at seeing
Mrs. Sisler each week was obvious. One
day he plucked up courage to ask her if she
would find out if his sister had worms, too.
Mrs. Sisler gravely informed him that she
had tested her and that she was all right.
"As a matter of fact, I just came from your
house." Ralph beamed. Mrs. Sisler discussed
with Miss O'Connor ways in which she could
help Ralph, explaining something of his poor
home conditions and the need for emphasis
on good health habits.
As Miss O'Connor watched Ralph playing
boisterously with the rest of the children
at the end of the school year, she felt that
she and Mrs. Sisler had helped to give him
a better start in life.

There was an epidemic of colds in the
community. Miss Bonnewitz had worked

very hard, as had all the teachers, to help
parents realize how important it is to keep
children with fresh colds at home. As she
talked to them when they brought their chil-
dren to school, or over the telephone, or in
the grocery store, she tried to help them
see this.
Miss Bonnewitz was trying to help chil-
dren develop the habit of covering their
noses and mouths whenever coughing or
sneezing. The reasons had been discussed
and each child was asked to bring a small
package of tissues to be placed in his desk.
One day, Miss Bonnewitz suggested that
they go for a short walk in the midday sun.
They followed the path they loved so much
by the edge of the woods where they often
saw squirrels, scampering and frisking.
As they were walking along leisurely, a
child said in a loud whisper, "Look, Miss
Bonnewitz," pointing into the woods.
Teacher and children halted and stared
at what they saw. There in the woods sat
a squirrel, upright on his haunches, hold-
ing with his front paws, a tissue to his nose.
It held this pose for a moment as the chil-
dren held their breath, so as not to frighten
it. When it turned and frisked away, drop-
ping the tissue, the children laughed glee-
"Who do you suppose taught it to catch
its sneeze?" asked Bobby. "I can't say," re-
plied Miss Bonnewitz, "But I believe woods
children do a better job of using tissues than
school children, except that this little squir-
rel didn't know he should have put the tissue
in a paper bag.
They all laughed and laughed at this. Now
that their sense of humor had been appealed
to, child after child made a funny little
quip about it. Miss Bonnewitz liked this.
"They're developing insight," she thought.
"Perhaps we can remember how well the
squirrel did and do as well ourselves after

this lesson in the use of tissue," she laughed.
This set the children off into peals of
laughter again. "We'll be good squirrels
after this, Miss Bonnewitz," Sam said.
They lived up to this promise. Seldom
did anyone have to be reminded to cover
his cough or sneeze. They also remembered
to dispose of their tissues properly. Miss
Bonnewitz often told them that they were
being wonderfully good squirrels. This al-
ways brought a laugh of appreciation for
the funny little animal and enjoyment of
their secret of the woods.

The sixth grade boys and girls taught by
Mr. Thompson had become interested in a
problem: How do the people of a com-
munity work together to protect public
They had studied about the fire depart-
ment, the police department, the public
health department-food inspection, gar-
bage collection, and other public health
functions. Suddenly, Ray, who was water-
ing the plants in their room said, "You know
we have not studied at all about water. How
is our water kept pure? Where does it come
from, Mr. Thompson?"
"Those are good problems, Ray. Do you
know the answers, boys and girls?" Some
thought the source of supply was wells;
others thought it came from the river on
which the city was located. No one knew
what was done to keep it pure. "I certainly
think we ought to learn about it. Water is
so important," Bob thoughtfully remarked.
Mr. Thompson asked for the consensus
of the group on the subject. All agreed that
they should study their water supply and
that Ray's problems were good. So the study
was launched.
They decided to divide into committees

for the study. The following committees
were listed as essential:
Assemble a bibliography- Committee 1
Visit the City Hall to collect informa-
tion Committee 2
Visit the Water Department for informa-
tion Committee 8
Visit the city swimming pool for infor-
mation Committee 4
It was decided that all members of each
committee should study about water in the
resources available at the school and in the
public library. They wanted to find out the
importance of water to people and the usual
ways that cities secured their supply. They
thought the last was important so that they
might compare their own city with other
Each committee had a chairman, elected
by the entire group, because the committee
represented everybody. Each group was
charged with the responsibility of bringing
back an authentic and clear report to the
entire group.
They thought it was important to send
only a few people to the city hall to ask
the city manager the following questions:

1. How is water sold to the people of
the city?
2. How much money is invested in our
3. How much is paid in salaries each
month to keep the plant going?
4. What problems does the city have
in connection with the water supply
and sewage disposal?
5. Has our city ever had any cases of
illness due to impure water? If so,
what were they?
The following problems were listed by

the group for the committee making the
trip to the water plant:

1. What is the source of our water?
2. How is water purified?
3. What are the problems the city has
to meet in keeping the water pure?
4. How often is the water tested for
5. How many people work in the plant?

The committee going to the city swim-
ming pool listed these questions that they
hoped would be answered.

1. Where do you get your water?
2. How do you keep the water pure?
3. How do you clean the swimming
4. How much water is in the swimming
pool and how much water is used
in a week's time?
5. What other things are done to keep
the swimming pool and equipment

When the children began to read and
study they found the material so interesting
they wanted to do a great deal of research.
One group took New York; another, Chicago;
a third, New Orleans; a fourth, Los Angeles;
and a fifth, ancient and modern Rome to
study and learn about their sources of water
and the problems of each city in establish-
ing and keeping their water supply.
The committees brought back interesting
reports. After the facts and figures in their
reports were put on the board, another com-
mittee was appointed to write out arithmetic
problems, dealing with these facts and fig-
ures. Another committee was appointed to
visit the public health department to dis-
cover what problems and responsibilities it

had in relation to maintaining a pure water
Graphs and tables were made; a mural
showing the way water reaches the indi-
vidual from its original source was painted;
and a model of the water plant and system
was made. When the sixth grade boys and
girls had finally organized all this informa-
tion, they planned a radio program which
they presented over the local radio station.
They also had an assembly program so that
the older boys and girls might know about
the city water supply. They felt they were
truly experts in this field.
The children in Miss Brown's room were
busily engaged in cleaning up after the work
period. It was a nice February morning,
sunny and bright, but sufficiently cold to
make one feel like engaging in all kinds of
physical activity.
Some of the boys and girls had been work-
ing in the garden that their class had planted
at school. As they came in they could not
wait for their turn to talk during the con-
ference period. Ben said, "Miss Brown, our
vegetables are ready to eat!" Others on the
committee agreed with Ben. Miss Brown
said, "Let's talk it over now that you have
finished cleaning up and are in your seats.
What do you think is ready to be eaten?"
Molly said she thought the mustard, turnip
greens, lettuce, onions and radishes were all
ready. After discussing it, they decided to
prepare lunch in their room for themselves
the next day, using some of all the vege-
"I believe I won't come tomorrow then,"
Keith said. "I just hate all kinds of greens."
Some others, less outspoken, agreed with
"I believe you'll like these tomorrow," said
Miss Brown, smiling at them. "Don't de-

cide against the luncheon until it is planned,"
and her eyes twinkled merrily. "You might
miss something, you know."
"All right, I guess I'll have to be open-
minded about it," Keith quipped, his own
eyes sparkling.
"Now, how shall we serve these?" she
They finally decided to cook the mustard
and turnip greens together and to have
tossed salad, using lettuce, onions and
radishes. Then their planning "bogged
"What might help you now?" Miss Brown
"Oh, the Food Chart," Iva answered. After
a look at the chart she said, "We don't have
any meat, fish, eggs or milk."
"What would be good to serve with
Mary replied, "My mother nearly always
serves poached eggs."
"We'd better boil ours," Betty added. "It's
hard to pick up a poached egg without
breaking it."
"We can have milk to drink," Bill contrib-
"I think we are beginning to have a very
well-balanced meal. Do we need anything
else?" Miss Brown continued.
"Dessert, we don't have a dessert," Eliza-
beth said.
"Let's have candy," Martha, with a sweet
tooth, suggested. "No," Katie said, "This
is going to be a real health luncheon. Let's
have apples."
All thought this a good idea. Then some-
one suggested apples and bananas because
that would give choice and they would re-
quire little preparing.

They listed the materials they would have
to bring-foods and utensils. Then they
decided on committees and volunteered to
serve on them, writing it all under the title
Needless to say, everyone was there early
next morning and on the job. They were all
careful to wash their hands and make sure
the utensils were clean. The luncheon was
served on time. Not a child said a word
about disliking anything. The food all dis-
appeared more rapidly than when they ate
in the school lunch department. Suddenly,
Billy looked at Keith and said, "I thought
you didn't like greens? I certainly couldn't
tell it from the way you ate."
"These are better than they usually are,"
Keith replied. "Anyway, I didn't miss any-
thing, did I Miss Brown?"
"You've been good sports, all of you. But
really, didn't you enjoy eating everything?"
Miss Brown asked.
All heartily agreed that they had.
When Keith's mother saw Miss Brown,
she asked, "How is it you can get my son
to eat turnip greens and tossed salad when
I try as hard as I can at home and can't get
him to consent to taste them?"
"Don't you think it's because he's eating
with other children?", Miss Brown replied;
"then too, children almost always eat vege-
tables that they grow and prepare."

In Palm Street Elementary School three
classes usually had their recreation periods
at the same time. Children, on their return
to the building, stood in line and took turns
at the drinking fountain. As a result of the
long line which was formed, there was much
aggressive behavior such as pushing and, of
course, noise. There was also much waste
of time and lack of water pressure after

prolonged periods. Then too, occasionally,
there were accidents.
The problem was brought before the stu-
dent council by representatives from vari-
ous rooms in that building. The council
members agreed that this was the number
one problem on their list needing improve-
ment and made specific plans to work at it
for a month. The members made a list of
problems growing out of the situation to
take back to their respective rooms for the
purpose of discussion and getting some pro-
posals for solution.
The publicity committee suggested that
each room might develop some interesting
cartoons. The chairman of the student coun-
cil took the problem to the next faculty
meeting so that they could talk about it,
increase their understanding of the problem,
and thus aid their groups when it was dis-
At the next student council meeting many
suggestions were given and two plans were
suggested for possible trial.
Plan One: One room would remain in
line and others go to their rooms and then
return to the fountain later.
Plan Two: The two rooms nearest to the
drinking fountain, would adjust their pro-
grams to provide a half-hour individual work
period to follow the play period and those
who wanted to go to the fountain would take
turns. The students from the other rooms
not adjacent to the drinking fountain, would
have their turn before returning to their
At the next meeting of the student council
the pupils reported that most of the boys
and girls in their room liked Plan Two best.
One person reported, "Everybody in our
room likes it except those who always cause
trouble." Another said, "We like it and the
teachers like it, too."

Later, as the teachers were evaluating this
situation, they pointed out several learning
that had resulted. They had corrected a
situation in the school. In addition, they
felt that the boys and girls had developed
attitudes of respect and responsibility for
school organization. The pupils had gained
in their understanding of how the real
strength of any group depends upon plan-
ning and individual cooperation. Also, they
felt that pupils' feelings and interests had
been directed into individually desirable and
socially worthwhile channels. And as a re-
sult of all that, there was greater happiness
for each of the boys and girls in the school.

"Did you have a hard day?" Dee asked
sympathetically, as Liz, her roommate came
in, kicked off her shoes, and collapsed in a
chair with a weary sigh.
"I'll say I did," groaned Liz. "Today at
play period some of my girls were jumping
rope. Kay had taken off her shoes and while
she was jumping, ran a nail into her foot."
"How terrible," exclaimed Dee. "What
did you do?"
"Well, you know how it goes. The chil-
dren became very excited and there was
as usual, some delay in getting help. We
got a bench so Kay could sit down; then I
sent another child for Mr. Wall, the princi-
pal. He couldn't be located at once, but
when he was found he called Kay's parents
for permission to take her to her family doc-
tor. After they gave permission he took her
to the doctor's office. Play period was over
and, of course, there was no getting them
back to work immediately," related Liz.
"Just what did you do with that large
group? I've never had anything like that
happen to me," said Dee.
"The children were all much concerned
about Kay and they wanted to know what

the doctor would do about her foot. We
talked about how the accident might have
been prevented and the advisability of wear-
ing shoes. There were dozens of questions
popping at me."
Dee interrupted to ask, "Did you ever
get them back to work?"
"Well, we were working! This was a good
chance for a health lesson. When Mr. Wall
returned from the doctor's office, he came
to our room. He told us how the doctor had
given Kay a booster shot for tetanus and
taken care of the wound. Luckily she had
had previous immunization against tetanus.
Mr. Wall expressed his admiration for Kay's
courage and willingness to cooperate with
the doctor.
"After Mr. Wall left, the children asked
why Kay needed a booster shot for tetanus.
They also wanted to know what other care
she would need. We listed all their ques-
tions and talked about the value of authori-
tative information. The children started to
consult references for the answers. I am
sure that tomorrow when we discuss what
each one found we will have more questions
to add to our list.
"Time we spent in the class on this prob-
lem was surely well spent. As a result of
their interest those fifth graders are going
to acquire more skill in finding information.
Also, I hope they are going to acquire some
scientific attitudes."
"I've heard many, many times that we
should make use of children's experiences
in our teaching," said Dee. "That was a
good job, I hope I can recognize a teachable
moment when I see one."

Tony and the other children of Mrs. Hale's
fifth grade were having a good time playing
ball. Everything went along fine until Tony
was called out on a close play. Immediately

he became very angry. As he walked off
the diamond, he saw a rock on the ground.
Seized with a sudden impulse, he picked it
up and threw it. The rock hit Jim right be-
hind the left ear. At once a large bump
developed on Jim's head and he became ill.
It was necessary not only to apply first aid
but also to call his parents and have him
taken home.
Tony was sorry that he had been angry
and hurt Jim and said "If that rock hadn't
been on the playground, I wouldn't have
hit Jim."
"That is no excuse for your behavior,
Tony," Mrs. Hale replied, "but we will talk
about that later. You are right that rocks
should not be on the playground. What
can we do about that?"
Tony was the first to reply. He said, "Why
don't we form a cleanup squad and get rid
of all these things that should not be on our
"You may have something there," said
Mrs. Hale. "Let's talk about it when we get
into the room."
After the class got back to their room, they
listened to some music. Then one of the
children read an original story which she
had written. When the class seemed to be
calm, Mrs. Hale brought up the subject of
the accident and Tony's suggestion that they
form a cleanup squad. This seemed to be
what the class wanted to do, so plans were
made. They decided what should be done
and how they might carry it out. They also
sent their plan to the student council to
see if the whole school would cooperate in
the project. As they worked out the details,
Tony and the class felt good because they
were taking some positive action about a
Later in the day Mrs. Hale chose a book
from the school library and read a story to
them. The story was about a boy named

Pete who in the last few months had many,
many accidents. One was serious enough
so that he had to go to a doctor. The doctor
began to look into the reasons for Pete's
accidents and discovered that before prac-
tically every one of them Pete had become
angry or had felt sorry for himself and be-
cause of this, had forgotten to practice the
safety rules he knew. After the story, the
children discussed it. Tony was heard to
remark to a friend, "That's what happened
to me, I lost my temper, too."
As the days went by Mrs. Hale used other
stories, other materials such as films and
pictures, and other situations as opportuni-
ties for the boys and girls to discuss their
own behavior. They took up such problems
as anger, "scapegoating," and accidents.
They discussed other ones, too, such as lying,
stealing, "pokiness," and irritability. Little
by little it seemed the boys and girls began
to understand themselves and why they
acted as they did as well as why other people
act as they do. As understanding of them-
selves improved, it seemed that their be-
havior improved, too.
An indication of Tony's improvement
came one day in the room during a work
period. When somebody pushed up against
Tony, he reacted immediately by doubling
up his fists. But then in a flash he grinned,
relaxed and went about his own work. Mrs.
Hale smiled to herself as she saw results of
the class working and thinking together.
Later in the year in another ball game,
Tony again was called out on a close play.
Mrs. Hale wondered what would happen
this time. She was pleased to see Tony dust
himself off and leave the field without mak-
ing any trouble.

It was Halloween. In just a few hours all
the spooks, witches and ghosts would be

out of hiding. Excitement! Excitement! The
kindergarten children and Miss Kay were
getting ready for a party.
"Is the syrup ready to candy the apples,
Miss Kay?" called Mary.
"Yes, it is," replied Miss Kay, "You may
bring your apples and dip them."
Everything was going well until Mary
held her apple up and some of the hot syrup
burned her hand. She began to cry and other
boys and girls gathered around to see what
had happened. Miss Kay comforted the
child and opened the first aid kit.
"Now, Mary, we shall have it all fixed in
just a few minutes," she said. Miss Kay took
care of the burs according to the directions
given by the county health officer during
the pre-school conference. The boys and
girls were interested as they watched her.
This situation proved the ideal time to
discuss with the children the matter of burns
and how to apply first aid for them. It also
provided opportunity to discuss precautions
and safety devices necessary to protect one-
self from burns.

Mrs. Merritt had been quite worried ever
since she had been teaching in Parkwood
School because the grounds were not kept
clean. She felt that cleanliness is a most
important part of character training of girls
and boys. She knew the teachers should be
planning together ways of helping children
build right habits and attitudes in regard to
care and use of public property, particularly
their school grounds.
"One teacher cannot get anywhere alone
in this matter," Mrs. Merritt thought as she
turned the problem over in her mind. "Or
can she?", she asked, catching herself up
quickly on that conclusion. She was never
one to say a thing cannot be done. Suddenly

a plan had come to her mind. Just the other
day the Oak Street fifth grade had invited
her class to come over for a play day.
"The Oak Street School grounds always
look so well kept," Mrs. Merritt thought.
"We will see if the visit there won't help
to develop a little pride in our own children."
She made all necessary arrangements with
her own principal; then she set about de-
veloping the idea with her children. She
asked them if they would like to write to
the fifth grade children of the other school
and accept their invitation. Mrs. Merritt ex-
plained to the children that a play day is
an occasion to get together to play games,
dance folk dances and sing together, just
for the pure enjoyment of playing and sing-
ing with another group of their own age.
After they had discussed the play day,
Mrs. Merritt said, "In going to another
school there is much else for us to learn.
What are some things you want to keep in
mind that we should notice in particular?"
The children spoke of the other group's
classroom, the bulletin boards, the things
they would be making, the way they played
and the kind of equipment and materials
they used.
Mrs. Merritt said, "I think you can always
tell a great deal about a family by noting
what the house and its surroundings are like.
So, suppose we notice Oak Street School's
building and grounds as we approach them.
Then let's look at our own when we return."
The visit was enjoyed by both groups of
children. Each teacher saw her own chil-
dren in a new light as they mingled with the
others. This visit provided splendid oppor-
tunities for teachers to determine whether
the habits and attitudes in social living they
had been seeking to establish were really
functioning. As children got in line for the
bus, they said, "Please," "Pardon me," and
"Thank you," refrained from pushing and

interrupting and entered wholeheartedly in-
to conversations and discussions. Each
teacher felt justly pleased and proud. Of
course, there were times when they felt
otherwise, but they tried to make mental
note of these and use them as teaching op-
portunities later.
Children had exclaimed over the attrac-
tive appearance of Oak Street School as
they approached it. They were now keenly
sensitive to school surroundings. Then they
came in sight of their own school and saw
papers and cartons on the ground, some ex-
claimed, "We must make our grounds look
as nice as Oak Street School grounds."
As soon as they were back in the room,
they began to form committees for a clean-
up drive. A letter, telling their plans, was
written to the principal. They asked her if
she would ask all the children to help them
keep their grounds clean. "It isn't safe or
healthy" they said, "to have papers, cups
and waste on school grounds and besides
it doesn't look nice."
Thus, began a real cleanup campaign at
Parkwood School.

