Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Speech education in the school...
 Resources and materials
 Steps in speech education
 Planning the speech program
 Elementary school speech train...

Group Title: Bulletin - State Department of Education ; 34A
Title: A guide to teaching speech in Florida schools
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067251/00001
 Material Information
Title: A guide to teaching speech in Florida schools
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: vi, 203 leaves : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education. -- Division of Instruction
Publisher: Division of Instruction, State Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1948
Subject: Speech -- Study and teaching -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 193-203).
General Note: On cover: Tentative copy no. 34A, 1948-49. For review and experimental use.
General Note: "October 1948"
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067251
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 42267846

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Speech education in the school program
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Resources and materials
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Steps in speech education
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Planning the speech program
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Elementary school speech training
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
Full Text

A '.,v

tA w-

ia. ri
--a-M c
m e 'VI ;i
It. I Zi.;







'1waa t'~~"9

IF'3 I
:* :'; ; I r i

-. ,4 i, .A-


r i

or ', r ; ..
r Hl
.1 i!.

&i L*17





I. p


I i


9~ .9
-1 i' .9-Sq
q, ~ `z:c

9-iQ 'i** ;. .


- t






Prepared at



Joe Hall, Director


Tallahassee, Florida

Colin English, State Superintendent

FO W10~tD

The purpose of this bulletin is to serve as an aid and a guide to the

teaching of speech on a local and statewide basis. The basic philosophy,

objectives, requirements, and planned core areas present a unified picture

of the concept of speech education in the modern school on all levels from

Kindergarten through the twelfth grade. The bulletin is intended to help

administrators and teachers who plan to inaugurate a speech program in

their schools as well as those who already have such a program,

A supplement on speech correction has been included to help the class-

room teacher give assistance to students with speech irregularities not

severe enough to require the service of a specialist. Recommendations for

referrals are made for pupils with severe speech conditions.

When consulting the plans for six possible core areas of organized

speech at the secondary level which are included in this bulletin, the

user should remember that they are flexible, adaptable, and comprehensive,

The plans are not designed to adhere rigidly to any particular text but

are so constructed that they can be used as an aid and a guide with any

modern speech text or group of texts within the respective areas.

The a trials and procedures, although not exhaustive, are inclusive

enough to suggest more than can normally be included by any one class.

They are so drawn up that the administrator and teacher can through

selection as to sequence, type, and number for use adapt them to any

period, any class size, any special pupil need, and any particular situa-

tion. In schools offering no formal speech training the process of lift-

ing units to correlate with courses in other fields such as English or

language arts can be used to advantage.

Acmnowledgments are made to the following who prepared the materials

contained in this bulletin: Dr. Howard Townsend, University of Texas,

Consultant; Mrs. Beverly B. Adams, Andrew Jackson High School, Jackson.

ville;.Miss Alma Barkemeyer, Bay County High School, Panama City; Miss

Mary E. Boyd,.Putnam High School, Palatka; Mrs. Clarice Brown, Marion

County, Ocala; Miss Eunice A, Home, Lee High School, Jacksonville; Mrs.

Irene Lighthiser, Orlando Senior High School, Orlando; Miss Elaine Parra-

more, Landon Junior-Senior High School, Jacksonville; Mrs. Lulu Roth,

Martin County Highi School, Stuart~ Mrs. Catharine Selle, Gainesville High

School, Gainenville; r. E'ohel Chpvers Thompson, Chiefland High School,

Chiefland; Miss Marjorie Alice Wood, Ponce de Leon High School, Coral

Gables, Florida; Dr. Clara M. Olson, University of Florida, Coordinator.

Thanks are also extended to the following members of the Department

of Speech, University of Florida: Mr. H. P. Constant, Head of Department

and Director of Bulletin; Dr. Dallas 0, Dickey, Public Speaking and Debate;

Dr. Delwin B,.Dusenbury, Drama; Dr. Wayne C. Eubank, Interpretation; and

Mr. William B. Steis, Radio; and to Hirs. Dora Skipper and Mr, J. K.

Chapman of the State Department of Education. Appreciation is extended

to Miss Christine Drake, Instructor in Speech, Florida State University

and part-time Consultant, State Department of Education, and Miss Mildred

Swearingen of the State Department of Education, who served as editors

for the tentative issue of the bulletin. The original manuscript was

abridged slightly in a few places to facilitate immediate mimeographing.



Foreword ........... ...,. ....************.. .....**************** ii

I. Speech education in tho school program .................. 1
A. Meaning of speech education ........................ 1
B. Place of speech education ........................... 2
C. Aspects of speech education ..................... .... 3
1. Subject matter o.......*............*...*........ 3
2. Adjustment of students ......................... 3
3o Activities ************************************** 7
4 Factors .......****.****.. .. **..**************... 9
D. Objectives of speech education ...................... 10

II. Resources and materials ......e....o.,.. e........*. .. 13
A. Textbooks o.o.o...,.....,,..,,o...........o........ 13
Bo Libraries *..,e....e.......e.... ....o. ..* ....**.... 14
1. Books and periodicals .....** .................*.. 14
2. Audio-visual aids oo*.**.*****.****o. *******O 15
C. Speech and hearing clinics .c....1.. ........e... 21
D. Drill laboratories ,.. ,,...*o.......,......... 22
E. Community resources ...*....*............,......*** 23

III. Steps in speech education ............................... 24
A. Preparation *ee ..****** e,*************************** 24
1* Reading ................**,....* ...** ....... ... 24
2* Writing .*....* ... .., .....o***********.*********** 25
3. Observing and listening .o*...................... 25
B. Participation o ,. .... .... .,**,********************** 26
1o Pupil **0,.***o****************0,..*********** *** 27
2* Teacher *oo*.*** *.,******* *****************.* 29

C* Evaluation ..,,,...o..o-,o..e....oe..... oee........-. 27

Forroad (et'id)


T. TMa section dsletad I tn itentirty thirg eaitag

Part III
V. ............... ......... 30
....... ...... ........ .. ... .... 3
.. ..... 30
B .. ............... 31

3 ..... 37

ri a
1. 3
a. T 3 ................. 36
4. 3 .. :- 33

A. V ............ ...... .... .... 4

Saae oif ativlty fr inst" tion .......l

iurnee f-r Iii cenden Pre igreBnw ^^"; 4$

.. ...... .. .1 ...: .... i

".'" ... .... ". "'. .. 55





The over-all purpose of education is to train the individual so

that he rnma adjust himself to a desirable node of living Speech, the

fundamental nmens of communication, is significant to this adaptation,

The progress of our civilization is narked by the evcr-changing, everT.

increasing complexity and flexibility of the world. lngunages and speech.

Our democratic way of life calls for an intensified and expansive-spee"i

program which will facilitate hu a n progress

Educators recognize the denands for concontra.toc effort on the .prt-

of all teachers to assist the pupil in his 'peech er'i.cation fror h1-dcrn

garden through college On the clenentarJ level tho teacher shou.ld"co-

stantly emphasize those aspects of speech which con-r -iuto to the Ic a

ing processes required in the fundanontal subjects, In simple dranatiza..

tions, pantonirLe, and story telling, the pupil .has the opportunity to..

develop the personality, an expressive and pleasing voice, and ito"erctate.

the desire for good speeches Of inportanco would be the contributions

which speech and its related activities nake on the various levels of

learning. This gradual adjustnont of speech knowledge to the 'lveol~ lt

learning aids in the preparation of the pupil for participation in

formalized speech, which is offered ns a laboratory situation on.. tht

secondary lovel and in life situations as a reality.

Secondary speech education includes fundamentals, public speaking,

radio, interpretation, dramatics, debate, and speech correction, This

broad field of subjects offers a reservoir of opportunity for the human

resources which may be developed by speech training Speech education

is the organized method of accomplishing this purpose by training the

pupil for his everyday speech needs and developing his potentialities

for the most effective adjustment and participation in all phases of life.


In this speech conscious age, the place of speech in the school is

evident. There exists now the realization of the need of having a speech

course apart from the other prescribed courses in which not enough of

this vital subject can be presented to supply the speech needs of the

pupil, because the teacher does not have time enough to teach both sub-

ject matter and speech skills. Educational progress demands that train-

inl be provided in those activities which promote facility of expression,

adaptation to the group, and social ease,

No longer are speech activities considered extra-curricular frills,

but they are now considered as an intra-curricular requisite for the

personal development of the pupil. This statement is made with the

understanding that speech is a means for the release and development

of human personality and provides an opportunity for self discovery,

Speech education finds a place in the total school program because

it contributes to the fulfillment of the'basic purposes of education.

It guides and assists the pupil to make the best use.of his inherent

abilities through systematic and scientific training. It helps the

pupil to learn how to adjust and cooperate with other people in various

situations. It gives training in those aspects which are of vital impor-

tance in earning a living, Finally, it helps train him to be a good

citizen in a democratic society.


1. Subject matter

To mako the process of learning in speech one of association and

integration of knowledge, the pupil should be encouraged to integrate

the subject natter of the various courses with that of speech. Not

only will the pupil be asked to use information from other courses,

but he will be guided also in securing information front other varied

sources. He nay prepare a speech in speech class, which he nay use

in social studies class as a report, thereby getting practice

necessary for the developnont of speech skills.

2. Adlustnent of students

a. In school activities

The introduction of speech education into the school curricu-

lun has proved to be an excellent nothod of quick adjustnont

into the many school activities in which the pupil is allowed

to participate.

Because of the versatility of the training offered in speech

education, a pupil is prepared in the capacity of a.leader as

well as a cooperative nonbor of any school activity. Thoso

qualities nay be developed on the elementary level through

participation as monitors and noubors of safety patrols who in-

vite cooperative support from the troup. Thus the pupil is pro-

parinc for future secondary levels of leadership and participation

in such positions as class and club officers and active nonber-

ship in organized groups,

b. In daily living; situations

All educational subjects and activities are designed to pro-

pare the pupil for successful living. Because of its diversified

nature speech is prominent in the composition of every subject.

The complex situations peculiar to everyday living nako it

necessary for the program of speech education to include those

phases of study which deal with the continuous dovelopnent and

proficient exorcising of the various factors in the physical,

mental, and cultural nakoup of the individual. There can be no

seorogation of those factors. The nero uttering of a word, the

nod of the head, or a smile involves their combined activity.

Life is conposod of human relationships and hunan exper-

iencos: speech is the coordinator for those. The purpose of

spooch education is not confined to the noro developnont of the

nodiun of expression, but it involves also the sinultanous

development of other human resources, For instance, while one

is acquiring bodily polso for effective speaking, he is contri-

buting to his personal alpparance and health

Lif. situations offer an opportunity for cdevclopment of speech

ability. A casual .rooting of a friend, an introduction, or an

informal conversation such as those found in everyday life serve

as activities for the dovolopment of ones speech powor.

A survey of the business, civic, and social phases of life

will reveal the necessity for acceptable speech in each, An

individuals economic security is dependent upon his application

of speech skills to business situations; his contribution to

society is governed by his civic participation; his social relat-

ionships are established by self realization and the understand-

ing of the personal traits of others,

Because of the increasing trend toward interdoepndonco in

hunan relationships throughout the universe, onphasis nay be

duly placed on the educational purposes which endeavor to ostab-

lish in the individual an enlightoned attitude toward the nec-

essity for cooperation,

c. In develorinr lpecrsonalities

Speech activities nay be considorod a laboratory for persona-

lity development. It is in the study of speech that pupils bo-

cone awaro of their own potentialities enabling them to recog-

nize and develop their desirable features. Likewise, help is

given then for recognizing and overcoming handicaps. It is a

decided advantao to begin this training as soon as possible,

(1) The submissive pupil, who is characterized by repressed

emotions, unagArossive behavior, and lack of initiative

is encouraged by participation in choral reading, group

discussion, acting, plawriting, directing, and stage

design to forgot self when he becomes interested in the

activity. Soon this type of pupil will have the courage

to perform alone after his self-confidence has been in-

creased and his self consciousness forgotten.

(2) The neurotic pupil finds great help in creative dramatic

work, pantonino, marionette shows, and choral reading,

Participation in these activities give hin nore stable

conduct, serenity, and self-control.

(3) The nontally retarded pupil finds satisfaction in inter-

pretation of simple roles, in the construction of simple

scenery designed by more talented classmates, in making

costumes uncdr direction, working on the stage crew,

pantonino, choral reading, and story tolling.

(4) The average pupil nay need personality development in a

lessor degree; nevertheless he benefits to a large extent

by learning cooperation, spontaneity of expression, con-

sideration for others, and courteous behavior.

(5) The superior pupil, in addition to the benefits mentioned

previously, nay be trained for leadership in debate,

group discussion, parlianentary procedure, and dramatics,

The talented student may often be assistant director in

a play.

(6) The pupil with a speech defect nay be helped greatly by

participation in speech activities such as choral reading,

group discussion, marionetto shows, and dramatic activi-

ties, because in participation, he will become less self-

conscious and will gradually show improvement.

3. Activities

Pupils should be encouraged to participate in all civic or school

activities in which they can get actual practice in using their speech

skills. In addition to local, school, and civic activities, such as

assneblies, civic clubs, and community programs, there are many state

and national organizations which provide speech opportunities.

Some of which arc listed below$

a. American Legion Oratorical Contest, Indianapolis, Indiana.

This contest included six separate contests school, county,

state, regional, and national. The subject is on some phase

of the constitution. The winner receives a.$4,000 scholarship,

b, nights of Pythias, Public Speaking Contest. This contest is

of national scope, Details nay be obtained from the local


c. ITational Forensic Loa:,ue, State and NTational Contest,

Extcepore spealdin, debati:ng humorous declaration, dramatic

doclanation, oratorical doclanationp and original declamation.

Information concerning this contest may be obtained from

E~ocutivo Socretary, sTational Forensic eaiuoe, Ripon College,

Ripon, Wisconsin,

d. Florida Spooch Association contests in deobating and the one-

act play. Details concerning this contest nay be secured by

writing Tho Executive Secretary, Florida Educational Associae

tion, Tallahassoo, Florida.

o. Southern Speech Association, High School Division of Contests.

Information concerning this contest may be secured from:

Editor of Southern Spoech Journal, University of Xlorida,

Gainosvillc, Florida,

f, Junior Chanmbr of Connorce, "I Speak for Dmnocracy" Contest.

Information may be obtainoc from the local organization.

g. National Thespian Society, Colloege ill Station, Cincinnati,


h. Future Farrcrs of America Speaking Contest. Consult local

l. haptor

i* Diversified Cooperative Training Contest

Information concerning these and other approved contests are listed

in the bulletin for the Secondary Principals' Association which will have

a calendar of contests. Write: President, Secondary Principals1 Associa-

tion,.Florida Education Association, Tallahasseo, Florida.

4, Factors in seoch education

There are four intcr-rolatce factors in speech education which

must be developed to produce the well-rounded individuals nind, body,

voice, and lancuaroe

a. Zeo nind nust cornunicato ideas. The ability of concentration,

organization, and evaluation can be developed in debate, group dis-

cussion, public speaking, dramatics, and interpretation,

b. The acquiring of bodily poise and the use of adequate gestures

are two of several requisites for effective speech, Training in

speech activities should eliminato such objectionable personal

mannorisms ast teetering on the toes, fingering a watch chain,

thrusting the chin out, looking toward the coiling, rubbing the

hands together, folding and unfolding a handkerchief, sticking one's

hands in his pockets, or strokdng onols chin, Useless and noaningloss

gestures should beo elinlnatod because they are the earnark of the

speaker who is ill at case, unnecessary bodily movenont also tends

to attract attention to the speaker and takes awty the attention

fron the soccch,

c. The voice nust bo trained to express in a distinct and pleasing

nannor the thoughts of the speaker, ;vryone has oxzprioncod the

fooling of inadequacy and insecurity which results front participation

in conversation when his speech is stunbling and monotonous instead

of clear and intcrcstin,. Speech training aids in the improving of

the voice by givin; the pupil anple practice.

d, ITo natter how pleasing the voice or how profound the thoughts

oxpressed, seooch loses sono of its effectiveness if the language

used is not accurate and vivid, Roeg.rdlcss of the economic status,

cnvironncnt or family backlround, good clear effective speech should

be included in the caucational opportunities of every Anerican child,


1. The sppoch noods and abilities of every student should be tested

and dia,-nosode

2. Students who possess speech defects such as stuttering, lisping,

dialects, or speech, maladjustnnts should bo provided opportunity

ties for correction.

3e The great froup having "inadequate" and normal speech should be

given the chance to profit front systematic education in such
fund.eontal speech processes ast

a. Adjustment to the speaking situations of everyday life so
that social adaptations of this type can be nade without
fear and with confidence and poise.

b. Development of a speaking personality characterized by
Attitudes of sincerity, friendliness, and connunicativenoss,

c. Skill in dvoyloping a subject, in using ones ideas, and in
Imowing how to find sources of information that will extend
ones ideas.

d' Study of the audience which is being addressod,

o. Organization and arraneonont of content to insure the desired
response front the audience.

f4 Mastery of an effective technique of delivery,

g. EMrossing onets ideas in single, acceptable, and effective
Spoken lant.ago,

h, Articulating and pronouncing words intelligibly,

i, Using the voice effectively,

J. Connunicating ideas with expressive and woll-coordinated
Sgeostures and novenonts,

k. Cultivation and acquisition of suitable listening habits
that will enable the individual to ;ivo respectful attention
to speakers for purposes of learning, evaluating, and criti-

e. Students who are sumorior in basic speech skills should be given

opportunities to develop special skills directly associated with

their life interests, and in keeping with their needs and abiliL


5. Basic srpolkin skills should bo inplonontod through a balanced

program of functional speech experiences. Thseo should be

directly rolatoa to school and connunity problons, practical

situations, an! educational oxpeoroncos which form a framework

for participation in a donocratic society. .

6. Evaluation of growth an'? fcvelopnont in basic speech skills




The speech textbook is a valuable aid. in any course insofar as it

can serve as a g;uido in planning the work, Many high school speech

textbooks include necessary discussions and definitions, and have nany

su:v-ottions for presentation of the natcrial. Most of the texts include

surf;ostions for topics of speeches of all kinds, explain the nothods of

outlining, diacran the various arranornents for the different kinds of

speech activities, and offer other source natorial,

In addition to the state adopted textbook it would be helpful to

supply a number of different textbooks to serve as a reference shelf,

Thus the pupils can have access to materials offered in several of the

latest and best textbooks for use in high schools.

Class discussions based on the textbooks should conpriso only a small

portion of the total class tine, but it is essential that basic under-

standings be acquired by the class as a whole, The illustrations, dia-

Crans, and sugested class activities should prove helpful to the pupils

and teacher, but those should be inspirational and point the way to utili-

zinf the experiences and ina;ination of those in the group in working out

Their own plans for individual and group activities, The recently

adopted speech textbook in Florida is Anorican, ooch (Revised) by

Hoddo and Brifaanco (J. B. Lippincott and Conpany). At the close of

this bulletin is a suwested list of some of the best books available

for use by pupils and teachers in the different core areas and on the

elenentary level.

1* Books and :? periodicals

The public, school, extension, and hone libraries can contribute

a grcat deal. One of the nost essential needs of adynamic speech

class is an abundant supply of reliable information. Reference

natorials, ma-azines, newspapers, government lullotins, and other

written materials will holp the students to select and proparo

speeches, discussions, and debates on timely topics. The speech

class should give opportunity for the pupils to becono acquainted.

with and to sono extent skillful in the use of the library. Package

libraries containing information on specific units of study, includ-

ing debate topics, nay be secured through the Extension Department

of th$ University of Florida, and most local librarians are very

cooperative in helping to provide such natorials.

2, Audio-visual aids

The nany audio-visual aids can and should play an important part

in speech instruction. The impression one nakes on others is the

result of what they SEE, what they E&AR, and, finally, what they.

ISL and ~HINK about the person. The ability to "see yourself" and

"hear yourself" as others see and hear you is an invaluable aid in

speech instruction and inprovoneent. Audio-visual aids provide

sensory eoeriencos which will help the pupils to analyze their

faults and note their improvonent from time to tino, The use of

audio-visual aids should be so much a part of the speech class that

they servo as ossontial tools and their use becomes an integral

part of the class procoduros.

Textook illustrations: This simple visual aid is one which

every teacher has but which, unfortunately, is often not utilized to

advantage in class instruction. A study of the illustrations in the

textbooks will convince one that they have boon selected with a pur-

pose in nind and that they will contribute to an understanding of the

situations which they illustrate.

Pictures: Pictures from na azines and other publications can

sorvo as a means of inroessing certain facts upon the ninds of the

pupils and of illustrating many situations, such as good and bad

posture, seating arrangcnents for grgup discussions, the use of

various gestures, platform actions, stage settings, and costuming.

Such picture collections nay become a part of a class file for re-

view purposes or nay be a part of individual notebooks.

Posters and charts: Both bought and pupil-mado posters and

charts nay servo as a neans of teaching. Good posturo.posters,

costume design charts, diagrans of the vocal apparatus, and stage

settings, for eCamplos, can be secured from various connercial

sources or can be.nade by sono of the pupils for class use,

Models: Lifo-sizo plaster of Paris models of the head, jaws,

throat, vocal apparatus and other parts of the body may help the

class in their study of how speech is produced. These may be avail-

able to the speech teacher through the science or health departments,

Models of stago settings, furniture, and dolls dressed in certain

period costumes can also be very helpful in the class work,

Bulletin Boardst The classroom bulletin boards should be an up-

to-the-ninute nid in the speech class. Thoroon should be posted

pictures, cartoons, clippings, class outlines and assignments. In

most situations a pupil committee (changed frequently) nay be given

the responsibility of makiing the bulletin boards a constant aid to

instruction by keeping then varied, fresh, attractive, and usable.

Blackboards The blackboard is especially useful in speech

class when the group is outlining or organizing their thoughts

together, The class secretary may be given the responsibility cf

seeing that a class record is made of those outlines or notes which

the class may require for future use,

Mimeopraph .and dittos These teaching aids are in almost constant

use by the teacher of speech and her pupils. Class exercises, drills,

desired quotations, outlines, summaries, bibliographies, word lists,

original plays, radio scripts, and many other materials for use by

the class can be reproduced for each member of the group at extremely

low cost and with immense saving of time,

MaIeotic and disc recorders: Some means of recording the voice

of the pupil is especially useful in helping him hear the tone

quality, vocabulary, pronunciation, and enunciation, and to help him

note the need for variety in tone, rate, sentence and paragraph

structure, etc. For ordinary (almost daily) temporary recordings,

the wire or tape recorder is perhaps the easiest and loss expensive

to use because the recordings can be used for immediate instruction

and then erased, For permanent recordings, the disc recorder is more

often used, although it is possible to use a wire or tape spool for

such recordings and file the spool for future playings, (The danger

in this last procedure is the possibility of someone accidentally

erasing the recordings before their usefulness is realized*)

Magnetic or disc recorders can also be used to "take off" radio

programs, speeches, or musical programs to present to the class.

Class programs for radio presentation can be recorded and presented

from the studio by transcription. This is especially advantageous

when a large number of pupils are used in presenting the program and

the studio space is small, or when the program is to be presented at

an hour when it is difficult to get all of the pupils together.

Phonograph: A good play-back machine with clear, accurate tone

production is very useful, Almost all record companies offer the

teacher special albums of records of dialect, modern languages, poems,

orations, and vocal exercises. Accurate recordings of the work done

by the group is also a valuable means of inspiring the pupils to im-

prove their work.

Radio: The use of the radio in speech instruction has many bene-

fits both when used for broadcasting and for listening. When programs

are broadcast, the pupils are encouraged to greater efforts to improve

the quality of their work and the school is brought closer to the

community. It is not difficult to arrange for broadcasts from the

school since a telephone line run from the station to the school

is all that is essential, A school studio set-up through which the

pupils may broadcast from studio to classroom, or to the entire

school over the intercommunication system, is interesting for the

pupils; and more nearly resembles an actual radio broadcasting situa-

tion. When the radio is used as a listening aid, the pupils have an

opportunity to hear and analyze different dialects, pronunciations,

and styles of speaking.

Silent and talking films and filmstrips: Silent films and stills

are valuable aids in studying facial expression, posture, and gestures,

Sometimes members of the group are adept at taking pictures which can

be used to advantage. The pupils usually enjoy making their own pict-

ures and in this manner they can really see what they do on the plat-

form or in front of the group. Often a movie reel of a short program

will provide an excellent opportunity to criticize the performance,

Many excellent films are available for classroom use and a careful

study of the parts of the film most helpful to the group can be made.