Mrs. Arthur taught a group of eight year
old children. They had taken a trip to the
fire department to see how firemen work
and were pleased because of the many
things they had learned. They had learned
all the ways that news of a fire may come
to the department and had seen where the
firemen sleep, halfdressed, in a big room
full of cots.
Dick was thrilled to be chosen as the
member of their group to slide down the
brass pole to show how it is done when
the firemen get a call at night. All of the
boys wanted hats like the firemen.
They were surprised to learn that firemen
not only put out fires, but what is even more

important, help prevent them. They also
are called to help a person get into an up-
stairs apartment when the occupant has left
the key inside, or to get a cat out of a tree
when it refuses to come down.
"My uncle called the fire department when
he saw bees coming and going from a hole
in the wall of his house," Don said.
"What did they find?," Jack inquired.
"A lot of bees and honey," Don answered.
"The firemen took off some boards in the
wall and there were the bees!"
"I never knew before firemen were so
kind and would come for so many things,"
Mary remarked.
Mrs. Arthur said, "Of course, the main
business of the fire department is fires and
their prevention. They should not be called
for other things except in cases of extreme
"They come when the grass is on fire,"
Mollie added. "My daddy called them once
because he was afraid it might cause the
houses to catch on fire. Last summer, I was
at the beach when a woman almost drowned.
They called the fire department to help her."
"I always thought it was queer to call fire-
men when there wasn't any fire," Jennie
"What did they want the firemen for?"
Ronald asked.
"They used a machine, but I can't explain
it," said Jennie.
"Maybe Charles can explain it," Mrs.
Arthur said, "his father is a fireman."
Charles explained that the machine is
called an inhalator.
"This is used to revive people who are
overcome by smoke," Charles said. "They
need oxygen. A person who is in a drown-
ing condition needs oxygen, too. That's why

the people giving first-aid called the fire
department. With the inhalator they can
help to start a person breathing again."
"I never knew firemen did so many
things," Jack said. "It makes me want more
than ever to be a fireman!"
"Yes, the firemen are always on call," Mrs.
Arthur said. "They help prevent fires, too,
by inspecting buildings to see that regula-
tions are obeyed. They want you to call
them in case of need. It is much better to
catch a fire when it is small than to have
homes and people burned. Firemen help
protect our health."

There was a spirit of concern and distress
among Mrs. Barrett's fifth graders. Two
girls, Barbara and Mary, were absent be-
cause of food poisoning. Several other
people in town were sick. The doctors and
health officer traced the illness to the salad
eaten at a picnic. Evidently harmful bacteria
had gotten into the salad and because of
the hot weather they had grown very rap-
idly and caused the salad to spoil.
Mrs. Barrett thought that this was a good
opportunity to do some teaching on safe-
guarding food. She asked, "Have you ever
thought about the number of people who
protect our food?"
"Who are they?" Asked Jack, who was
always quick to speak.
"Let's think through the question and see
if we can name them," Mrs. Barrett replied.
They named the County health officer, the
sanitarians, and the food inspectors who
check markets, stores and eating places.
When Pure Food Laws were mentioned,
Bob said, "I don't know very much about
those laws. Do you think it would tell any-
thing about them in the encyclopedia?"
He was astounded to learn that even in the

Middle Ages, governments made many laws
regulating the adulteration and quality of
foods. He also found that the Bible tells
how the ancient Hebrews had many regula-
tions concerning the cleanliness of foods,
which many of them follow to this day.
This was so interesting they all decided
to go to the reference books. The), began
to ask, "What would you look for?"
Various ones contributed until these sub-
jects were on the board:

1. Foods
2. Food Preservatives

3. Drying
4. Salting
5. Canning
6. Refrigera
7. Freezing


They asked if they might have a reading
period right then to find out more about
these ways of preserving foods. Mrs. Bar-
rett asked, "What are you going to keep in
mind as you read? What are you trying to
find out?"
"How are foods preserved?" Cynthia con-
"What keeps food from spoiling?" Alfred
"Those are splendid problems," said Mrs.
Barrett. "I would like to add one more, if
I may."
"Sure!" many replied.
"How do we keep food from spoiling in
our own homes?"
"May we talk about that before we read?"
Jane asked.
"If you wish to, you may," was Mrs. Bar-
rett's answer.

They began to offer suggestions. Finally,
their list read like this:
1. You must have clean hands when you
touch foods.
2. Use clean utensils and containers in
preparing food.
3. Keep the refrigerator clean.
4. Put away foods that need refrigeration
5. Store other foods away from insects
and rodents.
6. Throw away food if there is any doubt
about its being safe to eat.
"You will find others and your reading
will make you think of more," Mrs. Barrett
added. "Keep all these problems in mind
as you read. We'll have a good discussion
about them tomorrow."

John walked along the path to catch the
school bus on the highway. He didn't want
to go to school. They weren't going to do
anything he liked. "One thing, who wants
to know about old teeth?"
Just then John kicked something in the
sand. He looked down and saw a skull. He
had never seen one like it. He picked it
up quickly and hurried to the bus. His
teacher, Mr. Martin, would know all about
this skull.
The bus came to a stop just as John
reached the highway. On he hopped with
his specimen. The children were quite in-
terested and each offered some suggestion
as to what kind of an animal it might have
At last they were at school. John rushed
into his room to find Mr. Martin. He was
talking with one of the girls about arranging
some materials on the bulletin board.
"Look, Mr. Martin! I found this skull on
the way to school. What kind of animal is

it? It has teeth. Why do they look so
"Wait a minute, John, one question at
a time."
The class began to gather around.
"I have a bigger skull at home," said
Tom, "it has teeth, and they are a lot big-
ger. May I bring mine to school?"
As Mr. Martin said yes, he admitted to
himself that though this was a different and
an odd approach it would be a good way
to open the study about teeth.

Mrs. Wyatt had been wondering about
her children for several months. Some of
them appeared tired and listless at times.
She knew that many of the mothers as
well as the fathers worked. They left home
early in the morning leaving the children
to get up, prepare their own breakfasts, and
get off to school. Mrs. Wyatt knew that a
number of them regularly ate a doughnut
and had a soft drink at a small store near
the school.
These conditions were in Mrs. Wyatt's
mind as she worked with the boys and girls.
She kept asking herself what she could do
about it. She could not talk to the parents
about it not until she had some practical
plan to present. She could not talk to the
children about it for this would seem as
if she were criticizing their parents.
Finally, a plan came to her mind. She
had weighed and measured the boys and
girls in her room in September. They dis-
cussed their heights and weights. She had
told them, "You are growing all the time.
We'll weigh and measure you again in about
three months to see how many pounds you
have gained."
Now, since the three months had lapsed,
it was time to weigh and measure again.
So, she said, "I can go ahead with my plan."

Many children showed little gain. Mrs.
Wyatt talked with each child in a private
conference about his meals and particularly
his breakfast. Most of them had a well bal-
anced lunch at school, but breakfasts were
generally poor and the other meal was not
always adequate.
One day, Mrs. Wyatt asked if they would
like to carry out an experiment with some
white rats. They liked this very much for
they thought it would be fun to have white
rats in their room. One child, more curious
than the others, asked, "What's the experi-
"There are many we could carry out. One
of the easiest would be to see what kind of
diet makes white rats grow in size and weight
and gives them a glossy, healthy coat," she
"What do they eat?" Phillip asked.
"Let's read and find out," was Mrs. Wyatt's
With that they went to their science ma-
terials to look up feeding experiments with
white rats. They were interested to learn
that these animals ate about the same things
that people eat, including all kinds of grain.
That would make feeding easy.
Now they were ready to set up their ex-
periment. As they watched the rats play
in their cage, George said, "I love to watch
them frisk and frolic, don't you?"
Jane said, "That would be good names
for them."
"What would be?" George asked. "I didn't
say any names.
"Why Frisk and Frolic," Jane replied.
"The words describe them so well."
The children liked the names, so the ani-
mals were no longer called white rats but
Frisk and Frolic.
S"Shall we feed Frisk a poor diet and give
Frolic one that is good?" Mrs. Wyatt asked.

This was agreed upon. They decided to
weigh the rats carefully each day and keep
an accurate record of everything. They put
the record on the board:
Date Weight Food Appearance
Weight Food Appearance
They formed committees to feed the rats,
care for their cage, and take care of the
record. They studied the seven basic foods
chart to be sure Frolic's diet was well bal-
For a few days they saw no difference.
Then Frisk began to be less frisky. "He
seems to be day-dreaming," one child said.
As he failed to gain weight, the children
began to draw conclusions and to study their
own diets. Mothers began to come in to
see the rats, having heard their children talk
so much about them. This pleased Mrs.
Wyatt very much. She said, "Now that we
have proved that a balanced diet is best,
shall we give Frisk some milk?"
"Yes. Let's give him some orange juice
too," Jasper suggested.
It was almost miraculous the way he be-
gan to pick up in alertness and then to show
a gain in weight.
One day, Mrs. Wyatt asked the children
if they would like to invite all of their
mothers to see the white rats and hear of
their experiment. The children liked this.
They talked about the things that they
should tell their parents and decided it
would be best to do this in a conversational
way without any formal speeches. Then
whoever felt like answering a question or
telling something important would do so.
This helped to make everyone feel respon-
sible and think through all they had learned.
The mothers were quite impressed with
all the children had learned. They found
out from the children how much more Frisk

paid attention to things about him after they
added orange juice and milk to his diet. The
steady growth, the plump body and the
glossy coat of Frolic told an interesting story,
too. Mrs. Wyatt talked to them after she
dismissed the children. They had begun to
see the relationship of this experiment to
the diets of their own children.
"It has been a wonderful experiment,"
Mrs. Wyatt thought when all had gone
home. "Seeing is believing, truly. The old
saying, 'A picture is worth ten thousand
words,' is certainly true."

Mary Allen was always tired. She never
seemed to have sufficient energy to listen to
what was being said and her teacher
wondered about the reason for this. She
said nothing to Mary, but she was con-
stantly alert to discover the cause.
One day Mary was absent. It was on
her return to school that her teacher learned
that Mrs. Allen, who was a practical nurse,
worked at night. Since her father was an
invalid, Mary had much of the responsi-
bility for her two-year-old brother and her
five-year-old sister, and was often awakened
by them during the night. That was a big
assignment for an eight-year-old.
Mary's teacher talked with Mrs. Allen
about the problem. The mother felt that it
was better for her to be at home when the
children were awake and when Mary came
home from school. The teacher could ap-
preciate this and was anxious to be helpful,
if possible. She knew that frequently Mary's
responsibilities interfered with her rest.
Because of her better understanding of
Mary's problem, Mrs. Allen decided to hold
a short individual conference with each
member of her class. She tried to find out
when each child went to bed, when they
arose in the morning, what they did after
school, and what responsibilities they had.

She realized that many were tired when
they came to school, particularly the ones
who rode the bus a long distance.
Finally, after giving a good deal of
thought to Mary's problem and to the needs
of all of the children, the teacher decided
to try to strike a better balance between
activity and rest in her classroom schedule.
She planned, among other things, a twenty
minute rest period after lunch. During this
time some of the children actually took a
little nap.
Each day the teacher checked to see that
her program had the proper rhythm of ac-
tivity and quiet work. Soon Mary began
to pay better attention and later began to
participate more actively within the room.
The entire group seemed far less restless
and more cooperative.

Miss Cherry was at her desk making out
the day's reports for her third grade, when
a voice suddenly piped up, "Miss Cherry,
Miss Cherry, Joe is crying."
Miss Cherry left her desk and went to
Joe's seat. "What is wrong, Joe?" she asked
in a gentle voice.
Between sobs Joe explained that his leg
hurt. He had a boil on it and at recess time
Jimmy had bumped it. Jimmy explosively
exclaimed that he hadn't meant to and had
to be assured that everyone understood.
Miss Cherry looked at the leg. The boil
had burst and pus was running out. Miss
Cherry put a sterile bandage over the boil
and then called Joe's mother. She suggested
that perhaps Joe had better see a doctor.
When Joe was gone the group continued
to talk about his leg. Mary's father at one
time had a boil. Jane had one on her back
last year and told how painful it had been.
Sam suggested that they all needed to be
more careful not to bump into Joe while
his leg was so sore. Everyone agreed.

The following morning when Joe returned
to school he was asked about his leg. "It
still hurts," he said, "but it is getting better."
Miss Cherry asked, "What instructions did
the doctor give you?"
"He said to keep it clean and covered.
He warned me not to be pulling at the
dressing or picking at it. For a few days I
am to use my leg as little as I can," said
"Why must you keep it clean and cov-
ered?" Miss Cherry asked Joe.
Joe answered promptly, "He told me that
if dirt and germs got into the sore, it might
get worse."
"You mustn't pick at any sore. If you do,
that makes it worse and germs from it can
be carried by your hands to other parts of
the skin," put in Bobby.
"That's right," chimed in Jane. "That's
what the doctor told my mother when I had
a boil. We have to do the same for all our
cuts and scratches, too. Joe, why did the
doctor tell you to keep your foot up and use
it as little as possible?"
"Well, Jane, he told me that if I would
keep it from getting bumped, it would heal
more quickly."
The goodnights had been said and the last
straggler was gone. Miss Cherry sat at her
desk looking back over the day and think-
ing about tomorrow. The sharing time had
been especially good today. Joe's visits to
the doctor and the conversation about it
had been a valuable lesson in the care of
skin infections. It was so closely related to
the common experiences of the children.

In a variety of ways Mrs. Jack, sixth grade
teacher, stimulated interest in Community
Health. She thought it was time for her
pupils to become aware of their responsi-
bility as citizens of the community.

Bob and John had come face to face
with a community health problem and were
eager to share with the class the experience
that they had at the city pool. It seems that
just the other day the boys had arrived at
the pool early and found that it was closed.
There had been a swimming meet the night
before, with many spectators who had vi-
olated the rules and thrown gum and trash
into the water. Mr. Airth, the manager of
the pool saw the boys and asked them if
they cared to help get the pool in shape.
For this work they could get in free. This
pleased them, as they would have more
money for lunch.
Mr. Airth commented that you could see
what kind of people attended by the looks
of the grounds around the chairs. "People
who are considerate of others put their trash
in receptacles. They feel that the pool be-
longs to them as well as to the city officials.
They know that unless they help to keep it
clean and sanitary, it won't be kept that
way," he said. The boys helped pick up the
trash around the pool while Mr. Airth oper-
ated the vacuum equipment to remove the
They wanted to know all about the care
of the pool and Mr. Airth very gladly ex-
plained to them the rules of the pool, which
they copied so they could share them with
their class.
1. Water supply shall be clean and
meet requirements for drinking wa-
2. Water should be continually filtered,
re-circulated and chlorinated.
3. Bottoms and side walls of pools
should be vacuumed every day.
4. When green slime algae appears on
the side of pool, the water level has
to be lowered so it can be removed.
5. A life guard must be on duty all
hours that it is open.

6. Walks around the pools must be
adequate to take care of expected
load, well-drained and constructed
of non-slippery materials.
7. Pools should have adequate and
properly located toilet facilities and
dressing rooms.
8. Food, drink, gum and tobacco are
not allowed in area.
9. Persons not attired for swimming are
excluded from area.
10. No persons having evidence of any
disease will be allowed in pool or
pool area.
Bob said, "Mr. Airth told us that the
County Health Department not only checked
swimming pools, but all bathing places to
see if they meet regulations of the State
Board of Health."
Mrs. Jack was pleased with the boys' con-
tribution and with their attitudes toward
public facilities. The class was interested,
and there followed a discussion on every-
one's responsibilities as citizens of the com-
There was a cozy relaxed atmosphere in
the first grade room. Miss Armstrong had
just finished telling a story. She had pur-
posely chosen one that would be quieting
and relaxing for she had a matter to talk
over with the children after the story hour
that needed that type of atmosphere.
When all had finished their comments of
appreciation, Miss Armstrong said, "I have
something to talk over with you. Are we
all ready?"
The children loved these serious talks
with their teacher. Usually it meant that
she wanted them to help with planning
something important.
Then Miss Armstrong said quietly, "Do
you remember that from time to time we
have talked about keeping well so that you

can come to school every day? We talked
about staying home when you have fresh
colds because colds are especially catching
when they are just starting. There are other
kinds of diseases that are catching too, and
we need to do everything that we can to
keep from getting them. When you were
babies your parents took you to a doctor
for whooping cough, diphtheria, and per-
haps some other shots. These shots were
to keep you from having these diseases. But
now that you are about six years old, you
need to have what the doctors call 'booster
shots.' These shots will mean that you will
have a better chance of keeping well."
"Your mothers and daddies know about
the need to give these booster shots. They
know about the slips that I have here in my
hand and will expect you to bring one home.
They'll sign the slip and will want you to
bring it back, because the slip tells us what
your doctor has given you. Now, one of the
things that we want to do is to prepare for
our visits to our doctors."
This was only one step in preparing the
group for immunization. The children had
known that the time for a booster immuni-
zation was coming soon. Yet in spite of this
some of the children were worried: Patricia
asked, "Will it hurt?"
"Yes, some of you might feel it a little
but no more than the prick of a pin," Miss
Armstrong replied in a truthful, matter-of-
fact-manner. "But we are able to take a
little hurt now, aren't we?" she said, as she
smiled warmly at Patricia. Patricia was re-
assured. Then the children talked some more
about their visits to their doctors or the
county health clinic.
The nurse who had been invited to help
prepare the children joined in their discus-
sion. She explained why doctors are so care-
ful to sterilize the equipment they use for
immunization as well as for other medical
procedures. The nurse explained exactly

how the doctors would give the booster im-
munization and then demonstrated with one
boy. All the children laughed when she
pinched his arm just a bit to show how little
it would hurt.
"That wasn't bad at all," he said.
As a surprise the teacher then showed
them a film called "Your Friend, the Doc-
tor." The teacher was well satisfied that
the children were properly prepared. As
she said good-bye to the children, she
thought to herself, "perhaps I'd better check
on my own immunizations, too."

Opportunities for health teaching seem to
"pop up" in the most ordinary ways and
places, don't they? Sometimes health edu-
cation seemed to be just calming fears, some-
times it was pointing out the meaning be-
hind some happening, sometimes it was let-
ting children increase their information,
sometimes it meant calling on a resource
person, and sometimes it was helping chil-
dren decide to carry out some cooperative
action. Though there were some differences,
there also seemed to be some points of simi-
larity. The teachers seemed to take their
cues from the everyday, real concerns of
children, they seemed to be relating health
education to a general philosophy and to
the general purposes of education. Also,
these teachers seemed to have some under-
standing of child growth and development
principles and the ability to see and seize
"teachable moments."
Understanding of the relationship be-
tween health education and the general pur-
poses of education and the characteristics
of children is basic to a good program. An
explanation of the educational point-of-view
of the group who prepared this guide and a
statement about the characteristics of chil-
dren form the subjects of the two following

Chapter III


Y OU HAVE JUST READ examples of
ways every day experiences some un-
expected, and some "created" were used
to stimulate interest in health. Similar op-
portunities for teaching about health arise
throughout the school day in all schools.
Taking advantage of such opportunities
usually results in more effective teaching
and learning than do lessons taught in iso-
lation. This is only one aspect of good health
education, but by taking advantage of such
opportunities we have more effective teach-
ing and learning. Other aspects of health
should be brought into the classroom through
unit teaching and correlation and integra-
tion with other classroom subjects.

In addition to the experiences which arise
naturally, it is necessary for the teacher to
make long-range plans for helping children
develop those understandings, attitudes, and
habits that are consistent with the principles
of human growth, and with objectives which
the community and school feel are impor-
tant. Since school health teaching grows
out of the needs of the child, his family
and his community environment, the health
program will vary from community to com-
munity and from school to school. All schools
share in the responsibility of helping each
child attain and maintain what for him is
optimum physical, mental, emotional, and
social well-being. Three aspects of the school


program which are designed to promote
health are health services, a healthful en-
vironment and health education.
After consideration of ways of giving all
children such opportunities it is well to be
guided by the broad grouping of needs all
children seem to have:
1. Physiological needs including air,
food, water, clothing, shelter, elim-
ination, activity, and rest.
2. Social needs including need for af-
fection, feeling of belonging and be-
ing like others.
3. Ego and integrative needs (sense of
worthy selfhood) including:

a. Need for contact and harmony
with reality
b. Need for status and self-accept-
c. Need for increasing ability to
organize experience into con-
d. Need for increasing self-direc-
e. Need for a fair balance between
success and failure '.
On the basis of the most generally ac-
cepted purposes of education, the following
comparative objectives are presented for
your consideration:

1. To develop sturdy independence and initiative To develop personal responsibility in health mat-
along with the ability to attack problems sci- ters based on accurate scientific facts.
2. To promote better human relationships through To develop an active concern for all health condi-
the development of ethical character and a tions which threaten the security or interest of
social consciousness. others.
3. To develop basic skills, attitudes and apprecia- To develop and apply scientific, critical reasoning
tion necessary for living in a modern demo- to individual and community health problems.
cratic society.
4. To develop and maintain physical, mental and To develop physical zest and stamina and a grow-
emotional well being. ing sense of personal effectiveness.
5. To guide the individual so that he will acquire To promote better cooperation with respect to
competency in and assume civic responsibilities, health among the home, the school, the commu-
nity, official, professional and voluntary agencies.
6. To become economically self sufficient. To attain a state of health that will contribute to
economic efficiency.
7 To use leisure time wisely. To establish habits and attitudes relative to whole-
some recreational activities and provide an outlet
for natural drive.
NEW EMPHASIS ON HEALTH EDUCATION ing contrast with those of today. Florida in
As the needs and objectives of schools and the 1900's was rural; most children got
communities differ, so will obligations of the plenty of sunshine and fresh air during out
school differ from those at the turn of the of school hours, since conditions kept them
century when living conditions were in strik- outdoors much of the time.
O1tto, Henry J., Principles of Elementary Education, Rinehart 1949, pages 284-286. Based upon chapter 6 of Emotion and
the Educative Process by Daniel A. Prescott.