When properly motivated so that the pupils know what to look for, the

local theatres and stage performances can be used to advantage in

speech instruction.

Slides: A great variety of slides may be secured through the

Extension Pivision of the University of Florida, purchased at low

costs, or made by the pupils themselves, Stage settings, costuming,

lighting diagrams, postures, gestures, and many other specific phases

of study may be introduced through this medium.
Public Address Sys teams; This medium is particularly helpful in

giving the pupils an understanding of microphone technique* It is,

therefore, an excellent means of starting the group in radio speaking.

It is also an important type of training for the pupil because it is

probably the form of speaking which he will be called upon most often

to do as almost all auditoriums, churches, club houses, and public

speaking situations rake use of this medium.

Opaque pro.Jector: This form of projector which makes it possible

to project a page from a book, a map, or any type of opaque object to

the screen for study is particularly useful when the group is study-

ing together. A quotation from n book or magazine can be easily pro-

jected or a stage setting can be pictured, thus saving time and making

it possible for groups to "see" and to discuss at the same time.

Mirrors: The use of mirrors in the speech class makes it possible

for the students to see their own expressions, gestures, and actions.

Both a full length mirror, and smaller mirrors for each student can

be used to advantage.


It has been estimated that from one-sixth to one-fourth of all

elementary school children have speech that is in some measure

defective. Society, although it readily makes provision for those

handicarned by blindness, deafness, and lameness, has until recently

neglected speech rehabilitation, It should be recognized that defect-

ive speech has just as devastating an effect on a child (or on society

as a whole) as any other abnormality, That it is a source of thwarted

ambition, undeveloped capacity for service, and human unhappiness is

basis enough for an extensive program in speech correction.

Speech and hearing clinics are now rendering a great service

throughout the country, For a nominal fee or, in some cases no fee

at all, pupils can be brought to these centers for diagnosis and pre-

scribed treatment, A school system can either take its oseech cases

to a clinical center or arrange for the clinic staff to visit the

school to make examinations and diagnoses,

Most speech and hearing clinics are located in universities and

colleges, Here they are often overloaded with patients and are under-

staffed. The clinics can readily offer remedial treatment to those

who live close by, However, recommendations for patients who live

at a distance are useless, if there is no one in the home community

to carry out the treatment. In some sections the work of the clinics

is sunnlemented by that of trained correctlonists who are employed by

county boards of public instruction. A county board Is authorized by

state law to employ a correctionist if there are as many as ten handi-

capned children in the county.


For clinical training to have any value there must be follow-un

practice in the classroom. To carry out this practice, the school program

should provide a special time and place for drill in corrective work, A

room should be set aside for this purpose and a schedule arranged so that

each nuil will have a definite period of time in which the teacher can

work with him individually.. In most cases the county eseech correctionist

will handle these drill laboratories. Where classroom teachers, working

under the direction of the correctionist, assist in conducting the drill

laboratory a larger number of -ouils can be taken care of,

In many schools, especially the smaller ones, where the services of

clinics or correctionists are not available, the role of speech corrects

ionist must fall uvon the classroom teacher. Much can be done by a

teacher who has a knowledge of and insight into the problems of speech

rehabilitation. Suggestions for the work of the latter are made in this

bulletin in the section dealing with speech correction.


Opportunities for pupils to develop and improve their speech

abilities and to make completely functional those skills and theories

learned and practiced in class are found in all communities with the

number and variety of such opportunities increasing, of course, with the

increase in size of the community, town or city. These opportunities for

expression and active narticination range from the more formal situation

in which a pupil is invited to read for a woman's club to the less formal,

total participation in a school club which is conducted entirely by pupils

Any and all situations and meetings offering onwortunity should be investi-

gated as possibilities. Some of these are; church programs and organiza-

tions, Community Chest, Red Cross, school clubs, civic clubs for youth,

civic clubs for adults, Women's Clubs both civic and social, civic cam-

paigns, community entertainments, recreation program, festivals observing

special days or occasions, radio broadcasting, Little Theatre Productions

and other dramatic events.

In addition to using any or all of those listed as avenues for

student narticiration as a performer, they all offer excellent opnortuni'

ties for listening and observing, To this phase of the work must be

added the moving picture theatre and the professional stage as onoortun.-




In setting up basic requirements in speech education, one must hloe

in mind not only the immediate needs and interests of the pupils but also

the farther reaching objectives of all education the development of the

individual to the limit of his potentalities for effective participation

in democratic community life.

An intelligent program of speech improvement for each pupil is made

un of adequate rrew~.rtion; rarticination in class and additional activi-

ties; and proper evaluation in growth and development,

1. Suggested reading rrearption

a. Knowledge of the use of the library cannot be too strongly

stressed for preparation for speech activities. The pupils

should become familiar with the use onf he Reader's Guide as

a valuable source of suggested current speech material,

b. Background reading for style should include current and

classic examples of the particular subject matter being studied

such as speeches, vlays, discussions and debates, and other

forms of literature suitable for oral interpretation,

c, Source reading for speech material should include subject

matter reading, current events, and textbook reading for theory,

2, Listening and observing as a means of preparation for speech

activities enables the pupil to articirate in the discovery of

guides and principles of effective oral expression. Conversely,

he discovers what not to do. These situations may be used for

this tyne of preparation,

a, Dramatic performances (stage and movie)
b, Informal speech situations
c, Grouo speaking by fellow students in the classroom
d. Individual sneaking by fellow students in the classroom
e. Guest sneakers of clubs
f. Auditorium speakers
g. Outstanding civic speakers
h. Radio programs
i. Pupills own voice recordings
j Pulnit speakers

3. Written preparation is highly desirable and frequently necessary

for life-talking situations, Transfer of training often results in

an automatic tonical grouping of subject matter in impromptu speaking


Recommended examples of written preparation includes:

a, An outline or plan of every speech performance
b. Evaluation of sneaking situations and speakers
c, Self-evaluation in speaking situations
d. Precis or analysis of source maaterital speechess, drama, dise
cuasion, et'u and theory) read
e, Some creative work (original seeethes, lays, radio programs,


The truism "we learn to do by doing" an-lies especially in speech,

and each nuil should be given the ornortunity, as often as Oossible,

not only to take nart in group sneaking situations but also to talk

before a ground.

It is often unfortunately assumed that because vocal sounds are used

by human beings as a reaction to their environment and as a means of

communication that formalized speech training as such is unnecessary.

Actually, effective speech is an intellectual endeavor,

Since effective sneech is not a "natural" phenomenon and since it

demands a smooth integration of the sneaker's emotional, intellectual

and physical capabilities, it is well to plan a program from the simple

to the complex. Experience is bringing body movement under control

through pantomime naturally precedes a combination of voice and body

movement. Similarly, narticination in group activities such as conversa-

tion and ground discussion nuts less strain on the emotional system and

should recede individual speaking situations, Individual speaking

activities should begin with the. most simple tyne to execute such as

story telling, announcements, introductions, and demonstrations,

Much enrichment in sneech education can b.e obtained through observing

and listening to sneakers outside of the classroom; but the appreciation

and evaluation of such speech activity is in direct proportion to the

meaningful experience and instruction provided within the classroom.

,Tith a basis for judgment observing and listening to local ministers,

statesmen, visiting lecturers and even informal interviews with local

merchants become valuable illustrative speech material. Likewise, radio

sneakers, movie actors, guest sneakers for auditorium and school clubs

are vital sources of speech education. Assignments requesting written

and oral evaluation of such sneakers stimulate meaningful observation

and listening and becomes sound nedagogical experience,

Student narticination in extra.curricular speech activities should be

encouraged and ought to grow out of the s-eech program. It is the most

talented students emerging from class activities, contests and advanced

speech courses who are usually sent out into community sneaking activities;

however, such onportunities should never be reserved for talented studentsi

only but made available for all.

Such a program, when handled educationally, can serve as an excellent

means of acquainting the public with the schools and can -rovide excellent,

realistic speaking ecreriences.


1. PuI

Speech evaluation assumes a twofold responsibility on the Dart

of the speech teacher. First, he must be trained to recognize

and diagnose speech irregularities, He should be aware of the

speech problems (such as stuttering, pathological voice defects,

distorted speech due to hearing losses, cleft palates) which he

should channel to the speech correctionist or speech clinic, He

must also be aware of the irregularities resulting from poor

habits which he can definitely improve or eradicate.

The second responsibility of the speech teacher is the evalua-

tion of the speech performance of the "garden variety" of students.

This is not a simple process because of the complex nature of

sneech. Speech Performance is a combination of the use of the

voice with all of its variables in Pitch, loudness, timbre; of

the posture, facial expression, and bodily movements of the

sneakers; and a background knowledge and understanding of narti.

cular subject matter and the way in which it is selected and

organized for presentation,

Simple judgment of a speaker by a discerning teacher, well-

trained in the analysis of speech performance is reasonably sound,

Rating scales, check lists and standardized testing material,

which overcome a judge's tendency to any biased opinions are

available. The use of sound recordings on phonograph records,

and wire and tare recorders provide another type of testing pro-


Subject matter evaluations may be made at the completion of

each unit, and at the end of the semester, It is suggested that

these be both written nd. oral in form, but that major emphasis

be placed on individual oral activity.

2. Teacher

The good speech teacher is constantly seeking ways and means of

improving his instruction, An occasional self-evaluation based on

questions of the following tynes should be of help to him in this


a, Am I keening in mind the immediate speech needs of the pupils?
b, Am I relating speech to the vocational needs and interests of
the nupils?
c, Am I helping the nunils to apsreciate the best in speech work,
and instilling in them a desire for growth in speech achievement
in post-school years?
d. Am I making provisions for all tynes of punils, the normal, the
talented, the handicapned?
e. Am I merely following a textbook?
f, Am I providing creditable activities?
g. Do the runils seem more at ease and poised in ground and invidi-
dual speaking situations?
h, Do I see that all nunils narticinate adequately?
i. Are the Dunils enthusiastic about speech work?
j, Am I keening up-to-date in sTeech education by reading recent
publications, n~rticinating in professional speech meetings,
and taking advanced college courses?
k, Am I setting a good example for my runils in my sneech habits,
manner and appearance?
1. Am I contributing through my own and my pnuilsl participation
to community activities and progress?
m, Is my work nronerly integrated with other fields in the curricu-
n. Am I developing personalities or robots?
o, Am I making the most efficient use of materials available in my




1. The problem

How shall the speech program be organized? What should

it include? Where should it be placed in the secondary


The answers to these questions will vary, depending upon

the needs of the students, the size and type of the school,

the training of the teachers, the general organization of

the curriculum, and the educational philosophy of the school.

Organizing an effective speech program is largely a local

problem, one which can best be solved through joint planning

of administrators, speech teachers and other faculty members,

pupils, and lay personnel. They should be guided by the

experience of others and yet left free to make choices which

best meet their individual needs. For that reason the

outlines of suggested speech courses at the secondary level

were purposely made flexible. They are so arranged that

any school or teacher may choose material from which to

build a good program, whether speech is taught only as a

part of English, whether it is offered as a separate subject,

whether it is integrated throughout the curriculum, or

whether it is a combination of all these.

2, Speech as English credit

Some Florida high schools are substituting speech for a

part of the required English courses. This usually ranges

from twelve to eighteen weeks in the sophomore year. Other

schools are allowing pupils to elect speech instead of the

fourth year of English; and some are experimenting with

teaching speech for twelve weeks of the fourth year of

English, thus dividing the course into units of reading

(literature), writing (composition), and speaking (speech).

3. Speech as separate credit

In addition many schools have elective courses in speech,

varying from one semester to two years over and above the

required work in English. Regardless of where the first

course in speech is offered, the suggestions in the Funda-

mentals unit were formulated with the idea that this course

should offer the basic skills on which all advanced units

would be predicated. The unit was also designed to be suffi-

ciently all-inclusive so that those who are not privileged

to continue in speech may receive practical training for

real-life speaking situations. If a full two years can be

given to speech training, the units in Public Speaking,

Debate, Interpretation, Dramatics, and Radio are arranged

in their probable logical sequence; however, no teacher should

be bound by this arrangement or hesitate to choose the units

or even parts of units which best fit the individual need of

the school.

h. Speech as a supplementary activity

Where it is impossible, for the time being, to offer speech

under a well-qualified teacher, activities from these units may

be integrated with the total school program so that all pupils

can receive some speech training, inadequate though it may be.