Sanitation which seemed adequate in
rural sparsely settled areas would be entirely
inadequate today. There still are many rural
communities, but they are rapidly becoming
urbanized. This, in addition to increased
population in recent years, adds to our re-
Increased knowledge of health places new
demands upon us. Since the methods and
practices of fifty years ago are inadequate,
there is a new and larger obligation.
Today there is available more food in
wider variety than at any previous time in
history. Better understanding is essential to
make wise choices and to use the food dol-
lar intelligently.
Medical advances and improved public
health methods have reduced the threat of
communicable disease and have lessened
disabling conditions. Modern surgery works
miracles, but chronic diseases such as can-
cer, heart conditions, diabetes, tuberculosis
and the like have become such a major prob-
lem that even school age children need to
understand the terms. Today our greatest
weapon against these diseases lies in health
education dynamic enough to motivate
people to utilize fully all available pre-
ventive methods and to seek medical care
promptly when illness strikes.
Accidents are today's greatest cause of
death through age 30; they cripple four
times as many as are killed. Education that
will help our young people to safeguard
themselves and others from accidents, is
needed as never before. With increasing
automation this need will steadily advance.
This is an anxious age. More hospital
beds are occupied by mental patients than
the total of all other causes. Appropriate
education together with the right kind of
classroom "atmosphere" and relationships
can contribute to a future reduction of this

The American people are bombarded with
health advertising, much of it misleading,
some false. The fact that the health motif
permeates advertising of products only re-
motely related to health testifies to the need
for more health education. Education de-
signed to make the future citizen a critical
consumer of health products and services
becomes vital in such an environment.
Today's living then demands better knowl-
edge, attitudes, and skills for healthful liv-
ing than those possessed by any previous
generation. The health problems of the
future will without doubt make even greater
demands. During their formative school
years, we have a golden opportunity to reach
all of our children with a health education
program to build these skills. This oppor-
tunity must not be missed.

In the primary grades the most effective
program is one which is concerned largely
with helping children establish desirable
attitudes and practices. At this time chil-
dren should learn to do, automatically, those
things which will protect their health. Al-
though reminding children to cover their
mouths when sneezing or coughing may in-
terrupt an activity, it is functional health
education. Making an opportunity for hand
washing before eating takes time, but this
time can be considered an essential part of
the health education program.
Primary school children can develop posi-
tive attitudes toward physicians, nurses and
dentists. The family physician and dentist
as well as the school health service program
offer real opportunities for such learning.
A visit to the physician or a vision test in
school gives the teacher an opportunity to
provide for important earnings.
In the intermediate grades children still
need guidance in building attitudes and

practices. These children, however, are be-
coming more interested in knowing the
"how" and "why" of things, and so, there
is a need and desire for more formal instruc-
For any age level health education cannot
be isolated. The total school program offers
many experiences which affect the health
attitudes and practices of the children in the
school. These experiences may be good or
bad, but they definitely will influence what
the children are learning. Health education
may be negative, and thus experiences dur-
ing the school day can educate for poor
health. In some cases, groups of children
actually practice bad health habits and
carry them through the remainder of their
lives. The way children live in a school
will either strengthen the health education
of the school or may weaken it and destroy
its effectiveness. For instance, children may
be sent into a restroom which has neither
soap nor towels. The teacher may empha-
size the importance of the care of the eyes,
and yet allow children to read in a poor
light. He may talk about the need for fresh
air and temperature control and allow chil-
dren to work in a stuffy, overheated room.

The example which the teacher sets by
his own practices is an important factor in
developing desirable behavior in children.
He cannot have a soft drink with his lunch,
for example, and expect the children to feel
that it is important to drink milk. Nor can
he come to school coughing and sneezing
and expect the children to feel that it is
important to stay home with a fresh cold.
Feelings, too, deserve attention. Schools
should be concerned with helping all chil-
dren to feel secure, wanted and comfortable.
All experiences that children have in and
out of school affect their mental health. The
tone of a teacher's voice in speaking to a
child, for example, may insure or destroy

his feeling of security. The way in which a
teacher encourages children to work and
play will help or hinder a child in his ability
to get along with others. Consideration for
the mental health of the child is an integral
part of good health education. It is a mat-
ter of putting into daily practice in the
school the factors which promote good
mental health.
Health education is a part of every learn-
ing experience in the school. All school per-
sonnel are educating for health, whether as
teacher, school lunch manager, principal, or
custodian. Not only are all school personnel
educating for health, but every activity and
every area of the curriculum are involved
in health education. Since this is true the
entire school staff must work together in
order to make the health education program
effective. When the total staff works to-
gether to educate for health, children gain
respect for health standards introduced in
the classrooms and accept responsibility for
improving themselves and their environ-
This does not mean that teachers will not
actively carry on a carefully planned health
instruction program. Practice alone is not
enough. All staff members must work for
knowledge and understanding to make the
program effective. It does mean, however,
that in a good health education program
consideration will be given to the importance
of daily habits and attitudes during the en-
tire school day. Too long schools have
taught certain principles of health and have
failed to show that they were important in
our daily living. What is known about
health is only important in terms of what
is done about it.
In the next chapter (Chapter IV) there
is a discussion of the developmental char-
acteristics of children which should be con-
sidered in planning effective health educa-

Chapter IV


ment in terms of their opportunities,
interests, needs, and beliefs, for each child
has a strong drive to explore, to manipulate,
to touch, to smell, to taste, to feel in short,
to learn. This searching, experimenting, and
finding-out-about, is a part of "growing up."
It is because the developmental needs of
children have a direct bearing upon their
learning activities and their behavior that
teachers are concerned with them.
It is useful for the teacher to know the
patterns of growth, the characteristics and
needs of children. For example, awkward-
ness and self-consciousness may be due to
changes taking place in the adolescent body.

Such changes have significance for health
education in our schools. Although such
changes are gradual and vary widely in in-
dividual children, they follow certain char-
actertistic patterns and reveal certain char-
acteristic needs. Interests and beliefs at each
of the age levels also vary widely. Teachers,
parents and the nurse serving the school all
need to understand these characteristics and
their relation to the health behavior of chil-
dren. A teacher at any one grade level will
have children at various stages of maturity
presenting a wide range of characteristics
and needs. It is important that each be stud-
ied and be treated as an individual.
During the child's experience in the ele-,

mentary school situations will arise which
will highly motivate him for health learn-
ings. But a teacher should remember that
needs, interests, beliefs, and adjustments to
the community vary with different groups
of children, even in the same age-groups,
as well as in different types of communities
and in different sections of the country.
Some developmental needs of primary and
intermediate children which have meaning
for health education are presented here for
consideration by the teacher. They are of a
suggestive and general nature and should
not be considered complete. Since develop-
mental needs of children do not vary sharply
from one age group to another, but rather
gradually merge, they should be considered
in relation to the period of development
which has preceded, and the one that will
A brief discussion of these needs may
help the teacher relate health experiences
to those of his particular age group.

As a child enters kindergarten we need
to be aware that he is still growing, de-
veloping and maturing, and that as he
changes from day to day, month to month,
year to year, his needs and potentialities
will change also. Most children in the pri-
mary age group are extremely active. They
are becoming more skillful in use of large
muscles and learning to coordinate small
muscles with large muscles. Since this takes
much practice, nature takes care of this need
by demanding much activity. The primary
child finds it possible to sit still and concen-
trate for only short periods of time.
Although growth is relatively slow and
steady, height and weight are of consider-
able interest to both boys and girls. As the
child enters the primary grades, permanent
teeth are appearing. Many first grade chil-

dren are still farsighted and thus we find
that working at too small visual tasks may
work both a physical and emotional hard-
The primary children usually have limited
ability to understand abstract and verbal
teaching. They understand little that they
do not personally experience, but are ap-
pealed to through touching, seeing, tasting,
hearing and smelling. Their understanding
of time, space and distance is limited. They
are unaware of many things in their environ-
ment, although they are extremely inquisi-
tive and imaginative.
They are subject to communicable dis-
eases, particularly the common childhood
diseases. Many have fears of darkness, ani-
mals, fire and the unknown. Their play is
usually individualistic and self-centered, al-
though there is much growth in ability to
get along with larger groups during this
period for they are learning to interact with
their own age group. They show little dis-
crimination of race, sex or social standing
in their selection of playmates.
They are very anxious to please, to accept
responsibility, and desire to do things be-
yond their ability. They are becoming pro-
gressively more independent. The kinder-
garten-first grade child is striving for phys-
ical independence, although he still leans
on adults emotionally. At the end of the
primary grades, most children have made
marked gains in independence but are still
more dependent emotionally than physically.

The daily schedule should be balanced
to provide intervals for relaxation, freedom,
adequate fresh air, sunshine, simple games,
rhythms and other big muscle activity. It is
wise to keep periods of concentration and
inactivity brief, giving many opportunities
during the day to release tension and fore-

/ 27

stall fatigue through activity of various sorts.
The teacher who allows time for change of
pace will not only be more successful in
her teaching but will also have a class which
is better adjusted, more interested and less
tired than one who keeps children in their
seats for long periods.
Since the eyes of many children entering
school have not yet become adapted to close
work, the teacher should see to it that un-
due strain does not take place. These chil-
dren are still unable fully to control small
muscles. For these reasons, emphasis will
not be placed on writing and reading the
printed page, but rather upon work with
large crayons, large newsprint and reading
from board and chart. As children show
ability to work with pencils and text print,
the program will be adjusted to this growth.
Emphasis will be given to the establish-
ment of regularity in eating and sleeping
habits. Time will be given to complete tasks
begun and for establishing habits of clean-
liness and orderliness. Since it is known that
children should not work under pressure,
there is a need to be aware of what demands
the daily schedule makes. Are children hur-
rying too much? Is the impossible expected
of the slow and methodical child? Are our
expectations and demands, both physical
and intellectual, too great? There cannot be
the proper influence toward good mental
health if there are undue pressures in the
classroom. This problem is discussed at
greater length in Chapter VI.
Since the primary child has only a very
limited ability to deal with the abstract,
special emphasis will be given to oppor-
tunities to learn through direct experiences.
Stress will be placed on learning through
tasting, touching, seeing, feeling, smelling -
experiencing, so that ideas will have mean-
ing. As much use as possible will be made
of the classroom and neighborhood environ-
ment to extend knowledge in order that the

child will be able to grasp ideas and rela-
Inasmuch as the young child finds it diffi-
cult to adjust to large groups and since he
still leans on the teacher emotionally, em-
phasis will be placed on individual and small
group work during the early years.
The primary child is very inquisitive and
is becoming more self-directive. This is a
good time to stress basic food habits which
aid in developing strong, healthy bodies, to
establish desirable attitudes toward eating
a variety of foods which will result in better
eating habits at home and school, and to
find out some of the causes of food preju-
dices, fears and worries.
The primary child should begin to under-
stand the contribution that physicians, den-
tists and other community workers make
toward the maintenance of good health.
Since communicable diseases are common
during this period and since many defects
appear, this is an appropriate time to give
health emphasis to the care of the ears, eyes,
nose and teeth. Special care should be given
to safety and habits of cleanliness.
Health education should provide oppor-
tunity for developing a friendly attitude
toward physicians, dentists, nurses and
other health workers who help with health
care. Moreover, there is a need for develop-
ing an appreciation of how mothers, fathers,
brothers, sisters and classmates are helping
each other to live together in harmony.

Intermediate children show marked in-
crease in physical development especially
in height and weight. In addition to this
change in body size, accessory muscles are
developing and certain changes are occur-
ring in the glandular system. Most of their
permanent teeth have appeared. Periodically

they exhibit a hearty appetite. They are
growing in their motor ability. Various
organs and parts of the body are growing
at different rates. For example, during these
years the heart continues a period of slow
growth, and is smaller in proportion to body
size than at any other age period. Authori-
ties believe that severe and prolonged ac-
tivity leading to excessive fatigue during
these years is harmful.
Intermediates are beginning to identify
themselves with those of the same sex. This
is particularly true of boys. There is fre-
quently antagonism between the sexes dur-
ing a part of this time. Later the interest
of girls in boys becomes more noticeable.
Intermediate children have many questions
about sex and frequently seek answers with-
in their own group. This is the period when
crushes on the part of girls and hero wor-
ship among the older boys begin to become
They continue to become more inde-
pendent physically, but still remain some-
what dependent emotionally. It is becom-
ing more and more important to them to
get along with the boys and girls their own
age. This is particularly true of the nine
and ten year old group. With this new in-
dependence comes an ability to work with
less supervision and an interest in making
their own decisions. They are able to make
plans for work in advance and to evaluate
their work after it is completed.
During this period the attempts to estab-
lish emotional control is frequently too much
for the child and there may be unexpected
expressions of tension and irritability. This
age group shows inability to settle down
quickly after periods of activity.
Boys especially are concerned about their
growth while personal appearance is of par-

ticular interest to girls. This group is also
conscious of its own shortcomings.
As at all other periods of life emotional
problems are evident. The increased ten-
dency to break dependency ties creates be-
havior variation from expressions of inde-
pendence exhibited by criticalness, fault-
finding and refusal to cooperate to continu-
ance of the dependency patterns of earlier
years. The intermediate child is occupied
with interests and concerns of his own to
such a degree that he is a very inconsistent
helper at home. Intermediates are learning
to distinguish between fact and fancy and
are learning more realistic ways of dealing
with their environment.
While differences in growth rate among
children are evident at all ages, it is during
the latter part of this period that important
physical changes often produce conflicting
situations. The early maturing girl may find
herself greatly handicapped by being larger
and taller than her classmates. She may find
breast and bodily development embarrass-
ing at a time when such development is not
appreciated by her peers. Her interest in
boys is out of step with the ideas of both her
classmates and her parents. Late maturing
may actually be an advantage for girls'
- since they are usually ahead of boys any-
way. In boys, late maturation is a distinct
disadvantage. It causes them to lag behind
other boys as well as girls in their group.
Other characteristics of this age group in-
clude interest in collections and other hob-
bies, games and sports, and interest in ex-
perimentation and mechanics. These chil-
dren are energetic, active and daring and
are eager for new experiences.

Periodic dental care continues to be im-

1Jones, Harold, "Adolescence in Our Society" in Jerome M. Seidman (ed.) The Adolescent. New York: Dryden Press, 1953,
p. 50-60.

portant with the appearance of permanent
teeth. Straightening of the teeth is fre-
quently indicated during the period. An
annual check of vision and hearing with
encouragement of corrective provisions when
necessary is desirable. Since there are vast
physical differences at this time, frequent
checks on size of shoes, clothes, and seats
at school are essential. Provision should be
made for an abundance and variety of foods
and the selection of an adequate menu
should be encouraged.
Instruction as far as possible should be
coupled with practice in all areas of health.
This would include planning for a worth-
while after-school program with creative and
manipulative activities, as well as games and
folk dancing since there is a growing inter-
est in parties and social activities at this time.
Attention should be given to providing good
balance between common activities and
those for members of the same sex. There
should be many opportunities to develop
new skills needed for adequate participa-
tion. Since in this age group relationship
with age-mates is very important, provision
should be made for a better understanding
of growth patterns. Children should have
many opportunities to talk through, "blow
off," confide and discuss their fears and
Since the intermediate group is interested
in the how and why of health practices, ex-
periments arising from their questions would
seem to be indicated. This may lead to the
study of such problems as food production,
distribution and preservation. Intermediates
are interested in experimentation and in dis-
tinguishing the difference between fact and
fallacy. This suggests interpretation of re-
search findings at their level in such health

areas as nutrition, mental hygiene, personal
health, body structure and community
health. Children at these ages can learn to
make decisions for themselves about food
fads, and to evaluate health advertising.
Since the intermediate is very conscious of
his shortcomings, teachers, while being real-
istic about his limitations, lay stress on his
strength in both academic achievements and
play skills.
The point of over-stimulation for many
in the intermediate age group may be
reached more quickly than might be ex-
pected. The intense physical drive of boys
and girls may carry them past the point of
beneficial returns before fatigue becomes
apparent. Therefore, parents, teachers, and
youth leaders need to be alert to avoid
situations leading to over-stimulation.
Obviously, we have only touched on the
child, his growth, development and needs.
Further study will be useful, since you could
draw many implications for improved class-
room procedure. If you are interested in
more information you might like to read one
of the following:
Marian E. Breckenridge and Lee E. Vincent.
Holt, 1955.
William E. Martin and Celia B. Stendler. CHILD
DEVELOPMENT. Harcourt, Brace and Co.,
Winifred Rand, Mary E. Sweeny and E. L. Vin-
THE YOUNG CHILD. Fifth Edition. W. B.
Saunders, 1953.

Chapter V


YES, OF COURSE you do. This section
has been organized with that purpose
in mind to give you some ideas that you
may wish to use in health education. An ex-
planation of how this section is organized
may help you find the information you want.
First, there are eight instructional areas
included. They are Body Structure and
Function, Activity and Rest, Body Care and
Grooming, Prevention and Control of Ill-
ness and Disability, Food, Mental Health
and Personality Adjustment, Safety and First
Aid, and Community Health. These eight
areas were selected as being most descrip.
tive of pupil needs after a committee of the
bulletin group considered the classifications

given by the American Association of School
Administrators' and the Joint Commit-
tee on Health Problems in Education of
the American Medical Association-National
Education Association2
Second, for each of the eight areas there
is a chart which lists some desirable out-
comes and some activities and experiences
for children which may help in the realiza-
tion of the outcomes. The outcomes and
the activities for each area are based on the
needs and developmental characteristics of
children which have been discussed in chap-
ters two and three. They have been listed
somewhat sequentially. That is, those which
seem most appropriate for kindergarten and

'American Association of School Administrators, Health In Schools, Twentieth Yearbook, National Education Assn., 1201
16th St., N.W., Washington 6, D. C., 1948.
2National Education Association and American Medical Assn., Health Education, National Education Assn., 1201 16th
St., N.W., Washington 6, D. C.

first grade children are listed first and those
which seem most appropriate for sixth grade
children are listed last. No specific grade
placements have been indicated other than
calling the first of each chart primary and
the last, intermediate. This was done only
to aid you in finding that which may be of
most interest to you and appropriate for
your group of children. No attempt has been
made to exhaust the possibilities under the
column entitled "Some Activities and Ex-
periences for Children." Only a few ideas
are included and it is hoped that they will
suggest other activities that may more nearly
meet the needs of your group.
The materials are listed at the end of each
chart, because many of them can be used
in a variety of ways and at various grade
levels, and do not relate to a particular item
in the two columns of the chart. It would
be impossible to list all worthwhile health
material in one bulletin. Health texts are
not listed, although much helpful material
will be found in them. The material listed
has been known and used by members of
the committee. There are, no doubt, other
materials just as appropriate.
Third, there is an instructional unit which
one teacher organized. She gave permission
for it to be used here for those of you who
may wish to see how she organized some
objectives and experiences for use in her
Fourth, some suggestions are presented
as to how you may look at and use these

(1) The desirable outcomes and ac-
tivities and experiences listed are to be
regarded as suggestions only and not
as the "only way." They are a kind of
check list which indicate some of the
possibilities. You, no doubt, may work
toward other desirable outcomes for
children and use other activities. The

section on materials and the bibliogra-
phy can help you.
(2) The outcomes and activities and
experiences do not teach-in themselves.
They are only placed here to help you
organize teaching experiences. Please
choose, then, only that which seems
appropriate to you and your group.
(3) The outcomes and activities and
experiences in the charts were listed
sequentially to give an indication as
to which outcomes might precede and
which might follow the ones chosen.
(4) The activities listed may fit sev-
eral outcomes. You are encouraged to
use the activities or experiences which
will be most effective with your group.
There are many activities which can be
used at different grade levels and for
different outcomes. Some primary
groups would want to use some of the
material listed for intermediate grades,
while the reverse might be true of some
intermediate grade groups.
(5) The suggested outcomes have been
classified into eight areas. However, in
the classroom you probably would not
confine yourself to a specific area since
the outcomes are interrelated. For ex-
ample, a dental examination might lead
you to use outcomes from body struc-
ture and function, body care and groom-
ing, and prevention and control of illness
and disability.
(6) Many of the activities imply an
interrelationship with language, the
arts, science, social studies and arith-
metic; although it is not definitely stat-
ed, it is recognized that in practice they
will be related.