Some schools have an activity period during which pupils may

participate in club work which appeals to them. This offers

an excellent opportunity tc practice the rudiments of parlia-

mentary law incorporated in the Fundamentals unit. Some train-

ing in play production may be gained through the dramatics

club which can draw heavily for suggestions from the unit on

Dramatics. Social studies clubs and classes may turn to the

section on group speaking for suggestions on how to develop

town-hall programs and discussion activities. The home economics

club may find suggestions from the special occasions speeches

which can be used in planning after-dinner speeches and pro-

grams for banquets. School assemblies offer limitless oppor-

tunity for guided experience in making introductions, campaign

speeches, nomination speeches, and pep talks as suggested in

the Fundamentals unit.

It is evident that there is a place in general education

for speech not just speech for the handicapped or those with

special talent but speech for all American Youth. Every

school should recognized this need and, with eyes to the future,

should start now on as broad a speech program as feasible. No

matter how humble the beginning, the program will grow and

improve if given the blessing of a sympathetic administration

and the untiring efforts of a capable speech teacher.


1. Selecting the speech teacher

No speech program can long remain better than the teacher

who directs it. This is not intended to imply that the sole

responsibility for the success or failure of speech depends

upon the teacher administrators, faculty members, and student

body must bear their share but it does mean that the first

responsibility of the administration is to secure competent

speech teachers.

Too often speech is taught by those with little or no special

training in the field. Although this may be a temporary neces-

sity, every encouragement should be given to those teachers to

continue their training and become certified in speech.

Specialization belongs to the graduate field; for secondary

teaching, the training of the speech teacher needs to be broad

and varied, including experience in the many activities which

the high school speech teacher is called upon to supervise.

These include such tasks as producing the school play, helping

with the operetta, coaching the debate team, preparing programs

for women's and civic clubs, directing student forums, prepar-

ing radio broadcasts, and directing assembly programs. Speech

for the handicapped is the province of the speech correctionist

rather than the regular speech teacher; a wise administrator

will see that such cases are referred to the proper channels and

not loaded on his speech teacher unless that teacher is particu-

larly trained in the field and is given special time for the


No matter how broad or extensive the training in speech, a

good speech teacher must possess the personality traits typical

of all good teachers: a sense of humor, patience, tact, ability

to control the classroom situation, and an interest in and love

for young people. In addition, there are certain characteris-

tics in which a speech teacher should be particularly strong.

They include the following:

a. The ability to get along with people.
b. An enthusiasm for speech work.
c, A depth of emotional capacity balanced by a high degree
of emotional control.
d. A sense of civic responsibility and a willingness to
participate in worthwhile community activities.
e. An understanding of the place of speech in the total
school program, a willingness to cooperate and an appre-
ciation of the cooperation given by other faculty members.

E. C. Buehler describes the special qualities of a good

speech teacher in this challenging way: "An able and wise

teacher recognizes that oral expression is enveloped by the

personality of the speaker, and that the entire speaking process

will bring the human relationships into sharper focus. In a

speech class the speaker puts his whole personality on parade.

Every time he gets up to talk, his mind, his heart, and his

soul step into a show window, in which so many parts of his

total personality are dramatically revealed before his fellow

classmates. The teacher's job here is much greater than to be a

mere instructor in the usual sense. He must be a friendly

counselor, a gracious host, and an inspirational leader of

young men and women. He must be an able master of ceremonies

and have a fine sense of humor. Above all, he must be a kind,

tolerant person and a shrewd judge of human nature. Such a

teacher fulfills the highest aims of education, namely to build

character and to enrich the makeup of the human personality.

A good speech teacher is professionally minded. He belongs to his

local, state, and national education associations; he is a member of those

professional groups which represent his najor interests; such as, the

Florida Speech Association, the Southern Speech Association, the Speech

Association of Amnrica, the American Speech Correction Association, or the

American Educational Theatre Association. He subscribes to professional

periodicals and attends professional meetings and conventions.

2. Setting un the seeoch pro,,ra

After securing a competent speech teacher, the next responsibility of

an administrator is to cooperate with that teacher in organizing faculty

connittcos for setting up a speech program to moot the needs of his particu-

lar school, Every nombor of the staff should understand the place of speech

in the total curriculum and feel that he has a share in the planning and an

obligation in carrying out the plons. Speech is not just a classroom sub-

ject, It cannot be taught effectively during one hour a day for five days

a week any nore than.health education can be confined to the single class

period devoted to it. The fundamental principles of effective speech need

to be observed in very class and a program of co-curricular activities

'Buehler, E. C., Outline of Su,-estions for Hi:h School Teachers of Speech,
The Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, 1947?

such as plays, radio programs, and interscholastic speech meets is

just as essential to the success of the speech program as football

games and track neets are to the athletic program. Under ideal

conditions this co-curricular program will exist along with a

comnloto curricular program of speech and afford an opportunity

for the talented to receive additional training. It would re-

semble the interscholastic athletic program in a school which

has an adequate physical education and sound intramrural pro-

gram, This can be achieved only through cooperative faculty

planning under the leadership of an enthusiastic administra-

tor and speech teacher.

3. Organising and cqui-rpin the speech class

Insofar as possible, the administrator should see that the

speech class is organized and equipped so that it can achieve

the best results. Oblong rooms with the speaker at one end are

better than square rooms. Movable desks allowing for a variety_

of arrangement are an advantage. A raised platform, a speaker's

stand, blackboards, cabinet space, magazine racks, and book-

cases are assets,

Special equipment should include speech charts; a classroom

library of speech magazines and books; collections of readings,

debates, orations, and plays; a good phonograph with records of

selections from plays and famous speeches; a full-length mirror;

and a portable magnetic recorder.

It is true the quality of the speech program is not deter-

mined by the equipment in the speech room, but a good speech

teacher can do a better job with good equipment, and a wise

administrator will cooperate in every way possible to see that

it is forthcoming. Profits from plays and other speech activi-

ties should be returned to the speech department to buy equip-

ment and not allotted to the basketball team for uniforms or

given to the annual staff for expenses of the yearbook as is

done in some schools.

Where there is a conflict in the use of the auditorium, the

administrator should arrange so that the time is fairly distri-

buted among the various groups and that the speech activities

have their share along with the music, athletic, or other

departments which may need the stage.

To insure the best work speech classes should be kept small.

Under no circumstances should the class exceed the recommended

maximum for. laboratory classes which is twerity-five. Since in

the ideal speech class every pupil participates actively every

day, better results may be obtained if the number in the class

can be restricted to fifteen or twenty

Just as the teaching load of the athletic coach is usually

lightened to allow for the long hours after school required by

the athletic program, so the teaching load of the speech

teacher should be proportionately smaller where the extra-

curricular program necessitates hours of work in addition to the

regular school day.

The speech class should be inviting. That does not mean

speech should be a "snap course"; on the contrary, it must

involve real effort and study, but best results are obtained

under enjoyable circumstances. Working intimately with person-

ality problems such as those handled in a speech class necessi-

tates pleasurable contacts if there is to be any degree of

success. Administrators should strive to see that speech

classes are as free from unnecessary interruptions as possible

and that the teacher has every opportunity to develop a class

spirit characterized by:

a. Attention and good listening habits.
b. Teamwork and group consciousness.
ci A spirit of tolerance and open-mindedness.
d. A willingness towards effort.

4. Setting speech standards for the classroom teacher

Finally, the administrator owes it to himself and to his

school to see that all his teachers exemplify good speech

habits and encourage them in all of the pupils. The teacher of

mathematics, English, social studies, or science has a major

background in his special field, but he should confine himself

solely to the subject matter of his course. Any teacher deals

first with boys and girls and second with academic materials.

An individual may conceal to a great extent his ignorance of

most subjects, but never of the spoken word; therefore, because

every teacher is a model after whom students pattern, every

teacher should speak correctly and effectively. A students

standards of speech is no higher than that of his various

teachers, who should have enough professional pride to keep

that standard high. A teacher with personal pride watches

carefully his personal appearance; since his speech is the

"clothing" of his thoughts, he should be equally as fastidious

about clothing his thoughts in the best oral language as he is

about his personal grooming.

The need for speech training is also definite if the teacher

is to participate in community activities such as PTA programs,

meetings of civic clubs, and public discussions on community

problems. All are dependent upon a speech background.

In view of these facts, it is recommended that teacher

training institutions include speech training as a part of the

preparation for any teaching position and require prospective

teachers to pass a speech proficiency test. Basically the

training recommended includes (1) a course in speech funda-

mentals with special emphasis on correct usage, clear and dis-

tinct speaking, pleasing voice, speech composition, and parlia-

mentary practice; (2) a basic course in speech correction to

give the teacher enough background so that he may guide speech

defective to the proper speech correctionist and assist them

in making social adjustments.

Although administrators may not be able at once to demand

this training from all the teachers they employ, a high standard

of proficiency in speech should be expected of every classroom




By the time the pupil reaches the junior high school, he will

have developed many speech skills; and, equally important, he will

have acquired definite attitudes toward speech and its value. Speech

education on the elementary school level is an integral part of the

language arts; but, in recent years, its place in this program has

become more clearly recognized, and the objectives, procedures,

and evaluation of the teaching is now receiving considerable atten-


It is so obvious that sometimes .re fail to recognize the fact

that by far the greater number of contacts and impressions which

one makes are by SEA KING. It has been indicated that over 90% of

the contacts made by even the majority of adults are made by the

use of the voice, and the percentage is even larger in the case

pre-high school pupils and among those adults with less than high

school education.

A consideration of these facts emphasizes the fact that the

speech training the pupil receives before high school is of particu-

lar importance to him in his adjustment to others, in his vocational

adjustments, and in his efficiency as a citizen; especially is this

true of those hundreds of pupils who never go beyond the elementary

or junior high school.


In a recently published bulletin, Experiencing the Language

Arts, a Guide to Teachers of Kindergarten Through Grade 12, (availa-

ble through the Florida State Department of Education), Part VII

deals with the scope of speaking and listening. For convenience

'. f .- I P 11, hIn

.4 l V, -t- lt b- -.11

- lld -hf tli I. I 'I-

th-old M -ity t,, t-Ch It

II 1 u 1 I .-. III-

TT. 1 1 ttl-tiy'

*h t -t. v- --

Areas of Speech

2. Asking and Answering

Speech Skills Everyone Needs

1. To use proper inflection of the voice in
asking the question.
2. To speak pleasantly and politely.
3. To use specific words for accurate inter-
4. To listen respectfully to the person
answering the question.
5. To answer questions directly, accurately,
and concisely.

3. Giving and Following 1. To speak clearly and slowly enough for
Directions the listeners to follow.
2. To use words precisely.
3. To use only necessary explanations.
h. To use gestures when they will help to
clarify the meaning.
5. To use rough drawings or diagrams if they
will help the listeners.
6, To listen attentively when receiving

I. Reporting and 1. To speak directly to the audience.
Summarizing Reports 2. To speak in a pleasant voice.
Heard 3. To speak distinctly in a pleasant, well
modulated voice.
4. To use gestures when they contribute to
5. To stand easily erect.
6. To listen attentively and accurately when
a part of the audience.
7. To use a clear-cut, easily followed out-
line from Grade 5 through Grade 12.

5. Utilizing Parliamen- 1. To follow the accepted rules of parliar
tary Procedure to mentary procedure.
Affect Group Decision 2. To speak pleasantly, yet effectively.
and Action 3, To respect the rights and opinions of
4. To show a cooperative attitude toward the

_ __~ ~ __

_ __ __ ___

Areas of Speech

6. Planning Through
Group Discussion

7. Introducing People
Informally and

8. Utilizing Specialized
Skills as a Speaker
and a Listener

Speech Skills Everyone Needs

1. To speak so that all may hear.
2. To speak in a pleasant voice.
3. To look directly at those to whom you are
h. To maintain an easy and polite posture.
5. To speak only when others are not speaking.
6. To give others an opportunity to express
their opinions.
7. To listen respectfully and attentively to
8. To appreciate the opinions of others and
be willing to follow the wishes of the
majority in a sportsmanlike manner.
9. When serving as a group discussion leader,
encourage all to participate in the discussion,

1. To speak pleasantly.
2. To follow the rules of proper introductions?
3. To pronounce names distinctly and
4. To listen carefully so that the name may
be remembered.