And now with these suggestions in mind,
let's move on to a consideration of these


General Objective


T HE STUDY OF BODY structure and
function helps children understand how
physiological processes go on and growth
takes place. It serves as a basis for helping
them see the need for certain health practices
which sometimes seem too time-consuming
and unnecessary. Young children may not
be interested in knowing about what makes
them "tick," but as children progress into
the intermediate grades they become con-
cerned about how their hearts function, how
digestion takes place, and so on. Since the
intermediate child is particularly interested
in taking stock of his physical condition, this
period is ideal for further extending and re-
fining the learning concerning structure and
Medical examinations, dental checks, vis-
ion tests, hearing tests and other screening
devices become more meaningful when they
become the basis for health education. De-
sirable attitudes toward these services are

more likely to be developed when children
understand why they are important.
The term "sex education" frightens many
teachers and parents. Information about the
beginning of life and the care of the young
can be successfully integrated into everyday
classroom experiences. It should not be sep-
arated from other aspects of family living.
If the teacher feels that because of his own
lack of knowledge or feelings of restraint he
cannot answer his children' questions, it
would be better for him not to discuss this
subject. Also, a teacher who goes into a new
community will find out quietly how parents
and school authorities feel about the teach-
ing of this topic. The experiences listed here
will not require much formal instruction, but
they do require the teacher to have the abil-
ity to answer his children's questions hon-
estly, un-emotionally and accurately. These
questions should not be answered by an
outsider coming into the classroom.

Awareness and understanding of growth as reflect- Be weighed and measured at intervals
ed in height and weight3
ed in height and weightUse baby pictures to see development

Acceptance that it is normal to grow at different
*Remember these are only suggestive not inclusive.
3Comparisons between children should be avoided as growth patterns differ.



Understanding that we develop skill at different

Introductory knowledge of how we use the sense Recall sights, sounds and odors-pleasant and un-
organs pleasant
Discuss how senses help us
Talk about why we keep things out of our noses
and ears
See Body Care and Grooming

Some simple understanding of teeth Discuss how we lose teeth and get new ones
Examine baby tooth
Locate six-year molar
Report to class on visit to the dentist
See Body Care and Grooming

Awareness of and interest in how the body functions Bring pictures of machines and discuss similarity
as a machine to body functions
Feel arm and finger bones and joints and see how
they move
Listen to the beat of a heart


Recognition of growth that has occurred since entry Make Bulletin Board display of differences in ap-
into school pearances and skills in 4th grader compared to 1st
Be weighed and measured at intervals

Knowledge of tooth structure for better under- Use Dental Association or County Health Depart-
standing and care ment as resource for teaching aids and visiting
Secure two extracted teeth from dentist-one de-
cayed and one normal-examine
See Body Care and Grooming

Knowledge of how our bones and muscles work Study simple diagrams and pictures showing bones
together and muscles
Practice proper ways to lift, carry, bend, sit, stand
and walk
Experiments to demonstrate how muscle and joints
work-such as placing rubber band around book
and opening and closing book
See Posture, Body Care and Grooming


Awareness that the nervous system is the com- Study body diagrams showing nervous system in-
munication system for the body eluding brain
Relate reflex action when hand touches something
hot to a bell ringing when button is pressed
Discuss brain as message center of body communi-
cation system-give example of telephone exchange
See Mental Health and Personality Adjustment
Increased understanding of how the sense organs Compare eyes with camera
work and a knowledge of proper care4
Compare ears with telephone receiver
Demonstrate mechanical aids to vision and hear-
Identify objects by odor, taste, and sound while
See Body Care and Grooming
Simple understanding of how the heart and blood Study simple diagram of heart
vessels perform
vessels perform Listen to heart with stethoscope
Locate and feel pulse and relate to heart beat
Compare diagram of body showing circulatory
system to road map
Acceptance that it is normal to grow at different Discuss fact that early growth does not necessarily
rates indicate adult size

Knowledge of respiratory process Use bellows to demonstrate breathing
Compare sponge to lung structure
Look at X-ray picture of normal lungs5
General understanding of the digestive and elimi- Trace course of food through body
nation processes
nation processes Discuss briefly some digestive fluids which work
on food
List emotional and physical factors which contrib-
ute to good digestion
See Activity and Rest
See Food

Introductory knowledge of how life begins

Discuss briefly cell construction and function
Raise tropical fish
Keep pet with young in classroom for several days
for general observation
Discuss special care needed for tiny babies-use
pictures and student experience
Examine charts showing characteristics looked for
in breeding high grade animals-ask help from 4-H
Club leader

4Vision and hearing tests conducted by the teacher could be capitalized on for this purpose.
6Request X-ray from a local physician or County Health Department.

Listed below are some references which
may be helpful to you. The list is far from
comprehensive; it happens to be material
with which the group was familiar. You
probably could add others that would suit
your purpose as well or better.
The numbers in parenthesis indicate the
approximate grade levels at which the ma-
terial would be appropriate.
You will find a list of book publishers with
addresses in Wilson's Children's Catalog.
The Educational Film Guide carries a similar
list of film producers.
There are many excellent films, film strips
and recordings available at little or no cost.
Check your film catalogs (such as those from
your County Film Library, the General Ex-
tension Division, State Board of Health and
various universities) for availability in
Millicent Selsam. ALL ABOUT EGGS. William R.
Scott, 1952. (K-3). The story of how eggs
change into animals and how mamals produce
their young.
Eva Knox Evans. ALL ABOUT US. Capital, 1947.
(4-8). A simple story about people and why
the races are different. An attempt to break
down race prejudice.
Millicent E. Selsam. ALL KINDS OF BABIES
AND HOW THEY GROW. Scott, 1953. (K-2).
Everything that grows produces its own kind.
Milton I. Levine and Jean H. Seligmann. A BABY
IS BORN. Simon and Schuster, 1949. (1-5).
Explains how babies are born and grow up.
Should be read by teacher with permission
of parents.

national, 1946. (6- ). An interestingly written
Ruth Krauss. GROWING STORY. Harper, 1947.
(K-l). A little boy learns that all living things
grow-even little boys.
Karl De Schweintz. GROWING UP. Macmillan,
1935. (7-9). The story of how we become
alive, are born and grow up.
Bernice Levin Neugarten. HOW YOU GROW.
Science Research Associates (Junior Life Ad-
justment Booklet), 1951. (6-9). To help chil-
dren understand the physical aspects of grow-
ing up. Also deals with the differences in the
rate of growth and development.
Marion O. Lerrigo and Helen Southard. PAR-
ENTS' PRIVILEGE. National Education As-
sociation and American Medical Association,
1955. (Adult). For parents of young children
of pre-school and early school age.
TION. Macmillan, 1950. (Adult). Book for
parents and teachers.
Marion O. Lerrigo and Helen Southard. A
STORY ABOUT YOU. National Education
Association and American Medical Association,
1955. (4-6). Pamphlet for children dealing with
sex education.
Herbert S. Zim. WHAT'S INSIDE OF ME? Mor-
row, 1952. (2-5). A picture book that helps
children understand their body.
Child Study Association of America. WHEN
Pamphlet for parents and teachers.
Sidonie M. Gruenberg. THE WONDERFUL
den City Books, 1952. Facts are given in a
way that creates a healthy attitude toward
Bertha Morris Parker and M. Elizabeth Downing.
YOU AS A MACHINE. (The Basic Science
Education Series Unitext). Row, Peterson,
1951. (4-6). Pamphlet: Discusses the body,
the functions of its various parts, its needs and

In the space below list materials you have used and liked.

See bibliography of Body Care and Grooming for other suggestions.


General Objective


CHILDREN ALL OVER the world need
and like to play. Their first play is in-
dividual. As their curiosity grows and their
capacity for moving away from home in-
creases, they enjoy the company of first
one or two, and later a small group of chil-
dren. Play has a very different meaning
for children than for adults. To the child
play is a way of expanding his circle of
friends, of satisfying his curiosity, of manip-
ulating, of exploring, of inventing, of "ex-
ploding," of finding peace. Play is important
for the contribution it makes to growth.
Exercise contributes to strength, coordina-
tion, flexibility, agility, and good body me-
chanics, all essential to happy and efficient
living. Young children demand a great deal
of physical activity. Their span of attention
is short and their ability to sit quietly is
limited. While most of them would play
without instruction, the school has a respon-
sibility to provide a physical education pro-

gram which is based on the developmental
needs of boys and girls. Much health in-
struction can be centered around the phys-
ical education and recreational activities that
are carried on in the playing fields, terraces,
classrooms, recreation centers, homes and
community facilities.

All teachers should be aware of the im-
portance of helping children understand
reasons for living a well-balanced day which
should include adequate work, rest, diet,
recreation and sleep. A well planned and
conducted physical education period is es-
sential to a well-rounded elementary school
day. Physical fitness is particularly important
in our culture. Fitness cannot be stored. In
the elementary school habits and attitudes
can be established more easily than in later
life. A favorable attitude toward exercise can
contribute to personal well-being through-
out life.


Recognition of the value of proper amounts of Discuss the effects of sunshine

Appreciation of the need for outdoor play Participate in school activities out-of-doors when-
ever practical
*Remember these are only suggestive not inclusive.
6Florida schools should take advantage of climate. In good weather a large part of the kindergarten day should be spent
out-of-doors. Many regular activities for elementary grades can be planned for out-of-doors, in addition to their regular
physical education period.



Recognition of the importance of good ventilation Help the teacher regulate the ventilation in the
during activity and rest room

Recognition of the need for periods of big muscle Participate in play and physical activity inter-
activity during the day spersed between inactive periods during the school
day as well as in the regular physical education

Some understanding of the need for periods of rest Participate in periods of rest and relaxation at in-
and relaxation during the day tervals during the school day and at home
Cut out pictures of animals and children resting
Tell about pets at home and how they rest
Dramatizations (rag doll, puppy dog sleeping, cat

Acceptance of the need for an adequate amount of Discuss the sleep habits of very young babies
sleep Make plans for assuming some responsibility for
getting to bed on time
Draw a picture of a clock and arrange hands to
show the individual's own bedtime
Discuss with parents a TV or radio schedule con-
sistent with proper bedtime and report to class

Participation in quiet activities before going to Talk about things to do during the twenty min-
bed utes or so just before going to bed
Listen to soft music before rest period after lunch
Plan desirable activities for just before bedtime

Recognition of the importance of desirable condi- Get doll ready for bed, bathe her and dress her
tions for sleep Prepare a neat, clean comfortable bed for doll
and consider lighting and ventilation
Dramatization children show good bedtime rou-

Partipication in a wide variety of activities in lei- Learn to play a number of games which require
sure hours only three or four participants
Play small group games during the physical edu-
cation periods
Participate in a wide variety of different types of
activities suited to use during leisure time
Invent dance and game activities such as Cowboys,
Christmas toys, Circus, Leaves



Becoming accustomed to quiet activity or relaxa- Plan with the teacher for quiet activities before and
tion before and after meals after lunch
Plan the school day with the teacher so that there
is at least one-half hour between the physical edu-
cation period and the lunch period
Listen to various types of music and decide which
is most restful

A desire to participate in rhythmical activities Creative rhythmic activities such as running, walk-
ing, sliding, galloping, skipping7
Clap hands to music
Clap rhythm of name, for example: Ma ry An der
son might be two slow claps and three quick claps
Make up movements to "name rhythms," for ex-
ample: Ma ry An der son might be walk, walk;
jump, jump, jump
Find things in the room that have rhythm such
as the clock or a child's pulse
Bounce balls to music, drum-beats or rhymes


Understanding that a proper balance between Make individual daily schedules (for school and
work, rest and recreation is desirable home) to allow enough time for work, recreation,
and rest
Let children tell about experiences they have had
involving schedules, such as camp, church schools
and others

Knowledge of a variety of quiet activities Plan with the teacher a variety of activities which
might be used while waiting for the bus
Play quiet games that require only two or three
Work with crafts that may be enjoyed alone or
with others

Self-sufficiency in use of leisure time Make an inventory of activities engaged in during
leisure hours
Write a story about an interesting way to spend a
rainy afternoon
Have free activity period for a short time and
evaluate the use of that time
Develop in school for use at home diagrams for
sidewalk games such as hop-scotch, game rules
7Undue emphasis should not be put on ability to skip. Some children are ready for this activity before others.



Knowledge of hobbies and written directions for
making backyard play equipment
Have a committee of children plan a small group

Appreciation for outdoor activities Plan for and participate in outdoor education
through field trips, day and overnight camping,
or longer period camping where possible
Learn about hobbies which involve outdoor activi-
ties such as shell collecting, boating, hunting, fish-
ing and beachcombing
Participate in camp skills at school such as building
camp fires, camp cookery, making a bedroll and
so forth
Model proper clothing for outdoor activities
Take a walk in the school area to watch for things
which depend upon each other for existence, such
as plants and soil, animals and water
Plant a garden at school

Possession of skills and knowledge necessary to Keep a cumulative record of games learned during
enjoy a wide variety of active games the school year
Look up a new game in the library and teach it to
other children
Play many different games involving a variety of
skills such as throwing, catching, kicking, dodging,
running and jumping during the physical educa-
tion period
Analyze the games which have been played dur-
ing the physical education period and list the mo-
tor skills involved in each
Pupil-teacher planning of tournaments, play days,
track meets, using the games and activities learned
in physical education

Understanding that the right kind and amount of Study the activities of well-known people
physical activity increases the efficiency of the Count pulse rate and note rate of respiration be-
heart, lungs and digestive system fore and immediately after vigorous exercises
Study about exercises prescribed by their doctors
for victims of polio

Knowledge that muscles must grow through use Participate in self-testing activities such as chin-
ning, push-ups and broadjump
Find pictures of people who do muscular work
(block layers, trapeze performers, track stars) and
observe development of muscles



Understanding that quiet activity is desirable be-
fore lunch and that exercise immediately after
lunch delays digestion

Proficiency in the use of fundamental motor skills

Knowledge that the alternation of different types
of activities contributes to relaxation


Participate in quiet activity at school before lunch

Find out why exercise delays digestion

Participate, under the teachers direction, in activi-
ties involving skills such as walking, running, throw-
ing and kicking
Observe a demonstration of good form in any of
these skills using slides, movies, flat pictures or
guest performer
Help each other to improve skills

Take part in creative activities (songs, rhythmic
activities) alternating these with classroom activities

Plan with the teacher a program for a well-balanced
school day
Plan with the teacher a well-balanced 30-minute
physical education period

Appreciation of the importance of good posture

Knowledge of the causes of poor posture, such as
fatigue, loss of sleep, improperly adjusted furniture,
lack of muscular strength

Ability to move with grace and poise

Knowledge of how to relax

Collect pictures of famous men and women who
sit or stand correctly
Observe front and side view of self in full-length
Participate in exercises that bring about better bal-
ance in muscle tone

Plan daily schedule to allow for adequate sleep
and exercise
Check seats and desks for proper heights
Participate in exercises that strengthen muscles

Move to musical accompaniment
Folk dance
Square dance
Tap balloons back and forth between individuals
in time to music

Relax to music after a work period
Practice letting various muscle groups "go limp"
Invite physical education teacher to talk about




Understanding the effect of loss of sleep on next Invite a member of a high school team to explain
day's activities the importance of sleep
Survey the amount of sleep needed for each age

Knowledge that regular rest and sleep reduces Bring in magazine articles about colds
susceptibility to disease Interview nurse about care of colds and report
back to class

Listed below are some references which
may be helpful to you. The list is far from
comprehensive; it happens to be material
with which the group was familiar. You
probably could add others that would suit
your purpose better.
The numbers in parenthesis indicate the
approximate grade levels at which the ma-
terial would be appropriate.
You will find a list of book publishers with
addresses in Wilson's Children's Catalog.
The Educational Film Guide carries a similar
list of film producers.
There are many excellent films, film strips
and recordings. Check your film catalogs
(such as those from your County Film Li-
brary, the General Extension Division, State
Board of Health and various universities)
for availability in Florida.

Ruth Brindze. BOATING IS FUN. Dodd, 1949.
(5-9). Gives the safe way to handle boats and
information on them.
Katherine G. Morton and E. E. Morton. BOYS'
GUIDE TO FISHING. Greenberg, 1947.
(5-9). Information about fishing equipment,
bait, and fish.
Margaret Wise Brown. A CHILD'S GOOD-
NIGHT BOOK. Scott, 1948. (K-l). A bed-
time story about birds, animals and children,
as they get ready to sleep.
Caroline Horowitz. CHILD'S TREASURY OF

THINGS TO DO. Hart, 1951. (1-6). Book
of games and things to make from common
Watts, 1950. (1-4). All about baseball.
National Recreation Association. GAMES FOR
BOYS AND MEN. (1-12). Active and quiet
games, stunts, contests and other ideas.
Helen L. Beck. GOING TO CAMP. Daye, 1950.
(3-7). A guide to camping.
Bernard Sterling Mason. JUNIOR BOOK OF
1943. (4-9). Camping outdoor life and
Lee Wulff. LETS GO FISHING. Lippincott,
1939. (5-9). How to make tackle and find
Salt, Fox, Dauthett and Stevens. TEACHING
MENTARY SCHOOL. A. S. Barnes and Co.,
1942. (Adult). Book for teachers with sug-
gestions for games and activities.
Millicent E. Selsam. TIME FOR SLEEP; HOW
THE ANIMALS REST. Scott, 1953. (K-3).
Tells of the different ways animals rest. Em-
phasizes the need for rest.
Edmund Jacobson. YOU MUST RELAX. Mc-
Graw-Hill, 1948. (Adult). Book for teachers.
Nina Scheider. WHILE SUSIE SLEEPS. Scott,
1948. (K). A child is told what goes on for
his welfare in a city during the night. Should
help reassure a child afraid of the dark.
Alpheus Hyatt Verill. YOUNG COLLECTOR'S
HANDBOOK. McBride, 1951. (5-9). Hob-
bies, collections and natural history.

In the margins list materials you have used and liked.


General Objective


is faced with the problem of being
responsible, more than ever before, for his
body care and grooming. Some children
have already learned to dress themselves,
take care of their toilet needs and attend
to simple health practices, while others have
not. Some children come from homes that
have better facilities than others and parents
who are more understanding than others
about helping a child maintain the level of
grooming which is acceptable to classmates.

As a child progresses through the primary
into the intermediate grades, he grows in
his understanding of the necessity for the

kinds of health habits and experiences which
help him care for his body and improve his
appearance. He learns, for example, to co-
operate in physical and dental examinations,
to exercise, to bathe frequently, to brush
his teeth and to select his food. More and
more his health decisions are made on the
basis of what he is learning, rather than on
impetuous personal desire. He also learns
to assume more responsibility for himself and
to adjust himself to a broader world. He
makes advances toward becoming a social
being with greater personal effectiveness. As
a member of society he should be helped to
maintain or raise the standards of the school,
the home and the community.

Wash hands when necessary Demonstrate correct way to wash and dry hands
Wash hands before going to lunch and after toilet-
Understanding the importance of keeping things Talk about why we keep things out of these organs
out of eyes, ears, nose and mouth See Prevention and Control of Illness and Disability

Ability to get ready for school Dramatize "Getting Ready for School"
Dictate chart stories about getting ready for school
Collect pictures of children choose those who
look ready for school
Using toilet facilities properly Beginners show the teacher at beginning of school
that they know how to make proper use of sanitary
*Remember these are only suggestive not inclusive.



Ability to brush teeth properly

Keeping bodies clean

Proper use of handkerchief or tissue


Collect pictures of children with good teeth
Demonstrate tooth brushing
Tell how to care for toothbrush
Discuss different substances that can be used for
cleaning teeth

Observe and report to class how pets keep clean
Demonstrate how to wash face, neck and ears
Talk about different ways to take a bath, including
sponge bath

Demonstrate blowing nose gently, use of handker-
chief or tissues when sneezing or coughing and
proper disposal of tissue

Proper care of clothing Dramatization showing proper and improper care
of clothing: such as hanging up, changing to clean
when necessary and respect for monetary value
Practice using hangers correctly
Play shoeshine boy and give demonstration how
to polish shoes

Wear clothing suitable to environment or activity Collect pictures to show proper dress for different
situations and weather
Dress dolls for different occasions
Check temperature indoors and outdoors
Model clothes for warm day, cold day, rainy day,
parties and school

Keeping hair clean and tidy Demonstrate brushing the hair
Collect pictures of children with well kept hair
Play beauty shop and barber shop
Show different ways of washing hair tub, shower,

Taking responsibility for care of personal toilet Exhibit different kinds of personal toilet articles
articles Demonstrate proper methods of care and cleaning
a comb and brush
Bring wash cloth to school to sew personal initial
in corner
Plan ways to identify other toilet articles




Understanding the importance of the ears in rela- Discuss pleasant sounds one hears
tionship to hearing Game "What did I tap?" (glass, bell, box, book)

Take whisper test for hearing8
Take audiometer test
Identify sounds on a record
See Safety and First Aid

Practice good habits of sight conservation Have eyes tested by teacher using Snellen eye
Demonstrate how to store, clean and care for eye
Find best body position for reading
Demonstrate what glasses do for vision
Pupil-teacher planning (how seats can be arranged
for proper light and freedom from glare)

Carry the body correctly Practice good standing position while telling stories
to class
Collect pictures of people sitting and standing

Caring for the feet properly Write a story about the things that must be done
to take care of feet properly
Dampen foot and stand on a newspaper compare
prints with shoes. Are they large enough?
Discuss when and where it is safe to go barefooted
Originate games involving picking up objects with

Desirable attitude toward seeking and using rou- Read stories about physicians and dentists
tine medical, dental and nursing care Tell about an enjoyable visit to physician or dentist

Dramatize a visit to doctor with children taking
role of receptionist, doctor, nurse, other patients
and parents
Have public health nurse show some of her equip-
ment and explain its use

sC. E. Turner, School Health and Health Education (New York: C. Y. Mosby Co. 1952) p. 80.
Milton Schwebel and Ella Freas Harris, Health Counseling (280 Madison Ave., New York, Chartwell House, Inc. 1951) p. 152




Accepting responsibility for cleanliness and neat- Build dressing table for girls and shelf for boys
ness where they can comb hair
Make aprons to protect clothes while painting or
working with clay
Make individual weekly schedules for personal
hygiene (shampoo, baths, manicure)
Self evaluation with aid of a full-length mirror

Assuming responsibility for keeping teeth clean as Plan a program to be presented to younger chil-
one means of controlling tooth decay dren dramatizing tooth care
Participate in panel discussions on care of the
Demonstrate and practice proper way to brush
Keep individual diagram to show teeth dental cor-
rections made
See Body Structure and Function

Take proper care of fingernails Play beauty shop or barber shop and give simple

Desirable habits in the care and protection of the Use a light meter in all parts of the room and dis-
eyes, ears and nose cuss best lighting for reading
Take audiometer tests
Take vision test Snellen
Make chart listing rules to be observed in the care
of eyes, ears and nose
See Body Structure and Function

Wear suitable clothing according to the weather Study clothing of other lands and climates
and type of activity Prepare doll exhibit (dressed in costumes of other
Prepare bulletin board picture collection
Fashion show using different types and kinds of
Collect pictures of athletes dressed for different
Examine types of materials (wool, cotton) to find
out why some are best in cold weather, others in
hot weather



Take care of clothing Demonstrate how makeshift closet can be made
from shelf, pole and cheap curtains
Demonstrate and give practice activities such as
sewing on buttons, shining shoes and brushing
Hang wraps properly

Positive attitude toward physical and dental ex- Tell about visit to hospital
aminations Invite a nurse to talk to class showing instru-
ments used for examination and explain their pur-
Ask nurse to demonstrate simple tests for deter-
mining hemoglobin

Understanding of the relationship of the teeth to Chart to show purposes of different teeth (cutting,
body processes and body ills that decayed teeth biting, chewing)
may cause Relate incidents of decayed teeth that caused pain
or illness
Panel discussion about relationship of sound teeth
to attractive appearance
See Body Structure and Function

Positive attitude concerning the wearing of glasses Make a collection of pictures of attractive and fa-
mous people wearing glasses
Tell about a visit to an eye specialist and how he
examined eyes
Tell about getting glasses made and fitted

Appreciation of the importance of proper fitting Show how short socks cramp and hurt toes
shoes and socks Invite a competent salesman to explain proper shoe
Develop criteria for selection of various types of

Introductory knowledge of the structure and func- Discuss what happens to an apple when skin is
tions of the skin broken
Discuss relationship of cleanliness to pimples and
Look at skin through magnifying glass and com-
pare to picture of cross section

Understanding processes of elimination of wastes Group and individual counseling concerning the
through the skin control of body odors
Show various types of commercial deodorants and
inexpensive substitutes



Carry body correctly when walking, standing and Bring in typist chair and figure out why it is made
sitting as it is
Discuss the aesthetic and economic importance of
good posture
Demonstrate how to safely pick up heavy objects
See Activity and Rest

Understanding harmful effects of the use of tobacco Collect and post clipping on current research
Interview high school coach and report to class
concerning training rules for athletes

Understanding of the facts concerning the harmful Gather statistics on causes of automobile accidents
effects of drinking alcoholic beverages List occasions when drinking would endanger the
health and welfare of others

Much of the material in this area is free
or inexpensive. As you know, this type of
material is frequently changed, therefore it
is not listed here.

You will find a list of
addresses in Wilson's
The Educational Film
ilar list of film produce:

book publishers with
Children's Catalog.
Guide carries a sim-

There are many interesting films, film
strips and recordings available at little or
no cost. Check your film catalogs (such as
those from your County Film Library, the

General Extension Division, State Board of
Health and various universities) for avail-
ability in Florida.

Raymond G. McCarthy and Edgar M. Douglas.
ITY. Crowell, 1949. (Adult). This volume
was published jointly with the Yale Clinic on

G. Warren Schloat, Jr. YOUR WONDERFUL
TEETH. Scribner, 1954. (1-6). Largely pho-
tographic. Presents importance of teeth, their
care, repair and straightening.

Materials I have used and liked:


General Objective


IT IS RECOGNIZED that the classroom
teacher is a key person in the prevention
and control of illness. Since this guide is
concerned primarily with health education,
the specifics on health services are not in-
cluded in this section. For specific informa-
tion on such things as screening, cumulative
health records and referrals to the nurse,
teachers are urged to study carefully Bul-
letin No. 4D, A Program of School Health
Services for Florida Schools.
There are many implications for health
teaching to be drawn from the health service
program. For more information on such
teaching opportunities reference is made to
Chapter VI, entitled Other Opportunities
For Health Education.
During the primary grades much of the
health instruction is concerned with helping
the child develop practices which will pro-
tect him and others from common diseases
and from illness of any kind. Upon begin-
ning school the child enters a new environ-
ment. This new environment presents for
the child new problems and new learning
opportunities in health with relation to other
people. For example, at home cloth towels
may be used while at school such a practice
would cause concern. Some children who
are not completely at ease at school develop
such habits as chewing on pencils, rubbing

their eyes or sucking their fingers. If the
object or fingers come in contact with some-
thing another child is going to use, there is
a possibility of spreading disease. The teach-
er uses such incidents as opportunities for
teaching sound health practices. While
young children do not need to know in detail
,why these practices are harmful, they do
need to learn that they are undesirable.

Children in the intermediate grades are
curious to know how diseases spread, why
it is undesirable' to "swap" partly eaten
apples, and so on. They should leave the
elementary school not only with effective
health practices, but also with understand-
ings which are necessary for competent cit-
izens. Children should know some of the
simpler current information regarding micro-
organisms which cause disease, and some of
the common and obvious symptoms and
means of preventing diseases common to
childhood. This would include some knowl-
edge of the common vectors (insects, ro-
dents), the diseases they transmit and how
to control them. They should also have an
understanding and appreciation of the
changes which have taken place through
scientific research that contribute to indi-
vidual and group health. Thus they will
enter secondary school with those habits,
understandings and appreciations which will

enable them to cooperate with doctors,
nurses, health officers and community agen-

cies in the protection of their health and that
of their community.


PmMARY (K-3)

Attitude that physicians, dentists and nurses are Role play visit to family physician and dentist
our friends Invite Public Health Nurse to classroom so chil-
dren can meet her

Receptive attitude toward immunization and other Role play process of immunization
injections Class discussion regarding value of immunization
Ask nurse to show children hypodermic syringe and

Proper use of tissue or handkerchief for blowing Demonstrate correct use of tissue or handkerchief
nose and covering coughs and sneezes9 when sneezing or coughing
Demonstrate correct way to blow nose

Proper use of toilets Beginners show teacher at beginning of school
that they know how to make proper use of sanitary

Proper use of drinking fountains Demonstration and practice

Washing hands before meals, and after toileting Plan with teacher ways of keeping washroom clean
Demonstrate correct way to wash and dry hands
Demonstrate best way to use soap dispenser and

Keeping hands and other foreign objects from
mouth, nose, ears and eyes

Knowledge that germs can pass from one person Make use of opportunities in school lunch experi-
to another through objects that have been in the ences and throughout day
mouth Encourage children to keep their own pencils

Wearing clothing suitable for weather conditions Dress doll for different kinds of weather
Discuss how animals are "dressed" for the weather
Discuss rainy weather procedures in and around

*Remember these are only suggestive-not inclusive.
Opportunities for teaching the prevention and control of disease occur during the entire school day as children work,
play and live together.



See Body Care and Grooming

Keeping feet warm and dry Encourage children to bring extra shoes and socks
on rainy days
Encourage children to wear shoes in order to pre-
vent hookworm and tetanus infection

Staying at home and away from other children Dramatize desirable behavior of a child with a
when one has a fresh cold'1 cold
Play "house" and create situation with sick child
remaining at home
Appreciation of importance of insect control View films or filmstrip showing how insects carry
Ask School Lunch Manager to explain precautions
taken against flies
Interview custodian to learn where, and how, gar-
bage is disposed
Ask Sanitarian From County Health Department
to provide mosquito larvae and adults for children
to see
See Community Health

Recognition -of the importance of maintaining Study the thermometer, learn to read it and know
healthful room temperature" what is best room temperature
Plan for a committee to take charge of ventilation
and temperature
See Activity and Rest

Recognition of the need for fresh air, sunshine, Prepare posters and charts illustrating healthful
proper outdoor exercises, rest and good food as activities
means of preventing diseases Show film on outdoor life

Discuss protective foods
Plan and experience outdoor activities together
See Foods and Activity and Rest

Some understanding of the various causes of illness List common illnesses caused by bacteria
and disability Invite science teacher to show bacteria under a
Learn the meaning of Chronic Illness
'OTeachers should act as an example to the children.
11Teachers should recognize that children are more comfortable at temperatures from 2 to 6 degrees lower than adults
prefer. Therefore, it is suggested that teacher wear warmer clothing.



Knowledge that some diseases may be controlled
by immunization and occasionally, isolation


Define immunization and isolation and tell why
Help the class establish common sense rules to
control the spread of disease in the classroom

Ask the Public Health Nurse to show children
the equipment she carries in her bag
Study pertinent parts of the Communicable Disease
Wall Chart12
Study local rules about Rabies immunization

Knowledge of the common ways by which bacteria
are spread secretions from mouth, nose, eyes,
skin, feces and insects

Conduct experiments using microscope
List ways bacteria leaves the body and how they
enter the body

Request media plates from nearest State Board of
Health Laboratory and ask director how to use
(children sneezing on them)
Ask nurse to borrow County Health Department
sterilizer and demonstrate

Staying home and away from other children when
one has a fresh cold

Understanding that a daily balanced diet helps us
to keep well

Discuss conduct during course of a cold

See Foods

Understanding that safe storage and refrigeration of
foods help us to keep well

Visit school lunch storage room

Report on types of refrigeration used in school,
home, and for transportation of foods

List foods which should be refrigerated because
they spoil easily
Experiment to find out what happens to food when
refrigerated and unrefrigerated

Learning the correct way to wash and handle Discuss how dishes are washed at home
dishes, glasses and silver, to control disease spread- Practice sanitary method of dishwashing in a camp
ing germs situation or after a class party

Visit homemaking department in Secondary School

12May be secured through your county health office.




Some knowledge of the ways in which insects, Discuss diseases rats spread
worms and rodents spread diseases Read about Walter Reed
Interview the nearest director of a mosquito con-
trol district
Request Sanitarian from County Health Depart-
ment to demonstrate simple rat proofing
See Community Health

Awareness of some of the common symptoms which Stress the importance of diagnosis by a physician
may indicate illness in its early stages and taking only medicine prescribed by him
Discuss symptoms common to many illnesses

Appreciation of the role that science and research
contribute in the prevention and control of illness

Listed below are some references which
may be helpful to you. The list is far from
comprehensive; it happens to be material
with which the group was familiar. You
probably could add others that would suit
your purpose better.

The numbers in parenthesis indicate the
approximate grade levels at which the ma-
terial would be appropriate.

You will find a list of book publishers with
addresses in Wilson's Children's Catalog.
The Educational Film Guide carries a sim-
ilar list of film producers.

There are many films, film strips and re-
cordings available at little or no cost. Check
your film catalogs (such as those from your
County Film Library, the General Extension
Division, State Board of Health and various
universities) for availability in Florida.

Read about Pasteur, Kich, Lester, Jenner, Nightin-
gale, Fleming, Salk and others
Dramatize stories of the work of any of the scien-
tists who have contributed to health
Discuss Salk vaccine development as an example
of modern research
Collect and discuss examples of how atomic energy
is contributing to the control of illness

Florida State Board of Health. ASCARIS. Un-
dated. Free. (4-6).
Charlotte Becker. A CHIMP IN THE FAMILY.
Messner, 1953. (1-3). The Davis family raises
a chimpanzee in their city apartment. When
mischievious Maggie catches a cold, she be-
comes a real problem. Stresses health prob-
lems and explains some of the ways to prevent
the spread of germs.
Leonard Weisgard. THE CLEAN PIG. Scribner,
1953. (K-2). A clean pig helps change the
lives of a dirty couple who live on a farm.
Very funny.
Florida State Board of Health. COMMUNICABLE
American Association of School Administrators,
The organization and administration of the
health' program in schools. It is particularly
concerned with the responsibilities of the ad-


Alabama Polytechnic Institute. HUBERT HOOK-
WORM AND TOMMY. 1947. Free. (3-6).
May be obtained from Florida State Board of
Health. A booklet for children. Tells the
story of Tommy and the hookworm that he

Florence L. Meredith. HYGIENE. Blakiston,
1954. (Adult). A book for teachers.

AND FOES. Winston, 1940. (Romance of
Science Series). (5-8). Presents the life and
habits of the fly, cockroach, flea, mosquito and
many other insects.

Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 126. RHEUMATIC

EMY. Leaflet, 1947. (Adult).
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. THE SCHOOL
GRAM. Free. (Adult). Suggested organiza-
tion and procedures in developing a health
Mary Bowen Stephenson. WORLD OF INVISI-
BLE LIFE. Wilcox & Follett, 1941. (5-7).
About bacteria helpful and harmful.
Florida State Board of Health. YOU DON'T
WANT HOOKWORM. Undated. Free (1-6).
Leaflet for teachers use in the lower grades
and for pupils in the fifth and sixth grades.

In the space below, list materials you have used and liked.


General Objective


is concerned with helping children de-
velop favorable attitudes and eating habits.
In the intermediate grades emphasis is on
continued practice of good habits and on
gradual understanding of the need for eat-
ing well-balanced meals each day. Types
of foods and their values, adequacy of diet,
food conservation, mealtime habits and be-
havior, harmful nutritional practices, food
fallacies, and national and regional eating
habits will be some of the factors involved.
A recent study involving 437 Florida ele-
mentary school pupils in three different
counties offers some evidence that many
Florida children need help in improving
dietary practices. This study was carried on
during different seasons of the year. Since
most authorities on nutrition accept the
Basic 7 Food Groupings as desirable, this
was used as a basis for the evaluation of the
diet records. The results are as follows:
9,% ate a daily serving of a green or a
yellow vegetable

17% ate a daily serving of a citrus fruit
(or an equivalent)
27%% ate a daily serving of other fruits
or vegetables
59% ate a daily serving of meat or a
meat substitute
58% ate three or more servings of bread
or cereals daily
9%% drank three or more glasses of milk
203/% drank two glasses of milk daily
70% drank less than two glasses of milk
Since, according to this study, a large per-
centage of children have a nutritionally in-
adequate diet, and since children who are
not physically fit may be hindered in their
mental, emotional and social development,
we can no longer pass off the question,
"What does the child eat?" To meet this
problem, it must be attacked cooperatively
by the child, the teacher the parent, and
the community.


PmIMAn (K-3)

Acquaintances with and willingness to try new Prepare and serve foods in classroom
foods as well as familiar foods Have a class garden
Visit school cafeteria and nearby stores to learn to
recognize new foods
*Remember these are only suggestive- not inclusive.



Experience charts about trips
Discuss new food experiences in the school lunch

Select and enjoy desirable in-between meal foods. Prepare, serve and eat a variety of healthful foods
and beverages, such as milk, fruit, fruit juices and
raw vegetables

Habits of cleanliness13 Practice proper drinking at fountain
Practice correct way of washing hands

Eating a good breakfast Dramatize breakfast time
Use food models or felt board to illustrate a good
Prepare and eat hot cereals

Regular meal habits

Awareness of the kinds of foods we should eat

Discuss time for eating, sleeping, work and play
Use clock face to show various times for meals

List and discuss foods we eat frequently
Use food labels to stimulate questions about origin
of food

Trip to nearby food sources such as dairy, poultry
or truck farm
Use of food models and pictures to identify like
foods (vegetables, fruits, cereals, milk products,
Have Homemaking students assist with "tasting

Knowledge that some foods such as coffee, tea, soft List beverages children drink and discuss those
drinks and candy should be considered "extras," that are good for growth and health and those that
and cannot replace needed foods are just "extras"
Prepare and taste fruit and milk drinks (milk may
be flavored with honey, peanut butter or bananas)

Practice good social behavior at mealtime14

Dramatize good behavior at mealtime (restaurant
and home)
Make lunch and mid-morning lunch a social ex-
Have a party inviting parents
Regular use of host and hostess at lunch
Express gratitude for food by saying grace

18In schools without running water, stress importance of ind ividual drinking cups and make available facilities for washing
and drying hands.
14Teacher eating meals with pupils offers greatest opportunity. In schools with no school lunch program, packed lunches may
be eaten in a group with the teachers to provide practice in mealtime behavior.



Understanding that foods promote growth and Conduct animal feeding experiments with white
health rats, hamsters, or baby chicks15
Have a class garden
Discuss class food habits with parents

Knowledge that like foods may be used inter- Collect pictures of foods and classify
changeably Self evaluation of diet, checking by food groups16

Understanding the need for careful food handling Committees visit stores, bakeries or plants for can-
(Purchasing, Storage, Preparation and Preserva- ning, freezing, or concentration and make reports
tion) to class
Dehydrate fruits or vegetables
Visit dairy and observe pasteurization and other
Visit school lunch department to observe food
handling, dish washing and other processes
Discuss the importance of washing fruits and veg-
etables before eating them
Make a food calendar to illustrate availability of
foods at various seasons
See Prevention and Control of Illness and Disability

Interest in and knowledge of foods from other Make a food dictionary
lands Research to find out about foods from other lands
Prepare and taste food typical of other lands
Invite person familiar with foreign food customs to
talk to class
Present program based on foreign food customs

Appreciation of the value of pleasant conduct and Practice proper behavior at class parties and lunch-
surroundings at mealtime"1 eons for guests
Cooperate with classmates and teachers in making
the lunch period healthful and happy for everyone
Practice setting the table
Understanding that some beverages have little food Prepare and drink interesting fruit and milk drinks
value other than energy, and should not be substi- Report on nutritious drinks made at home
tuted for fruit juices or milk

15Public health nurse can suggest sources of help for this project.
16Caution should be exercised to avoid embarrassment of the child or home through comparisons.
17The school lunch program should be used as an opportunity to establish positive habits.



Knowledge and appreciation for foods and food' Prepare and serve new dishes
customs from various regions of the United States Make food map of the United States
Exhibit foods from different regions

Ability and desire to plan and select well-balanced With school lunch manager or some qualified per-
meals son, plan school lunch menus
Use food guides and models to plan well-balanced
Use pictures of meals to discuss factors such as
color and taste
Observe and discuss school lunch food combina-
Form a "Taste-a-Bite" club
Self-check of daily food intake for inclusion of all
food groups18
Plan and discuss various food combinations and

Understanding the importance of regular meals Use clock to illustrate hours between mealtime
List advantages of regular meal periods

Desirable table etiquette and social practices Dramatize mealtime
List and discuss the good habits observed
Practice good table manners in school camps
Plan and give class parties

Some understanding of food fads, fallacies, and Collect and discuss food superstitions
superstitions Bring food advertisements to class and discuss
Make simple survey of amount of money the class
spends on "extras"

Awareness of selected technical terms used in de- Enact the discovery of vitamins
scribing food values Discuss the origin of words such as vitamins, pro-
teins, calories

Beginning awareness of the groups of people who Have 4-H Club leader visit class to discuss Pure
protect our food supplies Food-Drug Act, care of livestock, and other pro-
Arrange for committee to visit health department
and report to class

18Caution should be used in order to avoid embarrassment to child or parents.