1. To pause a moment after taking speaking
position before beginning to speak.
2. To stand well forward, center of the
platform on most occasions.
3. To speak audibly, distinctly, and as
deliberately as the occasion requires,
4. To use facial expression effectively.
5. To speak directly to the audience, in-
cluding all of the group.
6. To use posture and gestures appropriate
to the occasion.
7. To use a variety of sentence and para-
graph structure.
8. To adapt speech and platform behavior to
specific audiences.
9. To respect the feeling and opinions of
others and to be open to conviction.
10. To be a polite, attentive, and responsive

_~__~ _._____ _____ __~__

1___ __ __


__ __ ~_____

Areas of Speech

9. Broadcasting and
Listening to the

10. Taking Part in Play
Production as a
Player and as

Speech Skills Everyone Needs

1. To use proper microphone technique.
2. To use a conversational tone of voice.
3. To pronounce and enunciate words
4. To appreciate the time element in radio
5. To use simple sound effects,
6. To listen to radio programs discriminat-
7. To appreciate the special contributions
of radio as a means of communication.

1. To work out dialogue and stage directions
in group rehearsals.
2. To use tones and inflections, postures
and gestures appropriate to the characters
and situations portrayed.
3, To deliver speeches audibly and distinctly,
yet with a conversational effect.
4. To use the voice, body, and facial expres-;
sions to portray feelings and emotions,
5. To listen and observe the players with
attention, understanding, and responsiveness.

11. Participating as a 1. To speak distinctly and in unison with
Speaker and a Listener others.
in Choral Reading 2. To follow the parts accurately and come
into the speaking part exactly on time.
3. To blend your voice with others when it
is not a solo speaking part.
4. To appreciate and to hear accurately the
various types of speaking voices.
5. To appreciate variety in tone and rate of

__ __

I C --- -- .

Speech Skills Everyone Needs

Areas of Speech

12. Making and Listening
to Special Occasion

1. To speak to the audience, not merely be-
fore the group.
2. To speak audibly and distinctly in a
pleasant voice.
3. To cause the voice to express feelings.
b. To use spontaneous, effective gestures.
5. To stand at ease, erect, but not stiff.
6. To speak in a natural, conversational
7. To pronounce names with particular
8. To listen appreciatively.

__ __ ____

__ ___ ___ __ __ __



The fundamentals speech course, a means to an end and not an end within

itself, has as its aim cooperation in the moulding of a well-adjusted indivi-

dual earnble of assuming the role of a responsible citizen in a democracy,

In this course the nunil will he guided and trained in ground and indivi-

dual activities which will aid in developing the whole personality for effect,

ive narticiration in daily activities both personal and public, He will

narticinate in activities which emphasize correct, distinct, and courteous

speech. He will he taught to listen, to think logically, to express himself

clearly and to substantiate his views with reason and understanding. He will

learn the art of working coo-eratively with others. He will be made aware

of the four basic factors in sneecht action, voice, language, and thought.


1, To develop the nersonality of the individual
2. To develop skill in everyday sneaking situations, both public and
31 To develop the ability to locate and organize suitable materials
for various kinds of sneaking situations
4. To develop effective production in voice, body and language
51 To develop the ability to think logically and to express ideas
with clarity and conviction
6. To develop noise and discrimination in thinking, sneaking, and


Unit I
Unit II
Unit III
Unit IV
Unit V
Unit VI

Bodily Exnression
Voice and Diction
Ground Discussion
Sneech Comnosition
Individual Sneaking Situations




Conversation is the first form of speech used by an individual; hence

it naturally takes first place in a fundamentals course in speech, Although

everyday conversation is the form of oral communication most often used,

this informal exchange of ideas, news, plans, and experiences is a snontan-

eous and unprepared activity, Skill in the art can be developed by the

acquisition of conversational material coupled with practice in correct

application, Conversation skill is an indirect method of developing all

speech skills,


I, To develop the art and enhance the value of conversation through

a. Developing interest through establishing background material
and proper attitudes for conversational situations,
b, Selecting suitable materials and adopting correct techniques
for various situations.
c, Learning to adant to situations and individuals,
d, Participating in conversational situations,

2, To develop the art of listening.


qi Developing the conversationalist

a, Background
b. Principal sources of materials
c, Selecting materials

2. Developing conversational skill

a. Adjusting to situations
b, Conversational etiquette

3. Topics for conversation

4, Special forms

a, Telephone
b. Interview


1, Developing the conversationalist

a, Have each unoil leep a speech diary for one day, which should
include the conversation occasions narticipated in, the sub-
jects of the conversations, and an estimate of the amount of
time spent in conversation,

b, Use the above activity as a basis for a group discussion having
as its objective a listing of the rrincinal sources of conver-

c, By means of ground discussion have the pupils deduce how back-
ground material for conversational situations may be acquired
by the following activities

(1) Reading

(a) Fiction and non-fiction books
(b) Periodicals
(c) Newsnapers

(2) Observing
(a) peoplee
(b) Animals
(c) Clothes
(d) Furniture
(e) Radio programs

(3) Listening

(a) To determine the key thought of what is being said
(b) To understand the personality of the sneaker
(c) To think of questions relating to the subject
(d) To stimulate the sneaker

(4) Discussing iterials read and heard for better understanding

d. Groun discussion arising from the above activity should produce
suggestions fort

(1) Good judgment in the selection and use of suitable mater-
ials for conversation

(2) Conduct of conversation

(a) With new acquaintances
(b) With adults
(c) In public and private places

2. Developing conversational skill

a, The teacher should discuss with the group ways and means of
adjusting to conversational situations such as;

(1) How to change the subject
(2) How to talk about one's e-xeriences without seeming to
talk about one's self
(3) How to make use of the anecdote in conversation
(4) How to take a joke
(5) How to be a good listener

b. Have the -unils look un the correct rules of etiquette in con-
versational situations.

(1) Introductions
(2) Resnonse to introductions
(3) Responsibilities of the host and hostess

c, Have each member of the ground trenare to introduce at least
four pairs of people such as

(1) Mother and a school friend
(2) Uncle and the school -rincipal
(3) Assembly speaker and president of the class
(4) A boy and girl both of whom he has just met
(5) A girl and a boy

d. An informal tea may be planned, with members of the class
taking nart as guests, hosts and hostesses,

3. Topics for conversation (The needs and interests of the group
will suggest tonics for conversation)

a, Have each student prepare a list of 3 subjects which he would
like to talk over with several other members of the class,
The subjects may be sports, hobbies, radio programs, after
school occupations, questions on etiquette, etc,

b. Have each student list the names of classmates with whom he
would like to talk,

c. Have the runils gather in groups of 3-5, in various arts of
the classroom for narticination in conversation activity based
on activities a and b, When a subject is exhausted, individuals
may join other groups, provided the number participating in
each group does not exceed 5 or 6.

4. Special forms of conversation

a. Have the pupils look up the etiquette of telephone usage.

b. Have each nupil place and receive calls in various situations
such as;

(1) Ordering merchandise
(2) Sending a telegram
(3) Inviting guests
(4) Asking favors
(5) Taking messages for others
(6) Reporting a fire

c, After each telephone conversation in the above activity, have
the members of the class point out the good and bad features
which have been revealed,

d. The teacher and the group will compile a list of principles to
be followed in every interviews

e. Have each nupil plan and carry out an interview to obtain in-
formation, The following suggestions, or others serving the
needs of the group may be used for this activity;

(1) Confer with a citizen living near the school regarding a
complaint he has made to the school officials
(2) An interview, to find out what some prominent person in the
community thinks on some lively public situation or question
(3) Interview the fire department about its campaign to prevent
(4) Interview a famous person for a news report
(5) Interview an old-time settler for'historical information
(6) Interview a teacher for help on a problem or project

f. Have each pupil plan and carry out a business interview.
Suggestions for the activity include:

(1) Applications: Plan an interview in which you apply for a
position as salesman, truck driver, office clerk, etc.
(2) Solicit funds
(3) See the school principal in regard to changing or revising
some school policy
(4) Request a faculty member to make some change in class policy
or in homeroom management
(5) Discuss rith your father the possibility of increasing your
allowance, borrowin' the car, or some similar problem



The development of an expressive and responsive body is a necessity for

effective speech. Most people are more impressed by what they see than by

what they hear. Bodily action while speaking should be a natural occurence,

which is a result of an intense desire to project thought and information to

the audience. Although natural body activity may be adequate, if it is kept

under control and used for a purpose, it is more effective. The body communi-

.cates many ideas before there is any oral speech for "actions speak louder

than words "


I* To develop poise
2. To coordinate muscular movement
3. To make bodily movements meaningful


1. Poise
2. Posture
S. Movement
4 Gestures


1. To develop poise

a. Discuss with the pupils the meaning of poise and how it is
related to good speech
b. List with the class the factors which contribute to poise
c. Have the pupils suggest means by which poise may be developed.
Throughout the course, encourage the pupils to develop poise
and commend them on the progress made
2. To develop good posture

a. Study with the class various standing, sitting, rising, and
listening postures, pointing out the disadvantages of poor
b. Have the pupils collect pictures illustrating good and bad
posture. Criticize these together
c. Assume different postures and decide together which ones are
relaxed and comfortable, but not slouchy or impolite. Encourage
the pupils to try to form the habit of using these positions.
Be sure to commend them for improvement made

3. To coordinate muscular movement

a. Using a comedy film, or by training members of the class, study
various muscular movements. Try to discover what characteris-
tics of the movement are graceful and pleasant, or ungraceful
and unpleasant to the observer.

b. Have the pupils suggest ways to relax: to make a movement
smooth, spontaneous, effective. Practise these exercises and
movements in class and encourage the pupils to do so at.home

c. If possible, attend lectures or show newsreels in class in
which prominent speakers appear. Analyze the movements made
by these speakers with the pupils

d. Discuss with the pupils the relationship between bodily control,
correct breathing, and effective movement, gesture, and speech

4. To make bodily movements meaningful

a. Study with the pupils the different kinds of gestures, and
classify them. Illustrate these through pictures, pupil
activity, and newsreels or films

b. Select sentences and paragraphs depicting certain actions and
expressions and have the pupils suggest and illustrate various
gestures, etc., which may be used effectively

c. Encourage the pupils to use an effective number and variety of
gestures in their original speaking. Commend them for improve-
nent made



The voice is a true mirror of ones personality, and his speech is a

relatively accurate index of his character; therefore, too much emphasis

cannot be placed on the cultivation of a pleasing voice which is at the sane

time effective in accomplishing its purpose. The state of mind, the culture,

the outlook on life, and even the character are all reflected in part by it.

Onets standard of culture is often judged by the manner in which he conveys

his expressions vocally to others; therefore, his accuracy in correct usage,

his choice of words, and his pronunciation are vital in speech development.

Note: Drills in the speech correction supplement may be used with this


1, To develop an appreciation of anda desire for an effective apeak-
ing voice

2* To cultivate correct and effective speech habits

3. To develop a well modulated quality which can be adapted to any
speaking vocabulary

4. To increase the vocabulary

5. To develop poise in all types of speaking and listening situations


1. The voice

a, Vocal mechanism
b. Breathing
c. Developing vocal variety

2. Diction

a. Word choice
b. Vocabulary building
c, Pronunciation

(1) Areas of American speech
(2) Co;mon errors in pronunciation


1. The voice

a. Vocal mechanism
The beginning pupil should be required to have a knowle dge of
only the largest divisions of the vocal mechanism:

(1) The motor which pumps the air the lungs, 'bronchial tubes,
trachea, ribs, and chest muscles
(2) The vibrator which produces the sound the larynx
(3) The resonators which give quality the throat, (pharynx)
nasal cavities, sinuses, and mouth
(4) The modifiers which for the sounds the tongue, teeth,
lips, jaw, and palate

b. Breathing
The teacher should explain through reading assignments, lectures,
and audio-visual aids the process of breathing, explaining the
part played by the diaphracp in inhaling and exhaling; the
value of deep breathing for good health and good speech; the
process by which a breath of air becomes a sound or work; the
irortance of free, flexible, energetic use of the modifiers.
After the pupils have become acquainted with the speech organs,
those who need practice should use the following exercises:

(1) Pant like a dog
2) Count aloud to six or eight in one breath
3) Read aloud long sentences on one breath

c4 Developing vocal variety
(1) Pitch
The teacher must not overlook the importance of pitch in
vocal expression. Cite several voices to show how some
people speak in high-keyed voices, while other voices are
generally low-pitched. The teacher should find the pupil's
optimum pitch and give any necessary help to improve the
pitch by following this procedures

(a) Use the piano to find the note which matches the pitch
of the pupils voice,

(b) Explain to him that he will have a wider range of pitch
if he can comfortably reach several notes below and

(c) Use a recorder so that the pupil can listen to the
pitch of his voice. After several months, repeat the

(d) Encourage the pupil to consider resonance, timbre, and
force in developing the desired pitch.

(2) Phrasing
Teach the pupil how to group his words, when to speak rapidly
or slowly, how to pause and why; in other words, teach him
the element of time.

(a) Illustrate this by using sentences and paragraphs from
orations and stories,

(b) Teach pupils that ideas should be separated from each
other by pauses, and illustrate this by reading poetry
and prose.

(3) Inflection
By demonstration show that inflection is the sliding of the
voice up and down the speech scale. Show the difference
between the rising, falling, and the circumflex inflections
by expressing these words and sentences in many different ways:

(a) "Wcil"
(b) "Yos"
(c) "Oh"
(d) "nWy, that is what you think."

(4) Volume
Volume refers to the strength and energy of the voice.
Inadequate volume is a common fault which may be corrected by
the following exercises:

(a) Take a deep breath and in normal conversational tempo,
count to twenty. Then without taking in any more air,
expol the remaining air emitting short, jerky hisses
until the air is gone. Do this six to ten times,

(b) Hiss in short, jorky hisses six times and say the follow-
ing sentence, making it carry as far as possible by merely
whispering: "The whispering wires whispered wistfully."

(c) Practice the following military commands and imagine
that the tone cones from the level of the hips to the top of
the head:

",1Tuber one, fire! 'TNumbor two, firol
munber throe, fire! Company haltj
ornward march"

(5) Enphasis
Explain to the pupil

(a) The importance of proper onphasis in speaking.
(b) Show by example that emphasis on a certain word may
change the meaning of the entire sentence.
(c) Explain by changing emphasis, one may avoid monotony,
(d) Have the pupil say with a variety ofemphasis and

"Good morning, Mrs. Fitzgerald."
"Where are my books?"

(6) Quality
Quality is not easily defined, One meaning pertains to the
individual characteristics of one voice compared to another,
horo is another factor to consider when we define quality
as the over-all pleasantness or unpleasantness the voice has
for the listener.

2. Diction

a, Word choice

Good cliction includes a discriminating choice of correct
words, a clearness and distinctness of speech, and the pro-
nunciation of words according to the standard of accepted

(1) Use of simple expressive words,
In choosing the appropriate word for the expression of a
thought, one should choose from simple, specific, vivid,
and dynamic words,

(2) Provincialisns and localisms

Certain words are acceptable in some localities, Tbut
the pupil should be encouraged to use the ones most
generally used by the educated people of that locality.

(3) Slang

Although slang has its place in expressing a thought
colorfully and appropriately on certain occasions, the

b. Vocabulary -uiilding

Since words arc the tools of e:xression, using the correct
word in the appropriate place facilitates the accurate oe-
pression of one's ideas.

Pupils should be encouraged to increase their vocabularies
by iooping a note book of new words and using as their notto,
IA now word a day keeps ignorance away."

c. Pronunciation

(1) Areas of anorican sfcoch

It is generally recognized that there are three types
of pronunciation in the United States: Eastern, South-
orn, and general Anorican. Since Florida has pupils
of all sections, we have the problem of eliminating
nis-pronunciations characteristic of the various regions;
howrover, the teacher should assuno an attitude of toler-
ance in understanding the specch pattern peculiar to
the different regions of the United States and the
world, and try to teach his pupils the same tolerance,
Pupils should bo warned against takin- pride in using
the extrono pronunciation of any rcion. Pupils should
be taught diacritical markings and accentuation, and
should be given anrle practice in the use of the dict-

(2) Com3on errors in pronunciation

(a) Substitutions) Wat for what, wif for with, pres-
piration for perspiration, git for got, windar for
window, chimley for chinney.

(b) Omissions Final g, t, and d. Exanplos: goine
for going, ac for act, worl for world, kop for

(c) Additions Attacted for attacked, drownedod for
drowned, onct for once, postsos for posts, and
onliest for only.

(d) Other mispronunciations: Coupon rhyne the first
syllable with who, not few* Data and status -
rhyme the first syllable with day and sta, not at.
Hoof and roof rhyne with -roof. Gesture G is
pronounced as in ren,*

(o) Indistinctness Much mispronunciation is due to
laziness in speech by not using correctly the
speech modifiers; avoid such errors asi cidy for
city, baddle for battle, budder for butter, and
wadder for wator, For clarity and relaxation use
tongTue twisters, word drills, sound drills, and
oral reading for -ractice.



Group speaking is a process of cooperative thlninkng and exchange of

ideas, It occurs when twto or nore persons talk over a problon systonati-

cally with the ain of pooling their constructive experiences and judgments

in an effort to arrive at the best possible solution. It is democracy work.,

ing at its best.

The underlying purpose of group speaking is based on the assumption

that 'Ttwo heads are better than one." Howover, it must be recognized at

the outset that uninformedopersons mootin( to "pool their ignorance" results

in nothing but tine wasted., Even the most informal type of group-speaking

requires preliminary individual study, investigation and thinking.

The value of the total gain will depend upon the completeness and

accuracy of the work investigated. A sense of responsibility and specific

study techniques for group speaking must be developed in each individual

to bring the discussion to its highest level of attainnont,

The fundaomntals course is designed to emphasize group speaking. It

should include the daily functional forns of group discussion and.an intro"-

duction to the technical types of public discussion. (Those forms aro

taken up in detail in the unit on public discussion and debate) A simpli-

fied presentation of parliamentary practice is included as it is a basic tool

for promoting fair and efficient group. action, and it is the framework in

which nost group discussions functions,


1, To reach a solution to a problem through cooperative exchange of
information and ideas.

2. To develop a sense of responsibility in individual organization

and prosontation of material employing accurate investigation,

logical thinking and effective presentation of ideas.

35 To develop leadorship in a democratic process.

4. To develop listening attitudes which are attentive, tolerant and

constructively critical,

0. 00CTETT

1. Development of an organized pattern of procedure,

a, Definition of problem
b, Analysis of problon
c, Possible solutions
d. Tentative conclusions
c. Suggestions for putting conclusions into practice

2. Developnont of connon typos of group speaking

a, Glassroon discussions
b, Cooopratiov group investigation
c. Conferences
d. oonnittccs

3. Introduction of systematic forms of public discussion

ap Panel
b, Symposiun
c. Forun

4. Introduction of parliamentary practice

a, Realizing purposes
b, Organizing the group
c. Conducting the mooting
do Making the notions


1. Development of an organized pattern of procedure,

a. Have pupils develop an organized pattern of procedure such as

(1) Definition of a problem
(2) Analysis of the problem
(3) Possible solutions
(4) Tentative conclusions
(5) Suggostions for putting conclusions into practice

Be sure the group realizes that such an orderly procedure
would result in greater efficiency, but that the group should
in no way be hold rigidly to the pattern. Such modifying
factors as the groups familiarity with the problem, past
experience and the groups specific purpose would have to be
taken into consideration.

b, Have pupils do individual thinking along the lines of the
pattern of procedure, Lot the pupils nako broad general
outlines following this pattern to bo modified by the dis-
cussion of the group.

2. Dpvclopnont of conron typos of group speaking

a, Classroon discussion

(1) Have pupils analyze the techniques and value of class

(2) Have the pupils evaluate classroom discussion with other
forms of group speaking,

(3) Have a pupil lead a group discussion working towards
widespread intelligent participation which would involve
previous individual preparation.

b. Cooperative group investigation

(1) Have the group work out a cooperative group investiga-
tion activity

(a) Havo.group decide on a general topic to discuss
consistent with their innediato needs and inter-
(b) Assign phases of the general topic to individual
pupils to investigate,
(c) Have students bring the fruits of their investiga-
tion to class to pool their knowlodgo.
(d) Choose a leader to direct the discussion who will
generate widespread, intelligent participation,
keep the discussion to some general organized
pattern of procedure, and will be able to sumnar-
ize the results of the groups activity,

(1) -

.2) subject

*~ ~ iva I iii v
dinesslon. Try to work *

(1) Bisii with m le ti -

(2) Disma~s possible penaonno of onalinea incluling
Ivi hirr tl ioorn c t clar a rg

Ially rcii~tfld t" nia tfco problo at iiiin
(3 ) rnv hr uc

*h lak tho

C1-) ~ --isoe. f"- uhlcSi will offi-

3, Introduction of systematic forns of public discussion,

a. An introduction to the panel discussion

(1) Discuss with the pupils the characteristics of a panel
discussion which are
(a) Usually has from 4 to 8 members
(b) Has a loader
(c) Utilizes spontaneous exchange of ideas a give
and take process
(d) Has planned speeches

(2) Preparation. Discuss with the pupils the preparation
necessary for a panel discussion.
(a) Group chooses and narrows problcn
(b) Chaiman lays out agenda
(c) May or nay not have preliminary practice

(3) Discuss with the pupils the order of procedure of a
panel discussion.
(a) Introduction of speaker by chairman
(b) Discussion
(c) Brief summary by chairman
(d) Audience participation (forum)

(4) Allow each pupil an opportunity to act as chairman of a
panel discussion.

(5) Invite a faculty nombor to serve as chairman of one or
nore panel discussions.

(6) Allow students to surest problems that they would like
to discuss because the teacher nay not always list what
night be a vital problon to the pupil. Incluie such
subjects as

(a) Parental restrictions
(b) Senior privileges
(c) Ideologies of the "isms"
(d) Human relations course in high school
(o) Teena-age driving habits
(f) Teen-.ce recreation
(c) Teen-aoIe punishment
(h) Student Goverment
(i) Financing the high school annual or forensics
S() Improving; the school paper
k) Limiting the school honowork
(1) The single standard of social behavior
(m) Discussions on this problem: Seven people are
stranded on a desert, your can be saved and three
must die. Select the ones you will save and give
reasons for your choice.
An old scientist
A younj scientist
A young army captain
His fiancee
A guide
A twelve year old boy
A wealthy niddle-aged woman

b. An introduction to the synnosium

(1) Discuss with the class the characteristics of a symposium
(a) Usually has from 2 to 6 members
(b) Must have a chairman
(c) Must have planned speeches
(d) Speakers are so-called specialists or exports on
their phase of the problem

(2) Discuss with the class the preparation necessary for a
(a) Chairman assigns topics
(b) Members prepare speeches in advance after investigan

(3) Discuss with the class the order of procedure in a syn-
(a) Introduction of speakers by chairman
(b) Speeches by various members
(c) Surmary by chairman
(d) Audience participation (forum)

(4) Cormare the panel and the symposium including such
factors as the possible occasions in which each would
most efficiently function

(5) Prepare a symposium to be presented before the class,
student body, civic organization or over the radio,
Choose a subject nooting the needs and interests of the
class, Have students with special knowledge or access
to additional knowledge on the subject act as the men-
bers of the symposium

c. An introduction to the forum

(1) Discuss with the class the characteristics of the forum,
which is the audience participation stop of the panel
of symposiun

(2) Conduct a forum after a panel, symposium or debate

4. Introcdction of rparlianmntary practice

a. Rnelizing purposes. Help pupil to understand that parlia-
nontary practice is a basic tool of democracy, a method by
which the opinions of the minority may be considered but the
will of the majority must prevail. It is a moans of facili-
tating group action.

b, Organizing the group

(1) Help the class organize their club or organization in
the following manner

(a) Call the mooting to order
(b) Select temporary officers
(c) Discuss the purpose
(d) Draw up a constitution

(2) A cood way to teach parliamentary practice is to
organize the class into a club, proceeding through tho
various stops Decide upon a purpose which lends itself
to further nootings and then use the club as much as
possible during the ensuing class periods.