Listed below are some references which
may be helpful to you. The list is far from
comprehensive; it happens to be material
with which the group was familiar. You
probably could add others that would suit
your purpose better.

The numbers in parenthesis indicate the
approximate grade levels at which the ma-
terial would be appropriate.

You will find a list of book publishers with
addresses in Wilson's Children's catalog.
The Educational Film Guide carries a sim-
ilar list of film producers.

There are many films, film strips and re-
cordings available at little or no cost. Check
your film catalogs (such as those from your
County Film Library, the General Extension
Division, State Board of Health and various
universities) for availability in Florida.

Harvard School of Heatlh. ACTIVITIES IN NU-
TRITION. Distributed by Nutrition Founda-
tion, Inc. (Adult). Suggestions for teachers
K-6 on how goals set up in Goals for Nutrition
may be achieved through various integrated
classroom experiences.
Irmengarde Eberly. BASKETFUL, THE STORY
OF OUR FOODS. Crowell, 1946. (5-8). A
description of the growth, harvesting, and
distribution of various foods.
Florida Citrus Commission, Florida State Depart-
ment of Education, Florida State Board of
Health, Florida State University. (Obtain
from Citrus Commission). BETTER BREAK-
FAST CUTOUTS. 1954. (1-9). Cutouts of
breakfast foods for a felt board to supplement
the Teachers' Guide Better Breakfasts for Pri-
mary Children.
Florida Citrus Commission, Florida State Depart-
ment of Education, Florida State Board of
Health, Florida State University. (Obtain
from Citrus Commission). BETTER BREAK-
Teachers' Guide. (Adult). Suggested activi-
ties to promote better breakfast habits. Cut-
outs for a felt board supplement this material.

Mary McBunney Green. EVERYBODY EATS.
Scott, 1950. (K-l). Giant print with attractive
illustrations. Story tells what different animals
eat to keep healthy.
Florida State Board of Health. FLORIDA
HEALTH NOTES. Vol. 46 No. 8. "How's Your
School Lunch." Entire issue. Free. (Adult.)
GARDENING. The National Garden Insti-
tute, 1953. (Adult.) Gives suggestions for
interesting elementary classes in gardening and
suggests activities.
Department of Elementary School Principals, Na-
tional Education Assn. FOOD FOR ALL.
1951. (Adult.) Report of a classroom experi-
ment in a Baltimore public school to learn the
"Food and People" program of Unesco.
Harvard School of Public Health, The Nutrition
Foundation, Inc., 1947. GOALS FOR NU-
(Adult.) Goals set up in chart form suggesting
material which should be covered through-
out the child's school life.
Florida State Department of Education, Bulletin
33-A (Out of print). GROWING THROUGH
A discussion of nutrition education activities
for children in the elementary school.
Wheat Flour Institute. HOW TO CONDUCT A
G. Warren Schloat. MILK FOR YOU. Scribner,
1951. (K-3). A picture book with text which
shows how milk is formed, how it is obtained
from the cow, and prepared for marketing.
Josephine Perry and Celeste Slauson. MILK PRO-
DUCTION. Longmans, 1951. (4-6). De-
scription of dairy farms milk production and

Nutrition Foundation, Inc. NUTRITION ED-
ONDARY SCHOOLS. 1952. (Adult.) De-
scription of studies made in several different
parts of the country. Describes dietary
studies and gives suggestions for planning a
school nutrition program.

Walter Wilkins & French Boyd. NUTRITION
FOR YOU. 1852 Burkholder Circle, W. Jack-
sonville 7, Florida. (Adult.) Eighteen lessons
on good nutrition. Good source material for
teacher and parent.
Maud and Miska Petersham. STORY BOOK OF
CORN. Winston, 1936. (3-5). Pamphlet-
all about corn including legend and history.
Maud and Miska Petersham. STORY BOOK OF
FOODS FROM THE FIELD. Winston, 1951.
(3-5). A book about wheat, corn, rice and
Maud and Miska Petersham. STORY BOOK OF
RICE. Winston, 1936. (3-5). Pamphlet about
rice, its history and cultivation.
Maud and Miska Petersham. STORY BOOK OF
SUGAR. Winston, 1936. (3-5). Pamphlet
giving the history, cultivation and processing
of sugar.
Maud and Miska Petersham. STORY BOOK OF
WHEAT. Winston, 1936. (3-5). Pamphlet
giving history, legend and modern methods of
cultivation of wheat.

Florida Citrus Commission, Florida State Depart-
ment of Education, Florida State University,
Florida State Board of Health. (Obtain from
Florida Citrus Commission.) THE STORY
OF CITRUS. A guide for teachers in devel-
oping teaching units on the citrus industry.
Free. (Adult.)

JACK DRANK. Scott, 1944. (K-l). An adap-
tation of the Mother Goose Story.

Hanson Hart Webster and Ada Ruth Polkinghorne.
1938. (4-6). The following are considered:
flour, grain, rice, meat, milk, poultry, sugar,
wheat, vegetables, fruit, fish, corn, beverages,
bread and cheese.

Evaporated Milk Associations, 1953. The WHITE
RAT OF HAWKINS HALL. Free. (5-12). A
story concerning a white rat experiment.

G. Warren Schloat. WONDERFUL EGG. Scrib-
ner, 1952. (K-3). A visit to a poultry farm.
Poultry raising and how eggs become chickens.

In the space below list materials you have used and liked:


General Objective


patterns take place when the child
has an opportunity to express his feelings
in everyday activities. He develops the abil-
ity to establish relationships with others, to
meet changing conditions and thus gains a
growing sense of personal effectiveness.
When the child is given repeated oppor-
tunity during his elementary school years
to face problems and learns better to under-
stand himself and others, these experiences
contribute to happy, successful living

throughout life. When the child is assigned
tasks for which he is not ready or expecta-
tions are too high security is threatened and
adjustment is more difficult.

Increased concern about mental health
and increased recognition of the need for
more positive efforts in promotion of mental
health is being reflected in the school pro-
gram. The teacher's understanding and skill
can contribute to healthy emotional develop-
ment which is the basis of mental health.


Feeling of acceptance by classmates and school Opportunity to share interests and experiences with
personnel the teacher
Get acquainted with the other children through
such activities as teacher introductions and games
Participate in showing and telling things to the
Acquaintance with the school environment Make a pre-school visit to school
Provide for pre-school participation in the School
Summer Enrichment Program
Observe classroom facilities before school term
Arrange for class tour of school grounds and blild-
*Remember these are only suggestive-not inclusive.




Meet or talk with other school personnel, such as
principal, custodian, and school lunch personnel

Ability to greet people

Make practice of greeting teachers, principal, visi-
tors and friends
Room host and hostess

Attitudes towards others which result in courtesy,
thoughtfulness, and kindness

Appreciation of the value of each individual

Practice use of "please," "thank you," and the
List qualities admired in other people
Send gifts, cards, or letters to classmates when ill
Share toys and materials
Send letters, dictated to teacher, of thanks and
Watch for opportunities to be helpful to others
Listen to and discuss stories which show thought-
fulness of others

Plan how to help a new child become adjusted to
Planning how to help older or handicapped people
Make up box for overseas (CARE and Red Cross)
Discuss treatment of pets

Recognize each individual's part in group activities
Notice and appreciate the contributions of others
Visit fire station
Interview policeman
See also Community Health

Work and play successfully as a group member

Work in groups and evaluate effectiveness of efforts
Participate in games which are under the direction
of the teacher
Serve on committees
Discussions based on stories or plays19
List ways individuals can help the group
Practice taking turns

Positive attitude toward daily activities Group planning to identify problems
Alternate confining tasks with rest periods, creative
and physical activities, such as: Hobbies, special
19See Materials- Human Relations in the Classroom by Bullis & O'Malley.



interests, musical activities and opportunities to
explore and experiment with many materials, such
as clay, finger paints, and building materials
Exhibit hobbies telling how they started
See Activity and Rest

Skills and techniques for planning work and car- Provide for individual and committee work in plan-
rying it to completion ning and carrying out class projects
Plan for a class outing or party
Arrange for group planning, to decide on storage
Appoint a housekeeping committee

Responsibility for property Care for materials and equipment in and around
Keep records of materials borrowed; library books,
playground equipment, and the like
Care for and mend State adopted texts, and library

Understanding that emotions are acceptable Learn to accept each expression of emotion, right
or wrong, through daily experiences
Dramatize situations
Children write, tell, or read and discuss stories
about emotions

Express emotions in acceptable ways Participation in creative activities such as finger
painting, drawing, painting, modeling clay, and
rhythmic activities
Hammer, pound clay, tear paper or use punching
bag when angry or tense
"Talk it out" with sympathetic listeners
Discuss spontaneous situations that arise to de-
velop undertsanding of emotions of other children

Accepting oneself realistically in terms of limita- Study life of Helen Keller and others
tions and capabilities Discuss fact that many highly desirable assets are
not academic
Recognize individual abilities
Participate in a wide variety of experiences and
activities which offer maximum possibilities for
each individual to experience success
Discuss how sickness can make us "fussy" or irri-



Becoming more objective and less emotional about

Becoming self-reliant and independent with proper
sense of responsibility for the welfare of others


Discuss successful and unsuccessful experiences
Engage in student-teacher conferences-counselling
Participate in imaginary situations with several
choices of reactions children choose the reaction
and discuss reason for choice

Select own activities and materials
Master a new skill

Plan for and take charge of a class devotional
Plan and participate in club and auditorium pro-
Make opportunities for committee or small group
Make and carry out plans to help a primary class
Make and carry out plans to cooperate with other
classes for the improvement of conditions in hall,
lunchroom or on playground
Participate in community cleanup projects

Acceptance of each individual as a worthwhile Listen to records such as The Churkendoose dis-
person cuss
Discuss fact that everyone is good in something
Demonstrate ability in something
Folk dancing

Make decisions and choices based on acceptable Organize a lost-and-found department
standards Debates such as superstitions defended and ex-
Make decisions based on experimentation and in-
formation gained from recognized authorities
Discuss current events

Understanding and appreciating the importance of Study various guardians of public welfare as po-
positions of social service lice, public health departments and fireman
Visit agencies

Awareness of and sensitivity to the feelings, prob- Use "Buddy" or "Pal" system during swimming,
lems and needs of others field trips, class activities
Class "adopt" a younger child that has need of

Accept frustration with reasonable adjustments Capitalize on frustrating situations by arriving at
when circumstances make it necessary20 solution through group discussion

Ability to make and gracefully accept compromises Use current problems of the class
Discuss contributions that may arise from group
Evaluate group decisions

Continuing development of personal values Read The Wonderful Year, by Nancy Barnes21
Discuss problems important to class to help clarify
Organize panel discussions of problems
Use news items about "success stories" as well as
about juvenile delinquents
Discuss causes, motives, redirection and correction
of motivating forces
Encourage self-evaluation

Good social behavior Hold parties, picnics, and club meetings
Welcome new pupils, visitors, and explain activi-
Hold exhibits for parents
Invite parents to tea or lunch
Discuss how to dress for different occasions

Responsibility for consequences of conduct Participate in student government
Budget time and money
Talk about incidents where child must take re-
sponsibility for consequence of his own actions

Wholesome boy-girl relationship Arrange co-educational games
Participate in folk dancing
Have play days

Listed below are some references which The numbers in parenthesis indicate the
may be helpful to you. The list is far from approximate grade levels at which the ma-
comprehensive; it happens to be material trial would be appropriate.
with which the group was familiar. You
probably could add others that would suit You will find a list of book publishers
your purpose better, with addresses in Wilson's Children's Cata-

20The teacher should try to understand reasons for frustrations and attempt to redirect energies to release tensions. A child
recovering from illness may not take part in play, but could finger paint or model clay.
21See Bibliography at end of chart.

log. The Educational Film Guide carries a
similar list of film producers. There are many
films, film strips and recordings available at
little or no cost. Check your film catalogs
(such as those from your County Film Li-
brary, the General Extension Division, State
Board of Health and various universities)
for availability in Florida.

Carolyn Haywood. "B" IS FOR BETSY. Har-
court, 1989. (1-3). Betsy starts to school.
OF THE DARK. Random, 1946. (K-4). A
child learns to deal with his fears.

Valentine P. Wasson. THE
Lippincott, 1950. (K-2).
adoption is told to a small

The story of his

John G. McCullough. DARK IS DARK. Scott,
1947. (K-2). To overcome fear of the dark.
Elly McKean. DAVID'S BAD DAY. Vanguard,
1953. (1-8). Picture and text story of jealousy
in children and how it can be overcome. Rec-
ommended by psychologists, teachers and par-
Coward-McCann, 1946. (4-6). People learn
that everyone has some troubles.
Hinds, Hayden and Eldridge, 1947. (K-3).
Explanation of duties and instruments of doc-
tor in physical examinations at school.

William Lipkind. EVEN STEVEN. Harcourt,
1952. (K-3). The smallest horse on the ranch
is the smartest and proves his merit.
Munro Leaf. FAIR PLAY. Lippincott, 1939.
(3-4). A book emphasizing the importance of
democratic living.
William Lipkind. FINDERS KEEPERS. Harcourt,
1951. (K-3). Two dogs learn that cooperation
is best.
A. W. Blair and W. H. Burton. GROWTH AND
CENT. Appleton, 1951. (Adult). Book for
parents and teachers.
Winston, 1947. (2-3). Tells of the happy fam-
ily life a three-year old experiences.

ITY FOR YOUR CHILD. Federal Security
Agency, Social Security Administration, Chil-
dren's Bureau, 1952. (Adult). A pamphlet
prepared for parents of children of all ages.
A discussion aid for use by parent study groups.
Also available (Children's Bureau Publication
No. 338 -1952).
American Council on Education, 1945. HELPING
(Adult). A report of a three-year project to
better understand children. Describes the mo-
tivations and needs of the children as they
are discovered and the steps which are taken.
Carolyn Haywood. HERE'S A PENNY. Harcourt,
1944. (2-4). The story of an adopted boy.
Catherine Woolley. HOLIDAY ON WHEELS.
Morrow, 1953. (3-6). David's bicycle trip in
Maine with his father helps him overcome his
bad habit of giving up too easily.
Bernice Neugarten. HOW TO GET ALONG
WITH OTHERS. Life adjustment Booklet,
Science Research Associates, 1953. (6-9). To
help boys and girls get along better with
friends, family and grownups.
Mary and Lawrence K. Frank. HOW TO HELP
Press, 1950 (Adult). Child guidance for par-
ents of children from 5 to 12.
THE CLASSROOM. Delaware State Society
for Mental Hygiene, 1951. (Adult). Book
for teachers.
Eleanor Estes. HUNDRED DRESSES. Harcourt,
1944. (4-6). The story of a little Polish girl
and the intolerance she suffered because she
was different and poor.
Kathryn Jackson. JERRY AT SCHOOL. Simon
and Schuster, 1950. (K-3). A story about Jer-
ry's first day at school. A picture book in
color. Good for attitude building.
Lois Lenski. JUDY'S JOURNEY. Lippincott,
1947. (4-6). The sympathetic story of a mi-
grant worker's child. Helps to promote under-
standing of others.

Jerrold Beim. KID BROTHER. Morrow, 1952
(2-4). Buzz tired of having his younger
brother tag along and was sure a younger
brother could never be anything but a nui-

sance. Frank did him a kind deed that changed
his mind.
Munro Leaf. LET'S DO BETTER. Lippincott,
1945. (3-5). Democracy and working to-
Ludwig Bemelmans. MADELINE'S RESCUE.
Viking, 1953. (1-3). Cooperation is the theme
of the story.
Munro Leaf. MANNERS CAN BE FUN. Lip-
pincott, 1936. (2-4). A book of etiquette for
the very young.
Vana Earle. MY FRIEND JOHNNY. Lothrop,
1952. (1-3). Even best friends fall out and
when they do, nothing is any fun for either
of them. The most important thing about a
quarrel is making up.
Ethel Calvert Phillips. A NAME FOR OBED.
Houghton, 1941. (2-4). A boy learns to be
proud of his name even though it is different.
Gladys Relyea. The NIGHT THE STORM
CAME. Aladdin, 1951. (K-3). A little boy
learns not to be afraid of a storm.
Roger A. Duvoisin. PETUNIA. Knopf, 1950.
(K-2). A goose becomes a busybody because
she thinks she is so wise. After she gets the
animals in trouble she finds how little she
New York Committee on Mental Hygiene of
the State Charities Aid Association, 1947.
Free. (Adult). Pamphlet written after the
war to help teachers understand and help
children with problems.
May N. Wallace. A RACE FOR BILL. Nelson.
1951. (4-6). Bill overcomes his fears in his
persistent struggle to win the Soap Box Derby.
Doris Gates. SENSIBLE KATE. Viking, 1943.
(4-6). The story of a ten-year-old orphan who
is needed by someone.
Marion Garthwaite. SHAKEN DAYS. Messner,
1952. (5-7). The story of a girl's adjustment
to a new school and the problems it brings
her. She learns to be unfraid.
Margaret Wise Brown. SLEEPY ABC. Lothrop,
1953. (K-l). To help develop a good attitude
toward sleep.

Morrow, 1949. (1-3). A story about a boy
named Tiny who proved that he was small
only in stature.
Helen Fern Daringer. STEPSISTER SALLY.
Harcourt, 1952. (4-6). The story of an eleven-
year-old girl and her adjustment to her step-
mother and stepsister.
Kathryn Hitte. SURPRISE FOR SUSAN. Abing-
don-Cokesbury, 1950. (K-3). A story about a
little girl who has a new baby brother. The
attractive pictures help emphasize the story.
Jerrold Beim. THE TAMING OF TOBY. Mor-
row, 1953. (1-3). Toby didn't get along very
well with his teacher; but learned some facts
about her family and way of living, so un-
understood her better. Good introduction for
improving classroom behavior.
CHILDREN SPEAK. New York State Society
for Mental Health. (Adult). A brief bulletin
to help teachers meet the emotional needs of
Eleanor C. Ronnei and Joan and Max Porter. TIM
(5-9). For children who need hearing aids
and those who play with children using hear-
ing aids.
Gweneira Williams. TIMID TIMOTHY. Scott,
1944. (1-3). A timid kitten learns to be brave.
Katherine S. Wensberg. THE TUCKERS: GROW-
1952. (4-6). The Tuckers meet their emotion-
al difficulties positively. Each chapter deals
with a different problem.
Hans Christian Anderson. THE UGLY DUCK-
LING. In collection It's Perfectly True, and
Other Stories. Harcourt, 1938. (5-8). A trans-
lation of 28 Hans Christian Andersen Stories.
BEHAVIOR. Parent-teacher Series. Teach-
ers College, 1949. (Adult). Pamphlet written
for parents and teachers.
Dorothea Francis Canfield Fisher. UNDERSTOOD
BETSY. Holt, 1946. (5-8). A spoiled child
finds herself and develops self-reliance.
Phyllis Krasilovsky. THE VERY LITTLE GIRL.
Doubleday, 1953. (K-l). A very little girl
grows big enough to become a big sister to
a new baby brother.

Nina Schneider. WHILE SUSIE SLEEPS. Scott,
1948. (K-l). Reassurance for those who fear
the dark.

Howard E. Sandman. WHO'S AFRAID OF
THUNDER? Sterling, 1953. (4-6). A clear
and simple, yet exciting story of the weather,
packed with valuable information. Peter learns
not to be afraid of thunder when he visits
the weatherman.

Nancy Barnes. WONDERFUL YEAR. Messner,
1946. (5-8). A twelve-year-old girl has a won-
derful year when she least expects it.

Mabel Leigh Hunt. YOUNG MAN OF THE
HOUSE. Lippincott, 1944. (4-6). A boy of
nine becomes the man of the house while his
father is away.

In the space below list materials you have used and liked.


General Objectives


RECENT STUDIES have indicated that
the basic causes of accidents are:
1. Lack of skill
2. Lack of knowledge
3. Faulty attitude
4. Defective equipment
5. Some defect in individual, for ex-
ample, bad eye sight, poor hearing,
and being accident prone
6. Unnecessary hazards in environment
7. Poor leadership
8. Lack of supervision
Careful work in safety education through-
out the elementary grades will help eliminate
these causes by changing attitudes and in-
creasing skills and knowledge. The teacher
has an important part to play in this area
since attitudes, practicing safety habits and
careful supervision have more effect than
words. It has been found that as super-
vision increases, accidents decrease.
About one-third of all accidents are caused
by someone other than the injured person.
Thus, it behooves teachers to regulate pupil

behavior not only for their own safety but
also for the safety of others.
In order to know if safety-teaching is ef-
fective, it would be well to observe children
on their way to and from school. Teachers
will want to see that proper attitudes toward
safety are established and carry over into
the everyday experiences of boys and girls.
Familiarity with recommended first aid
procedures usually results in an improved
attitude toward the prevention of accidents.
Such information deals with the care of
simple injuries. It should prepare children
to accept first aid care from adults. Every
child should know what immediate action
should be taken in the event of accident or
illness in situations where adults are not
"It is urged that in teaching first aid only
those procedures which the group can un-
derstand and apply be taught. It should be
remembered that a superficial knowledge of
first aid may be dangerous. Much of the
first aid taught to elementary school children
should consist of what children should not
do in case of injury."22

22National Commission on Safety Education, Washington 6, D. C.




Ability to cross the road or street safely23 Dramatize pedestrian and highway safety practices
Practice safe procedure in crossing road or street
Use toy traffic light in room for a traffic game stress-
ing continued need to look both ways

Know safest route from home to school Discuss safest route from home to school
Study map laid out on floor showing where chil-
dren live and hazards on route to school

Ability to give name, address, name of school and Play a little game, "Who are you? Where do you
name of parents live?"
Stress importance of telling who you are and where
you live, if lost

Ability to get on and off the bus safely and behave Use school bus to practice safe behavior
safely when riding on buses, cars, trains Set up standards for safe behavior on bus
Practice safety in connection with field trip using
bus transportation
Invite school bus driver to talk to class on safety

Recognize that there are places where one can Class chart listing safe places to run
run and places where one should walk Practice walking up and down stairs one at the
time, holding on to hand rail
Tour school facilities, buildings and grounds

Knowledge of what to do in case of illness or in- Have visitor talk to class about proper action
jury to self or a companion Discuss consequences of thoughtless action
Study causes of accidents that have occurred on
the playground and accidents that members of the
class have experienced and how they could have
been prevented

Ability to use swings, slides and other equipment Help mark off the danger area around swings to
properly warn the children about entering while swings are
being used
Observe swings in use- make list of safe prac-
Discuss and make safety rules

Knowledge of importance of proper care of open Use dolls to dramatize caring for make-believe
cuts and abrasions wounds

*Remember these are only suggestive not inclusive.
23Both urban and rural children should know traffic light signals.



Understanding of need for keeping buildings, walks Form a "Clean-up Club" for playground
and playgrounds safe List safe play areas and unsafe play areas

Knowledge of the safe way to use and store saws, Dramatize and demonstrate the safe use of tools
scissors, hoes, rakes, pins, needles and other equip- Use custodian as resource person
Make plans for the safe use and storage of class-
room supplies and equipment

Acceptance of responsibility for reporting any bro- Inspect playground equipment and classroom fur-
ken furniture or equipment niture for defects and send report to principal

Knowledge of proper way to carry a chair Demonstrate and practice carrying a chair prop-

Know that one should not accept rides with Discuss what to do if a stranger offers a ride

Knowledge of simple rules for pedestrians Take an excursion and make plans for practicing
safe procedure
Have traffic officer talk to pupils and explain how
to watch for passing traffic and on which side of
the road to walk when there are no sidewalks

Know what to do if a foreign object lodges in the
eye, ears or nose

Know to report accidents and emergencies to an Discuss accidents and emergencies that should be
adult reported

Recognition that cooperation in play may prevent Plan for cooperation in using a particular piece of
accidents playground equipment
Make safety rules for playground and home

Acceptance of responsibility for helping protect Assume responsibility for helping pre-school chil-
younger children dren who visit the school
Observe activities of school ground and traffic
safety patrols

Know that one must not tease pets nor play witt. Make plans for preventing pets from coming to
strange animals school
Have pet show or parade

Practice safety at home as well as at school Participate in a School Safety Committee

Study the list of home hazards 24
24American Red Cross A Check List for Common Hazards In and About the House. (Teacher's use.)



Put away toys or material that may be a safety

Practice simple rules of fire prevention Visit a fire station
Have Fire Chief visit school and give instructions
in fire safety
Practice safe way of striking matches (out doors)
Dramatize what to do if clothing catches on fire

Know proper behavior in case of fire Dramatize using telephone to report fire, giving
all necessary information
Plan for participation in fire drills at school

Proper attitude toward bicycle safety Demonstrate on playground correct riding and sig-
Award drivers licenses to those who know and use
acceptable riding procedures, and therefore are al-
lowed to ride bicycle to school


Ability to recognize poisonous plants Read about poisonous plants
Make a trip to a Florida State Park to have park
personnel point out poisonous and harmful plants
Discuss how to prevent ivy poisoning

Proper attitude toward pedestrian safety List rules pedestrians are expected to obey -dem-
Find out why it is best to walk on left facing traffic
Study common causes of accidents enroute to school
such as darting out between cars, jay walking, run-
ning across streets
Prepare safety bulletin board
Dramatize situations involving traffic safety

Familiarity with safety practices for the playground Study the community, making a map of play areas
showing those that are safe
Make rules for cooperating with Safety Patrol
Make list of safety rules for the most popular
Discuss correct use of playground equipment
Keep a record of accidents classmates have and
analyze causes25

25A1 schools should have a standard accident report form. (National Safety Council, 425 N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago.)



Knowledge of first aid procedures for care of cuts Demonstrate care of cuts and burns
and bruises, minor burns and unconsciousness Discuss first aid action in case of unconsciousness

Observe safety precautions at home Conduct a hazard hunt at school and let children
plan how they can help eliminate them
Study ways poison is identified on medicine bot-
tles, insect powders, and the like
Plan and carry out project for putting away play
equipment at home

Awareness of fire hazards Make survey of school building after discussion
of fire hazards
Start a fire safety campaign for school and home
Demonstrate that fire will not burn without air
Dramatize proper procedures for reporting fire in
home, school, neighborhood
Report on location of fire alarm box nearest home
Have fireman visit school and explain how to use
extinguishers and fire alarm boxes
Ask firemen to conduct controlled experiment on
extinguishing fires to show best method

Understanding basic rules for bicycle safety Demonstrate safe bicycle riding
Invite a Safety Specialist to talk on bicycle safety,
including mechanical condition of bicycle
Give bicycle safety tests

Understanding of a few simple principles of first Read about poisonous snakes in the United States
aid. (Sprains, fainting, insect-dog-snake bites, and learn to identify them
scalds, burns, blisters, nose bleed) Make slings and tourniquets

Practice bandaging
Dramatize proper procedure in case of accident
(keep calm, call adult)
Avoidance of unnecessary sunburn Discuss safe way of acquiring sun tan

Understanding of safety precautions needed while Study Red Cross Junior Life Saving Material
swimming, boating, fishing, water skiing Learn Holger Nielson method of artificial respira-
tion. (Red Cross Junior Life Saving material)

Understanding that electrical equipment must be Make study of electricity
used with care Study the dangers connected with electrical appli-
Check electrical equipment at home for safety



Understand first aid procedure in case of internal List poisonous materials commonly found at home
poisoning Consider safety precautions which should be taken
in storing household poisons
Discuss first aid procedures in use of internal poi-

Desirable attitudes regarding laws and rules which Survey traffic accidents in community to see if laws
were made to safeguard safety of all were broken
Invite policeman, fireman, health officer, sanitarian
to explain reason for certain laws
Plan ways of cooperating with School Safety Pa-
See Community Health

Listed below are some references which
may be helpful to you. This list is far from
comprehensive; it happens to be material
with which the group was familiar. You
probably could add others that would suit
your purpose better.
The numbers in parenthesis indicate the
approximate grade levels at which the ma-
terial would be appropriate.
You will find a list of book publishers
with addresses in Wilson's Children's Cata-
log. The Educational Film Guide carries a
similar list of film producers.

There are many excellent films, film strips
and recordings available at little or no cost.
Check your film catalogs (such as those
from your County Film Library, the General
Extension Division, State Board of Health
and various universities) for availability in

National Commission on Safety Education, N.E.A.,
(Adult). Bulletin suggests ways to teach bi-
cycle safety as part of the school program.
GINES. Grossett, 1950. (2-4). A picture book

about fires and their causes, fire fighting equip-
ment and methods.
Sally Scott. BINKEY'S FIRE. Harcourt, 1952.
(K-3). Binkey, a small dog, becomes a hero
by warning his family about the fire in the
Stack, Siebrecht and Elkow. EDUCATION FOR
SAFE LIVING. Prentice-Hall, 1949. (Adult).
A book for teachers.
National Commission on Safety Education, N.E.A.,
SCHOOL PATROLS. (Adult). Discusses all
phases of the school patrol.
Henry Bolles Lent. THE FIRE FIGHTER. Mac-
millan, 1939. (4-5). About a fire boat in New
York City.
National Commission on Safety Education and Na-
tional Education Association, 1950. FIRE
DIATE GRADES. (Adult). Guide gives sug-
gestions to teachers concerning opportunities
for integrating fire safety with other subjects
and ideas for activities.
National Commission on Safety Education and Na-
tional Council for the Social Studies. N.E.A.,
PRIMARY GRADES. (Adult). Points out op-
portunities for teaching fire safety and how
it can be integrated with other subjects.

Red Cross, United States American National Red
JUNIORS. Simple first aid procedures.
BOOK (Big Golden Book). Simon and Schu-
ster, 1950. (K-2). A picture book with only
one line of text to the page.
Margaret Wise Brown. RED LIGHT, GREEN
LIGHT. Doubleday, 1944. (K). A horse, car,
jeep, dog, boy and mouse take a walk. They
know that "Red light they can't go, green
light they can."
Munro Leaf. SAFETY CAN BE FUN. Lippin-
cott, 1938. (2-4). Humorous pictures and
stories of "nit-wits" who disregard safety
American Association of School Administrators,
N.E.A., 18th Year Book, 1940. SAFETY ED-
UCATION. (Adult). Book for teachers, prin-
cipals, supervisors and superintendents.

National Commission on Safety Education and
American Association for Health, Physical Ed-
cation and Recreation of the N.E.A., 1951.
Deals with techniques, activities, accidents
and teacher liability.

American Red Cross. SUGGESTED GUIDES
and 4-6). (Adult). Monthly seasonal guides
giving ideas for instruction in safety.

John J. Floherty. WATCH YOUR STEP. Lippin-
cott, 1950. (Adult). Covers accidents in the
home, water, woods, school and highway.

Ned H. Dearborn and Bill Andrews. YOUR
SAFETY HANDBOOK. Junior Life Adjust-
ment Booklet, Science Research Associates,
1952. (6-9). How children can practice safe-
ty in everyday life.

In the space below list materials you have used and liked.


General Objective


community's greatest asset. It becomes
the responsibility of individuals in the com-
munity to maintain and promote projects and
services which will protect the health of the
entire group.
Since health has physical, mental, emo-
tional and social aspects, communities should
make provision for recreational services,
mental health clinics, and family counseling
as well as for sanitary water and food sup-

plies, waste disposal, protection from disease
and health promotion.
If each child even at the primary level,
can be gradually introduced to the many
services for his welfare in his community,
he can begin to appreciate our complex life
and the many helps needed for community
health. Through carefully planned experi-
ences he can begin to realize the responsi-
bility that each individual must exert in
order that all can live well.

PmRIMnY (K-3)

Acceptance of health services (immunization, med- Engage in dramatic play
ical and dental examinations and first aid) Arrange for visit by public health nurse to get
Visit school health room

Positive attitudes toward keeping surroundings Encourage pupil-teacher planning for care of sup-
clean plies, equipment and facilities
Appoint housekeeping committee

Understanding how one person's health habits can Plan together for neatness of school, room and
affect the health of other people grounds
Encourage daily procedures for establishing the
following habits:
Keep objects out of mouth
Cover sneezes
Wash hands after toileting and before eating
Stay home when ill
*Remember these are only suggestive-not inclusive.


Use separate rugs for rest
Use individual eating and drinking utensils
See Prevention and Control of Illness

Acquaintance with the custodian, school lunch per- Visit custodian's room and school lunch depart-
sonnel, teachers, and bus drivers and their contri- ment26
bution to health Discuss various occupations emphasizing contribu-
tions to community.


Habits of cleanliness, and sanitation in school and Select committees for housekeeping duties
on school grounds Work out a project for improving the appearance
of classroom and school grounds

Knowledge of nearby play areas and their facilities Visit playgrounds to become acquainted with rec-
reational program
Draw map showing play areas near school
Discuss responsibility for proper use of recreational

Understanding of the contributions made to health Send a committee to interview some of these per-
by the garbage collectors, milkmen, street cleaners, sons and report
physicians, nurses, dentists and others in the com- Take trips to places where some of these people
munity work

Elementary knowledge of safe sources of water Study different methods of securing water
supply Make chart listing safe and unsafe sources of water
Visit the water works in urban areas
Have committee interview Sanitarian of County
Health Department about local stream pollution
See Prevention and Control of Illness

Understanding how milk is kept safe for community Visit a farm to observe milking process and care
of cows and milk
Visit a dairy
Understanding how food is kept safe Have committees interview a school lunch super-
visor, manager of a store, bakery or restaurant to
find out how they handle food safely
Recognition of the need for insect control Eradicate mosquitoes and flies near school
Ask County Health Department Sanitarian for ad-
Get Sanitarian to show various types of chemicals
used to control insects
26Careful preparation should be made so that children know the objectives.



Read and tell stories of health heroes (Pasteur,
Koch, Reed, and others)
See Prevention and Control of Illness

Assuming responsibility for proper use and care of Make a survey of cleanliness and handwashing fa-
toilets and showers in schools and other public cilities in toilet rooms in school at various times
places during school day
Plan how to keep toilet rooms clean
Check to see if soap, towels, waste baskets and
mirror are available

Acceptance of reasonable share of responsibility for Have committee report on way drinking fountains
keeping surroundings clean and orderly are used in school
Survey various methods of garbage and rubbish
Develop a plan for encouraging the proper use of
waste receptacles in and around the school

Knowledge of community recreational facilities27 Make survey to find all recreational opportunities
for elementary children (church groups, youth
serving agencies, bird and nature trails, swimming
pools and the like)
Establish personal responsibilities in care and use
of public recreation facilities
Divide class in committees to experience various
types of recreation
Learn about facilities offered by Florida Park Serv-
ice, Forestry Service and National Parks

Knowledge of community health agencies Have committees visit and report on County Health
Department and one or two voluntary health
Use personnel from the above groups as resource
Interview city or county officials concerning pro-
tection of the public health
Arrange carefully planned tour of local or nearby
Study safety and sanitary precautions used in
swimming pool operation

27Consider the good mental health aspects of adequate recreation.

Observance of safety precautions at home as well Conduct a hazard hunt at school and let children
as at school plan how they can help eliminate dangerous con-
Learn the most common causes of accidents in the

Listed below are some references which
may be helpful to you.
The numbers in parenthesis indicate the
approximate grade levels at which the ma-
terial would be appropriate.
You will find a list of book publishers
with addresses in Wilson's Children's Cata-
log. The Educational Film Guide carries a
similar list of film producers.
There are many excellent films, filmstrips
and recordings available at little or no cost.
Check your film catalogs (such as those from
your County Film Library, the General Ex-
tension Division, State Board of Health and
various universities) for availability in Flor-
Morrow, 1947. (K-2). A pre-school child
takes his first bus ride.
ENGINES. Grossett, 1950. (2-4). Fire en-
gines and duties of firemen.
Elizabeth Olds. BIG FIRE. Houghton Mifflin,
1945. (5-9). Methods of fire fighting during
different periods of our country's history.
Bertha Morris Parker and M. Elizabeth Downing.
Education Series, Row Peterson, 1949. (7-9).
Pamphlet in Unitex series dealing with vari-
ous phases of community health.
Jerrold Beim. COUNTRY FIREMAN. Morrow,
1948. (K-2). Volunteer firemen and their
Helen Walker Puner. DADDIES WHAT THEY
DO ALL DAY. Lothrop, 1946. (K-2). The
work of community helpers in rhyme.

Hinds, Hayden and Eldridge, 1947. (K-3).
Explanation of duties and instruments of a
doctor in physical examinations at school.

Margaret Wise Brown. DOCTOR SQUASH, THE
DOLL DOCTOR. Simon and Schuster, Gold-
encraft, 1952. (1-3). A picture book of how
the doctor treated all the dolls and toys for
colds and ills. They repaid him when he was
sick. Good attitudes toward medical care.

Helen Earle Gilbert. DR. TROTTER AND HIS
BIG GOLD WATCH. Abingdon, 1948. (1-8)
A country doctor's little patients enjoy his big
gold watch. Charm and humor with clever

Munro Leaf. FAIR PLAY. Lippincott, 1939. (3-4).

Caroline Augusta Chandler. FAMOUS MEN OF
MEDICINE. Dodd, 1950. (6-9). History of

Henry Bolles Lent. FIRE FIGHTER, Macmillan,
1939. (4-5). A trip on a fire boat in New
York City. The boat, crew and reader, go to
a fire.

Jene Barr. FIREMAN FRED. Whitman, 1952.
(K-2). Following Fireman Fred through the
duties he performed during the day and night.
Large print easy vocabulary.
Watts, 1951. (1-4). Firemen and their work.
Mary Elting. FIRST BOOK OF NURSES. Watts,
1951. (8-5). Nurses, their training and work
in many fields.
BOOK. Simon and Schuster, 1950. (K-2).
Large pictures of firemen and equipment with
one line of text to a page.

Helen S. Read. JIP AND THE FIREMEN. Scrib-
ner, 1929. (K-2). Tells about firemen, and

Wilbur J. Granberg. JOHNNY WANTS TO BE
A POLICEMAN. Aladdin, 1951. (3-5). A
boy who wants to be a policeman goes to the
police station when his bicycle is stolen. He
has a tour of the headquarters and learns
that it takes honest, courageous and strong
men to do the job properly.

Herman and Nina Schneider. LET'S LOOK IN-
SIDE YOUR HOUSE. Scott, 1948. (4-6).
Water, heat and electricity, in a modern home.
Simple experiments.

Herman and Nina Schneider. LET'S LOOK UN-
DER THE CITY. Scott, 1950. (4-6). Water
supply sewerage disposal.

Berta and Elmer Hader. LITTLE TOWN. Mac-
millan, 1941. (1-3). The story of a day in a
town and of the community workers who
contribute to everyone's well-being.

Morrow, 1952. (1-2). The little fire engine

tried hard but failed until it was almost time
for the big parade.
Charlotte Zolotow. PARK BOOK. Harper, 1944.
(1-3). People and activity in Washington
Elizabeth Mortor. RAGS, THE FIREHOUSE
DOG. Winston, 1952. (K-3). A firehouse
mascot has an exciting adventure.
Messner, 1953. (1-8). Rules of safety; po-
licemen are friends; and some things can't be
bought, they must be earned.
DRANK. Scott, 1950. (K-2). Where our
drinking water comes from.
McBride, 1952. (1-8). A little girl and boy go
to the doctor and learn that they needn't be
Nina Schneider. WHILE SUSIE SLEEPS. Scott,
1948. (K-l). Community helpers work dur-
ing the night.
See bibliography of Safety and First Aid for other

In the space below list materials you have used and liked.


ATEACHER, as she observed the chil-
dren of her group, felt that they would
benefit from a study of food. As she tried
to get a mental picture of the possibilities,
she organized her thoughts as the outline
below indicates.
Please regard the outline as just one of
many ways that could have been used. It
is not a model. It is only this teacher's pre-
view, to herself, of what might take place.
As she worked with her children, other learn-
ings, other activities and other sources of
materials were utilized. The pamphlet, "How
to Build a Unit of Work"28 will give much
help to those who wish this kind of informa-

1. What has happened that seems to need
to be explored?
a. Some of the children do not bring
lunches, or money for lunches.
b. Some do not eat breakfast.
c. Some do not eat or bring adequate
Possibility for topic: Will eating regularly
help me to have more energy?

2. What shall we try to attain?
a. Improvement in food habits.
b. Understanding of food needs of the
c. Understanding of essential foods.

d. Knowing the seven basic food groups.
e. Overcoming food prejudices.

3. What can we do? (such experiences as
a. Start a garden.
b. Make a diet survey.
c. Take field trips (related).
d. Make charts or posters of basic foods.
e. Prepare and eat new foods.
f. Write for materials for study from
National Dairy Council and General
g. Visit office of county health unit and
examine materials for schools.

4. How do we evaluate? (Discuss with the
a. Do we eat meals that we formerly
b. Do I feel better? How?
c. Do we know the basic foods that we
eat each day?
d. Have we tried some new foods?
e. Do we get the most in energy for
our lunch money?
f. In what ways have we shown im-
g. Are there ways in which we still
need to improve?

28United States Office of Education, Federal Security Administration; How to Build A Unit of Work, United States Printing
Office, 1946.


Chapter VI


in Florida know that everyday experi-
ences offer the greatest opportunities for
teaching. This philosophy has encouraged
teachers to utilize daily happenings in the
lives of children for instructional purposes.
Health teaching extends beyond the con-
fines of the four walls of the classroom and
the school itself. We hope that many of the
ideas suggested in the previous chapter will
inspire the teacher to become acquainted
with the out-of-school life of his children.
In most cases this is best done by home
visitation. They should also stimulate the
teacher to become familiar with other agen-
cies interested in improving the health of
boys and girls.
The charts point out many opportunities

for relating health education to the health
service program and to the environment in
which children live. However, these areas
deserve further discussion because of their
vital importance to the instructional pro-
gram. This chapter will be devoted to the
health implications of the school health
service program and the school community

The school health service program is but
one phase of a total school health program.
Usually these services are necessarily cen-
tered in the individual child. They deal with
the health needs of the individual and in-
volve close cooperation with both parents
and child. They present one of the most
important of the "other opportunities for

health education." These services are de-
scribed and suggestions for planning them
are made in the State Department of Edu-
cation Bulletin No. 4D, A Program of Health
Services for Florida Schools. The environ-
ment of school, home and community is an-
other phase of the health program that af-
fects the child's health practices. It is well
to remind ourselves that people are an im-
portant part of this environment.
Although the school concerns itself with
the child's health, the primary responsibility
remains with the parent. The work of pub-
lic school and public health personnel sup-
plements and reinforces the efforts of the
home. From the time of birth the baby is
carried through a program of health service.
He is weighed and measured and given the
nourishment and medication that is needed
at his stage of development. All too often
this carefully planned program is discon-
tinued soon after infancy. Except in injury
or illness many children have infrequent
contact with the physician or dentist. In
some instances, children are exposed to
health misconceptions, and superstitions.
The school and other agencies concerned
with health face a major challenge in dis-
spelling such beliefs and bringing about
proper understandings. Many home experi-
ences concerned with health services, such
as a visit to the physician or dentist, offer
innumerable opportunities for teaching
health. It remains for the teacher to select
the more important of these experiences and
utilize them in a way that will be meaning-
ful to the child.
We often think of the school health service
program as being merely for protection and
improvement. School health services can be
more than that; they can be vital educational
experiences. For instance, we recognize as
teachers an obligation to prepare children
for the medical and dental examination
which the school health service program en-
courages. Children not properly prepared

for medical examinations and other health
services may form attitudes of fear and
dread which will cause them to avoid needed
health services as adults.
Children who understand the values of
preventive care and who establish positive
attitudes toward physicians, dentists, health
department personnel and others who work
for the protection and improvement of their
health, will be more likely to use their serv-
ices wisely as adults.
In preparing children for health examina-
tions, teachers have an opportunity not only
to allay fears but also to explain procedures
and help the child understand why such
examinations are important.
In the follow up of these examinations,
there are splendid opportunities to empha-
size the importance of and the reasons for
correcting remediable defects. Also there is
an obligation to stress the values of learn-
ing to adjust to those that cannot be cor-
rected. As children are prepared for the
immunization program, teachers can help
them understand the importance of such
protective measures. Disease itself gives
teachers opportunities to teach many things
about protection and care. It also provides
opportunity for instruction about the role
of a health department in controlling disease
and the responsibility of children and par-
ents in cooperating with this agency.
No doubt you will think of many more
opportunities for teaching health through
the health service program. If the teacher
is to take advantage of these opportunities
he must systematically study the background
of each individual child. State Department
contains many valuable suggestions for ad-
justing the program to the child. This in-
formation will be found on pages nineteen
through twenty-seven and forty to forty-

The cumulative health record is an excel-
lent source of help as another opportunity
for teaching health. It is recommended that
the form which has been developed and
approved by the State Department of Edu-
cation and State Board of Health (Form
MCH 804) be used in all schools. If this
record is kept up to date, and is easily ac-
cessible to the teacher and nurse as the
child progresses through school, it will have
important implications for the health edu-
cation program as well as for the total health
of the child. The health record will assist
in individualizing instruction, since it will
aid in learning to know each child as an
individual. This will often save embarrass-
ment resulting from special problems. With-
out identification of individuals, group
records can be used to point out pertinent
health problems for study. For example, if
the health records show that a high propor-
tion of children are having an inadequate
breakfast, a need for a better breakfast cam-
paign would be indicated. The experiences
that the child has had before entering school,
together with pertinent information added
from time to time during the school years,
will help to give a picture of his health status
and thus helps the teacher adjust the cur-
riculum to the child.

Health education is most effective when
it is appropriately applied to the simple
things that the child understands. His ex-
periences are centered around his home,
school, neighborhood and community. This
is his world and it is difficult for him to vis-
ualize conditions not identified with it. For
example, to teach toilet practices that may
be used in a modern home to a child only
familiar with an outdoor privy is not real-
istic. Yet it is very important to teach the
best health practices possible under the con-
ditions that exist. It becomes a real chal-
lenge to the teacher to work with parents

in helping the child to improve his health
habits. The environmental situation in which
the child lives will influence the approach.
Economic conditions, educational back-
ground of parents, type of community and
climatic conditions, are some of the factors
that must be considered.
The modern school accepts the responsi-
bility for creating a wholesome environment
for living and learning. A school which is
safe, sanitary and attractive will help to
establish standards that will extend into
community living and the future lives of
the children. A classroom that is clean and
orderly carries a message for children, as
do adequate lighting, proper food handling,
well-scrubbed toilet facilities and well-kept
grounds. The effect of such an environment
is enhanced when it is closely linked with
health education.
There are many opportunities to give
children responsibility in the improvement
of the appearance and the cleanliness of the
classroom. For example, it is easy to visual-
ize the habits that might be developed
through a housekeeping committee. The
opportunities for developing an appreciation
of aesthetic values can also be capitalized
upon by the classroom teacher. As an illus-
tration, children may be given responsibili-
ties for flowers, bulletin boards, displays, col-
lections and the like. Children will derive
the greatest values for living from their
school environment if they have participated
in its maintenance and understand its cost.
This is their school home and they should
know about proper standards for lighting,
temperature, seating arrangement and other
factors of the environment. They can enter
into a program of correction and adaptation
of those that are inadequate. Participation
in these processes will carry over into the
future when children are taught to adjust
the shades, their chairs, or move as needed
to have good light for they are learning by
doing in their environment.

In addition to the physical factors of the
environment, attention needs to be given
to human interactions. This phase of the
school environment includes all persons who
comprise the staff of the school. Among
these are the administrator, teacher, school
lunch worker, nurse serving the school, cus-
todian, bus driver and secretary. The persons
who come in daily contact with children at
school may well be the most important part
of the environment. The influence of the
example they set cannot be overemphasized.
The emotional climate within the class-
room is another vital factor in the environ-
ment. If all individuals feel secure, if they
feel adequate for the tasks expected of them,
if they feel respected, they will be better
able to work in a relaxed way and respond
positively. When a group appreciates all of
its members, when it looks for positive traits,
when it laughs often together, then there
exists a good situation for living and learn-
ing. When teachers understand that the ex-
pectations for two children are not exactly
the same and operate upon that belief, chil-
dren will not be held to unrealistic stand-
ards. Thus, situations that may cause chil-
dren to drive themselves too far, push them
into dishonest practices or cause them to re-
treat from reality can be avoided. The
teacher can do much to build a favorable
emotional climate. How he handles his own
needs, how he feels towards the children,
how he conceives the nature of a teacher's
relationship with the pupils, will all have
a bearing on the tone within the classroom.
In a classroom where there is mutual respect
and a feeling of rapport, children will be
better able to face problems and establish
good habits of mental health.
The teacher's task goes beyond creating a

good environment for mental health. It in-
cludes helping children to understand the
values of such a climate. Discussion periods
can point up differences in abilities, the im-
portance of tolerance, and the skills needed
in working and playing together. Thus the
teacher can assist boys and girls to develop
appreciation of social living which will con-
tribute favorably to future mental health.

The daily schedule also has an important
bearing on mental health. Since it is a recog-
nized fact that young children can sit still
and concentrate for only short periods of
time, the daily schedule is balanced in order
to provide relief. Periods of concentration
are alternated with periods of activity, group
work and opportunities for creative expres-
sion. A flexible schedule which allows for
the needs of children is more likely to result
in a happier classroom and more effective
learning. For instance, sometimes a class
will become restless and tense and need a
change of pace sooner than at other times.
The sensitive teacher will recognize this need
when it occurs and make provision for it.
Studies have shown that it is not neces-
sary to have all lessons which require con-
centration during the morning hours. Skill
subjects may be taught successfully during
any part of the school day provided that a
proper rhythm and balance in types of ac-
tivity has been maintained.
Children should recognize the importance
of a wholesome daily schedule. They should
understand the reasons for alternation of
activities, the need for rest periods and the
importance of recreation.. Clarification of
such relationships can help to extend this
concept of balanced living into out-of-school
hours and their future lives.

Chapter VII


HOW CAN A SCHOOL coordinate its
efforts so that children will obtain the
maximum benefit from the health program?
Unless a special effort is made the child
will study the same aspects of nutrition or
teeth at every grade level and never have
an opportunity to learn some of the other
fundamentals in health education. Much of
the repetition will be needless and boring
and will set up emotional blocks about health
education that will be difficult to overcome.
Such pitfalls can be avoided through cooper-
ative planning.

Many schools have set up school-com-

munity health committees made up of a
cross-section of persons in the community
who are interested in health problems. For
example, it should include representatives
of the schools, parents, County Health De-
partment staff, County Medical and Dental
Societies, Social Welfare Agencies, and other
public and voluntary agencies interested in
and concerned with health. This organiza-
tion is described in greater detail in Bulletin
No. 4D, A Program of Health Services for
Florida Schools. When schools do not have
a school-community health committee, co-
operative planning can be done by the total
faculty, or in the case of a large school, by
a committee of faculty members.

Some knowledge, habits, and skills must
be established immediately in order to pro-
tect the health of children, while others can
be postponed for a few years. How can you
put your finger on these immediate needs?
Often studies or surveys which have been
made by County Health Departments or one
of the Universities, indicate particular prob-
lems in your community. Records will help
you records of the Board of Health, which
might indicate particular health problems of
your community. Individual health records
would indicate defects and immunization
which children have had, and so will give
invaluable clues. These health records (Form
M.C.H. 304) may be obtained through your
County Health Department and should be
readily accessible. Notes concerning such
conferences as those involving teacher-
parent-nurse and teacher-parent-pupil are
helpful in getting a complete picture of the
child. Social tests that reveal how children
feel toward themselves and others offer
valuable information about the child's emo-
tional and social life. Notes made by pre-
vious teachers which give a picture of the
child and his behavior serve as clues or
landmarks to teachers, physicians and others.
Probably the most valuable information
which will give increased understanding of
the child, his environment and needs will
come through observation which would in-
clude home visitation. Also observation of
the child by others who are interested in
him such as the nurse serving the school and
visiting teacher can help you identify his
health needs. Naturally parents should be
your most valuable resource.
After you have identified needs and placed
them in order of importance, you would
realize certain content would be more effec-
tive at one grade level than another. For
example, a first grade child would be in-
terested in the fact that good food helps
him grow, but the fact that he can improve

his complexion through eating habits will
mean little to him. The sixth grader is
definitely interested in improving his com-
plexion, since his general appearance has
become a social problem.
The background of the children. should
also be considered. The type of school, com-
munity and home environment, the general
socio-economic conditions and the occupa-
tion of parents would indicate needed em-
phasis in certain areas. For instance, chil-
dren who come from crowded city homes
where mothers work might need special help
in planning, so that they would get enough
rest; while the child in a rural community
might need particular instruction in sources
of pure drinking water and how to avoid
contamination of the soil near his home.
In planning a school health education pro-
gram the faculty would take care in placing
areas of instruction consistent with the ma-
turity of the children. Too often schools have
stressed a particular health learning in the
first or second grade before children could
really comprehend the meaning, with the
result that when they did have this instruc-
tion later, the "edge" was gone from the
learning experience.
This does not mean that a topic should be
reserved for only one grade. Many topics
will need to be brought up many times,
during a school year and from year to year
but as children mature, the approach to a
topic will change. Moreover, ability to con-
sider more complex concepts will increase.
Because a child has had experiences in one
area does not mean that instruction in that
area can be considered complete. Children
become bored with the seven basic foods
if this is stressed before understanding can
take place. Since it is important for most
kindergarten children to drink milk, we at-
tempt to develop an understanding of its
importance. Later during the primary grades
we may help children to become acquainted

with new food, or familiar foods prepared
in a new way, in order to encourage them
to eat from all the food groups. Probably
during the intermediate grades we would
introduce the various food groups and the
nutritional importance of each.
The staff will also consider the grade level
where a skill or knowledge would be of
particular help or related to another part
of the curriculum. For instance, a study of
mosquito control carried on by General
Gorgas in the Panama Canal Zone would
make American history more interesting.
The faculty will be certain that each area
will be used as a point of emphasis at least
twice during the elementary school years.
One more consideration should be taken
into account. Is the health education pro-
gram realistic or is it setting standards that
are impossible for these particular children
to achieve? For example, are you placing
emphasis on a daily bath when many homes
do not have running water? If you con-
sider the health needs of children, their
developmental characteristics and interests,
their background, their ability, their re-
sources and limitations, you will be able to
plan an adequate health education program.

The program described above will make
the task easier in your particular classroom.
What should you consider in planning health
education for your children? First of all,
make plans to meet problems and needs as
they arise in daily living within the class-
room. The teacher who takes advantage of
opportunities as they arise will have a more
vital program than one who sets aside so
many minutes a day. Effective health edu-
cation in the primary grades takes place dur-
ing lunch, rest and toileting periods as well
as all during the day. Johnny may be taught
that it is important to wash his hands before
eating and after toileting but he will not

really learn that fact unless he is given time,
soap, towels and a reminder when he should
do so. In the primary grades most of the
instruction will come apparently incident-
ally, but a sound program must be planned.
In the intermediate grades more time must
be given to reasons and understandings.
More often than not, however, this work can
be related to another lesson or activity.
There will be times when a special unit on
health would be indicated, but it could
usually be a part of a science, social studies,
reading or language unit and so become a
more effective part of the total school pro-
gram. This type of instruction will require
a flexible program.
It is desirable to use many resources in
teaching health. Often one text will not
meet the needs of your particular group,
so that other texts, other materials such as
pamphlets, films, charts, and library books
should be available. If the health texts are
thought of as a guide or one resource, then
a more vital program will result.
If plans have been made by the total
school faculty, needless repetition will be
avoided. If total faculty planning has not
been done, your task will be more difficult
for you will need to become acquainted with
the program of the other grades in the school.
You aren't going to know any group of
children as well as you'd like to know them,
particularly when school begins. There will
be opportunities for instruction or experi-
ences in health the first day. What do you
do? You don't wait to gather information
about all your children before you start
working on problems of health and safety,
and incidentally their other problems too.
Your own observations will be invalu-
able; for instance, you are in a position to
note the children who are restless, highly
excitable and those who suffer undue fatigue
and have behavior patterns that may indi-

cate special needs. You will be able to see
if habits of cleanliness, nutrition and re-
laxation have carried over from previous
The daily observation of children will not
only help you detect physical defects, signs
of disease, or chronic conditions, but will
also give you opportunities to establish bet-
ter health habits and provide help which
can be given through a suggestion, a ques-
tion, a word of approval, a bit of information
or class discussions.
When you know the children in your class,
you will be inclined to place less emphasis
on habits difficult for some children to
achieve and give more emphasis to habits
and knowledge that they particularly need.
You will also realize that comparative charts
create social pressure that is not healthy for
As ability changes, as teachers change, as
interests change, so will the health program
of the entire school, and therefore it is con-
stantly necessary to consider the program

that has gone before and that which is to
follow. One year a class may be able to
forge ahead in activities and deal with con-
cepts which would be impossible for chil-
dren on a succeeding year.
As a rule the general background of the
classes in a particular school will remain
relatively the same. However, there is some
variation from year to year, which must be
taken into consideration. After studying the
children: their needs, developmental traits,
interests, background and limitations, you
are ready to plan with children regarding
experiences. The teacher will need to do
pre-planning for this experience but these
plans must remain flexible so that they can
be changed as children express special in-
terests and show certain needs. When the
class plans together both teacher and pupils
will assume responsibility for setting up ob-
jectives or goals.
Such a program will be of interest and
concern to children because it affects their
daily living and is a part of all their ongoing

Chapter VIII


WHAT DO YOU NEED in order to
carry on a satisfactory health pro-
gram? Interested teachers and staff, yes,
but that is not enough. Adequate and varied
materials are as important in this area of
instruction as in the rest of the curriculum.
By materials is meant not only books for
teachers and children, but also pamphlets,
charts, posters, pictures, films, film strips and
perhaps records and recordings. You may
also use radio and television. Current maga-
zine and newspaper articles and pictures are
also valuable sources of information. You
will need other things as you enter a par-
ticular area of interest things for children
to feel, to touch, to see, and to handle. For

example, if it's teeth you are studying you
might use a toothbrush. A set of false teeth,
or a set of animal teeth could be used to
show the difference in structure and func-
tion. You may want a live puppy with a
bone to see how animals keep their teeth
and gums in good condition. Of course,
you will have many more ideas.
Some of these articles can be furnished
by the children; many may be ordered from
associations or industries that supply teach-
ing material. A real problem is film strips
and books which should be supplied by the
If you have a materials center with a spe-

cialist who orders materials with the help
of teachers, your problem is simplified. Ma-
terials collected for and by each teacher
could go into a permanent collection to be
used by all teachers. Your librarian will
help in collecting and making accessible free
and inexpensive materials. He will also
meet with a committee of teachers to find
out which books, pamphlets, and filmstrips
are needed.
Suppose you have a central library but no
librarian or materials specialist. Materials
of all grade levels can be collected and kept
in the materials center for the use of all.
As you collect material for a particular ac-
tivity you would make it accessible to other
teachers who, in turn, would be collecting
material that you would use in the future.
Pictures, posters, and pamphlets would not
be used once and stored away for a year,
but would be available to everybody all of
the time. From a list of books, filmstrips and
other materials requested by the faculty, a
committee could order those that seemed
most important. This would give you a good
Many schools have found it advantageous
to have one person in the school responsible
for collecting all health material. This could
be the librarian, if you have one, if not, one
of the teachers could serve in this capacity.
This person representing an entire school
could then ask to be placed on mailing lists
so that they are made aware of all new ma-
terials which are available. You will find a
list of sources of free and inexpensive ma-
terials at the end of this chapter.
The Materials Center, Florida Bulletin No.
22C, explains procedures for establishing a
vertical file. This and other information on
a materials center will be invaluable to a
faculty interested in making the most of its
If your county has an audio visual center
your school is fortunate, since a faculty com-

mittee can make recommendations for ma-
terials that are usually too expensive for in-
dividual schools. Study the possibilities and
cooperate by giving that committee the re-
sult of your best thinking.
Perhaps you do not fit in the above pat-
terns? Even some of our smallest schools
have a materials center. If you haven't one,
you could at least gather all health material
together in one place. When everyone sees
how well this works, it may lead to a pooling
of all instructional resources. At least, it
would give the faculty a chance to see how
the cooperative use of material could help
the program and make teaching easier.
The General Extension Division at Gaines-
ville, representing the University of Florida
and the Florida State University, has an ex-
tensive materials center; their catalog is
available to you. They have separate listings
of films, filmstrips, picture collections, glass
slides and recordings. Children's books are
also available. Packets of twenty books of
fiction will be loaned and need not be re-
turned for four weeks, while a packet of
twenty non-fiction books on a subject se-
lected by you may be kept for a period of
two weeks. All material is free, the only
cost being that of transportation charges.
Your County Health Department stocks
many pamphlets and booklets on health and
related subjects. This gives you an oppor-
tunity to look over many types of materials
and to select those best suited to your needs.
If the County Health Department does not
have what you are looking for, they will
write, or ask you to do so, The State Board
of Health in Jacksonville. The Audio-Visual
Aids Library, of The State Board of Health,
has many films, filmstrips and recordings
that are furnished without charge except for
transportation. Write for a catalog for your
What about free material? Is it all good?

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