(3) In order to give the constitution committee tino enough
to do its work well, it night be wise to schedule the
second meeting for a few days later. The temporary
officers preside during the second meeting, Naturally
the first order of business is the adoption of the cone
stitution. Providing each member with a mimeographed
copy will facilitate intelligent discussion and serve
to impress on each pupils nind the content and order of
a model constitution:
Article I Name
Article II Purpose
Article III MQnbership
Article 17 Officers
Article V Standirn comittoos
Article VI Meetings
Article VII oAendments
As soon as the constitution has been adopted, the
election of pornmanont officers can take place. Succeed-
ing nootings should occur as set up in the constitution.

c. Conducting a eooting

(1) Discuss with the class the duties of the presiding

(2) It is well to give as many students as possible practice
in acting as presiding officers. This practice should
dispel the popular misconception that being president of
a club is all honor and no responsibility..

(3) Discuss with the class the order of business. Any club
may sot its own order of business; however, an accepted
form can be found in any English or speech text.

(4) Pupils should understand and gain experience in the
following common practices of voting:
(a) Quo ru the percentage of nonbership which must be
present before business can be transacted. (Often
designated in the groups constitution)
(b) The difference between a majority and a plurality

(c) Motions which require a majority vote and those
which require a two-thirds vote
(d) Methods of voting
Favor say "Aye", opposed say "No.n (The
negative vote must always be called for)
Show of hands or standing (When the division
of the house has been called for)
Connon consent (most rapid)
Voting by ballot

d. Motions

(1) Discuss with the class the steps in the procedure of
(a) Monbor rises and addresses chairman
(b) Chainman recognizes member by calling his nano
(c) Momber proposes notion using form, mnovo that".
(d) Another nombor seconds notion
(o) Chairman repeats notion
(f) Chairman calls for discussion of notion
(g) Motion is put to vote
(h) Chaiman announces decision of group

(2) Discuss with the class the types of motions and their
(a) Main
(b) Subsidiary
(c) Incidental
(d) Privileged

(3) Discuss with the class the precedence of motions. A
chart showing the most connonly used notions and their
characteristics is very useful.

(4) Procecds slowly in teaching the principles of parlianon.
tary procoduro, Add something now to each lesson and
give pupils plenty of time to practice each new notion_
before moving to the next. Consistent use of the class;
club is an excellent teaching devise, ITosnsno notions
may servo sometimes to enliven the lesson and at the
same time teach the procedure effectively. Student con-i
grosses, mock conventions and city council noetings
afford good motivating devices.



The value of every oral connunication, regardless of type, rests on

content (the thotuht conmunicatod) and presentation (the means and.nannor

of communication). Both are important; each complemonts the other,

Every student should be made to realize that the basic essential of

good speaking is having something worthwhile to say; therefore, the student

should acquire a knowledge, through study and practice, of what.material

to select, how to select it, and how to organize it effectively. Turning

the speech class into a laboratory for preparation and delivery pays big

dividends, whether the activity includes simple reports, class recitations,

preparation for extra-curricular activities or for participation in connun-

ity affairs,

This unit of work is designed to give suggestions which will aid the

teacher in helping the pupil to acquire a knowledge and practice of the

basic essentials of speech cormosition, whether the situation be a small

informal group or one involving an audience.


To develop the ability to gather and organize natorial for speech

situations in relation to the purpose, occasion, speaker, and audience.


1. Choosing toe subject
a, Occasion for speech
b, Type of audience
c, Speaker's interest and ability
d, Availability of material
o. Exact purpose of speech
f. Central idea of speech

2. Selecting the material
a. Sources
(1) Observation and experience
(2) Conversation and interviews
(3) Library
(4) Radio prograns
(5) Letters to informed persons
b, Techniques
(1) Using personal knowlodco
(2) Reading for a specific purpose
(3) ITote taking

3. Organizing the speech
a. Outlining the body
(1) Discarding ideas irrelevant to central thaeo
(2) Grouping relevant information under main topics
(3) Arranging nain topics in logical order
S (4) Adding sub-topics hero necessary

b. Planning the type of conclusion
(1) Rounding off the subject
(2) Summarizing the theme
(3) Stimulating response
c. Developing the introduction
(1) Gaining favorable audience attention
(2) Explaining essential background material
(3) Building a bridge to audience interest

4, Making the speech vivid
a, Using specific words
b. Providing ample illustrations
c, Using direct quotations effectively
d, Making use of thought-provoking questions
e, Using effective repetition
f, Securing variety in sentence and paragraph structure
g, Striving for concise, clear meaning


I, Choosing the subject

a, Discuss with the pupils the factors or circumstances which
guide one in the selection and limitation of a subject for
a talk,

b, Take various broad subjects suggested by the members of the
group and limit these for possible pupil talks,

e, List a number of situations which provide opportunities for
speaking, Have students suggest different subjects suitable
for talks on those occasions,

d. Help the pupils realize that the subject matter, as well as
topic, must be suitable for the occasion by having them
suggest possible nain heads for a speech on the same topic
to be given, in one case, at a football banquet, and, in
another case, at a meeting of the Big Brother's Club,

e, Encourage the pupil to select topics he is really interested
in and about which he has some knowledge and experience
through discussing the advantages of so doing,

f, Help the student to recognize the value of thorough prepara-
tion by giving him opportunity to present a short talk after
only a brief time for preparation, and after an additional
amount of tine for improvement,

g, Analyze different types of audiences with the pupils and
help then to see how such an analysis aids in the preparation
and delivery of the speech,

h. Guide the pupils in the selection of topics on which a
sufficient amount of material is available, Suggest a
number of topics and allow the pupils time to visit the
library and to chech classroom materials to locate avail-
able subject matter. This investigation may result in the
necessity of eliminating some tonics suggested for talks
because of lack of subject matter,

i. Have pupils state in a few words the central idea of the
speech, Afterwards check and see if the others in the class
grasped this idea correctly as the speech was presented.

2. Selecting the material

a, Instruct pupils to consult numerous sources for needed

b. Train.the student to apply to life situations the ideas he
has accQired, thus utilizing his own observation and oxper-

c, Post an up-to-date list of available printed materials in
the school and local libraries.

d. Make a list of source materials found outside the classroom -
in the home, church, community, movies, radio, travel, etc.

e. Urge the pupils to take local trips for observation purposes,

f, Encourage -upils to listen to stimulating talks and radio
programs with idea. of finding material for future talls,

g. Ask pusils to interview or write to people who are espec-
ially qualified to give interesting and correct information
on certain subjects.

h, Visit local radio stations and write to network radio
stations for lists of informative and helpful radio broad-
casts. Keep a current list posted on the bulletin board.

i, IKeen -rofessional and speech magazines in the eseech class-
room as a helpful source of information,

J. Direct pupils to have note cards or some writing material
with then as they read or as they encounter materials which
might be useful, The regulation 3" x 5" card to be used
later in debating might be adopted early in the course, and
the classes should be instructed how to take and file notes.

3 Organizing the speech

n, With one pupil working at the board, have the class outline
a well-organized speech as it is road aloud from "Vital
Speeches,n the "Congressional Record," or other reliable
periodicals and books,

by Discuss the central theme of the speech outlined,

c, Decide upon a subject of interest to the entire class, and
working together, select the central theme. Outline the
composite speech on the board together,

d. Discuss the conclusions of several good speeches, noting
how to:

(1) Round off the subject
(2) Sunnarize the thene
(3) Stimulate response

c. Ask each pupil to write a conclusion for the speech which
the class outlined together, Discuss and choose the best

f, Discuss speech introductions, noting:

(1) Tho purpose of the introduction
(2) Why the introduction is planned last
(3) What ferns it nay take

g. Have pupils bring to class examples of spooches which begin
in various ways; such as, an anecdote, an apt quotation, a
question, a startling statement, a teaser, etc,

h, Ask each pupil to write an introduction to the composite
speech which the class outlined together.

i. Using the class as a laboratory period, have each pupil
outline the body of an original speech, write an appropriate
conclusion for it, and formulate an effective introduction.

4. Making the speech vivid

a. Hold a vocabulary natch to see which pupils can suggest the
greatest number of specific words for such general words as
bird, flower, tree, color, etc.

b. Ask pupils to contrast some short, well-known speech, such
as the "Gottysburg Address" and a well-written essay, such
as Enorson's essay on "Friendship", noting how in contrast
to written language, oral language is characterized by:

(1) Short sentences, so clearly organized that the meaning
can be understood at once.

(2) Frequent use of purposeful repetition.

(3) Euphony.

(4) Words which attract and hold the attention at once.

c. Encourage pupils to listen to dynmnic speakers and report
to the Class their use of illustrations, quotations, and

da Give the class an example of a dull speech of generalities
and have pupils re-write it, substituting specific for general
words, adding apt illustrations, putting in appropriate
quotations, using purposeful repetition, and securing sentence
variety which is clear and concise.

oe Assign original speeches which illustrate the use of quota-
tions, helpful questions, and meaningful repetition,

f. Criticize all class speeches, commending pupils for skilfull
use of specific oral language skills,

g. eeop a scrapbook or file of illustrative stories individually
or as a class.

h, Arrange for bulletin board displays of stories, quotations,
and cartoons on special subjects such as hunor, education,
politics, love, Encourage pupils to incorporate those illus-
trations in their speeches whore appropriate.

,. Hold class discussions analyzing the style of current well"
1nown speakers with colorful vocabularies and a wealth of
illustrative stories,



It is the purpose of this unit to acquaint the individual with the

various forms of occasional speaking, The extent to which this may be devel-

oped depends upon the organized course of speech in the particular school,

These are fundamental in nature, and they have boen so organized that the

teacher may use his own discretion in presenting the material either in part

or as a whole, Individual speaking is the foundation for public spealdng,


1. To develop the ability to respond properly to calls for individual
speech services in various situations.

2. To create an understanding of the acceptable form of selected
individual speeches as to both content and delivery.

3. To motivate the desire for using ones own potentialities as far
as individuality in speaking is concerned,


1, 0lass situations

a, Impromptu speeches
b. Reports
c. Directions

2. Cronpus situations

a, Oanpaign drives
b, Pop talks

3. Auditorium and club situations

a. Introductions
b, Announcononts
c, W'elcono; pooeches
d. Farcwoll speeches
.0 Prosont-ation and acceptance speeches

4. Social situations

a, Master of cororonioc
b. Dinner spoochos
c. Stories


Individual speaking situations help to shape thought, develop the

vocabulary, and improve the language used. To speak effectively the pupil

should choose a subject that is suited to the group and to the occasion.

The use of the voice, facial expressions and gestures, and the choice of

words combine to help connunicate the thought. Clarity is maintained by

using the sane tense, person, and point of view throughout the speaking


1. Class situations

a. Impromptu spoochoes Each pupil should be given the oppoi-
tunity to introduce himself and to toll things about his
personal life, his hobbies, and other things of interest.
If possible the speech should be recorded. It should be
played back for interest as well as for information. The
teacher will gain valuable information as to the needs of
the pupil, such as.his choice of words, diction, organiza-
tion of thought, and composition. Other types of subject
matter nay be used. The teacher nay supply the student with
a word or situation about which he is to give a complete
descriptive picture of his reaction toward it. The pupil
should be encouraged to keep infornod about a wide variety
of subjects and should frequently be given an opportunity
for the presentation of subject matter. The flash card
nothod is rccoroondod for use near the end of the period,
when time pornits.

b, Reportss Reports of conventions, official duties, trips,
observattion, and projects should give the pupil opportunity
for adequate, concise explanations, Reports on books,
essays, magazine articles, current events, plays, radio
programs, and lectures may be developed according to the
need and may be used at the discretion of the teacher as
a stopping stone for the unit in public speaking,

c. Diroctionst Careful consideration should be given to the
clarity of directions. One should have a thorough under-
standing of that about which he is attempting to give
directions. Ho should also renonbor that the oprson who
is receiving the directions is hearing them for the first
tino, The pupil should be afforded much practice in the
giving of directions.

2, Canpus situations

a. Campaign drives Since the high school elections offoerone
of the first opportunities for making campaign speeches, it
is suggested that an accepted form should be introduced.
In developing those annpaign speeches an opportunity is
offered for logical constructive reasoning in which one can
develop a wholosono attitude toward his follow nan.

b. Pop talks: Pupils nay be given an opportunity to mako pop
talks for athletic events, student elections, and club

3. Auditorium and club situations

a. Introductions: Introductions of friends can be mado a very
helpful and pleasant experience for the pupils. iTis expor.
once may load to the introduction of a speaker to an

b. Announcononts: Special stress should be placed upon the
making of announcements that are clear, concise, emphatic,
and to the point.

c, Wolcono speeches: Have the pupil welcome a now club memnbor,
a former classmate, or a returned veteran,

d. Farewell speeches: Give the pupil experience in making a
farewell speech to a friend who is moving away, going into
service, or leaving for college,

oe Presentation and acceptance speeches: Develop situations
in which the pupil presents a gift or a trophy to an individ-
ual or to an organization. Have a pupil respond with an
acceptance speech for each situation.

4. Social situations

a. Master of ceremonies: Give the pupil an opportunity to
oxerciso his ingenuity and originality by acting as master
of ceremonies or toastmaster at imaginary affairs. Entor-
tainncnts, radio programs, banquets, luncheons, teas, and
group activities in which one person represents the group
offer hin the opportunity to develop his ability for an
actual situation, Wherever possible this should be coordinat-
ed with activities of this nature in the school program.

b. Dinner speeches Have the pupil prepare a speech to be
given at a school or community affair before, during, or
after dinner.

c. Storicos As a.noans of acquiring social ease and establish-
ing happy relationships betwoon people, story-tolling is
very effective. It also cultivates a taste for bettor liter-
ature and aids greatly in developing personality. Sono
suggested activities in storytelling are as follows

Have the pupil

(1) Listen to a radio story and retell it to the class.

(2) In folk tales look for quaint words, old-fashionod
words, coined words, and picturesque expressions.

(3) Have story-telling contests.

(4) Divide the class into groups of six or eight, Give
each group a type of story to create,

Sono types of stories and story collections for use are as

"The Four Million," by 0. Henry
"Weo Willio Winkio," by Rudyard Kipling
Stories for the Bible
OBravo Men," by Ernie Pylo
"Myths of ITorthorn Lands," by H. A. Guorber
"Life Story of Thomns A. Edison," by F. A. Jones
"The Bottle Inp," by Robert Louis Stevenson
"The Masque of the Red Death," by Edgar Allen Poe



In planning this course in public speaking, it is assumed that the

student has completed fundamentals of speech and will review the basic

principles.before beginning actual participation in public speaking


In adapting this course of study to noet the individual situation, the

previous training of the group and the individual differences of the pupil

will be the basic factor in determining the exact procedure.

Public speaking offers opportunities, not only to learn workable

theory, but also for practice, which is by no means limited to the classroom,


1, To recognize the importance of public speaking in a democratic


2. To learn the characteristics of the various typos of public

3. To develop the ability to prepare and present those speeches in
the light of special audience situations,

4, To cultivate the habit of good listening,



Importance of Public Speaking
Listening to Spooches
Preparing Spooeches
Delivering Speeches
Types of Speeches



As modern inventions and institutions have made this a speaking age,

the ability to speak effectively in public is a valuable asset. In parti-

cular, the talking pictures and the radio have shown the powerful effect a

public speaker may have in molding public opinion.


1, To help the pupil recognize the importance and value of public

2. To create in the student a desire to use public speaking as a
means of self-development.


1. Importance of public speaking in life situations

a, Pupil organizations
b. School assemblies
c. Business and professional life
d. Civic organizations and institutions

2. Benefits of training in public speaking

a, Developing the habit of purposeful reading and listening
b, Developing the ability to discriminate between important
and unimportant facts
c, Developing the ability to think logically and to organize
facts well
d. Developing effective self-exopression


1. Importance of public speaking in life situations

a. Have pupils list and discuss school organizations and clubs
in which the ability to speak well before the group is a
great asset,

b, Encourage the pupils to address their clubs and organizations.
After each speech have a discussion evaluating the effect of
the speech, if possible*

c. Have pupils discuss recent assembly programs involving public
speaking, noting the effectiveness of the speech or speeches,

d. Have pupils make a list of occupations or professions in
which ability to speak well in public is essential,

e. Have the class discuss why public speaking is an asset to any
business or profession.

f, 'Have the class discuss the need of effective speakers in civic

g. Have tho class discuss the role of radio and public speeches
in molding public opinion;., .

h, Have the class discuss the part public speaking plays in the
government ofa democracy,

i. Have the. class listenn in" on a political convention or a
lawmaldng group, noting the important part played by effective

2. Benefits of training in public speaking

a. Through study.of effective speeches emphasize the fact that a
good speaker must become well-informed by purposeful reading
and listening,

b, Have pupils listen to a speaker and take notes on the speech,
Note whether the speech was well organized. Discuss how good
organization and effectiveness are related.

c. Haveopupils discuss speeches they have recently heard, com-_
paring the speakers as to fluency and as to ability to express
ideas clearly. Compare untrained and inexperienced speakers
with the trained and experienced,

d. Have pupils listen to several radio speeches, noting whether
the facts given were necessary to develop the subjects dis-

o. Have pupils listen to an assembly speaker, jotting down on
paper in separate lists the important and the unimportant
facts mentioned.

f. Havopupils make talks in class, using outlines. Emphasize
the importance of logical thinking and of effective organiza-



Speaking is only part of the communication cycle; listening completes

it. In any public speaking class, as in life, people will spend more time

on the listening end of the cycle than on the speaking end. Attention should

be given to cultivating good listening habits, for attentive listening is a

valuable asset in speech improvement.


1, To develop attentive and discriminating habits of listening.

2. To holp pupils understand that the responsiveness to communication
dotominos largely the compotonco of communication.


1. Inportanco of good listening habits

a* To speaker
b. To audience

2, Obligations of the listener

a, Tolerance of attitude
b, Freedon from distraction
C, Attention to content ind organization
d. Oooporation in questioning period
e. Evaluation of conclusion

3. Responses of the listener

a. Courteous responses

(1) Attentive facial expression
(2) Dignifiod body posture
(3) Appropriate laughter and applause
(4) Silence of disapproval

b. Discourteous responses

4~ Listening for entertainment

5p Listening for information

6. Listening for propaganda analysis

a, Tse of loaded words
br Appoal to inpolling notivos
Co Use of xnmc calling
d. Insinuation of false dilcnma


1. Ipportance of good listening habits

a. Have pupils deliver speeches to a courteous audience, Lot
them try to cornunicato the sane idea to a discourteous
audience. Record both and analyze to show how good listening
produces bettor speaking.

b. Have pupils attend a club or organization meeting and note
errors in parliamentary procedure or tine lost because of
poor listening on the part of the audience.

c. Ask pupils to evaluate the listening habits of the audience
when they offer class criticisms on their speeches,

2, Obligations of the listener

a. Ask pupils to listen to a speech by sonoone of an opposite
political, religious, or racial group. As a test of their
tolerance roequost then to write a criticism of the speech
and the audience, showing the good as well as the weak points
of the speech,

b. Have pupils analyze audience reaction at a debate or public
speaking contest between schools that are traditional rivals.

c, Hold class discussion about distractions in a given speech
situation such as, overheated roons, poor ventilation,
inadequate light, inability to hear. Have pupils suggest
what a courteous listener could have done to correct those

d. To chock their attention to content and organization, ask
pupils to nake outlines of a speech given before the school
assembly. Do not toll pupils in advance that this outlining
chock will be mado,

e, Ask an outside speaker to talk to the class, and without
previous notice to the class, invite pupils to join in a
questioning period,
f. Have pupils listen to two radio or public speeches on opposite
sides of a public question and nake a written evaluation of
the conclusions reached in each case,

3. Responses of listeners

a, Arrange for a class panel discussion followed by a forun on
courteous and discourteous audience habits. This night be
put on later before the entire school if the opportunity can
be nadeo

b, Have the pupils.nako notes on all the audience responses
observed for one week. Classify these responses as courteous
or discourteous,

c. Ask pupils to analyze a discourteous audience situation and
try to find the cause with the idea of olininating it in the

d. Ask pupils to deliver a speech before the class and allow the
class to hecie.

e. Encourage pupils to collect pictures which show various
audience responses. Ask then to study the attitudes of
individuals and connent on the responses indicated,

4. Listening for ontcrtainient

a. Ask pupils to observe and discuss audience attitudes at a
banquet speech or a humorous lecture.

b. HTav pupils naked self-analysis charts on the types of speeches
they enjoy nost,

c. Ask pupils to naked an inventory of the listening habits of
their families to see what radio programs they prefer and
the approximate amount of tine spent in listening for enter-

d. Assign a number of the class to give a speech of entertainment
before the school assembly and have other nembors observe and
discuss the audience reaction, Follow later with a speech to.
inform and let the pupils compare and contrast the difference
in audience attitude,

5. Listening for information

a* Assign expository speeches on how to make some article,
Ask various pupils to dononstrate by following the directions
given in the speech.

b. Make an oral assignment with specific directions, Ask the
pupils to repeat the directions exactly,

c. Havo pupils listen to a five-ninuto newscast without taking
notes. Ask then to write a brief summary of the most impor-
tant items,

d. Invite an outside speaker to talk to the class. Ask pupils
to write a precis of the talk at the conclusion without warn-
ing then beforehand that they are to do this,

e. Road a peon to the class, preceding the reading with facts of
the lifo of the writer that have no bearing on the content of
the poem. Have the pupils sutmarizo the content of the poemo
Chock then on their ability to grasp and give the content of
the poem rather than the facts of the author's life.

6, Iistoning for propaganda analysis

a. Have the class listen to and analyze a congressional debate
or a partisan radio program and nake a list of loaded words

b. Ask pupils to listen to radio cormorcials and bring examples
of appeals to the impolling motives of self-preservation,
wealth, power, or prestige. Discuss whether these appeals
wore based on the nerit of the product advertised.

c. Have pupils listen to a series of campaign speeches and list
all examples of nane-calling.

d, Ask pupils to analyze local or national partisan speeches for
examples of false dilcnna, insufficient proof, and illogical

oa Have pupils stage a nock political campaign using all the
tricks of propaganda, Follow through with a campaign on the
sane issues stripped of false propaganda.



Speeches lose their influence for better democratic living when parti-

cilants present only personal opinions instead of clarifying issues object-

ively, The subject natter,.as well as the presentation, must be given care-

ful consideration in speech,

If the group has already had the Fundamentals Course, a brief review

of the unit on Speech Composition nay servo as an introduction to this unit.

Otherwise a rather detailed study of basic principles of speech preparation

must be made,


To develop the ability to organize And present an effective platform

speech suitable for a given audience situation.


1 Doetomine the purpose of the speech, whether to entertain, inform,
impress, convince, or secure action.

2, Analyze the audiencoand occasion.

3, Choosing the subject.

4k Collecting the material.

5, Making an outline..

6. Wording the speech.


1, Detormine the purpose of the speech

a, Discuss thc purposes or general ends of speech
b. Lot the pupils hear several speeches and discuss the general
end of each.

2. Analyzo the audience and occasion

as Havo the group discuss different audiences to whom they
I night speak and analyze each

b. Let the pupils make a list of occasions for which a speech
niFht be prepared

c, Bavo u-w.ls sunmarize the steps so far discussed and select
a sub-oct and suggest ways of adjusting the subject chosen
from one situation to another

3. Choosing the subject

as Give the pupil a particular audience situation and a definite
occasion for which subjects must be chosen. Show how a
s-ooch for a certain occasion would havo to be adjusted to
different audiences

b. The following questions may help the pupils in selecting a

Is the topic worth attention?
Is there a definite purpose foi the speech?
Is the speaker interested in the subject?
Is suitable subject natter available?
Is the subject of interest to the specific audience?
Will it be appropriate to the specific occasion?

c. Eave the class select an occasion for making a speech and
list several possible subjects.

4. Collecting the material

a. Encourage each pupil to begin the collection of material
suitable and helpful in speech preparation. This nay be
filed in the speech classroom for use by all

b, Give opportunity for each pupil to learn the proper method
of selecting natorial and taking notes through practice

c. Suggest that each pupil keep an individual speech notebook
containing class notes, and helpful material and biblio-

5. Making an outline

a. Review steps in outlining given in Fndamentals Course on
Speech Composition

b, Have the class discuss the importance of an outline

c, Listen to various speeches for the purpose of outlining them

d. Read with the class various short speeches,holping pupils to
outline then

e. Have pupils choose a subject and outline a speech for a
definite occasion

6. Tording the speech

a. Have the pupils fill in the outline, keeping in nind the
importance of simplicity, grannatical construction and an
adequate vocabulary

b. Clip advertisements front a current magazine; for each one
list the types of imagery employed; explain how they made
use of this

c. In the library find speeches by eminent men. Conpare the
wording of these on the basis of (1) simplicity, (2) vivid
imagery, and (3) the use of loaded words

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs