Front Cover
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Purposes of teaching Spanish, General...
 The Teaching of Vocabulary
 The Teaching of Conversation
 The Teaching of Grammar
 The Teaching of Reading in...
 Extra-curricular Activities for...
 A: Spanish Dialogues
 C: Suggested Art Activities for...

Group Title: Its Bulletin, no. 52
Title: A brief guide to teaching Spanish in the secondary schools
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067236/00001
 Material Information
Title: A brief guide to teaching Spanish in the secondary schools
Series Title: Its Bulletin
Physical Description: v, 120 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1946
Subject: Spanish language -- Study and teaching -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067236
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 09320660
lccn - e 47000034

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
    Front Matter
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Purposes of teaching Spanish, General Discussion and Bibliography
        Page 1
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The Teaching of Vocabulary
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    The Teaching of Conversation
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    The Teaching of Grammar
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    The Teaching of Reading in Spanish
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Extra-curricular Activities for Spanish Classes
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    A: Spanish Dialogues
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    C: Suggested Art Activities for Extra-Curricular Use
        Page 119
        Page 120
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Chapter Page
I. Purposes of Teaching Spanish-General
Discussion and Bibliography ----------------------------------- 1
II. The Teaching of Pronunciation -. ..--------------------- 24
III. The Teaching of Vocabulary.------ -------------------. 29
IV. The Teaching of Conversation. ---- --------.----- ---- 33
SV. The Teaching of Grammar... ----- -.------------------ 37
*- VI. The Teaching of Reading in Spanish. --.------- 48
VII. Extra-Curricular Activities for Spanish Classes.- 53
VIII. Evaluation. --- -------------------------- ---------- 56
I. Spanish Dialogues. ---- ---------------------62
I. Unit on Geography of Mexico..... ------------------.-------- ..78
II. Unit on Sarmiento. -.------. ---------- --------- 80
- III. Unit on Spanish Background in Florida. -----. -85
IV. Unit on Fiestas. ------ -------------------- 89
V. Unit on Courtship Customs.------------- ----------.-- 92
VI. Unit on the Gaucho. -------------- ------------ 94
VII. Unit on Eugenio Maria De Hostos. -....--------.. --- .. 99
'- VIII. Unit on Jose Marti .--..---.. .....---....-..-------------- 102
IX. Unit on Subjunctive. ...... ........--------------------. 105
X. Latin-American Songs. --- --. ---.-------------110
I. Art Activities..... ....-------..-- ... .....------ -----.. 119




This bulletin was prepared to provide teaching aids and
supplementary materials for teachers of Spanish in the high
schools of Florida. Its immediate purpose is the improvement of
instruction in the use of the language as a living medium, leading
toward a better mutual understanding between peoples and of
cultures and ways of life of the three Americas. Reference to
the Table of Contents and the Introduction will provide a ready
insight into this unusual collection of content materials and
helpful methods.
The bulletin was prepared largely in response to an expressed
need on the part of the Florida Courses of Study Committee.
The actual preparation was done at The Florida State College
for Women under a grant from the Office of the Co-ordinator
of Inter-American Affairs which enabled scholarships to be offered
to outstanding Florida teachers. This took the form of an
"Inter-American Language and Art Workshop," of which an
organizational chart immediately follows, conducted from June
11 to July 20, 1945. Dr. Myra L. Yancey was Director of the
workshop and edited all materials. Thos. N. Morgan of this
Department acted as co-ordinator. A part of the cost of printing
of the bulletin came from a grant to this department from the
office of Inter-American Affairs. I consider this bulletin an ex-
ceptionally fine piece of work and it is my belief that it will do
much for the improvement. of instruction in the Spanish language.
I urge all teachers of High School Spanish in the State to make
free and regular use of it as a guide in planning and supplement-
ing their regular teaching program.

A^CU -t^J^J^

FSCW June 11-July 20

1. Sponsored by: School of Education and Department of Spanish, Florida
State College for Women, in collaboration with the Office of Inter-
American Affairs, Washington, D. C. and the State Department of
Education, Tallahassee, Fla.
2. Purpose: To offer teachers-in-service a "refresher" course with em-
phasis on Spanish conversation, and methods of teaching Spanish in
Florida in light of present day needs.
3. Location of Workshop: Demonstration School, Florida State College
for Women.
4. Materials: Books, pamphlets and other materials borrowed from
a. Library, FSCW.
b. Curriculum Laboratory Library, Demonstration School.
c. Private libraries of consultants.
d. Loan packets, Library Service Division, U. S. Office of Education.
e. Spanish Language Exhibition, U. S. Office of Education.
f. Materials for free distribution from U. S. Office of Education,
Office of Inter-American Affairs, U. S. Department of Labor,
Panagra, Mexican Tourist Association and other agencies.
5. Staff: Three staff members were employed for administrative and
instructional activities. In addition members of the regular college
faculty of Florida State College for Women were available for con-
ferences and lectures. Two visiting consultants came from the U. S.
Office of Education.
6. Participants: Ten applicants for work in the Workshop were awarded
scholarships of $50.00. Of these .ten, nine were teachers in Florida
High Schools, and one in the San Carlos Institute at Key West, Florida.
Two had had experience in teaching -Spanish to Spanish-speaking
pupils, and one the teaching of English to Spanish-speaking students.
There follows a complete list of the participants and the schools in
which they have been teaching:
1. Mrs. Hazel M. Alexander, Lake Wales High School, Lake Wales,
Florida, Spanish.
2. Mrs. Lois H. Boggs, Leon High School, Tallahassee, Florida, French.
3. Miss Ruth Boyd, Pompano High School, Pompano, Florida, Spanish
and history.
4. Mrs. Helen F. Campbell, Fort Pierce High School, Fort. Pierce,
Florida, Spanish.
5. Mrs. Jane B. Clothier, Bay County High School, Panama City,
Florida, Spanish.
6. Miss Angle Ferrara, Hillsborough High School, Tampa, Florida,
7. Miss Elizabeth A. Pierce, Bartow High School, Bartow, Florida,

8. Miss Benildes Remond, San Carlos School, Key West, Florida,
principal and Spanish.
9. Miss Margaret Spearman, New Smyrna High School, New Smyrna
Beach, Florida, Spanish.
10. Miss Virginia Speer, Baldwin High School,. Baldwin, Florida,
7. A list of staff members, lecturers, and visiting consultants follows:
a. Staff:
Dr. Myra L. Yancey, Director of the Workshop.
Associate Professor of Education, and Critic Teacher of Spanish,
Florida High, Demonstration School, FSCW.
Miss Carmen Rivera, Consultant, Conversation.
Former teacher of English and English Field Assistant, Depart-
ment of Education, Puerto Rico.
Miss Cynthia Reeves, Consultant, Latin American Art.
Critic Teacher, Demonstration School, FSCW.
b. Visiting Consultants from U. S. Office of Education:
Dr. Marjorie C. Johnston, Specialist in Spanish, Division of Inter-
American Education Relations.
Miss Allena Luce, Consultant on Teaching of Latin American Music.
c. Resident Faculty :
Dr. A. R. Seymour, Professor of Modern Languages.
Dr. Dorothy Hoffman, Associate Professor of Modern Languages.
Miss Margaret Campbell, Instructor of Modern Languages.
Miss Grace Fox, Instructor, Physical. Education.
Miss Sara Krentzman, Librarian, Curriculum Laboratory, Demon-
stration School.
Dr. H. F. Becker, Professor of Geography.
Mr. Thomas Morgan, State Department of Education.
Dr. Raymond Bellamy, Professor of Sociology.
Miss Frances Haynes, Reference Librarian.
Miss Elizabeth Hodges, Acting Associate Professor of Library
Miss Eleanor Wilkinson, Critic Teacher, Demonstration School.
8. Program: The Workshop participants worked as one group on three
related projects: (1) the preparation of material for a bulletin on
the teaching of Spanish in Florida high schools, for the State Depart-
ment of Education; (2) Spanish conversation; and (3) Latin
American Art.
Group discussions were held on the various aspects of teaching
Spanish, after which individuals prepared reports. Small committees
prepared units for teaching with the emphasis on life and contributions
of Spanish-speaking peoples of the Americas. Other materials were
individual contributions.
In the conversational project, daily oral activities were used, and
the group prepared short Spanish dialogues for use in high school
classes. It was felt that there was a need for such material which
could be used at spaced intervals for memorization. Since the con-
sultant for this project was a native of Puerto Rico, a frame of

reference was chosen to be "Life in Puerto Rico". Emphasis was
placed on the acquisition of information about Puerto Rican life, and
traditions common to most Spanish-speaking countries in order to
provide insights needed to understand more fully the peoples of those
countries. Additional oral use of Spanish by the participants was
made possible by a Spanish Table presided over by the consultant, and
by social activities in which Spanish could,be used.
The third project was a study of Latin American Art. After a
general discussion and trips to the collection of Incan relics recently
given to FSCW by Mr. and Mrs. J. V. Carter, Cristobal, C. Z., the
participants prepared a mural, block prints, stencil designs, masks,
and puppets depicting aspects of Latin American life and which could
be used in Spanish classes or extra-curricular activities.


Teachers of Spanish can contribute to the program of Inter-
American education more than any other group provided they use
informative, meaningful content materials on the Americas, and
provided they teach Spanish as a living medium for the under-
standing of the working of. other minds like and unlike our own.
By the use of meaningful content materials, and by the
teaching of Spanish so that insights are developed into the way
of thinking, the way of living in the other American nations,
teachers can build mutual respect and tolerant understanding.
Since teachers in a democracy are largely motivated by altruistic
purposes, teachers of Spanish can contribute to the building of
post-war friendship on a basis of sincerity and goodwill. It is
only on a long range program however, that the coming genera-
tions may be taught to understand the contributions to our life
from the other peoples of the Americas. By such a program
teachers of Spanish can overcome the idea that our Good Neighbor
Policy has been no more than a war emergency and can secure
greater respect on the part of other nations.
In order to carry out this program teachers of Spanish have
the obligation to teach our pupils that other Americans are seeking
the attainment of ideals similar to ours; we are obligated to help
our pupils to understand some of the forces that have controlled
the development of the Spanish American republics;-we are obli-
gated to help our pupils to interpret and appreciate the cultural,
social, scientific and economic contributions from the other nations.
The problems facing a functional Pan Americanism are more
than diplomatic or political. Not only must the youth of the
Americas be taught to live in accordance with the principles of
Pan Americanism, and as an extension, with the principles of
international cooperation, on a world-wide basis, but we must
also help the youth of the Americas to master one of the most
important tools for international understanding, that is, language.
Carlos Garcia Prada1 feels that schools in the Americas must study,
in addition to geography, resources and political relations, the
three languages of the Western Hemisphere, English, Spanish and
Portuguese. Sefiog Garcia Prada feels that a two year program
1. "Significant Languages", Washington State Curriculum Journal,
Seattle, Washington, V. I. No. 2, April 1942, pp. 19-20.

is .not adequate, and that even a six year program may be
As teachers of Spanish we recognize the fact that we may not
be able to have a six year program at once, but we maintain that
much more can be accomplished in our present two year program
than has been done. The learning of Spanish is not easy. It is
not just an educational frill as many people have thought. It is
the tool for the expression of democratic peoples. It is a subject
with more than a commercial value and should be taught as such.
The literature of Spain and Spanish America is notable for its
richness, vigor and originality, but even more important, this
literature reflects the social and political past and present.
The mastery of Spanish is not the whole story, but it is funda-
mental, essential and indispensable in a well-conceived program
of Inter-American cooperation.
It is for these reasons that emphasis has been placed on two
aspects of the teaching of Spanish: (a) content material on
Spanish America, and (b) methods of teaching Spanish which
'facilitate not only the acquisition of the ability to read for compre-
hension (not translation) but also to converse in Spanish. Much
of our thinking has been guided by the recommendations made
by the Commission on Trends for the Modern Language Associa-
tion of America.2 Although public schools cannot supply the
powerful motives at work in the ASTP in languages, nor the time
for such concentrated work, some of the Army's system can be
adapted to the teaching of Spanish in Florida's high schools.
Jacques Barzun, in his recent book, Teacher in America,3 has
3. Little, Brown, Boston, 1945, pp. 133-147.
expressed the educational value of knowing a foreign language
as follows:
"The ultimate educational value of knowing a foreign language
is that it ... points out ways of seeing and feeling that cannot be
perceived apart from the alien words that record the perception
. The scholastic assumption has been that the pupil studies
vocabulary and grammar, after which, like the journalist in
Pickwick who had to write on Chinese Metaphysics and looked up
first China, then Metaphysics, he 'combines his information'.
After vocabulary and 'forms' come practice sentences about books
being under the table and umbrellas belonging to every member

2. "A Survey of Language Classes in the Army Specialized Training
Program", Modern Language Journal, Feb. 1945, pp. 158-160.

of the family in turn So far, no meaning has raised its head
anywhere. The teacher does not really speak, he repeats the inane
remarks in the book; the pupils write this nonsense at home, .
on the blackboards, chant it in unison, and hate it at sight .
Far more than any other subject, language must be learned close
to its living source. (that is, be communicative) This does
not mean that the language teacher should ignore words and
rules ."
Mr. Barzun accounts for the failure of the so-called direct
method by the fact that the teacher did not always know how. to
direct himself without servile reliance upon the textbook. To Mr.
Barzun, the textbook should be a systematic exposition of the
subject that can be used as a reference book, in which the pupil
will easily find that which he is seeking.
"A language can be learned only by plunging into it, making
mistakes, and going on unabashed It will help if the learners
can meet often both in and out of the classroom, every day. It
will help, too, if a non-academic attitude be sustained. A club, for
instance, cannot be a stuffy adjunct to a class that is alive and
vice versa. They should both be 'breezy'."
The Post-War period will bring many adjustments in the edu-
cational field. It might be well to ponder over the opinion of one
young veteran who writes on the teaching of Spanish as he ex-
perienced it before Pearl Harbor, and as he expects to continue
with his study of the language:
"I always think of Miss saying that pronunciation
wasn't as important as mastering some obscure grammatical
principle, and Miss at the University rattling along in an
excellent Castilian and teaching us to write the language, but
leaving us speechless when it came to talking with someone. The
grammar never interested me greatly. Speaking the language
was my prime desire. Writing it was something that I could
work on later. Consequently I shone in oral reading and colloquial
conversation but went rapidly to the foot of the class when the
time came for written exercises and themes. I intend to learn
Spanish well when I return, but prefer to live with Spanish-
speaking people rather than sit before a professor and worry
about a tense.
Pharmacist's Mate 1/c, U. S. Navy



The history of the teaching of Modern Languages in the
United States can be divided into several periods in which the
following trends can be observed:
1. Use of the formal grammar method patterned on the study
of 'Latin.
2. Development of methods which were claimed to meet the need
of a spoken command of the language such as: natural, psy-
chological, series, phonetic and direct methods.
3. Evaluation of methods and achievements by the Modern Lan-
guage Study begun in 1924: It was concluded that results
achieved by previous methods or combinations of such methods
had been unsatisfactory. The reading method with a new
type of instruction was recommended. Unfortunately there
were too many interpretations of "reading".
4. Attempts to fit modern languages into the integrated social
studies or language arts programs.
5. The study of the implications of results obtained by the Army
Specialized Training Program.
Today the basic reason for teaching a modern language in the
United States can be found in the widespread interest aroused
by the radio, moving pictures, the need for study of languages
by the armed forces, as well as the study of the peoples who
speak those languages, and the possible use of modern languages
in the post-war world. These interests are so diverse that no
single type of foreign language course or method will satisfy all.
Our increasing world inter-dependence makes it desirable for us
to capitalize these interests in a program for cultural integration
or unification, and progress. Whether our purpose for teaching
Spanish is to teach our students to read, to speak, or write, we
must offer active practice, in reading, speaking or writing.
Moreover, this practice should be carried on by the use of content
materials which pertain to the country or countries where the
language is spoken. If we are to speak the language of Spanish-
Americans, we should use content materials that are about
For many students their high school classes in Spanish will be
terminal. For others they will be pre-vocational or preparation

outside of the school, then pupils will realize that American stu-
dents can learn another language or at least acquire a certain
facility in its use. Once this attitude toward the learning of
Spanish has been created, then aided by an understanding of the
essential semantic differences between Spanish and English, the
will to learn will be stronger.
Among the learning which some have considered valuable as
results of studying a foreign language are:
1. Habits of neatness in written work.
2. Habits of attention to such language mechanics as punctua-
tion, spelling, capitalization, handwriting.
3. A critical attitude toward correct usage in language, both
English and foreign.
4. An understanding of the nature of language.
5. Habits of consulting dictionaries, reference materials.
6. Better speech habits, pronunciation, enunciation, diction.
Obviously these learning in themselves are not sufficient reasons
for the study of Spanish. However, if by insisting upon habits
such as these, we can facilitate progress in learning to pronounce
Spanish more correctly, to read with better comprehension. or to
express ideas more clearly, we are justified. Nevertheless, an
over-emphasis on them may lead to teaching more about the
language than the language itself. Since Spanish is largely a
phonetic tongue, attention should be given to spelling but also to
the sounds represented.
As for developing a critical attitude toward correct usage in
Spanish, we should bear in mind that correct usage in a foreign
tongue does not necessarily guarantee a carry-over into English, or
from English into Spanish. The problem here lies in teaching
\i our students to see the need for correcusge, as the best way
- to commiiTicate ideas. We need to show how the Spanish say cer-
tain things and that their mode of expression indicates a different
way of looking at life.
Likewise, the learning of good speech habits in Spanish does
not guarantee better ones for English. Again, the reason for
good speech habits has to be recognized, that is, good speech habits
can convey meanings better than poor ones. In the process of
learning a foreign language, there will be little automatic transfer
of learning unless attention has been directed to that which the
two languages have in common.
If the study of Spanish conforms with the basic purposes for
which our schools are maintained, our students of Spanish should
be better equipped to:

1. Earn a comfortable living through socially useful work.
a 2. Work and live effectively in the home, school and community.
8 3. Develop desirable mental and physical health through ac-
\ tivities.
4. Become creative participants in some aspect of the social and
cultural life of the community.
S5. Solve social problems before they lead to national or world
\ crises.
It is obvious that vocational opportunities in the field of
language are not in reach of the high-school pupil. On the other
.hand, language study in high schools can be pre-vocational. Teach-
ers can explain to their pupils which vocations require Spanish
as a major responsibility, and which vocations involve frequent
contacts with the language. They can lay the basis for further
training if proper methods are used which stimulate pupils to
continue the study of Spanish beyond high school. A good aid
for guidance in this respect is the report, "Vocational Oppor-
tunities for Foreign Language Students", issued by the National
Federation of Modern Language Teachers.5
Teachers will be fulfilling the other purposes listed above if
the content materials and the activities used in high school classes
develop an understanding and appreciation of the contributions
of Spanish-speaking peoples living, not only in the other nations
of the Americas, but also in Florida.
There follows a list of sources for content materials and ac-
Stivities which can .be used to achieve these general purposes of
studying Spanish:
1. Worthy Use of Leisure: developing interests in:
a. Travel
(1) A classroom file of current periodicals, pamphlets, travel
agency literature.
a. See bibliography for list of Spanish American periodicals.
b. Inter American
c. Bulletin of Pan American Union (If possible, Spanish
d. Boletin del Club de Viajes pemex
e. American Nation Series, Pan American Union
f. Travel Letters (Spanish edition)
g. National Geographic (An Index of Articles relating to
Latin America, compiled by A. C. Wilgus, may be secured
from the U. S. Office of Education.)
h. Pamphlets from Panagra, Mexican travel agents, Mexican
Tourist Association, etc.
5. Modern Language Journal. Ferndinand F. Di Bartolo, Business Man-
ager, 284 Hoyt St., Buffalo 13, N. Y., 25 cents.

.(2) A classroom library of books on Latin Arlerican countries.
in English and Spanish. (See General Bibliography)
(3) Attendance of lectures on Spanish American countries.
(4) Ehjoyment of travel films: Films may be obtained from:
a. General Extension Division, U. of Florida. (English and
Spanish Sound Track)
b. Pan American Union
c. Pan American Airways, N. Y. (Publicity Department)
d. Eastman Kodak, Rochestei, N. Y.
e. Erpi Classroom Films, Inc., 35 35th Ave., N. Y.
f. For further reference see: The Other Americas Through
Films and Records, American Council on Education, Wash..
D. C. 1943.
(5) Reports on actual travel in Spanish American countries by
teacher, pupils, and others.
b. Spanish American Literature
(1) In translation
a. Neighbors, a Self Portrait (Discussion and Bibliography)
b. Latin American Belles-Lettres in English Translation
Library of Congress, 1942. (May be obtained through U. S.
Office of Education.)
c. Bibliography and Units for the study of Latin American
Literature for Teachers and English in Chicago Public
Schools. (See General Bibliography)
d. Palma, Ricardo.-The Knights of the Cape. Knopf, 1945
e. Hudson, W. H.-Tales of the Gauchos. Knopf, 1945
f. Anthology of Contemporary Latin American Poetry. Edited
by D. Fitts, New Directions, 1946
g. Alegria, C.-Broad and Alien is The World
--The Golden Serpent
h. See Units on Sarmiento, MartI, Appendi:r B
i. Consult Bibliographies available from Pan American Union,
U. S. Office of Education.
j. Consult current issues of Hispania, Inter-American, School
Life for new publications.
(2) Adapted Readings in Spanish:
a. Tradiciones peruanas, in:
1. Spain and America (Arjona et al.)
2. El Camino Real (Jarrett) v.2
3. Lecturas escogidas (Kasten and Neale-Silva)
b. La navidad en las montaias, in:
1. Spain and America (Arjona)
c. Adaptations from Manuel Ugarte, Hugo Wast, Salvador
Reyes, Horacio Quiroga, Ernesto Montenegro, Ernesto
Morales, Francisco Barnoya Gilvez, Vicente Riva Palncio,
and others, El Camino Real (Jarrett) v.2.
d. Spanish American Life (Crow)
e. Maria (Isaacs). Oxford Rapid-Reading Text
f. El gaucho y la pampa (Keating and Neale-Silva)

1. See unit on The Gaucho. Appendix B
g. La venganza de los c6ndores (Ventura Garcfa Calder6n) in
Spain and America (Arjona)
h. Lecturas escogidas (Keating and Neale-Silva)
c. Spanish as an avocation
(1) Crossword puzzles
a. Rompecabezas (Espinosa)
b. Crucigramas fdciles (Rodrfguez)
c. Spanish American magazines
(2) Study of sport terms adopted from the English by the Spanish
a. El camino real, v.2 (Jarrett), p. 275
b. Spanish American periodicals
(3) Study of Spanish words used in English
a. Spain and America (Arjona) p. 97
b. A New Approach to Spanish, First Year ((Cabot and
Fanning), pp. 24-6, 275
c. Spanish Book One (Arjona et al.), p. 3(;6
d. iVamos a Leer! (Leavitt and Stoudemire) p. 39
e. Spanish Civilization (Staver) Book I, p. 28
f. Modern Languages for Modern Schools (Kaulfers) pp.
160-171 (Spanish words for types of people, clothing, geo-
graphical terms, animals, foods, buildings, sports, place
g. Quinito en Amdrica (Wilkins) pp. 148-151
h. Pan American Spanish (Brady) pp. 34-5.
(4) Games, riddles
a. Mother Goose on the Rio Grande (Alexander)
b. Pan American Spanish (Brady) pp. 261-3
c. El camino real (Jarrett), v.1, pp. 52-5, 61-4
d. Oral Spanish (Johnson)
e. Merry-go-round of Games in Spanish (Vogan)
f. Tentative Course of Study for the Teaching of Spanish
ni Grades 3-8 (Texas)
g. Spanish American Song and Game Book (WPA Writers'
Program, New Mexico)
h. Children's Games from Latin America (Millen)
i. Songs and Games of the Americas (Henius)
j. Learn-a-lingo, (Stephens)
k. Games for Spanish Clubs (Sparkman)
1. Fun and Festival from the other Americas (Wright)
m. Helo Aqui, and Conteste por favor. Gessler Publishing Co.,
Hastings on Hudson, N. '.
(5) Correspondence between students
a. Exchange of letters between students of Florida high
schools: Arrangements might be made with Hillsborough
High School, Tampa, for Spanish letters from Spanish-
speaking students of that school.
b. Correspondence with students of Latin American countries.
Arrangements may be made through:

1. Argentine-American Cultural Institute, Maipu 686,
Buenos Aires.
2. The Caravan International Correspondence Club, 132
E. 65th St., N. Y. C.
3. Christian Science Monitor, Mail Bag, Boston, Mass.
4. El Eco, Odyssey Press, 386 Fourth Ave., N. Y. C.
5. International Friendship League, 11 Mt. Vernon St.,
Boston, Mass.
6. Junior Red Cross, Washington, D. C.
7. National Bureau of Educational Correspondence, George
Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn.
c. Students will have to be prepared for time involved, and
to expect that not all letters will be answered. Some are
answered, however, and can be used for class materials.
Efforts should be made to have students exchange informa-
tion that is significant. Spanish classes may act as trans-
lators of letters received by other students.
(6) Radio, motion pictures, songs, records
a. Arrangements should be made for announcements of spe-
cial programs. Pupils can report on words or ideas under-
stood on radio programs. .
b. Study of Spanish words used in "wild west" shows and
c. Use of Spanish records of music in class as a means of
learning not only the music but also vocabulary, pro-
1. For source materials see:
a. Loan Packet on Music, U. S. Office of Education.
b. The Other Americas through Films and Records,
American Council on Education, Washington, D. C.
c: Decca Record Catalogue, Castellanos-Molina Music
Shops, 45 W. 116th St., N. Y. C.
d. Use of records and films to study the language
1. Pronunciation: Navarro Tomfls Records, Linguaphone
Institute, 88 RCA Bldg., N. Y. C. ($15.00)
2. Hablemos espaiol: Texas State Department of Educa-
tion, Division of Audio-Visual Aids. (Also contains
3. Instructo-film: Precision Film Laboratories, 21 W. 46th
St., N. Y., First Spanish Lesson
4. Linguaphone Spanish Language Records.
5. Decca Recorded Spanish Method. Spanish Music Center,
1291 6th Ave., N. Y. C.
e. Spanish-sound track films: see: Hispania, Oct. 1944, pp.
419-421 for article listing such films to be obtained from
the Extension Division, University of Florida; Audio-Visual
Aids, Extension Division, Universty of South Carolina.
f. Victor Albums: Spanish Through Music; Fiesta in Chile,
Bolivia and Peru.

(7) Clubs, forums, assembly programs.
a. Junior Red Cross
'b. Boy and Girl Scouts
c. Pan American Student League
d. Programs, exhibits for assembly, PTA and other civic clubs
e. Source materials:
1. See chapter on Extra-curricular activities.
2. U. S. Office of Education Loan Packets No. 12, 13, 14.
3. Plays
a. Dos pasos de comedia (Brady)
b. Piececitas espaiolas fdciles (Henry)
c. El camino real (Jarrett), v.1, pp. 445-449
v.2. 34, 104, 248, 368, 488, 518-520
d. Sal y sabor de Mexico (Jarrett)
e. Plays of the Dons (Jones)
f. Tonguetied in Mexico (Jones)
g. Horas Encantadas (Coughran)
h. Escenas cortas; Cuadros c6micos. Gessler Pub. Co.,
Hastings on Hudson, N. Y.
4. Spanish Club Manual (Roach)
(8) Spanish language as an art
a. Use of activities that lead to interest in correct usage.
b. Use of activities that lead to interest in the development
of language.
1. References
a. The Heritage of Spain (Adams)
b. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning)
pp. 273-5
c. Spanish Book Two (Arjona et al.) pp. 13-16
d. Spanish Civilization, Book 3 (Staver) pp. 1-4
2. Subjects leading to understandings and appreciations of the
contributions of Spanish-speaking peoples, social and physical
problems of their countries, Inter-American relations.
a. Spanish background in the United States.
(1) Early Spanish explorers and settlers
a. References
1. See Unit on Spanish Background in Florida, Appendix B
2. Spain and America (Arjona et al.) pp. 96-132
3. Mastering Spanish (Bedichek and Campa) pp. 1-50,
4. Pan American Spanish (Brady) pp. 138-141, 160-162
5. A New Approach to Spanish, First Year (Cabat and
Fanning) pp. 138-142
6. Spanish Book One (Arjona et al.) pp. 328, 363-6
Spanish Book Two, pp. 327-330
7. The Pageant of Spain (Grismer and Arjona)
8. A History of Latin America for Schools (Inman) pp.
9. El camino real (Jarrett) v.2, pp. 38-47, 55-59


10. Romance of the Floridas (Kenney)
11. Espaiia y el Nuero Mutdo (Knight)
12. Spanish Civilization (Staver) Book 2. pp. 1-5, 18-19
13. Quinito en Amdrica (Wilkins) pp. 155-159
(2) Influence of Spanish settleinents in the U. S.
a. References
1. Spain and America (Arjona et al.) pp. 133-192; 226-223
2. Mastering Spanish (Bedichek and Campa) pp. 114-11(,
10-12, 22-24, 176-223, 272-274, 287-289, 325-327. 393-401,
3. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning) First
Year, pp. 21-26
4. Spanish Book One (Arjona et al.) pp. 364-306
5. El camino real (Jarrett) v.l, pp. 415-422
6. Old Spain in our Southwest (Otero)
7. Spanish Civilization (Staver) Book I, pp. 5-7
8. Quinito en Amdrica (Wilkins) pp. 73-74, 64-67, 124-125,
170-174, 165-166
9. Building America, v.8, no. 5: Our Minority Groups;
Spanish Speaking People.
10. Some pamphlets on the contributions of Sp.ili---pl.;i-
ing citizens of the U. S. may yet be secured from the
U. S. Office of Education. If not still available they
are to be found in Loan packets of U. S. Office of
Education on Social Studies.
(3) Contributions of Spanish Missions in the U. S.
a. References
1. Spain and America (Arjona et al.) pp. 151-153
2. Mastering Spanish (Bedichek and Campa) pp. 233-244,
3. Spanish Book Two (Arjona et al.) pp. 327-330
4. El camino real (Jarrett) v.2, pp. 55-59
5. Quinito en Amdrica (Wilkins) pp. 142-145, 198-200;
b. Religious life of Spanish-speaking peoples
(1) Place names
a. References
1. Mastering Spanish (Bedichek and Campa) pp. 512-521
2. Pan American Spanish (Brady) pp. 37-38
3. El camino real, v.1 (Jarrett) pp. 246-249
4. Old Spain in our Southwest (Otero) pp. 92-102
5. Spanish Civilization (Staver) Book I, pp. 27-28
6. Quinito en Amdrica (Wilkins) pp. 178-179
7. Modern Languages for Modern Schools (Kaulfers) pp.
(2) Personal names
a. References
1. Spanish for Today (Coates) p. 322
2. El camino real (Jarrett) v.1, p. 226


(3) Church as the center of: the tbwli in Spanish settlements
a. References
1. Quinito en America (Wilkins) pp. 232-233
2. Modern Languages for Modern Schools, pp. 172
(4) Religious origin of oaths, exclamations
c. Traditional customs and attitudes of Spanish peoples
(1) Miscellaneous courtesy forms
a. References
1. Inter-American 1944-45 (Short articles of interest)
2. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning)
First Year, pp. 102-109, 240-243
3. Spanish Book One (Arjona et al.) pp. 350-352
Spanish Book Two, pp. 206-209
4. El camino real (Jarrett) v.1, pp. 158, 148, 445-449; v.2,
pp. 14-24, 69-75, 83-88, 417-418
5. Sal y sabor de Mexico (Jarrett) pp. 19-20
6. Spanish Civilization (Staver) Book I, pp. 12-13
(2) Courtship customs
a. See Unit on Courtships, Appendix B
b. The Golden Serpent (Alegria) pp. 24-58
c. America South (Beals) pp. 307-308
d. Cocks and Bulls in Caracas (Bricefio) pp. 42-58
e. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning) First
Year, p. 104
f. Chile (Fergusson) pp. 37, 246
g. Pattern of Mexico (Gessler) pp. 80, 88-89, 93
h. El camino real (Jarrett) v.1, pp. 374, 445-449; v.2, p. 335
i. Sal y sabor de Mexico (Jarrett) pp. 87-93
j. Old Spain in our Southwest (Otero) pp. 39-44
k. Argentina (White) pp. 18-19
(3) Gestures
a. Pan American Spanish (Brady) pp. 352-355
b. Sal y sabor de Mexico (Jarrett) pp. 174-175
(4) Siestas
a. Understanding reason for siestas
b. References
1. El camino real (Jarrett) v.1, pp. 90-91
(5) Significance of family names
a. References
1. Spanish for Today (Coates) 320-322
2. Contrastes (Collins and Morales) pp. 26-28
3. JM camino real (Jarrett) v.1, pp. 226-229, 208
4. Conversational Spanish for the Army Air Forces of
the U. S. (Lipp and Besso) p. 107
5. Quinito en America (Wilkins) pp. 3-4
(6) Fiestas
a. See unit on Fiestas, Appendix B
b. Other references

1., Christmas
a. Spain and America (Arjona et al.) pp. 312-322, 330
b. Christnmastide (Brady)
c. Pan American Spanish (Brady) pp. 67-68
d. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning)
First Year, pp. 506-508
e. Contrastes (Collins and Morales) pp. 78-92
f. See: Spanish Dialogues: Appendix A, "El asalto de
Luisa", "Los Reyes Magos".
g. Chile (Fergusson) pp. 236-247
h. El camino real (Jarrett) v.1, pp. 278-292; v.2, pp.
i. Sal y sabor de Mdxico (Jarrett) pp. 29-44
2. Saints' Days
a; Spanish Book Two (4rjona et al.) pp. 180-183
b. El camino real (Jarrett) v., .pp. 2, 111-113, 116-119,
c. Old Spain in our Southwest (Otero) pp. 78-82
3. Other holidays
a. See unit on fiestas, Appendix B
b. The Golden Serpent (Alegria) pp. 120-137
c. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning)
First Year, pp. 106-108, 244-247
d. Spanish for Today (Coates) pp. 331-371
e. Contrastes (Collins and Morales) pp. 34-37
f. Fiesta in Mexico (Fergusson)
g. Selected List of Latin American Song Books and
References for Guidance in Planning Fiestas, 3rd ed.,
Music Division, Pan American Union.
h. Spanish Book One (Arjona et al.) pp. 316-319
Book Two, pp. 158-161
i. El camino real (Jarrett) v.1; pp. 196-199
j. Sal y sabor de M4xico (Jarrett) pp. 122-137.
k. Spanish Civilization (Stayer) Book 1, pp. 24-25
d. Contributions of Spanish Americans in the scientific field
(1) References
a. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning) Second
Year, pp. 137-139
b. Current issues of the Inter-American
e. Art
(1) References on Mexican artists and their contributions to us
a. Diego Rivera
1. Spain and America (Arjona et al.) pp. 291-292
2. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning) First
Year, pp. 501-2
3. Pattern of Mexico (Gessler) pp. 136, 139, 141, 152,
206-207, 392, ,410
4. Beginning Spanish (Hendrix) pp. 78-79
5. Modern Mexican Art (Schmeckebier) pp. 110-155

6. Quinito en America (Wilkins) p. 272
b. Jos6 Clemente Orozco
1. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning) First
Year, p. 502
2. Pattern of Mexico (Gessler) pp. 93, 138, 140-141, 392-3,
3. Modern Mexican Art (Schmeckebier) pp. 52-109
c. Montenegro
1. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning)
First Year, pp. 502-503
d. Handicraft and arts of the Spanish American Indian
1. References
a. El camino real (Jarrett) v.1, pp. 395, 432-437
b. Sal y saobor de Mdxico (Jarrett)
c: -School Arts, Nov. 1940, 1941
d. See: Loan packet No. 8, on Art, U. S. Office of
e. General aspects of Spanish American art '
1. References
a. Pan American Spanish (Coates) pp. 106-107
b. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning)
Second Year, pp. 352-355
c. Spanish American Life (Crow) pp. 69-74
d. America Hispana (Franck) pp. 250-252
e. Pattern of Mexico, pp. 377-110
f. A History of Latin America for Schools (Inman)
pp. 384-395
g. The Latin American Collection of the Museum of
Modern Art (Kirsten)
h. Arts, Crafts and Customs of Our Neighbor Republics
6 (Lasalle). A Bibliography
i. Guatemala Arts and Crafts (Lemos)
j. Twenty Centuries of Mexican Art (Museum of
Modern Art)
k. Guatemalan Textiles (Osborne)
1. Modern Mexican Art (Schmeckebier)
m. Loan Packet number 8, U. S. Office of Education
f. Latin American Music
(1) General references
a. Spain and America (Arjona et al.) pp. 333, 337-338
b. The Music of Spain (Chase) Has one chapter on Spanish
American music.
c. Chile (Fergusson) pp. 237-239
d. America Hispana (Franck) pp. 231-232
e. Pattern of Mexico (Gessler) p. 262
f. Latin American Music Past and Present (Hague)
g. A History of Latin America for Schools (Inman) pp.
396-402, 413-414
h. El camino real (Jarrett) v.2, pp. 111, 123-124, 193-195

i. Latin American Music. Series published by Pan American
j. Loan Packet number 6, U. S. Office of Education
k. See general bibliography for list of song collections
g. Spanish American Literature
(1) General references
a. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning) First
:Year, pp. 500-501, Second Year, pp. 324-333
b. Spanish American Life (Crow) pp. 183-244
c. Chile (Fergusson) pp. 17-28
d. An Outline History of .m',1,I, American Literature
e. A History of Latin America for Schools (Inmnan) pp.
f. Lectures escogidas (Kasten and Neale-Silva)
g. El gaucho y 1i pampa (Keating)
h. A New World Literature (Sainchez). Pamphlet
i. Latin America (Schurz) pp. 360-365
j. A Guide to Studies in Spanish American Literature
k. La clave Pan Americana (Williams and Roa y Mendoza)
pp. 360-362
1. Poetry. Latin American Number. May, 1943
m. Loan Packet, U. S. Office of Education
h. Spanish American Architecture
(1) General References
a. The New Architecture of Mexico (Born)
b. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning)
Second Year, p. 503
c. El camino real (Jarrett) v.1, pp. 208-211, 318, 331, 217-226;
v.2, p. 183, 210, 315, 321, 326, 387, 407, 409, 412, 444
i. Education in Spanish America
(1) General references
a. Current issues of Inter-American
b. America South (Beal) pp. 321-340
c. A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning) First *
Year, pp. 497-498; Second Year, pp. 137, 174, 204, 209, 245-
246, 251, 274-275, 279, 302, 306
d. Spanish American Life (Crow) pp. 5-67
e. Chile (Fergusson) pp. 159-171, 194-200, 226-228
f. America Hispana (Franck) pp. 82-83
g. Pattern of Mexico (Gessler) pp. 336-338
h. A History of Latin America for -Schools (Tnman) p. 72
i. El camino real (Jarrett) v.2. pp. 25-28, 30. 33, 455
j. Latin America (Schurz) pp. 348-355
k. Education in Latin America. Loan Packet No. 18, U. S.
Office of Education.
j. Spanish American Dance
(1) America South (Beals) pp. 164-167

(2) Chile (Fergusson) pp. 181-189; 256-259
(3) The Golden Serpent (Alegria) Several excellent chapters
(4) Fiesta in Mexico (Fergusson)
(5) America Hispana (Franck) pp. 44-45, 79, 97-100, 114-116,
(6) A History of Latin America for Schools (Inman) pp. 412-413
(7) Regional Dances of Mexico (Johnston)
3. Subjects leading to improvement of social environment through
the development of attitudes and understandings such as:
a. Openmindedness. tolerance leading to Inter-American friendship.
(1) More sympathy and fairer treatment of fellow students or
citizens of Spanish background.
b. Worthy ideals for motivation of conduct as revealed through
life and philosophy of Spanish American peoples.
c. Realization of the oneness of human nature--Spanish-speaking
peoples as well as North Americans cherish the right to life,
liberty, and pursuit of happiness.
d. Appreciation rather than depreciation of the language and cus-
toms of Spanish-speaking peoples.
e. Appreciation of the effects of climate and health problems on
the life of Spanish Americans.
f. Appreciation of wholesome traits of Spanish-speaking citizens of
the Western Hemisphere which have bearing on mental health
and which might have emphasis in our own life.
(1 ) Moderatfon in personal habits
(2) Enjoyment of simple pleasures
(3) Community love and encouragement of music, folk dancing
and the arts.
(4 ) Unhurried attitude toward life
( 5 ) Wholesome family life
g. General references
( 1 ) The Golden Serpent (Alegria)
( 2 ) America South (Beals)
(9) Pan American Spanish (Brady) pp. 294-301, 198-202
(4 ) The Wind that Swept Mexico (Brenner)
(5 ) Spanish American Life (Crow) pp. 3-96, 149-152, xiv-xx
(6 ) A Latin American Speaks (Quintanilla)
(7 ) Latin America. Twenty Friendly Nations (Cutright and
( 8 ) Latin America (Schurz)
( 9 ) Chile (Fergusson)
(10) Fiesta in Mexico (Fergusson)
(11) This Way to Latin America (Follett)
(12) America Hispana (Franck)
(13) Mexico Speaks (Rosa)
(14) Pattern of Mexico (Gessler)
(15) Cocks and Bulls in Caracas (Bricefo)
(16) Latin America (James)
(17) Spain in our Southwest (Otero)

(18) Argentina (White)
(19) Social and Labor Problems of Peru and Uruguay (Cannon)
Pamphlet, U. S. Dept. of Labor
(20) A New Approach to Spanish (Cabat and Fanning) Second
Year, pp. 136-137, 174, 244, 19-25. First Year, pp. 568-569
A. GenBral Bibliography
1. Adams, N. B.-The Heritage of Spain. Henry Holt and Co. 1943.*
2. Alegrla, Ciro.-Broad and Alien is the World. Farrar and Rinehart,
3. .-The Golden Serpent. Farrar and Rinehart, 1943.
4. Alexander, F.-Mother Goose on the Rio Grande. Banks Upshaw,
5. Amigos inolvidables. Asociaci6n de Difusi6n Interamericana. Buenos
Aires. (Distributed by the Office of Inter-American Affairs. In-
cluded in Loan Packets of U. S. Office of Education.)
6. Amner, D., and Staubach, C.-Revista de America. Ginn, 1943.*
7. Arjona, D. K.-Siglo de aventuras. MacMillan, 1943.
8. Arjona, D. K., et al.-Spain and America. Scott Foresman, 1940.
9. Bailey and Selover. Viviendas del present. Wilcox and Follett,
10. Beals, C.-America South. Lippincott, 1938.
11. Bedichek, L. G., and Campa, A. L.-Mastering Spanish. MacMillan,
12. Blackwell, A.-Some South American Poets. University of Penn-
sylvania Press, 1937.
13. Born, E.-The New Architecture of Mexico. Wm. Morrow, 1937.
14. Brady, A.-Christmastide. Banks Upshaw, 1937.
15. .-Dos pasos de comedia. La Luz Pub. Co., 1937.
(Obtained from Banks Upshaw.)
16. .-Pan American Spanish. Appleton-Century, 1941.*
17. Brenner, A.-Your Mexican Holiday. G. P. Putnam, 1936.
18. Brenner, A., and Leighton, G. R.-The wind that Swept Mexico.
Harper, 1943.
19. Bricefo, O.-Cocks and Bulls in Caracas. Houghton Mifflin, 1945.
20. Brown, E.-Inter-American Cooperation in the High Schools. U. S.
Office of Education Bulletin 97.
21. Brown, H. M.-Latin American Neighbors. Houghton Mifflin, 1944.
22. Building America. 2 W. 45th St., N. Y.
23. Cabat, L., and Fanning, G.-A New Approach to Spanish. First
and Second Year. American Book Company, 1945.
24. Carson, R. L.-Fabulous Florida. Manfred Van Nort, Dallas, 1942.
25. Castillo, C.-Antologia de la literature mexicana. University of
Chicago Press.
26. Castillo, C., and Sparkman, C. F.-Graded Spanish Readers. D. C.
Heath, 1936-to date.
27. Chase, G.-The Music of Spain, 1942.
28. .-A Partial List of Latin American Music. Music
Division; Library of Congress.

* May be borrowed from State Department of Education.

29. Club de Viajes Pemex. Artlculo 123, Apartado 55, Mexico, D. F.
(monthly pamphlet).
30. Coates, M.-Spanish for Today. Harpers, 1942.*
31. Collins, H. B., and Morales, M.-Contrastes. Henry Holt, 1945.*
32. Crow, J. A.-Spanish American Life. Henry Holt, 1941.
33. Cusack, A. M., and Stumpf, A. E.-Down South America Way.
Wheeler, Chicago, 1942.
34. Cutright, P., Charters, W. W. and SAnchez, C. I.-Latin America,
Twenty Friendly Nations. MacMillan, 1944.*
35. Duran, G.-Fourteen Traditional Spanish Songs from Texas. Music
Division, Pan American Union, 1938.
36. .-List of Recordings of Latin American Songs
and Dances. Music Division, Pan American Union.*
37. Espinosa, J. M.-Rompecabezas espailolas. Allyn and Bacon. n.d.
38 Fergusson, E.-Chile. Knopf, 1943.
39. .-Fiesta in Mexico. Knopf, 1934.*
40. Fernandez de Lizardi,-The Itching Parrot. Doubleday, 1942,
41. Follett, H.-This Way to Latin America. Geo. Grady Press, N. Y.,
42. Frank, W.-Tales from the Argentine. Farrar and Rinehart, 1930.
43. .-America Hispana. Scribners, 1931.
44. Friedman, R. L., Arjona, D. K. and Carvajal, S.-Spanish Book One,
Two. Scott Foresman, 1936.
45. Garner, B. A.-Mexico. Houghton Mifflin, 1937.
46. Gaztambide y Aran.-La isla de Puerto Rico. Rand McNally, 1941.
47. Gessler, C.-Pattern of Mexico, Appleton-Century, 1941.
48. Goetz, A.-South of the Border. MacMillan, 1940.
49. Granler, J. A.-Latin American Belles Lettres in English Transla-
tion. Bibliographical Series No. 1 Library of Congress, 1942.
50. Griffin, C. E.-Concerning Latin American Culture. Columbia Uni-
versity Press, 1941.
51. Grismer, R. L., and Arroya, C.-Buenos amigos, buenos vecinos.
American Book Company, 1943.
52. Grismer, R. L., and Arjona, D. K.-Pageant of Spain, Crofts, 1942.
53. Grismer, R. L.-Sailing the Spanish Main. MacMillan, 1941.*
54. Hague, E.-Latin American Music, Past and Present. Fine Arts
Press, Santa Ana, Calif., 1934.
55. Hall, G., and Ofiate, J. A.-First Spanish Graded Reader. Crowell,
56. Harrison, S.--Mxico Simpatico. D. C. Heath, 1930.
57. _.-Lindas tierras de Mexico. D. C. Heath, 1944.*
58. Hendrix, W. S.-Beginning Spanish. Latin American Culture.
Harper, 1943.
59. Henius, F.-Songs and Games of the Americas. Scribners, n.d.
60. Henry, R.-Piececitas espafiolas faciles. Allyn and Bacon, 1924.
61. Hespelt, E. H., et al.-An Outline History of Spanish American
Literature. Crofts, 1941.

May be borrowed from State Department of Education.

62. Hombres de las Americas que lucharon por la democracia. (Pamph-
let, distributed by the Office of Inter-American Affairs. Included
in Loan Packets of U. S. Office of Education.)
63. Huebener, T., and Morales, M. T.-Grandes latinoamericanos. Holt.
64. Inman, S. G., and Castafiada, C. E.-A History of Latin America
for Schools. MacMillan, 1944.*
65. James, C. R.-An Annotated Bibliography of Latin American Lit-
erature. Division of Intellectual Cooperation, Pan American Union,
66. James, P. E.-Latin America. Odyssey Press, 1942. (Geography)
67. Jarrett, E. M.-Sal y sabor de Mexico. Houghton Mifflin, 1944.*
68. .-El camino real. v. 1-2. Houghton Mifflin, 1943.*
69. Johnson, W. A., and Thompson, D. F.-Oral Spanish. Tardy Pub.
Co., 1936. (May be obtained through Banks Upshaw, Dallas.)
70. Johnston, E.-Regional Dances of Mexico. Banks Upshaw, 1935.*
71. Jones, W. K.-How to Study Spanish. Tardy Pub. Co., 1935. (Ob-
tained from Banks Upshaw, Dallas.)
72. .-Plays of the Dons. Tardy Pub. Co., 1934. (Ob-
tained from Banks Upshaw.)
73. __.-Tonguetied in Mexico. Elridge Entertainment
House, Franklin, Ohio, 1944. (Bilingual play)
74. Kany, C. E.-Elementary, Intermediate, and Advanced Spanish Con-
versation. D. C. Heath, 1939.
75. .-Spoken Spanish for Travelers and Students.
D. C. Heath, 1943.
76. Kasten, L. C., and Neale-Silva, E.-Lecturas escogidas. Harper, 1945.
(rev. ed.)*
77. Keating, L. C., and Flores, J. S.-El gaucho y la pampa. American
Book Co., 1943.*
78. Kirsten, L.-The Latin American Collection of the Museum of
Modern Art.* Museum of Modern Art, 1943.
79. Lasalle, E. S.-Arts, Crafts, and Customs of our Neighbor Republics.
Bibliography. U. S. Office of Education, n.d.
80. Leavitt, S. E., and Stoudemire, S. A.-; Vamos a leer! Holt, 1938.
81. Lee, M.-Pioneers of Puerto Rico. D. C. Heath, 1944.
82. Lemos, P. J.-Guatemala Arts and Crafts. Davis Press, Worcester,
Mass., 1941.
83. Lipp, S., and Besso, H. V.-Conversational Spanish for the Army Air
Forces of the United States. Hastings House. N. Y., 1941.
84. Longstreet, R. J., and Goulding, R. L.-Stories of Florida. Prather.
Auburn, Ala., 1931.
85. L6pez, M., and Brown, E.-Aqui se habla espaflol. D. C. Heath,
80. Luper, A. T.-Music of Argentina. Music Division, Pan American
Union, 1942.
87. Madrigal, M.-An Invitation to Spanish. Simon and Schuster, 1943.
88. Miller, E.-Extra-curricular Activities for the Spanish Department.
(Included in Loan Packet on clubs, U. S. Office of Education.)*

May be borrowed from State Department of Education.

89. Miller, P. G.-Historia de Puerto Rico. Rand McNally, 1937.
90. Museum of Modern Art-Twenty Centuries of Mexican Art. Museum,
Brooklyn, N. Y.*
91. Neighbors. A Self Portrait. (Pamphlet distributed by Office of
Inter-American Affairs. Included in loan packet of U. S. Office
of Education on literature.)
92. Nichols, M.-The Gaucho. Duke University Press, Durham, 1942.
93. Osborne, L.-Guatemala Textiles. Dept. of Middle America Research,
Tulane University, 1935.
94. Otero, N.-Old Spain in our Southwest. Harcourt Brace, 1936.
95. Pattison, W. T.-La fuente de-las calaveras. Crofts, 1944.
96. Peck, A.-Young Mexico. McBride, 1934.
97. Pitarro, J. M.-Conversaci6n facil. MacMillan, 1945.*
98. Quintanilla, L.-A Latin American Speaks. MacMillan, 1943.*
99. Roach, E.-Spanish Club Manual. Tardy Pub. Co., 1935. (Banks
100. Rodriguez, A.-Crucigramas ficiles, Banks Upshaw, n.d.
101. Rosa, G.-Mexico Speaks. John Day Co., 1944.*
102. SAnchez Reyes and Mallea.-A New World Literature. (Pamphlet,
' reprint from The Nation, 1943.)
103. Schmeckebier, L. E.-Modern Mexican Art. University of Minne-
sota, 1939.
104. Schwendener, N.-Legends and Dances of Old Mexico, Barnes, 1934.*
105. Schurz, W. L.-Latin America. Dutton, 1942.
106. Seps, S. B.-Visitamos la Habana. Harper, 1944.*
107. Smith, S.-Made in Mexico. Knopf, 1930.*
108. Sparkman, C. F.-Games for Spanish Clubs. Institute de las
Espafias, N. Y., 1926.
109. Spicer, D. G.-Book of Festivals. Woman's Press, .N. Y., 1937.*
110. Staver, E. F.-Spanish Civilization. Books 1-3. Oxford Book Co.,
111. Learn-a-Lingo. (Game for vocabulary building, sold by Roger
Stephens, 119 E. 191st St., N. Y.)
112. Stillman, Clarke and Gode.-Spanish at Sight. Crowell, 1943.
113. Stover, F.-Encanto de Mexico. MacMillan, 1942.
114. Torres-Rioseco, Arturo-Cartilla mejicana. Crofts, 1939.
115. Travel Letters. Delaware, Ohio. (Spanish edition)
116. Tschiffley, A. F.-The Way Southward. Norton, 1940.
117. Vannest and Smith-Socialized History of the United States. Sup-
plementary History of Florida. Scribners, 1940.
118. Vandercook, H. W.-Discover Puerto Rico. Harper, 1939.
119. Vogan, G. D.-Merry-go-round of Games in Spanish. Banks Upshaw,
1941.* r
120. Vistas Panamericanas. Odyssey Press, 1945.*
121. Watson, J., and Moore, A. Z.-Juan. Harper, 1942.
122. Weisinger, N. L.-A Guide to Studies in Spanish American Lit-
erature. D. C. Heath, 1940.*
123. Weisinger, N. L., and Johnston, M. C.-Los otros americanos.
Doubleday Doran, 1943.

May be borrowed from State Department of Education.

124. Wiesse, Maria-Quipus. Relatos peruanos para niflos.
125. White, J.-Argentina. Viking Press, 1942.
126. Wilkins, L. A.-Quinito en America. Holt, 1940.
127. Williams, J., and Roa y Mendoza, E.-La clave panamericana.
Harper, 1943.
128. Williamson, T. R.-The Last of the Gauchos. Bobbs-Merrill, 1937.
129. Wright, R.-Fun and Festival from the other Americas. Friendship
Press, 1942.
130. Color Slides Showing Life in other American Republics. (May be
borrowed from U. S. Office of Education.)
131. Script Series for Radio. (Available in volumes. List on request,
U. S. Office of Education.)

B. Spanish Texts and References for Inter-American Education
which may be borrowed from the State Department of Edu-
cation. Books noted by "*" in General Bibliography may also
be borrowed from the same department.
(1 ) Alegria, F.-Lautaro. Tr. by D. Goetz
( 2 ) Baker, N. B.-He Wouldn't be King
( 3 ) Baker, N. B.-Juarez
(4) Barnes, Nancy-Carlota, American Empress
( 5 ) Brenner, A.-Boy Who Could Do Anything and Other Mexican
(6) Brown, H. M.-Our Latin American Neighbors
( 7) Canciones panamericanos
Canciones populares
Canciones populares de Espafia y de Mexico
Cantemos (Ed. H. R. Wilson)
(8) Claremont, Graduate School Curriculum Laboratory Publica-
tion-Friendship Through Spanish
( 9 ) Coates, M. W.-Estas Americas
(10) Coleman, A. and King, C. B.-English Teaching in the South-
west (Bilingual problems)
(11) Coughran, M. W.-Horas encantadas
(12) Crary, R. W.-Latin America and the World Struggle for
(13) Davis, H. E.-Makers of Democracy in Latin America
(14) Fitts, D. (Ed.)-Anthology of Contemporary Latin American
(15) Fodor, Laszlo-Brazil
(16) Franck, H. A. and Lanks, H. D.-Pan American Highway
(17) Grismer, R. L.-Sailing the Spanish Main
(18) Hager, A. R.-Brazil, Giant to the South
(19) Gabriel, M.-Espafiol para los nifios
(20) Goetz, Delia-Half a Hemisphere
(21) Goetz, Delia-Teamwork in the Americas
(22) Greenbie, S.-Good Neighbor Series
(23) Greene, P. L.-Our Latin American Neighbors
(24) Henle, Fritz-Mexico (Photographs)

(25) Kahmann, Mrs. Mable (Chesney)-Lupe and the Sefforita
(26) Labastille-Canciones tipicas
(27) Labastllle-Recuerdo Latino-Americano
(28) Lansing, M. F.-Liberators and Heroes of South America
(29) Lansing, M. F.-Liberators and Heroes of Mexico and Central
(30) Lee, M.-Pioneers of Puerto Rico
(31) Luce, A.-Vamos a cantar
(32) Macy and Rudd-Nuestros Vecinos Mexicanos
(33) Mapes and L6pez-Morillas, J.-Y va de cuento
(34) Martinez-Orozco, J.-Quince centavos
(35) Millen, N.-Children's Games from Latin America
(36) Murillo, C. F.-National Anthems of the Countries of North,
South, Central America
(37) Peck, A. M. and Meras, E. A.-Spain in Europe and America
(38) Pittaro, J. M.-Andcdotas ffciles
(39) Pittaro, J. M.-DiAlogos ftciles
(40) Ramboz, I. W.-Canciones de Navidad
S (41) Rebolledo, A. and Eyring, E.-Amanecer
(42) Robles, J.-Tertulias espaliolas
(43) Ross, P. F.-In Mexico They Say
(44) Rothery, A. E.-Central American Roundabout
(45) Sanchez, Nellie-Stories of the Latin American States (Rev.
(46) Seps, S. B.-Visitamos la Habaa
(47) Smith, S.-Made in Mexico
(48) Spicer, D. C.-Latin American Costumes
(49) Stratton, R.-Juarez of Mexico
(50) Strode, H.-Timeless Mexico
(51) Stuart, Watt and Peterson-Builders of Latin America
(52) Toor, F.-Mexican Popular Arts
(53) Torres Rioseco, A. and Monguio, L.-Lector Hispanoatnericano
(54) Trevilio, S. N.-Spoken Spanish
(55) Tyre, C. A., A. B.-Speaking Spanish
(56) Villa Fernandez, P.-Por esas Espatas
(57) Williams, M. C.-People and Politics of Latin America (Rev.
(58) W.P.A. (N. Mexico)-Spanish American Song and Game Book
C. Latin American Periodicals
Dr. Dewey Amner, Denison University, Granville, Ohio, will
take subscriptions for magazines from Latin American coun-
tries. Students who can read but a little Spanish will derive
pleasure and profit from these periodicals. A brief descrip-
tion of some of the leading ones follows:
1. Weekly analysis of news from a Spanish American viewpoint
Tiempo. Mexico $3.25 six mos.; $5.00 yearly.
2. A Deluxe Society magazine monthly. Atlantida, Argentina. $1.50.
3. For women:

Alma latina, Puerto Rico. Weekly. $5.00 yeearly. $2.50 six
Elite. Chile. Quarterly. $1.20.
Margarita. Chile. Weekly. $3.20.
Eva. Chile. Fortnightly. $2.00.
Para ti. Argentina. Weekly. $3.40 yearly; $1.85 six months.
4. Lithographed covers:
Hoy. Mexico. Weekly. $12.00 yearly; $7.00 six months.
Billiken. Argentina. Weekly for children. $3.40 yearly; $1.85
six months.
Revista de Revistas. Mexico. Weekly. $1.90.
Mdxico al dia. Mexico. Fortnightly. $2.50 yearly; $1.50 six
5. General interest.
Zig-zag. Chile. Weekly. $4.00 yearly; $2.20 six months.
6. In English:
Mexican Life. Mexico. Monthly. $2.50 yearly; $1.50 six months.
Mexican-American Review. Monthly. American Chamber of
Commerce in Mexico. Monthly. $3.50.
D. Collections of Spanish Music Suitable for Use in (1) Grades
(2) High Schools
1. Duefios Col6n-Juncos-Canciones Escolares. Silver Burdett. 1
2. Luce (1921)-Canciones Populares. Silver Burdett. 1, 2
3. Luce (In press)-Vamos a cantar. D. C. Heath. 1, 2
4. Labastille-Canciones Tipicas. Silver Burdette. 1, 2
5. Pan American Union-Canciones panamericanas. Silver Bur-
dette. 2
6. Wilson, Neisch, etc.-Cantemos. Emerson Books. 1, 2
7. Gonzalez, F.-La Hora del Canto. E. B. Marks, N. Y. 2.
8. Canciones Populares. Thrift Press, Ithaca. 2
9. Canciones Populares de Esparia y Mexico.
Thrift Press, Ithaca. 2
10. Ramboz, Ina W.-Canciones de Navidad. Banks Upshaw, Dallas. 2
11. Pan American Union-Latin Am. Song Book. Ginn and Co. 1, 2
12. Novoa, Sofia-Cantares Espaftolas. Gessler Pub. Co., Hastings-
on-Hudson. 1
13.. Zanzig, A. D.-Singing America (Some 14 songs, Span. and Eng.)
C. C. Birchard. 2
14. Middlebury College-Cancionero (typed). Middlebury, Vt. 2
15. Labastille-Recuerdo Latino-Americano. E. B. Marks. 2
16. Spain on Parade. E. B. Marks. 2
17. Memories of Spain. E. B. Marks. 2
18. Deliz-Cantos para Nifios. D. C. Heath. 1, 2
19. Brady, A.-Christmas Music. Banks Upshaw. 2
20. WPA Writers' Program-Spanish American Song and Game Book.
A. S. Barnes. 1, 2
E. Suggestions for Teacher's Library
(A) Bibliographies

1. Arjona, D. K.-A Bibliography of Textbooks of Spanish
Published in the United States, Edwards Bros., Inc., Ann
Arbor, Mich., 1939.
2. Delaney, E. C.-Latin America. A Source Book of Instruc-
tional Materials. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College,
Columbia University, 1943.
3. Heimers, L.-Aids for the Spanish Teacher. Stechert, 1941.
4. Johnson, W. H.-A Bibliography for the Study of Latin
American Literature for Teachers of English in the Chicago
Public Schools. Bureau of Curriculum, Board of Educa-
tion, Chicago,. 1942.
5. American Council on Education-Latin America in School
and College Teaching Materials. American Council on Edu-
cation, Washington, D. C., 1944.
6. Vertical File Service Catalog-H. W. Wilson. Current.
7. Lewis, B. F.-Teaching Aids for Use in Secondary Schools.
Barnes, 1943.
8. Units for the Study of Latin American Literature for Chi-
cago Public High Schools, (Bureau of Curriculum, Board of
Education, Chicago, 1943).
(B) Dictionaries, Synonyms
1. Cuyas, A.-English-Spanish, Spanish-English Dictionary, D.
Appleton-Century, 1937.
2. Larousse-Pequeiio Larousse Ilustrado, Paris. (Buy through
Stechert, etc.)
3. Barcia, R.-Sin6nimos castellanos. Modern Biblioteca
Universal, Librerla Perlado, Buenos Aires, 1934. (Pur-
chased from importers, Stechert).
4. Kendrick, E.-A Semantic Study of Cognates in Spanish and
English. U. S. Office of Education, 1943.
(C) Methods
1. Cole, R. D. and Tharp, J. B.-Modern Foreign Languages
and their Teaching. Appleton-Century, 1937. (Rev. Ed.)
2. Gullette, Keating and Viens.-Teaching a Modern Language.
Crofts, 1942.
3. Kaulfers, W. V.-Modern Languages for Modern Schools.
McGraw-Hill, 1942.
4. Doyle, H. G.-Handbook of thle Teaching of Spanish and
Portuguese. Heath, 1945.
(D) Professional Journals
1. Hispania. Subscription, $2.00 including membership to
AATS. Send subscription to Prof. Graydon S. Deland,
Denison University, Granville, Ohio.
2. The Modern Language Journal. $2:00 Subscriptions: Busi-
ness Manager, Ferdinand F. Di Bartolo, 284 Hoyt St.,
Buffalo 13, N. Y.
3. School Life-U. S. Office of Education, Washington, D. C.
4. Entre Nosotros. National Education Association.
5. Inter-American. 415 Lexington Ave., N. Y. $3.00 per year.


Most authorities agrde that in teaching Spanish a certain
degree of facility and accuracy in pronunciation must be attained
by imitation. This does not mean that practice is to be our only
concern during the first few lessons, but rather that practice
should be given to the learners all through their courses in Spanish.
This is especially true since it is 6nly after the learner has had
sufficient opportunity to hear the language correctly in meaningful
context that he can depend upon his ears to guide him in imitating
and producing the typically Spanish sounds. Even after the
beginner has heard a cognate pronounced correctly by a Spanish-
speaking teacher, he may pronounce it as in English since the
transfer from English is strong. Hence one of the most important
tasks of the teacher in beginning Spanish classes is to help the
students hear correctly from the first and not to confuse what
he thinks he hears with the actual sounds. This difficulty may
be overcome by repeated comparison and contrast of the pronuncia-
tion of the cognates in English and Spanish. For example, the
teacher may dictate cognates that are spelled alike in the two
Directions: The following words are spelled exactly alike in
English and Spanish. Number a sheet of paper and write the
following words as the teacher dictates them:
ardor admirable moral
error regular protector
censor tropical natural
superior cardinal mayor
vigor federal artificial
inventor central mosquito
inferior hospital Florida
cereal general
abominable genial
By encouraging the pupils to ask questions about the Spanish
sounds, and by leading questions the teacher can lead to conclusions
drawn by the pupils as to the Spanish way of pronouncing certain
Another way to recondition the hearing of the learners is to
give an aural comprehension exercise similar to that suggested by
W. V. Kaulfers in his Modern Languages for Modern Schools,6
6. pp. 55-56

True-False .Ifti atlt.s
The teacher will read the following statements and have the pupils
reply with "Si, Sefiorita", or "No, Sefiorita":
1. La gardenia es un animal.
2. El piano produce perfume.
3. Un lim6n es una fruta acida.
4. lina familiar es un grupo de personas.
5. El professor y los estudiantes forman la clase.
6. Jorge Washington es un continent.
7. Cuba es un continent.
8. El Rio Grande estd en el CanadA.
9. La Florida es un desierto.
10. MacArthur invent el autom6vil.
11. El tomato es un animal.
12. El mosquito es una floor.
13. Nueva York es una parte de la Florida.
14. Eisenhower invent el aeroplano.
15. Puerto Rico es una monarquia.
16. Tallahassee es la capital de la Florida.
17. El chocolate es una familiar.
18. La gasoline es un liquido.
19. Truman es president de los Estados Unidos.
20. La papaya es una fruta.
In connection with such exercises, the teacher will find Invitation
to Spanish by Madrigal valuable. Not only will such material
help recondition the hearing habits of the learner, but they will
also give confidence to him, stimulate him, motivate him.
Recently many teachers have been stressing the fact that
in a beginning class of Spanish the emphasis should first be on
aural comprehension, second, on oral expression by the pupils,
third, on visual recognition and lastly on written expression. If
teachers follow such an approach, it must be understood that we
shall not expect an immediate acquisition of a perfect pronuncia-
tion, that is, one that cannot be distinguished from that of a native.
On the other hand, we can expect a beginner to acquire the ability
to speak so that a native can understand the meaning of that
which is said. When we approach this aim from the problem of
pronunciation, it seems obvious that the first drills should be on
the easiest sounds, those which most closely resemble the English
sounds, and from there the drills should gradually go to the
more difficult, the ones peculiar to Spanish. In this manner the
learning law of reference to experience, of going from the known
to the unknown will have been used. It is not necessary to give

the beginners the many shades of pronunciation at first but rather
the basic sounds. If the model given to the classes by the teacher
is accurate, and if the teacher can help her students to hear cor-
rectly, they will imitate to a fair degree of accuracy without tech-
nical discussions about the sounds. Drills on the basic sounds
should continue until the pupils' oral expression is adequate and
does not include errors in pronunciation.
After the introductory aural comprehension lessons, the teacher
may lead her pupils to drill on the five basic vowel sounds, after
which she can present the vowels in combination with consonants
beginning with the letter h. After drills of vowels combined with
those consonants which are approximately like the English, special
attention will be given to b,d,c,ch,g,j,,i,ll,r;rr and z. However,
pupils will have noticed the difference in these sounds in Spanish
and will have asked questions. By comparisons, by leading ques-
tions, the teacher can have the pupils make their own generaliza-
tions about the new sounds, but she will have to continue with
drills to overcome the transfer from English once the visual
images of the sounds are presented.
Drills on difficult sounds must be spaced regularly and re-
peated as often as pupil errors indicate a need. Many texts have
such drills already prepared, for example, El camino real (Jarrett),
v.2, pp. 169-172, for second year work, but the teacher should note
errors made in daily recitations, and at the end of the class period
point out errors made, without calling attention to ones who made
them, and drill upon the sounds involved.
Kaulfers describes in his Modern Languages for Modern
Schools7 a roller type pronunciation chart. Teachers may prepare
7. pp. 60-05, 498.
such a chart for their class, or order it from the School of Educa-
tion, Stanford University. Kaulfers' chart contains syllable com-
binations of the basic Spanish sounds. If such a chart is used,
the teacher should help her pupils become self-reliant and not
have to depend on the chart. After a few weeks of practice, the
chart may be rolled up until needed for reference. We must
always keep in mind the fact that written symbols may lose mean-
ing unless the aural impression is enough to fix them.
We must keep in mind that we cannot judge the quality of
pupil performance in pronunciation by adult standards. Too
much correction at first leads to confusion, self-consciousness and
loss of interest. At all times, a good teacher will defer correc-
tions until the end of a class, and will not interrupt while a pupil

is reciting. Some teachers prefer to use chorus recitations at the
beginning and then ask the pupils what sounds bother them the
most. Individual drills can be given privately to pupils who per-
sist in making errors in basic sounds, or can be helped by careful
attention to phonograph records prepared for class work. Wherever
it is possible, people who speak Spanish should be invited to the
class to answer questions prepared in advance by the pupils, or
to give informal talks. This will provide the pupils opportunity
to try out their pronunciation as well as accustom them to more
than one pronunciation of Spanish, that is, the teacher's.
If a phonograph is available, teachers should use songs as
teaching materials, helping their students to listen to the words,
notice the phrasing, the linking of final consonants to following
vowels. For a small sum it may be possible to secure a set of class-
room Spanish records, Hablemos espaiol, from the Audio Video
Institute 1501 Young Street, DAllas, Texas. Although these
records were planned originally for elementary grades in Texas,
they are excellent for high school classes.
Motivation can be furnished by many ways in addition to the
use of songs and records. Spanish sound track films can now
be procured. Hispania, October, 1944, pp. 419-421, discusses such
films which may be obtained from the Extension Division, Uni-
versity of Florida, or the Audio-Visual Aids Bureau, Extension
Division, University of South Carolina. Spanish proverbs, jingles,
counting-out rhymes, dialogues may be used as memory work and
as drills. Florida offers many other means for motivation. A
telephone directory from Tampa, or better, from a Latin American
country, could be used to learn the correct pronunciation of
Spanish names. Spanish place names in the state, street names
in such localities as Coral Gables are possibilities. Pupils could
be asked to compile lists of Spanish words that are already in the
stream of the English language. Words used in "wild west"
pictures would interest many pupils.
Teachers may like to use the following list of Spanish place
names of Florida:
1. Altamonte 11. Naranja 21. Cayo Hueso
2. Andalucia 12. Cayo Largo 22. Playa Linda
3. Arredondo 13. Tortugas 23. PlAcida
4. Azfcar 14. G6mez 24. Anna Maria
5. Bahia Honda 15. Cayo Costa 25. San Pablo
6. Boca Chica 16. San Carlos 26. San Mateo
7. Boca Grande 17. Punta Gorda 27. Sebastian
8. Boca Rat6n 18. DeSoto 28. Santa Rosa
9. Marquesas 19. Leon
10. Islamorado 20. Rio Vista

The study of cognates and near cognates offers a good pro-
nunciation drill as well as vocabulary building device:
1. Words ending in si6n: discussion, profesi6n, expresi6n.
2. Words ending in ario: canario, vocabulario, secretario.
3. Words ending in dad: universidad, curiosidad, sociedad.
4. Words ending in ci6n: acci6n, construcci6n, satisfacci6n.
5. Infinitive ending -ar: visitar, protester, alarmar, calmar.
6. Words ending in -o: cubano, mexicano, just, perfect.
7. Words ending in -ivo: adjetivo, native, destructive.
8. Words ending in -cio: edificio, servicio, silencio.
However, the greatest motivation that a teacher can give to her
pupils to learn a good pronunciation, is to give them an oppor-
tunity to speak Spanish, not just phrases from a formal text book,
but those used in every day life, colloquial speech forms, courtesy
expressions, even slang. Since Spanish is one of the principal
languages spoken in the Western Hemisphere, spoken by many
citizens of the U. S., and in particular, Florida, it should be taught
as a living language, as a mode for oral expression of ideas, wants
or desires. Our pupils want to speak it, they want to understand
it. Work based on conversational patterns such as found in the
pamphlet prepared by the Pan American Airlines for travelers
will provide more motivation than drills in our textbooks.


One of the major hurdles in learning Spanish is the acquisition
of an active vocabulary. No matter what vocabulary is desired,
no matter how it is acquired, there are three processes that a
learner must go through: learning the pronunciation of combina-
tions of unfamiliar letters or sounds, attaching new meanings to
cognates, and meanings to new words. These three aspects are
not separate but merge as sight, sound, form, pronunciation and
meaning, each helping the other. In the past, teaching a foreign
language has been approached by various methods: learning iso-
lated word lists, learning word families, learning by use of pictures
and by use of thought groups. Learning isolated word lists is' of
little value, for unless words are learned and repeated many times
in meaningful context, a learner may not recall the words a few
days later. The other methods are useful in different situations
but the use of sentences or thought groups is the most practical.
The study of word families, the use of pictures or objects, cognates,
etymas, synonyms or antonyms are of value in the association of
ideas or in recall. The use of the sentence method, strengthened
by the other devices, is harder at first but pays dividends and
saves time in the end. Growth in vocabulary is a product of all
communication activities and not a separate activity.
A basic training in vocabulary building is made possible by the
use of dialogues to be memorized and dramatized. Twenty minutes
spent daily on such an activity is enough time to see good results.
A longer time may tire pupils and therefore decrease interest. The
dialogues should make use of old vocabulary in spaced repetition.
Students can be paired off for practice, regrouped if necessary,
the slow le,]l:l.'s-hI.:ii placed ith the more able students. As the
students practice in these groups the teacher may move from group
to group, listening, correcting, making suggestions as to how to
remember certain words. There should be no worry if a babel re-
sults, for it is natural that several conversations take place at
once in one room in normal life. During these conversation periods
of rehearsal of new words in new and old situations, there should
be no discussion of grammatical laws. This can come at another
time. The students should be encouraged to try out their own
skill in asking questions in Spanish at any time. Evaluation of
pupil progress can be partly determined by such voluntary work

and should be judged according to whether the students show
that they know the meaning of a new word or phrase, and whether
they get their ideas across. It is important that students carry
over the vocabulary upon which they have been drilling, into life
situations, to meet their every day needs. In addition to dialogues,
other means of learning to use words are:

1. Oral reports related to the text, reproducing the text, on other
topics as may fit into the lesson units, and
2. Learning poems, songs, jingles for recall of vocabulary, increase
in rhythmic sense and stimulation of a better pronunciation.

There follows several suggestions for vocabulary building:
I-Short Cuts
1. Use etymas to 'show word relationships: vent: viento
2. Teach the meanings of endings:
-ci6n, -dad, -ero, -eria, -cio, -oso, -mente, etc.
3. Use new wgrds to show origin of words:
reloj de pulsera-wrist watch; chutear-to shoot goals
radiomecAnico-radiomechanic; sueter-sweater
4. Make use of local Spanish place names.
5. Give an insight into the meaning of idioms:
casarse con: to house oneself with, therefore: to marry
6. Help students recognize English idioms.
7. Use synonyms and antonyms.
8. Insist on memorization of short words: aun, y, en, con, ya, etc.
9. Help students hear the difference between words that sound
alike: cuarto, cuatro, cuadro.
10. Use cognates but watch out for deceptive ones.
11. Train students to use the vocabulary intelligently.
12. Teach students that time will be saved by guessing at words.
13. Show the students how compound words are made.
14. Provide for opportunity to hear, see and use the new words in
many situations.
II-Vocabulary Do's and Don'ts

1. Use cognates, especially in the beginning.
2. Have students memorize dialogues, poems, connected thoughts.
3. Urge students to read aloud at home.
4. Urge students to try to talk with each other outside of class.
5. Show students devices for learning, definite methods for:
a. all assigned words and words met frequently
b. frame-work words
c. idioms as important vocabulary
d. cognates, compounds, derivatives
6. Capitalize on students' knowledge of Latin or French.

7. Encourage pupils to make an individual study of words relating
to a hobby, a special interest such as:
a. sport terms
b. aviation terms
c. names of foods
8. Insist upon associating gender of nouns with the definite article
from the first.
9. Avoid use of technical terminology.
10. Capitalize on the universal love of music.
11. Select materials that are meaningful, informational.
12. Simplify learning by teaching significance of word endings.
13. Have pupils evaluate their own work.
14. Reduce the use of English in the class to a minimum.

1. Neglect connective or little words.
2. Correct pupils as they recite.
3. Use isolated word lists.
4. Do all the talking.
5. Ignore interests of pupils.
6. Fail to furnish pupils material for browsing.
7. Get in a rut.

III-Activities for Motivation of Vocabulary Learning
1. Set up a file for new Spanish words or expressions, even slang,
found by pupils in English readings, or heard over the radio, on
the streets, in movies.
2. Provide epigrammatic poems for use in autograph albums.
3. Have pupils keep a notebook in which they list words hard to
4. Kdep a bulletin board covered with things of interest for class use.
5. Sing in class. Use songs as teaching materials.
6. Use sample products of Spanish American countries as realia
and provide for class discussions on them in Spanish.
7. In addition to dialogues given to pupils for memory work, have
students write original ones based on a reading lesson.
8. Use games for building vocabulary.
9. Bring a Spanish-speaking visitor to the class.
10. Study scripts of Spanish sound track films.
11. Encourage foreign correspondence with children in Spanish
American countries, or Spanish-speaking children in Florida.
12. Prepare programs for assemblies, the PTA.
13. Prepare a Spanish menu, laundry lists, "ads", street signs.
14. Write letters to absent class members.
15. Study costumes, learning names of clothing, origin of costume, etc.
16. Read Spanish comics, study cartoons and discuss in Spanish.
17. Have pupils keep a diary.
18. Use stamps as teaching material.
19. Have students write to tourist agencies in Spanish for folders.

31 .

20. Have groups of students prepare projects for socialized class
period, a flower show with labels, talks in Spanish, an insect
exhibit to teach names of those displayed or pictured; a food
chart in Spanish.
21. Write the daily lunch room meal in Spanish.
22. Secure a Spanish calendar for class use.
IV-Suggested Jingles, or Counting-out Rhymes
(Contributed by Miss Benildes Remond of Havana, Cuba, and
Miss Carmen Rivera of Puerto Rico)
1. La gallina la jabada
puso un huevo en el canal,
puso uno, puso dos, puso tres
puso cuatro,
puso cinco, puso seis, puso siete,
guArdame este bizcocho
para mafiana a las ocho.
2. Uno, dos, tres, cuatro, cinco
Cogi un conejo de un brinco,
Seis, siete, ocho, nueve, diez,
se me ha escapade otra vez.
3. Unilla, dosilla
tresilla, cuartana,
arruga la tez
color de manzana;
Escapate toi
que te toca la vez.
4. Pico, pico, mandorico,
quien te di6 tamafio pico;
que te fueras a esconder
detrds de la puerta
de San Miguel.
Pipa vieja fu6 a la mar
y me trajo una papaya,
La papaya no servia.


The primary objective of a large number of students who
enroll in Spanish in high school is the ability to carry on a con-
versation. This ability is difficult to attain in a crowded class-
room since it requires rapid command of pronunciation, vocabu-
lary, correct usage and facility in aural comprehension. Many
students discontinue their Spanish after the two-year requirement
has been fulfilled due to the fact that teachers have neglected
to capitalize the interest in oral Spanish and have insisted upon
too much formal grammar drill unrelated to oral work. This
interest in oral Spanish is an interest in a language heard over
the radio, on the screen, or as spoken by foreign born members of
the community. Since most young people are interested in follow-
ing a program of study only if it seems important to them, it is
obvious that more attention must be given to the conversational
However, this does not mean that conversational ability can
be acquired without certain forms. Essential grammatical forms
must be mastered but they must be serviceable, used in ordinary
conversation, and these forms must be learned in a way that
resembles the manner in which oral language is used by human
beings outside of the school room. The fact that conjugations
appear in a logical, organized fashion in a grammar is no reason
why they. should be learned in this manner. In the past the
tendency has been to demand the memorization of paradigms, of
pronoun lists, as isolated forms. Such memorization is not help-
ful in improving ability in conversation since no one uses the
basic essentials in this order in real conversation. Much time
must be devoted in classes to drills that rehearse grammaticar-forTTs,
vocabulary as used _inlife i-4,phrasesr-in..coa lete sentences, if
these forms are to be useful in life situations. Learning forms
in a piede-meal fashion, and then fitting them together in jig-saw
puzzle manner, as Kaulfers calls it,8 results in bringing the
students in contact with grammar_as isolated principles to
be illustrated in a translation exercise. Facts seem to indicate
that this practice often defeats its own end by causing students
to become impatient, insecure, discouraged and by making them
8. Modern Languages for Modern Schools, p. 189

drop Spanish. It would be better, according to Mr. Kaulfers, to
replace the jig-saw puzzle method of using parts of the language,
by that described as the "growing snowball" concept of language,
in which the known is expanded, linked with the unknown and
becomes a_jnit. In this way, old forms are repeated, review
while the new are being learned.
Since students want to speak and carry on elementary conver-
sations at once, and since they lack vocabulary and knowledge
of forms, the first phase of conversational practice should be
memorization of short dialogues of interest to the adolescent, and
suitable for dramatization. Spaced regularly, such memorization
work can be continued throughout the course, and the students
may progress from the simple memorized forms to a spontaneous
exchange of expressions and thoughts. In practice for conversa-
tion, not only must we teach declarative forms but also interroga-
tive forms since most conversations are made up of these two
types of statements. The following sample unit, which involves
only the first and third persons, suggests a type of dialogue that
can be learned easily from the very first. Not only is it useful
in laying the basis for conversation but also for pronunciation,
vocabulary building and correct usage, and is a type of drill
that can be used in large classes as well as small. It is a rehearsal
for conversation in which pupils participate and the teacher does
not ask all the questions.
V Directions: Choose a partner in the class and rehearse with
him the following dialogue until you are able to carry
on the conversation from memory.9
Modern Language Journal, XXIX, February, 1945, pp. 99:111.
-- No es Vd. maestro? Arent's you a teacher?
-(Yo) no soy maestro. I'm not a teacher.
-I No son Vds. maestros? Aren't you teachers?
-No somos maestros. We aren't teachers.
Instead of maestro, maestros, use alumno(s), norteamericano(s),
cubano(s), muchacho(s), etc.
The teacher may present the present tense forms of ser first by
reading the questions and answers, by having the pupils read them,
and then have the students rehearse them in groups. After they
have learned them, she can then ask questions such as, How do
you say, "I am a teacher"? "Do the Spanish use anything for
the English a"? and other leading questions. New grammatical
elements may be introduced in this same question-answer type for
9. Based on Kaulfers, W. V., "Instrumental Grammar for Conversation",

practice according to the principle of the expanding -whole, taking
up the grammatical principles presented in the basic text. To
avoid disciplinary problems it is always best to tell the class at
the beginning what the purposes and the advantages of the plan
are, and to ask for suggestions from the pupils for class conduct.
While this question-answer procedure may bring about a com-
mendable interest in grammar forms, it is best not to side-track
the class into long discussions in English as to the why of the
forms. Another danger is to neglect having the young people
compose questions of their own. If proper attention has been
given to vocabulary building including interrogative words, pupils
can formulate their own questions and are not apt to make many
grammatical errors if they are encouraged to use only words and
forms with which they are familiar.
In order to facilitate rather than frustrate self-expression,
the teacher must arouse the desire to express oneself by helping
young people find something interesting and worthwhile to say,
especially about themselves. She must create audience situations
for them, conversational situations that give them a reason for
speaking in Spanish. Lastly, she must provide opportunities to
overcome difficulties that they encounter on the basis of their
own personal experience. Drills should be on difficulties met by
the pupils in oral expression rather than those arranged logically
in the basic text book.
Undoubtedly this question-answer procedure will prove too
easy for a group of Spanish-speaking students of Spanish. Sug-
gestions that may be carried out for such a group are:
1. Panel discussions on news of interest to the adolescent.
2. Discussions of daily events in the school, home and community.
3. Oral compositions based on assigned written work, special
4. Class discussion of short plays, short stories.
5. Debates in Spanish.
6. Choral readings.
As for the English-speaking group, the following are suggested:
1. Attendance at Spanish movies.
2. Listening to Spanish radio programs.
3. Visiting other Spanish classes.
4. Conversation with Spanish-speaking people who may be in the
community, and bringing such persons to the class where possible.
5. Practice with other people learning Spanish:
a. Improvise or memorize parts for skits, dialogues.
b. Do choral readings.

Sc. Recite in unison short poems, prose selections.
d. Relate to each other personal experiences.
e. Summarize the news.
f. Practice a telephone conversation at home. Call each other
up and discuss the Spanish class.
6. Preparation of talks from advertising materials for "radio
7. Presentation of a dialogue, skit each week. The teacher may
first read it to the class, interpreting meanings where necessary.
The pupils can choose parts, practicing in groups and taking
turns in presenting the material. The group doing it the best
could present it to another class.
8. Telling stories based on.cartoons.
9. Comments on newspaper articles of interest, selections from
Spanish American magazines, movies.
10. Use of Spanish sound-track films and scripts.
11. Dictation. As pupils improve in ability they can dictate to
each other. Much blackboard work can be eliminated in this
12. Promotion of a declamation contest originating in the Spanish
13. A system of filing words and expressions heard or seen on the
streets, in the movies, over the radio. Opportunity for practicing
these new words should follow.
14. Classroom directions in Spanish.
15. Daily report to the class in Spanish on the day's program.
16. Daily discussion on Lunch Room menu.


In order to train our pupils to speak in Spanish it will be
necessary to teach them a certain amount of grammatical princi-
ples and the forms illustrating these principles. Our pupils will
have to learn what is good usage, what forms are peculiar to the
'Spanish language, and to be able to speak in Spanish in such
a way that errors will not occur so as to distract from what they
are trying to say. However, this does not mean that the teacher
needs to make Spanish more foreign by the use of technical gram-
matical terms which students do not understand even in English.
For example, the disjunctive pronouns are a Spanish peculiarity,
but why not speak of them as "pronouns used with prepositions",
or have them learned through use, and then label them?
The intricate classification and labeling of language, that is
used in many text books even today, can be traced back too1
Donatus who wrote Ars Grammatica (c 300 A. D.), later to other
texts designed for use in the upper schools in Rome, for Romans
whose native tongue was Latin and to whom the grammatical
terms, being Latin terms or combinations of Latin terms, were
self-explanatory. These terms have hung on, and have been used
to teach modern languages, although their meanings still demand
much study and interpretation even to college students. Of course,
some grammatical terms are necessary, but they should not be the
basis for the teaching of a modern language such as Spanish.
Actually, in most cases the high school pupil is having to learn
two foreign languages when such terms are used. This does not
mean that grammatical forms or principles are to be neglected;
rather it means that our method of teaching them may have to be
changed. The question is not whether we shall teach grammer,
but rather "How much"? The answer is that which can be func-
tional or immediately serviceable.
Since one of the chief purposes in teaching Spanish is that
of training our pupils to express themselves in Spanish correctly
enough that their audience is not distracted and can grasp the
meaning of what they are saying, the teacher will have to guide
and offer abundant practice. She herself should have adequate

10. Kaulfers, W. V., "Grammar in and Through Use", Education, v.65,
p. 563

insights into the meanings of certain language patterns. Her
standard must not be perfection, but a reasonable achievement.
The teacher will stress only the" mechanics of the language that
may lead to confusion or misunderstandings. She can show her
pupils the underlying principles of certain forms and point out
that the Spanish language is logical and even clearer at times
than the English is. She will stress the normal forms, not the
exceptions, unless they are in common usage. Above all, the
teacher must distinguish between linguistic classifications for
reference purposes, and the ability to perform in Spanish in life
situations. The mastery of rules, using many technical terms,
does not guarantee mastery of the language. If the teacher bears
this in mind she will not have to spend a large part of her class
discussing these technical terms in English.
Grammar can facilitate correction of difficulties encountered
by students in oral speech, in reading, in written expression and
aural comprehension, provided the teacher uses leading questions,
inductive methods, and drills or exercises designed to meet these
difficulties. The teacher should use suitable content materials
together with abundant practice in communication to provide an
audience situation. If this is not done, students may become dis-
couraged, and excellent students frustrated.
Students should be first taught to use short, easy questions
and answers involving the vocabulary that is familiar or being
studied. This involves not only the ability to answer questions
but also to originate them. If the student cannot do this he has
not mastered the vocabulary or has not had adequate practice
on the use of forms. Instead of exercises in translation, practice
in the use of these forms in complete sentences, both interrogative
and declarative, can be given, until they have been memorized. It
is better to learn through use in complete thought groups than
to memorize independently of use or function.
At the first of the Spanish course, a teacher may not want
to use a text. Even inexperienced teachers can do this and at
the same time increase their own ability to use Spanish. She
will present the lesson in the form of a short speech in Spanish
on an informational topic, of interest to the students and on their
level. Notes can be used. Her talk can be made up of many
cognates or near cognates, and illustrated by pictures or other
materials. Non-cognates may be written on the board. After
her talk, she may test for comprehension by use of short objective

exercises such as multiple choice, matching, or true-false exercises.
This can be followed by practice drills on forms, and finally, sum-
maries or reproductions in Spanish.
Since it is necessary to master verbs, the verbal form introduced
with the first lesson can be used as the center of the practice
drills. These drills will involve the question and answer only in
the third person at first. The questions and answers will be in
the negative as well as in the affirmative. With such a procedure
the teacher can develop simultaneously the ability to hear, to
pronounce, to increase vocabulary, to use forms, and to give in-
sights into the mechanics of the language. The use of questions
and answers by students provides an opportunity to use gram-
matical forms in sentences and also a rehearsal of language pat-
terns similar to those used in life situations, in conversation. The
procedure is:
1. The teacher gives the class a model of
a. Question in third person singular CUsted)
b. Reply in first person
c. Question in third person plural (Ustedes)
d. Reply in first person plural.
At first the questions may include noun objects, or predicates, and
the negative since this makes a more complete pattern. The
students will pair off and practice these forms until they have
memorized them. The second step will be to substitute other
objects or predicates. To this unit, with the verb as the core of
all sentences, practice may continue with a progressive addition
'of other sentence elements, adjectives, object pronouns and adverbs.
It is true that text books have followed this procedure to a cer-
tain degree in the exercise prepared for student work. However,
the usual custom is to have students do the exercises once in
class or as home work, make corrections, and go on to another
lesson. Too often practice has been omitted, and .ability to use
the forms has not been made a permanent part of the student's
learning. Memorization of the forms has not been achieved. This
oral practice is worthy of consideration since it was the basic
form for drill in the Army and Navy Language Training Pro-
gram. Once language patterns have been memorized, practiced
over and over, the students can achieve the ability to use them
in new situations, in summaries, r6sumes, paraphrastic statements
of the content material that has been studied. As study progresses,
new tenses may be added, and all the grammatical forms ordinarily
studied by means of the basic text. The procedure is an approach

to language learning in which the learner moves from that which'
is known to the unknown, in which he learns in an audience situa-
tion, in which he is learning to use forms in thought groups as in
normal conversational patterns rather than by memorization of
isolated forms arranged logically in paradigms. It is to be noted
that the recommendation is to use the third person rather than
the second person for "you" forms. This does not mean that
we are to ignore a basically Spanish way of speaking and thinking.
It means the forms that are used most frequently are to be
mastered first; it means also that the simpler forms are,mastered
and that from these the more complicated forms can be learned
when the proper time comes.
Another important point for teachers to remember is that it
is easier to learn forms through use of a series of sentences that
are connected in thought. It is possible to use a series of such
sentences even in drill exercises, and fortunately some of the more
recent basic texts present drills in that fashion, for example,
Spain and America (Arjona, et al.), and El camino real (Jarrett).
The following list offers a few suggestions for teachers who
wish to improve their instruction in the use of grammatical forms:
1. Learn to stress the important forms, such as:
a. agreement
b. word order
c. Verbs forms and meanings
d. pronouns
e. forms peculiar to the Spanish language, many of which can be
taught as vocabulary.
2. Try to give insights in to the forms peculiar to Spanish, such as:
a. use of 8er and estar: the difficulty arises in the use of the
two verbs with adjectives. Kaulfersll suggests stating: "Any
condition which as a rule can change both back and forth
within twenty-four hours", together with inductive questioning
for interpretation.
b. The double negative: as a problem in addition, rather than
multiplication as in English.
c. Position of adjectives: The Spanish see the whole before the
part. They like to stress the last word of a phrase.
d. The historical formation of the future tense, etc.
3. Use composition work or translation exercises only after the con-
tent material has been understood, the vocabulary mastered, and
practice on forms that will be needed has been provided.
a. Rather than translation of isolated sentences it is suggested
that composition work consist of
(1) resumes in Spanish,
11. Modern Languages for Modern Schools, pp. 90-91

(2) semi-original questions, composed and asked by students,
(3) transpository writing,
(4) imitative writing.
4. Use every opportunity to show students how language forms are
made: The formation of the future tense can be cleared up by
discussing our own substitutions for the future in every day con-
versations, and the fact that Americans in Italy have been heard
using only the infinitive although many had studied Italian and
knew verb endings.
5. Use visual devices wherever possible to aid those who seem to
be "visual-minded". (El camino real, by Jarrett, offers a number
of practical visual devices in teaching demonstrative and per-
sonal pronouns, the difference between the imperfect and
6. Do not be afraid to break away from the textbook in order to
give content materials that may be more adequate for your needs,
and to prepare practice drills on these materials to overcome
errors made by the pupils.
7. Do not overstress errors and make corrections while a pupil is
8. Reduce the possibilities of errors as much as possible by use of:
a. cognates as vocabulary,
b. objective types of drills, tests,
c. providing for recall as well as recognition,
d. pupil participation in evaluation,
e. reference to experience to present new forms,
f. spaced repetition of drills on forms that prove difficult,
g. training students to use indices, to find the best form or word
In vocabulary lists,
h. giving pupils a desire to master correct usage by showing that
the Spanish is often more meaningful and logical in expression
of the ideas than the English is,
1. helping students note peculiarities in English expressions,
j. teaching pupils to see phrases and clauses as units related
to other sentence units,
k. looking for the idea especially in time concepts.
Some teachers may not wish to use the basic text now in use.
It is possible to use it as a reference book after the fundamental
principles of grammar and the vocabulary. have been presented
to the class by the teacher. If oral use of Spanish, aural compre-
hension and reading for comprehension are our purposes, a teach-
ing procedure may well be other than a systematic following of
the lessons in the text. It all depends on the reasons for which our
students have enrolled in the Spanish class. If it is to meet college
entrance examinations which stress formal grammar and transla-
tion, the teacher may prefer to adhere to a basic text. Since only
a small percentage of students go on to college, the teacher's me-

thods should not be devoted to the needs of this group alone. On the
other hand, even when we are preparing students for college
entrance examinations, we should re-consider the problem of how
much grammar we should teach.
The result of a survey recently made among the largest school
systems in the United States as to the amount of Spanish gram-
mar taught as minimum essentials showed some striking facts:
Not only was there a wide variation of these basic essentials
taught, but there was general agreement th-at most of them should
be taught in the first semester of the first year. Blayne and
Kaulfers12 in commenting on this point out that during the first
semester of beginning Spanish the student must master a new
system of pronunciation and at least a minimum working vo-
cabulary, as well as learn to study a foreign language, and they
question whether it is wise to introduce so much grammar, whether
all this over-load of grammar is not the cause of so much pupil
maladjustment as is evidenced by failures and reduction of the
numbers in the classes. They also doubt if many pupils actually
master all these basic essentials even though they manage to be
On the basis of this survey, and by use of Keniston's Spanish
Syntax List, these gentlemen have worked out a system of basic
essentials, part of which we give below;

(All items occur once per 300 running words)
1. agreement in gender and number
2. cardinal numbers to 101
3. cuAnto-How much? How many?
4. ordinal numbers: primero, segundo, tercero
5. possessive adjectives (and demons, adjectives), meanings, forms,
and agreement
6. (postposition of sense adjectives)
7. agreement, forms, and meanings
8. contractions: al and del
9. to mean "on" with days of the week

12. Blayne, Thorton, C., and Kaulfers, Walter V., "A Validated Grade-
Placement Outline of the Basic Essentials of Spanish", Modern
Language Journal, Vol. XXVIII, No. 4, (April, 1944).

10. gender
11. number
12. possessive case with de
13. contractions of al and del
14. -de to show possession
15. (use of a before capitalized names of people, cities, or countries
used as objects)13
16. (demonstrative pronouns)
17. direct object pronouns, forms, meanings, and agreement
18. (position of single object pronoun before an inflected verb form)
19. subject pronouns
20. gerund: forms and meaning
21. infinitive, basic meanings and forms
22. in veiled imperative expressions: e.g., favor de (no) plus
23. (use of after a, de, para, sin)
24. Hay to express there is, there are
25. (past participle of regular verb forms and meaning)
26. (use as an adjective)
27. present tense; of radical-changing verbs
28. of reflexive verbs
29. of dar, decir, estar, ir, saber, ser, tener, ver
30. use of estar in mentioning daily health or location
31. veiled imperative; e.g. favor de (no) plus infinitive

(Most items likely to be encountered at least once per 1500
running words.)
1. (absolute superlative)
2. alguno and ninguno
3. as nouns
4. cardinal numbers to one million
5. comparison with mts (menos) que
6. demonstrative adjectives
7. position of sense adjectives and adjectives of nationality or re-
ligion and of participial adjectives
8. (variable connotation with ser and estar
9. demonstrative adverbs: aqWu, alli, ahi, acd
10. formation with mente
11. ya: meanings and position

13. Forms in ( ) may be deferred to 4 following semester or later.

12. definite: in place of a possessive adjective
13. (with coordinated nouns) (with generic and abstract nouns)
(before titles)
14. Mds (menos) que
15. pero vs. sino
16. (por and para)
17. use of a before capitalized names of people, cities, and countries
used as objects
18. use of infinitive after a, de, para, sin
19. (conmigo, contigo, consigo)
20. conjunctive use of direct and indirect object pronouns before
21. (dative of advantage or interest)
22. demonstrative pronouns: meanings, form and agreement
23. prepositional pronouns: forms and meanings
24. irregular verbs (in present, imperfect, preterite and present
perfect tenses).: haber, hacer, poder, poner, querer, salir, venir
25. future tense; forms and meanings
26. future of irregular verbs
27. (idiomatic use of gustar)
28. imperfect tense, forms and basic meanings, imperfect of ir, ser, ver
29. (orthographic-changing verbs in present and preterite tenses)
30. passive voice with se
31. (pluperfect tense; forms and basic meanings, of irregular verbs)
32. present perfect tense: forms and basic meanings or irregular
33. preterite tense, forms and basic meanings
34. preterite of irregular verbs
.35. preterite of orthographic-changing verbs
36. preterite of radical-changing verbs

(Most items are likely to be encountered at least once per 4,500
running words.)
1. (absolute superlative: Isimo)
2. adjectives that add' a in the feminine gender
3. apocopation
4. comparison of equality
5. cuyo
6. mejor, peor, mayor, menor
7. tanto

8. use of que (What a !) before adjectives in exclamations
9. (variable connotation with ser and estar)
10. (adjectives used as adverbs)
11. aun and ain: meanings and position
12. comparison of mds que
13. tan. como
14. (position of adverbs)
15. negative adverbs
16. mucho instead of muy
17. euphonic use of el instead of la
18. use of definite article before titles
19. omission of indefinite article before noun object of tener
20. before unmodified predicate noun
21. (with coordinated nouns)
22. (with generic and abstract nouns)
23. pero vs. sino (que)
24. per and para
25. conjunctive personal pronouns with affirmative commands
26. with gerunds
27. with infinitives
28. (conmigo, contigo, consigo)
29. (dative of advantage or interest)
30. (emphatic use of subject and prepositional pronouns)
31. (reciprocal pronouns)
32. (negative pronouns: nadie, nada)
33. (redundant use of indirect object pronouns and prepositional
34. idiomatic use of gustar
35. irregular verbs: jugar, oler, morir, reir, valer
30. orthographic-changing verbs: in present and preterite tenses
37. pluperfect tense: of regular and irregular verbs
38. present subjunctive
39. hortatory uses: e.g., Let's Let him .. !
40. after es precise (necesario, possible) que ..
S 41. in polite commands
42. after ojald
43. after verbs of volition (wishing, wanting, asking, commanding,
44. (reciprocal verbs)
45. (verbs requiring a before a dependent infinitive)

(Most items likely to be encountered at least once per 7,500
running words)
1. (absolute superlative: isimo)
2. (as adverbs)
3. cuanto
4. tal
5. (variable connotation with ser and estar)
6. (que-for, since)
7. tanto como
8. (as adjectives)
9. conmigo, contigo, consigo
10. (dative of advantage or interest)
11. (ello as a neuter pronoun)
12. (negative nouns after certain prepositions)
13. possessive pronouns
14. (the former the latter)
15. conditional tense: formation and basic meanings
16. (dramatic present)
17. future perfect: formation and basic meanings
18. (infinitive after verb of causation)
19. imperfect subjunctive:
formation and basic meanings
use after si (if) and como si (as if)
contrary to fact
20. use after a main verb in the past tense
21. irregular verbs: caer, oir, traer, volver
22. (passive voice with ser)
23. (present perfect subjunctive: formation and basic meanings)
24. uses of subjunctive in dependent clauses
25. after an indefinite relative
26. after cuando, aunque, con tal que, como si, de modo que, para
que, si (if)
27. after expressions of doubt, emotion or opinion
28. verbs requiring a preposition before a dependent infinitive:
acabar, alegrarse, aprender, ayudar, cnseniar, gozar, de, ir, satire,
venir, volver

As a suggestion for the use of a basic text now in use, we offer
the following plan for the presentation of the first twenty lessons
in Spanish Book One:
1. Topic: The classroom
a. Vocabulary involving:
1. objects, people
2. activities of the classroom
3. courtesy phrases, directions or commands
2. Procedure:
a. Talks in Spanish by teacher based on reading lessons in
text, using
1. direct method to teach names of objects in classroom,
2. synonyms, parenthetical explanations, cognates.
b. Reading by pupils the selections given in texts
1. silent reading,
2. choral reading.
c. Distribution of comprehension exercises based on reading
selections (see chapter on reading)
1. multiple choice, true-false-correction types for recognition,
2. completion type for recall.
d. Have pupils correct their own papers.
e. Practice on forms by means of question-answer drills based
on a model given by the teacher.
f. Memorize a prepared dialogue involving vocabulary and
forms included in the reading selections.
g. Have pupils write short summaries or resumes.
h. Evaluations of summaries by pupils using check-list of errors.
i. File papers with corrections made by pupils.
j. Further practice drills on forms in which errors have been
made by the pupils.
Such a presentation of these lessons would take care of the aural
and oral as well as the visual learning. It will offer practice on
forms and vocabulary more likely to result in mastery than ex-
\ercises of sentences with little or no relation to each other. Dis-
cussions on grammatical peculiarities can be based on questions
raised by the pupils, on errors made by them, and the technical
terminology can be used after the forms have become meaningful
through use.


Reading has been defined in many ways, but in terms of
teaching high school pupils to read in Spanish, the teacher should
keep in mind one definition: the ability to, read in terms of a
.thorough understanding of material of a given grade of difficulty.
Whether the learner is to read in order to extend his experiences,
to stimulate his thinking powers, or to enable him to interpret
life more intelligently and accurately, he is reading only when
his attention is tuned to the emotional or thought content of the
written language. The learner will not be reading if his mind is
distracted frequently from the thought or meaning to the me-
chanics of the language. When the learner has to look up more
than two words per line, he is not reading but decoding. "Made'
material is therefore appropriate for elementary stages of learning
Spanish. This material need not be infantile, it need not be dis-
connected sentences. Rather it can be and should be informative
and interesting although simple in vocabulary and structure.
Comprehension is obviously facilitated when meanings can be
inferred from the nature of the language used. The context
must be meaningful and unified, and should use:
1. A heavy cognate vocabulary from the first lesson, and a
gradual introduction of non-cognate words,
2. Parenthetical definitions in English or Spanish of new words
in the text proper, as preferable to vocabulary thumbing, or
3. Parenthetical hints through use of synonyms in Spanish. If
such hints are not in the text, they can be supplied by the
It goes without saying that vocabulary associated with in-
formation that is interesting to the high school student is retained
longer than that learned in sterile content. Relatively short in-
formational reading units dealing with aspects of a central theme,
such as the Influence of Latin American Culture on our Life, are
preferable to a continuous diet of fables, moralizing passages or
imaginative fiction that may or may not entertain. The materials
given to our high school pupils should be a medium through which
reading may become a profitable, pleasurable and informative
type of mental growth in the ability to use the Spanish language.
Every teacher of Spanish should be concerned with:

1. Development of ready comprehension of written Spanish,
2. Development of the ability to interpret social or cultural
meanings, and
S3. Development of the habit of enjoying worthwhile books.
In other words, if the materials which we give to high school pupils
are to be worth reading at all, reading should be an essential life
activity, and should not be used only as a means of introducing
new grammatical forms. In order to help the learner comprehend
that which he is reading, the teacher should make certain that the
content material is appropriate, interesting, informative; the
teacher should consider the length of the reading unit, and the
vocabulary load.
A common background reader may be used, or if it does not
meet the needs of the class, the teacher can prepare her own units,
even though this involves time and careful study. In addition
to the background reader it is advisable to have a classroom library
of informational interesting readers, simplified student editions,
illustrated Spanish-American magazines. An hour or more spent
weekly on guided free reading of such books and magazines that
contain selections within the range of pupils' interests and abili-
ties is highly recommended. Rather than testing results by trans-
lation or formal reports, comprehension can be measured more ef-
fectively by a restatement in Spanish of the content, or by a sum-
mary in the reader's own words. As a quick and efficient check
the teacher may prefer to use the citation technique or open book
tests in which the students find exact places where important
facts may be found, or the identification of characters, by the
use of key words or phrases.
The foreign culture whose language is studied is not without
its impress upon our life. The range of content material is al-
most infinite: history, geography, music, literature, art, science,
customs, commerce, international relations, etc. With this vast
field from which to choose, the teacher can offer her classes ma-
terials which are:
1. Not remote from the lives of the young people who are reading,
2. Contemporary as well of the past,
3. Interesting enough to encourage reading for pleasure,
4. Timely and significant,
5. Effective in language,
6. Informative.
To mdet individual needs the teacher may offer a contract plan.
In this case the pupil will prepare a reading list with the teacher's
aid which will become a contract when fulfilled by the pupil.

Comments on a 3 x 5 card may be filed by the pupil. The teacher
may also provide for occasional discussion and citation testing.
As for daily lessons in reading, we recommend that compre-
hension be tested without resorting to translation and by using
Spanish as the medium for communication in the class. There
follows a list of devices for testing comprehension:
1. True-False Correction type: in which pupils will read the state-
ment and tell whether it is true or false. If false, the pupil
will correct it by changing the word or words underlined.
2. Completion type: in which the pupil will complete statements in
Spanish by supplying words that make the statements true.
3. Matching parts of sentences: in which the pupil is given two
columns of parts of sentences and finds the correct endings for
those in column A from those in Column B. The pupil may
read these or write them as the teacher directs.
4. Multiple choice: in which the pupil completes statements by
choosing a word or phrase from three or more suggested.
5. Changing from statements to questions: in which the pupil
changes the statement into a question by substituting for under-
lined words an interrogative form.
6. Spotting forms, meanings: in which the pupil reads a passage
and finds the exact Spanish words for given English words. It
is highly recommended that whole phrases be used rather than
just words.
7. Substitution: in which the pupil, without changing the meaning,
substitutes for underlined expressions, words or phrases given
in a list accompanying the exercise.
8. Composing questions: in which the pupil will ask another pupil
simple questions on the material read, beginning with given
interrogative forms, such as ?Quien ?Por qud gritd ?
9. Answering complete questions: in which the pupil answers ques-
tions given him. It is advisable to use questions composed by the
teacher rather than those given in the textbook, or to have pupils
come prepared to ask each other similar questions based on the
10. Rearranging words: in which the pupils rearrange groups of
"scrambled" words or phrases to form a sentence. It is best to
underline the word with which the sentence will begin.
11. Showing order of occurence: in which the pupil will rearrange a
series of sentences which have been mixed in time of occurence.
12. Omission of words: in which the pupil will omit a word which
makes the statement false.
13. Matching descriptions: in which the pupil will be given brief
descriptions of persons or things, and will be asked to identify
14. Resumes, summaries in own words. At times the pupils may be
asked to rewrite a passage in dialogue form.


15. Spotting ideas: in which several ideas are given to the pupil
in Spanish. The pupil will locate the passage that corresponds
to each.

Since some schools do not have funds provided for supple-
mentary Spanish reading materials, and since some teachers may
wish to offer their pupils reading materials, other than those in the
basic text, for daily class work or for collateral reading, the fol-
lowing suggestions are offered:
1. Preparation by the teacher of reading units with special em-
phasis on Inter-American topics, using books in the teacher's
own library, pamphlets and other materials.
2. Securing for the classroom library as many inexpensive readers
as possible. Some teachers have their pupils pay for these;
others raise funds through their Pan American Club fiestas. Such
readers can be used for silent reading periods, home reading, or
as materials to meet individual needs. The following list of
recent texts may be useful:
a. First Year:
Castillo, Carlos, and Sparkman, C. F., Graded Spanish Readers.
(paper bound, 30 cents each)
Coates, Mary, Spanish for Today
Grismer, R. L., and Arroyo, Cesar, Buenos amigos, Buenos
Grismer, R. L., Sailing the Spanish Main
Hall, Guillermo, and Oiate, Jos6 D., First Spanish Graded
Huebener, T., and Neale-Silva, E., Grandes Latinoamericanos
Kasten, L. A., and Neale-Silva, E., Lecturas escogidas
Lipp, S., and Besso, H. V., Conversational Spanish for Army
Air Forces of the United States.
Stover, F. P., Encanto de Mexico
Torres-Rioseco, A., and Moreby, E. S., Cartilla mexicana
Watson, J. C., and Moore, A. Z., Juan
Weisinger, N., and Johnston, M., Los otros americanos
b. Second Year or Third Year:
Arjona, D. K., and C. V., Siglo de aventuras
Crow, J. A., Spanish American Life
Jarrett, E. M., Sal y sabor de Mexico, El camino real, v.2
Keating, L. C., and Flores, J. S., El gaucho y la pampa
Pattison, W. T., La fuente de las calaveras
Seps, S. B., Visitamos la Habana
Amigos Inolvidables. Asociacin de Difusi6n interamericana,
Buenos Aires. (Recently distributed by the Office of Inter-
American Affairs but also included in loan packets of the
U. S. Office of Education.)
c. See general Bibliography for other texts


3. Subscribe to Hispania and watch announcements of new publica-
cations as well as the section called News and Notes which calls
attention to new materials, many of which can be secured with
little or no cost by teachers.
4. Read -School Life (U. S. Office of Education) which announces
new publications by the various government agencies, some of
which are in Spanish.
5. Subscribe to a Spanish American periodical. Although pupils
will not be able to read all the content, there is much of value.
6. Have friends in Texas, Puerto Rico send you Spanish magazines.
Many of the Mexican ones are sold in San Antonio.
7. Use Seleeciones, Revista Rotaria, Revista Dupont.
8. Some materials may be secured from the U. S. Office of Educa-
tion, the Pan American Union and other government agencies.
Before requesting materials it is suggested that you borrow the
loan packets made available by the U. S. Office of Education.
These packets may be borrowed for two weeks *and are without
cost to the borrower except for return postage. Packets number
9, 10, and 11 are especially valuable.
9. Use the Vertical File Index which lists current free and inex-
pensive materials.



Although the chief purpose -of extra-curricular activities, that
of serving as a bridge between the schoolroom and life, is a com-
mendable one, the potential values have often been nullified in
the past by several factors. The main factor has been that stu-
dents were not interested or did not see any purpose for these
activities that was important enough to hold their interest. In
order to function, any extra-curricular activity of the Spanish
class needs to be justified as one related to classwork, or as a con-
tribution to the community. In fact, extra-curricular activities
should be called "associated" activities, rather than "extra".
In order to create an interest in such activities that will be
strong enough to enlist pupil participation over an adequate period
of time, the sponsor must bear in mind several points.
1. There must be a reason, a justification for extra-curricular ac-
tivities, recognized by the students.
2. The activities must be related to classwork and contribute to the
total school situation and to the community.
3. The sponsor must be capable and well-informed, and willing to
build up an esprit de corps by:
a. keeping members busy,
b. never doing anything that students can do.
c. watching for leaders,
d. letting students plan and learn by their own mistakes,
e. being willing to let a project die if interest is lost in it,
f. being generous with praise,
g. offering suggestions only when requested or it is necessary,
h. encouraging spontaneity, keeping the club activities "breezy",
i. letting the school and community know what is going on in
order to provide an audience situation.
4. The club must really belong to the students so that the members
learn responsibility. All niechanical functions should be done
by students, yet the students should feel they have the backing
of the sponsor and the whole faculty.
5. The club should have a unifying purpose, with a long range
activity program.
6. The club should be affiliated with other clubs, such as the Pan
American Student League. (Details may be secured from the
Pan American League, Ingraham Building, Miami, 32.)
7. Membership should be open to all students of Spanish, or with
occasional meetings for other students. Such open meetings
should be gala affairs.

8. To provide for individual differences or interests, several re-
lated groups may be organized: travel, literary, music, art, crafts,
dramatic, dancing, social (courtesy and social customs), luncheon
groups, etc.
If a club organization does not seem possible, associated ac-
tivities can be incorporated into regular classwork, but the extent
to which this is done will depend on the time spent on them out-
side the class. These associated activities spring from students'
natural interests and should not involve grading. Some activities
can be woven so closely into the regular class routine that it is
hard to draw a line between them and the regular work. For ex-
ample, a unit on the learning of a Mexican song, used as teaching
material, can be the preparation for a performance outside of
the class, or the making of a Mexican mural in an activity hour,
may be correlated to a unit being studied in the regular class
hours. A socialized class, organized as a self-governing group,
guided by the teacher, can easily incorporate associated activities
into the regular schedule. Some teachers allow five to ten minutes
to pupil-planned activities, when anything may be permissible
provided it is in- Spanish and does not drown out the typing class
or the band. Where a core-curriculum is used, or where there is
a close correlation between departments, a wealth of associated
activities is possible between the classes in Spanish, art, costume
making, social sciences, physical education dances, English and
It is difficult to separate club activities at times from those of
classes but some are more suited to clubs, some more workable in
classes. The following list includes various kinds but local factors
will determine which are best for the particular situation:
1. Assembly programs on or near certain commemorative days:
a. Pan American Day
b. Dia de la Raza (October 12th)
c. Sarmiento or Teachers Day (Sepeember 11th)
d. Christmas (La Navidad, DIa de los Tres Reyes)
e. Dia de los Muertos (All Souls' Day)
2. A Spanish "newsy" or Spanish section in the school paper, a
Pan American Day Edition of the school paper.
3. Plays in Spanish, or in English and Spanish, dealing with
Spanish American heroes, customs, events.
4. Sponsoring of exhibits, book displays.
5. Singing Spanish American songs, playing of records, song "fests"
for the school and community.
6. Inter-American correspondence; students acting as translators
for those who do not study Spanish.

7. An up-to-date Spanish American Bulletin Board maintained by
students for their classes and the library.
8. Sponsoring lectures, films, on Spanish America.
9. Excursions to places of interest with Shanish background.
10. Scrapbooks about Spanish America for the library; preparation
of scrapbooks for exchange with students of Spanish American
11. Sponsoring discussion groups.
12. Preparation of murals, posters for Spanish programs, assemblies.
13. Fairs, fiestas (May be means of raising money for supplementary
library, realia.)
14. Promotion of quiz programs.
15. Learning Spanish American dances, with a study of their origin,
16. Tertulias, parties with Spanish games, The piniata, the posada at
17. Preparation of a school handbook in Spanish.
18. Maintaining a book shelf of books on Spanish America, sending
a "shelf" on Florida to another country, such as Puerto Rico.
19. Provision for hobbies, such as art classes in which Spanish
American art designs can be used by students.
The list could be larger. Some of the activities overlap, for
example, a "Spanish" party might involve art work for place-
cards, menus, or posters, playing of Spanish games, singing Spanish
American songs, dances. Observances of Pan American Day
could involve making of posters, a play, costumes, an exhibit.
Once a teacher becomes interested, the possibilities of projects to
suit the varied interests of students and the local situations, are
unlimited, and the benefits will be immeasurable. As source
materials, teachers will find many suggestions in the Loan Packets
prepared by the U. S. Office of Education, Washington, 25, D. C.
Numbers 6, 7, 12, 13, and 14 are especially valuable since they
deal with art, music, and club activities.


Evaluation is that aspect of education which is life centered
and is concerned with the success which a pupil or group has in
achieving the purposes of our learning program. As teachers
we should recognize the fact that the criteria for evaluation are
centered in activities of the individuals learning Spanish, both
in the classroom and in the life outside of the classroom. Because
of the insufficiency of the carry-over of classroom learning into
community life, teachers of foreign languages realize that they
should stress measuring skills as a means to appraise life values
instead of emphasizing these skills as an end in themselves. If we
accept this concept of evaluation, we must recognize three basic
1. The skill, that is, the ability to use the Spanish language, as
a medium for reading, communication, gaining insights into
the life of the people who speak it, is valuable if the purpose
for which it is used is valuable.
2. This skill will not function if it does not give insights or lead
to practice in important out-of-school life.
3. The learning of Spanish is not constructive if it crushes the
desire to use Spanish voluntarily.
Our evaluation program therefore should reach every phase of
our teaching program, and is one of the important problems fac-
ing the teacher of Spanish.
In evaluating a pupil's work, the teacher should recognize
that perfection is an ideal. It is necessary to motivate each learner
so that he will desire to work toward this ideal. Teachers often
seek perfection to such an extent that they do not prove to the
learner that it is perfect practice that leads to perfection. If we
give this concept to our pupils it will be necessary that we teach
our pupils to evaluate their own work as well as guide them in
practice of the language so that they will use it after leaving the
classroom. Some teachers have prepared check-lists for their
pupils. Kaulfers14 describes the one that he uses and says that
such a check-list has helped his students to see the result of their
own efforts and has stimulated them to higher achievement. His
check-list is divided into two parts. The first is concerned with
the mechanics of language: punctuation, capitalization, accents,

14. Modern Languages for Modern Schools, pp. 374-5

incorrect spelling, handwriting, neatness. The second part has
to do with usage: missing words, wrong words, word order, con-
tractions, endings of nouns, adjectives, verbs. Each student records
on this list the number of errors indicated by the teacher and
thus can realize wherein his weakness lies. He estimates his own
rating by dividing the number of Spanish words used on his paper
into the number of errors and then files his corrected paper in a
folder for the teacher's files. A chart called "Finished and Un-
finished Business" is a visible record of work. Such a plan for
student's participation in evaluation helps the student to work
under his own power and speed, as well as giving him a sense of
responsibility. Since the pupil has evidence of his achievement
or his lack of it, there is less likely to be found the attitude which
leads to such questions as "What can I do to make an A"?
A. B. Gaarder15 offers a similar plan for an error chart. His
plan is to have each student keep a chart on his most frequent
errors and then to have him write a paragraph to include these
particular difficulties. A grammar reference book is supplied to
the student and the student corrects his own paper which will be
returned to the teacher the day after he has received it.
Evaluation of work in a class of Spanish involves more than
that of written work. We must evaluate oral work, reading com-
prehension and the acquisition of cultural information. Standard-
ized tests have been prepared and have been useful, but we should
keep in mind two points about the use of such tests as means for
1. Such tests may become the goal for both teacher and pupil,
2. Such tests may lead to stereotyped courses not adapted to
individual differences.
For evaluation of the ability to read in Spanish we may consider
that the ability to understand related ideas associated with a topic
is the best measurement. By comprehension of Spanish readings
we mean the grasping of the main thoughts contained in the se-
lection and not translation word for word. For silent reading, or
selections assigned as supplementary reading, citation exercises
are adequate and do not take too much time on the part of the
pupil or teacher. Such exercises develop keenness on the part of
the pupil and provide for a better understanding of a reading
unit as a whole rather than unassociated bits. In testing compre-
hension of selections used as class assignments, the various de-
15. "Free Composition Scored Objectively", Modern Language Journal,
V. XXV, Nov 1941, pp. 766-8

vices described in the chapter on reading may be used. It will
be noted that these devices are objective, provide for recall or
recognition of forms, ideas, words being learned, and also call for
a constant use of the Spanish language instead of English.
When testing oral work the pupils should be told in advance
upon what he is to be tested, when and how the testing will be
done. The acquisition of information related to a topic that has
been studied and the use of this information in oral communica-
tion should comprise the evaluation program. If the pupil can
express ideas, use the information that he has learned, so that
the teacher and the class understand, if his errors are few enough
that the attention of his audience is not distracted by them, his
work can be evaluated favorably.
In considering how to evaluate the acquisition of cultural
material, it seems that the freeing of the learner's mind from
prejudice, misunderstandings and wrong concepts of the peoples
whose language is being learned, is more functional than the
memorization of facts which amounts to the storing up of knowl-
edge. When we choose factual items for a cultural test we might
follow the suggestions given by Kaulfers:16
a. Will this fact show the pupil what contributions the Spanish-
speaking peoples have made?
Sb. Will this fact show that the pupil is not a victim of prejudice
or misconception?
c. Will this fact help the pupil understand why these peoples
speak, think or live the way they do?
When phrased thus, both tests of cultural comprehension and the
reading comprehension are represented. This leads to a more
unified program. Race attitude scales are helpful if given at
the beginning and end of courses in Spanish with content ma-
terials on Spanish America. Such scales would provide an indi-
cation of directional changes in attitude over a period of time.
A good reference for this type of testing may be found in the
Stanford Language Arts Investigation, and samples of opinion
surveys are given in Kaulfers, Lefauver and Roberts, Modern
Languages and Cultures in America, (17), pp. 324-332. As rec-
ommendation we offer the suggestion that teachers of Spanish
compose a similar test of attitudes of Florida students toward
Spanish-speaking citizens from our neighboring islands, and even
toward Spanish-speaking citizens of Florida.
16. Ibid, pp. 393-4
17. McGraw-Hill, N. Y., 1943

It is difficult to measure or evaluate numerically creative
activities, involving the use 6f the Spanish language, but these
activities often speak for themselves. Schools which have students
from Spanish-speaking homes could set up projects involving a
greater knowledge of Spanish than that English-speaking stu-
dents can be expected to have. In a Sacramento, California school,
students translated an original Spanish document as an extra-
curricular project, aided by English and journalism students. If
the school subscribes to a foreign periodical, or an adapted literary
selection has been studied, a project could involve the translation
or summary of editorials, articles, stories. Advertisements could
be used. This is not as difficult as it may sound, for many ad-
vertisements are easier than work that has been given to high
school pupils in texts. Such materials could be used in social
studies, English classes as a contribution from the Spanish class.
When we consider the evaluation program which we will follow
in our classes, we might set up certain criteria such as:
1. Provision for pupil-growth through evaluation,
2. Provision for insights into cultural contributions,
3. Provision for constructive changed in racial attitudes,
4. Recognition of the fact that students have elected Spanish
as a study and continue with this study,
5. Consideration of the carry-over of not only the skill in using
Spanish but also of insights gained in acquiring the skill,
6. Measurement of the ability to use Spanish for purposes other
than in classroom exercises,
7. Consideration of the ability to use Spanish in various ways:
vocabulary, grammar, oral expression, reading and aural
Some teachers think of evaluation only in terms of pupil progress.
Were all teachers more willing to eveluate their own work they
would understand more clearly why Johnny or Mary made little
progress or do not want to carry on the study of Spanish. A
self-checking program might include the following:18
The teacher's work is effective if she:
1. Guides question-and-answer work among the pupils and does
not ask all the questions.
2. Waits to correct pupils until they have finished reciting.
3. Encourages pupils by expression of appreciation of their good
points before suggesting ways to overcome weaknesses.

18. Based on Kaulfers, Modern Languages for Modern Schools, pp. 383-9,
Cole and Tharp, Moder Languages and Their Teaching, pp. 385-437,
Gullette, Keating and Viens, Teaching a Modern Language, pp. 78-88

- 4. Phrases criticisms in such a way that pupils will take them
as helpful suggestions.
5. Does not over-emphasize grammatical technicalities and
S mechanics.
6. Provides special practice on those mechanics or principles
of the Spanish language that cause difficulty as indicated
by pupil errors.
7. Provides abundant practice at spaced intervals in order to
aid recall of important forms or words.
8. Provides practice drills that consist of a series of sentences
related to each other in meaning.
9. Uses leading questions to stimulate pupils to perceive the re-
lationships between words, phrases or forms.
10. Tries to give the pupil an understanding of forms that are
peculiar to the Spanish language by presenting them as ways
of looking at life different from our own ways.
11. Does not depend on memorization of rules.
12. Uses elements that are already known by the pupil to intro-
duce new forms.
13. Uses present day needs of life outside the classroom as the
criteria for content materials and activities to be used.
14. Is more concerned with correctness that does not distract
from the thought expressed than she is with correctness
for its own sake.
15. Uses examples to illustrate the principles of the Spanish
language that have been taken from informative materials
familiar to the class.
16. Develops a sense of responsibility on the part of the pupils
S by helping students evaluate their own work.
17. Encourages the pupils to contribute voluntarily to the class.
18. Confines the use of English to necessary explanations of
19. Encourages the class to read good books on travel or literary
works in Spanish or in English.
20. Uses letters from abroad, foreign periodicals, advertisements,
etc., as teaching materials.
21. Provides an audience situation by use of dialogues, skits, short
S22. Is efficient in her classroom management in that her assign-
ments are clear, time is provided so that pupils may under-
stand how to prepare their new work, pupils know how their
work will be tested, work is presented from the pupil's view-
point, and that problem cases are directed to an activity that
is worthwhile and provides for recognition through class
23. Works out examples with the class to illustrate new work.
24. Allows time in class for study on advance work in order to
correct poor work habits and misunderstandings.
25. Leads pupils to respect each other while reciting.

26. Does not spend too much time on one subject without a variety
of methods.
27. Plans specific tasks for study periods.
28. Uses translation only when justified.
29. Does not devote too much time to one pupil.


The following conversations were compiled by the participants
of the Inter-American Language and Art Workshop held at Florida
State College for Women, June 11-July 20, 1945. The work was
done under the supervision of Miss Carmen Rivera of Puerto Rico.
The material was developed in a class on colloquial oral Spanish
which was an offering of the Workshop. The purpose of the
conversations was threefold:
1. To provide informative content materials for high school classes,
with an emphasis on life in Puerto Rico,
2. To provide colloquial Spanish conversational patterns as used
in Puerto Rico by average young Puerto Ricans,
3. To provide materials that can be used for dramatization and
memorization by high school pupils and which will be of in-
terest to them.
It is suggested that classes be asked to memorize one of these
conversations each week or ten days. Dramatization of such ma-
terial will give motivation to learners since it provides an
audience situation and since the learners will be acquiring speech
forms that are actually used in a neighboring Spanish American
country. Some teachers may want to change certain forms, such
as the Usted form, and use the second person form in places where
Un Encuentro
Juan-i Hola, Richard! QuB tal? C6mo est ?
Richard-i Hola, amigo! Bien, gracias 1 Y usted? Y su gente?
Juan-Bien, gracias. i QuB sorpresa buena!
Richard-Si, es una buena sorpresa. Le present a mi hermana
Sally. Mi amigo, Ram6n Juan Garcia.19
Juan-Tanto gusto.
Sally-Tanto gusto.
Juan-- Qu6 hacen ustedes este verano,
Sally y Ram6n (Muy contentos)-Vamos a Puerto Rico.
Juan--Por qu6 a Puerto Rico? Yo prefiero pasar el verano en
la Florida.
Richard-- De veras? Puerto Rico es una isla pequefia pero in-
teresante-y bella. La llaman La Isla del Encanto.20
19. Spanish people usually have two names, but they are called by only one.
20. Puerto Rico is sometimes called The Island-of Enchantment.

Sally-Richard tiene muy buenos.amigos alli.
Juan-Pues, feliz viaje y adi6s.
Sally y Richard-Gracias. Adi6s.
En Puerto Rico
Richard-Pues, aqui estamos.
Sally-- Qud hacemos ahora? 7 Ad6nde vamos
Richard-i Qub preguntas! Llamar un taximetro. Ir a la casa
de Ramiro. Yo tengo su direcci6n.
Sally-i Qu6 content estoy!
Richard-i Mira, aqui esta Ramiro! i Hola, Ramiro! (Se abrazan)
i QuB content estoy de verlo!
Ramiro-i Qu6 alegria, Richard! Me alegro much de verlo.
Richard-Esta es mi hermana Sally. Sally, 6ste es mi amigo,
Ramiro Silva.
Sally-Tanto gusto.
Ramiro-El gusto es para mi, Sally. Vamos a casa. Aqui esta
mi autom6vil. Mama y papa nos esperan.
Richard y Sally-Muy bien, vamos.

Ramiro-i Mama! iPapa! Ya llegamos.
(Dofia Margarita y don Pedro salen al balc6n).-i Hola! i Hola!
Ramiro-Mama, papa, 6stos son mis amigos, Sally y Richard
Los Padres-Es un gran placer conocerlos.
Sally y Richard-Igualmente, sefiores Silva.
Dofia Margarita-4 QuB tal de viaje?
Richard-Muy bien, sefiora, gracias.
Sally-El viajar en aeroplano es encantador.
Dofia Margarita-Pero deben estar cansados. Vamos a sus habi-
taciones para que descansen un rato.
Sally y Richard-Como ustedes quieran (deseen).
SC6mo Los Divertiremos ?
(Ramiro y sus amigos hacen planes para divertir
a Sally y a Richard)
Ramiro-Muchachos y muchachas, tenemos visitantes del contin-
ente. I QuB hacemos para divertirlos ? Ellos son Richard y Sally.
Ricardo-Llevarlos al Escambr6n.21
Enrique-Darles un paseo en au'tom6vil por San Juan.22
Jos--Y ensefiarles los sitios interesantes de la capital El
21. Fashionable club in San Juan.
22. Capital of the island,

Castillo del Morro23, La Casa Blanca24, el Palacio de Santa
Catalina25 ......
Dolores- Es guapo Richard? (Riendo) Si es guapo y buen
bailador, podemos llevarle al pr6ximo baile del Condado.26
Ramiro-Y usted siempre con bromas. La que es bonita es Sally
. (Se rie)
Dolores-l Por qu6 no vamos al Yunque27 un dia?
Enrique-Magnifica idea. Una jira al Yunque. Se ehcantartn.
Ramiro-Vayan todos a casa esta noche. Deseo que conozcan a
mis amigos.
Todos-Muy bien. All iremos.
Ramiro-Hasta la noche.
Todos-Hasta la noche.
Al Cine
Ramiro-Esta tarde vamos al cine.
Sally-- Al cine? QuB encanto!
Richard-- A qu6 cine vamos ? Qu6 pelicula exhiben hoy?
Ramiro-Vamos al Metro.28 Hoy exhiben una buena pelicula de
Joe Cotton. Es muy graciosa.
Richard--Le gusta Joe Cotton?
Ramiro-Si, much.
Sally-No sabia que en Puerto Rico se exhiben tantas peliculas en
Ramiro-- Por qu6 no? Toda pelicula americana se exhibe en la
Richard-j A qu6 hora vamos?
Ramira-Vamos a la tanda que empieza a las dos. Luego vamos
a tomar helados al Escambr6n.
Sally-Estar6 lista a la una y media. Lista para el cine by Pepe
En Un Restaurante
Ramiro-Entremos en este cafe.
Richard-6 Tiene hambre tan temprano ?
Ramiro-Si, no me desayun6 bien esta mafiana. No me sentia bien.
Richard-Lo siento. Entremos.
Ramiro-Voy a pedir un desayuno americano .
Richard-- C6mo un desayuno americano?
23. Famous fortress built during Spanish regime.
24. Former residence of the governors of the island. At present, the
residence of the chief of the armed forces.
25. Present residence of governors.
26. Fashionable hotel.
27. Beautiful mountain park in the interior of the island.
28. Metro Theatre: One of the best theatres in San Juan.

Ramiro-- No sabe lo que as un desayuno americano? Pues, un
desayuno americano es casi una comida complete. Toeineta
frita, huevos revueltos, jugo de frutas, tostadas con mante-
quilla y mermelada y cafe con leche.
Richard-4 Cafe con leche .? Con crema, quiere decir.
Ramiro-Si, es verdad, con crema. Pero . Con el desayuno
americano yo siempre tomo cafe portorriquefio.
El Dia De San Juan
Maria-Esta noche a las doce empieza el dia de San Juan.
Sally-- Qu6 es el Dia de San Juan?
Dolores-El Dia de San Juan es el veinticuatro de junio. Todos
los santos tienen su dia. Las. muchachas portorriquefias
hacemos muchas suertes ese dia.
Sally-- QuB dice? Suertes?
Dolores-Si, suertes. Esta noche, a las doce, en la obscuridad,
puede yer a su future esposo en el espejo.
Sally--iVerB un esposo portorriquefio?
Dolores-i Ja! iJa! Y bien que si . Guapo, triguefio, alto,
simpatico .. .. Se llamari Enrique .
Sally-(Riendo) I Si? 1 C6mo lo sabe?
Dolores-Ese es mi secret .
Maria-Carmen y yo queremos poner las agujas en un platillo de
agua mafiana a las doce del dia.29
Sally-- Para qu ?
Maria-Para ver si Ram6n y Carmen y Juan y yo nos vamos a
Sally-Entonces mafiana yo ver6 si Enrique y yo nos vamos a
casar. (Aparte) Pero, Iquien sera Enrique. .?
En La Botica
Sally-Entremos aqui para tomar un refresco. i Qu6 calor tengo!
Richard-Bueno, si tiene dinero. Yo estoy como las mangas de
un chaleco.30
.Sally-Yo tambi6n estoy como usted, no tengo una perra.31 Po-
demos cambiar un cheque. Vamos.
(Entran en la botica)
Boticario-- En qu6 puedo servir?
Sally-Deseamos tomar unos refrescos.
29. On San Juan's Day, at twelve o'clock, you place two needles on a
soup plate filled with water. One needle represents a boy, the other,
a girl. If the two needles come together, the boy and the girl they
represent will marry. This, and, many others, are amusing super-
stitions of San Juan's Day.
30 and 31. Expressions that mean that they are "broke."

Boticario-- En una botica? Aqui no se venden refrescos.
& Quieren Sal de Epsom? Un t6nico? Un linimento?
Richard-No queremos esas cosas. Hay dulces o chicle?
Botitcario-No, pero tengo aceite de castor y cApsulas de quinina.
Sally (A Richard)-i QuB botica tan ridicule! No tienen nada.
S61o venden medicines. Vamonos.
Planes Para Una Jira A La Playa De
Vega Baja32
(Un sabadopor la tarde, ei el balc6n de la casa de los Silva)
Enrique-Bueno, se acerca el cuatro de Julio. Ese es el dia de
la jira.
Ramiro-Si, es bueno hacer planes desde ahora.
Jos6-Podemos ir en bicicleta.
Enrique-Es muy lejos para las muchachas.
Jos--Tiene raz6n. Iremos en autom6vil esta vez.
Ramiro-- Qu6 llevaremos para comer? Mamd puede prepararnos
unos pollos fritos.
Enrique-Yo puedo levar emparedados de jalea.
Jos--Yo me encargar6 de las aceitunas, el salami, y los huevos
Ramiro--En la playa podemos conseguir las bebidas. ... Ademas
tendremos permiso para coger cocos del palmar de don Julio.
Enrique-Estoy seguro que mi tio nos permitirk dar un paseo
en su bote.
Ramiro-Vamos a gozar much.
Sally y Richard--(Entrando) 1De qu6 se trata?
Ramiro-No podemos decir. Es una sorpresa. Solamente puedo
decirles que prepare sus camaras .
Sally-Muy bien, siempre estamos preparados.
i QuB Bonitos Son Los Pregones!
Sally-Richard, I qu6 canta ese muchacho que va por la calle
Un Muchacho-- Mani 1Mani tostado!
No estA crudo
ni estA quemado.
Doce granos por un centavo.
Yo lo vendo garantizado ....
iManii.... .
iManii. .. !

32. Veja Baja Beach-Beautiful beach where people go for picnics. Picnics
in Puerto Rico last all day long.

Richard-i Ja! iJa! Es un vendedor de mani. Hay muchos
vendedores. Unos venden frutas, otros venden flores.
Sally-4 Para qu6 cantan
Richard-Pues, para decir lo que venden. Para alabar las virtudes
de lo que venden.
Sally-Es una costumbre muy bonita.
Richard-La canci6n del vendedor se llama "preg6n".
Sally-i Como El Manicero ?
Richard-Si, esa rumba cubana es el preg6n mfs popular. (Canta:
Mani, manicero se va )
Carmen Celebra Su Santo"8
Carlos-i Hola, Enrique I I Tiene invitaci6n para la fiesta de casa
de don Enrique? Carmen celebra su santo. *
Enrique-Si, es verdad. Estoy invitado. C6mo no! 4 Piensa ir?
Carlos-Pensaba ir. Ahora no s6. Estoy peleando con Manuela.
Enrique-No sea bobo. Haga las paces.
Carlos-No es eso. Si yo no voy, ella no va. De esa manera, la
castigo. .
Enrique-Bueno, alli usted. & Sabe usted si Ramiro y sus amigos
van ?
Carlos-Si, ellos van. Habl6 con ellos esta mafiana.
Enrique-i Buena oportunidad! Bailar6 con Sally toda la noche.
Carlos-Por lo que veo le gustan much las americanas ...
Enrique- Ah, las rubias .... !
Vamos al Parque
Richard-Fui al parque Mufioz Rivera34 con Enrique Vamos
a visitarlo el domingo, Sally.
Sally-i Bueno! 4 QuB se quede ver alli
Richard-Hay flores bellisimas.
Sally--iQu6 tonteria! En todos los parques hay flores bellas.
Richard-Hay una guitarra formada por flores. Ademds el escudo
de Puerto Rico esta formado tambi6n por flores.
Sally-Eso es mis interesante.
Richard-Tambi6n hay un parque zool6gico.
Sally-No me interesah los animals.
Richard-Hay distintas classes. Hasta cocodrilos vi.
Sally-i Cocodrilos! Bien feos son, por cierto.
Richard-Pero estos cocodrilos lloran (Sonrie)
33. Although many people celebrate their birthdays, there are still many
who, following the Spanish Custom, celebrate their Saints day.
34. Beautiful park in San Juan.

Sally-- Qu6 lloran? Iremos al parque. Siempre he deseado ver
1agrimas de cocodrilos.
Richard-No hay que hablar, iremos. (Aparte) i Qu6 boba!
En El Sal6n De Belleza
Sally-Buenas tardes.
Sra. Castro-Buenas tardes. En qu6 podemos servir a usted?
Sally-Tengo una cita para una permanent.
Sra. Castro-- Su nombre, por favor?
Sally-Sally Smith, servidora.
Sia. Castro-Gracias. Un moment. Desea sentarse?
(Al poco rato)
Sra. Castro-Sefiorita Smith, puede pasar.
Sally-Gracias. Deseo tambi6n arreglar las ufias.
Sra. Castro-- Es su pelo seco o grasoso?
Sally-Es seco. Deseo el color mAs rojo que tenga para las ufias.
Sra. Castro-Sera usted complacida.
(Sally lee un peri6dico)
De repente:
Sally-iAy! iAy!
SAy! iMe quemo! i Me quemo! D6se prisa.
Sra. Castro-No se apure usted, no le pasard nada. Lo siento.
Sally-i Qu6 susto!
Sra. Castro-Ya estd. A Se siente mejor ?
Sally-i Oh, iSi! Gracias.
Serenata ....
(Conversaci6n por tel6fono)
Telefonista-- Nfmero t
Juan-483 verde, San Juan.

Juan-Deseo hablar con Enrique.
Una voz-Un moment.

Enrique-- Qu6 hay?
Juan-i Hola, Enrique! Es Juan. i Qu6 tal!
Enrique-- Hola, Juan! i QuB pasa!
Juan-Esta noche tenemos serenata.
Enrique-- Serenata? 7 Qui6n la lleva? I Donde ?
SA qu6 hora?
Juan-Carlos va a llevarle una a su muchacha y yo voy a llevarle
una a la mia ... A las doce de la noche poco mis a menos.
Enrique-Yo'podria llevarle una a Sally ....

Juan-Por eso llama.
Enrique-Entonces cuenten conmigo.
Juan-g D6nde nos vemos para hablar mds sobre eso?
Enrique-Esta ndche en la plaza a las ocho en punto.
Juan-Muy bien. Hasta la noche.
Enrique-Hasta la noche.
Sally Compra Un Traje
La empleada-Buenos dias, sefioritas. QuB desean?
Sally-Deseamos ver los trajes de vestir negros.
La empleada-Tenemos muchos, de muy bonitos estilos, todos de
filtima moda.
Sally-i QuB bueno!
La empleada-- De qu6 precio mAs o menos? Qu6 tamaio ?
Sally-Como de veinte d61ares. Uso talla catorce.
Carmen-No gustaria comprar el traje de otro color.
Sally-Otros colors son mis bonitos, pero el negro es mas
La empleada-Este traje es muy elegant. El cuello blanco es
muy atractivo, Este otro de dos piezas tiene los hombros
anchos y unos bolsillos muy raros.
'Carmen-Mire que botones tan lindos adornan 6ste otro. iQue
La empleada-Este de mangas en forma de capa la hara verse
mAs delgada.
Sally-Quiero verme delgada. Me lo medir6.
Entre Hermanos
Richard-Sally, necesito remendar el chaquet6n. Est& descosido
en la solapa.
Sally-4 Hay aguja, hilo, dedal. ... .
Richard-Tengo de todo en el estuche.
Sally-Estos botones estan un poco flojos.
Richard-Si, debo afirmarlos. Tengo ademds estos calcetines
con dos rotos muy grande.
Sally-Yo puedo ayudar a zurcir.
Richard-No, eso es una molestia.
Sally-S Por que una molestia .... ?
Richard-Enrique estd esperando en la sala, Sally. (Empieza a
enhebrar una aguja).
.(Entra Dofia Margarita) (Sally ha ido a tender a Enrique)
Dofia Margarita-jUsted cosiendo? (Extrafiada) De ninguna
manera. Ese es oficio de mujer. D6me usted. Yo puedo

Richard-De ninguna manera, seftora. Estoy acostumbrado a
Dofia Margarita-Eso es en los Estados Unidos, pero no en Puerto
(Amablemente le quita la aguja a Richard y empieza a coser)
Dofia Margarita Va De Compras
En el colmado3"
El dependiente-Buenos dias, sefiora Silva. 1 Qub le vendemos
Dofia Margarita-Buenos dias. Quiero comprar frutas y legumbres.
El dependiente-Tenemos chinas,36 guineos, pifas, papayas,
mangos ....
Dofia Margarita-i A c6mo son la pifias ?
El dependiente-Quince centavos cada una. Son Pan de Az6car.
Sally-I Qu6 quiere decir Pan de Azicar ?
El dependiente-Pan de Az6car es el nombre que se da a esta
clase de pifia. Es una pifia muy dulce; quizds la mas dulce
que haya.
Dofia Margarita-Cuestan much, pero como a todos nos gustan
much las pifas, voy a comprar dos.
El dependiente-Tenemos repollos, tomatoes, lechugas, habichuelas.
Dofia Margarita-D6me ese repollo grande que estd ahi. Ademas
quiero un manojo de zanahorias, y un manojo de remolachas.
Me parece que los tomatoes estin pasados.
El dependiente-Tenenos buen filete hoy, dofia Margarita.
Dofia Margarita-i Qu6 bueno! Deme dos filetes. Deseo dos litros
de leche. Huevos tengo en casa, no me hacen falta.
El dependiente-- Algo mAs?
Dofia Margarita-Nada mas, gracias. Tenga la bondad de man-
darlo todo a casa con el mensajero. Hasta luego.
El dependiente-Hasta luego.
iQu6 Alegres Navidades!
Carmen-- QuB much gozamos en las pasadas Navidades! g Recuer-
dan ustedes?
Maria-Especialmente en Nochebuena.87
Sally-i QuB hicieron esa noche ?
Enrique-Fuimos a la Misa del Gallo.38 Oimos la misa en la
Iglesia de San Augustin. Luego nos fuimos a comer y a gozar
en casa de Maria.
35. grocery
36. oranges
37. Christmas Eve
88. Midnight Mass. Held to commemorate the birth of Christ.

Carmen-- Qu6 buena cena39 tuvimos.
Enrique-El lech6n asado estaba delicioso.
Carmen-e Y que dice del arroz con polio?
Richard-i Qu6 hicieron el veinticinco t 4 Dormir ?
Maria-- Por qu6 dormir?
Richard-I No estaban cansados? No tenian suefio
Carmen-!Qu6 va! En Navidades nadie se cansa.
Enrique-El dia veinticinco fuimos al baile del Club NAutico.
Maria-Esa noche Juan me mand6 la mds bella orquidea blanca
para mi traje nuevo.
Sally-QuisierH pasar unas Navidades en Puerto Rico.
Richard-Nos divertiriamos much.
Enrique-i Por qu6 no se quedan hasta diciembre 7
Sally-Tenemos que regresar.
El Asalto De Luisa40
Maria-Le contaremos a usted del asalto en casa de Luisa el afio
Sally-Me interest saber c6mo celebran ustedes las Navidades.
Richard-A mi tambidn me interest.
Maria-Luisa no sabia nada. Se sorprendi6 much cuando nos
oy6 cantar los aguinaldos frente a su casa.41
Ramiro-Habia que oir la algazara. Todo el mundo hablaba a
la vez cuando Luisa nos invit6 a pasar adelante.
Carmen-Todas las muchachas tomamos vino. Era un vino afiejo
importado de Espafia.
Ramiro-Los varones fuimos mas patriots. Nos dimos un buen
palo42 de r6n Don Q.43
Maria-Consuma lo que su pais produce. (Se rie)
Sally-Pero las muchachas no iban a tomar r6n.
Ramiro-Seguramente que no.
Carmen-Luisa tenia los mas exquisitos dulces. Nunca olvidar6
el dulce de papaya que nos sirvi6. Ni el arroz con coco... "
Los Reyes Magos
Sally-Al hablarme de las Navidades no ban hablado ustedes de
Santa Claus.
39. Midnight supper, eaten after the people come from church.
40. Asalto: Christmas informal dances held in Puerto Rico during the
season. A group of people get together. Accompanied by a native
orchestra they go to the home of a friend. They sing "aguinaldos"
and the owner of the house tells them to come in. The owner of
the house, then, provides the dancing floor and the candies and drinks.
41. aguinaldos--Christmas carols
42. un palo-a drink
43. Don Q--Puerto Rican rum
44. Arroz con coco-Rice pudding made with coconut juice.

Ramiro-Santa Claus no viene a Puerto Rico.
Carmen-Los Reyes nos visitan el seis de enero.
Maria-Ese es el dia de los nifios.
Enrique-El cineo de enero, por la tarde, todos los niflos buscan
cajas. Ponen un poco de yerba en ellas. Luego las colocan
debajo de las camas. Esa noche vienen los Reyes y dejan los
regalos en las cajas.
Sally-Esa es una tradici6n espafiola, no es verdad
Carmen-Si. Sin embargo, a algunos nifios Santa Claus los visit.
Ramiro-Esa es la influencia americana. Pero imaginense
ustedes a Santa Claus, con todos sus abrigos, en un pais
tropical .(Todos rien)
Richard-- Tienen ustedes drboles de Navidad?
Maria-Si, muchas personas adornan el drbol de Navidad. Algunas
families iluminan el drbol mis bonito que tengan en sus
Sally-Este pr6ximo afio voy a poner la caja a los Reyes en los
Estados Unidos.
Enrique-P6ngale much yerba para los camellos.
Carmen-4 Por qu6 no manda su caja a Puerto Rico?
Richard-Mandaremos dos cajas.
Maria-Eso si, tienen que portarse bien. Los Reyes no traen nada
a los nifos malos. (Todos rien)
Sally y Richard-Seremos dos santitos.
En Una Plantaci6n de Cafia
Don Berto-Biuenos dias, j6venes. Bienvenidos.
Enrique y Richard-Buenos dias, don Berto.
Don Berto-Me alegro verlos por aqui.
Richard-Siempre he tenido deseos de visitar una plantaci6n de
Don Berto-Esta es su oportunidad. Pronto vendrk el pe6n con
los caballos. (Mientras van por la plantaci6n)
Richard-- Por qui hay tanta cafia en Puerto Rico?
Don Berto-Por el clima que prevalece en la isla y por el terreno.
Richard-I Cudndo se siembra ?
Don Berto-En los meses de invierno por lo general. Se corta
nueve mAs tarde.
Enrique-El guarapo de cafia es muy rico.
Richard-I Guarapo ? I Qub es eso?
Enrique-El jugo de la cafia antes de convertirlo en azficar. Es
delicioso, especialmente cuando esth bien frio.
Don. Berto-- Le gustariA ver el molino?

Richard-Si, much.
Don Berto-Vamos alld, entonces.
DespuBs del Baile
Richard-i Qu6 bonita estaba Luisa anoche!
Sally-Los vi bailar casi toda la noche.
Richard-Es muy buena bailadora y me gusta much.
Carmen-La que no bail6 much fu6 Josefina.
Maria-Comi6 silla casi toda la noche.
Sally-Lo siento much. No me gustaria que mis amigos me
dejaran comiendo silla45 en un baile.
Carmen-Lo que pasa es que su novio no estA aqui.
Richard-A C6mo es eso ?
Carmen-Una muchacha que tiene novio no baila con otros
Maria-La vi bailar much con Enrique, Sally.
Ramiro-Parece que hay un romance en el aire...
Sally-(Riendo)-Enrique es muy atento y muy cort6s, eso es
Carmen-- EstA segura?
Sally-Bueno.... (Rie)
La Muchacha De La Ventana
Sally-Ricardo, adivine a quin vi esta mafiana,
Richard-A A qui6n ?
Enrique-Permitame decirlo yo, Sally. A Rosa.
Richard-A A Rosa ? iD6nde estaba ella?
Sally-Pues, en la ventana de su habitaci6n.
Richard-A Estaba bonita?
Sally-Como siempre, muy bontia.
Richard-A Hablaron con ella?
Enrique-No. Al vernos nos dijo adi6s con la mano pero no nos
dijo nada.
Richard-, Sabian ustedes qu6 hacia en la ventana?
Richard-Estaba mirdndome a mi que estaba en la tienda del frente.
Enrique-i Ah! i Romance tenemos!
Sally-A Es esa costumbre portorriquefia ?
Richard-Bueno, a veces, asi se empieza, mirAndose de lejitos ...
Enrique-Yo prefiero la manera americana Es mks rApida y
mas direct. (Sally se rie)
Richard-Si, pero la nuestra es mis romdntica.
(Todos se rien)
45. Expression used to mean that a girl was a wallflower at a dance.

Al Hospital
Sally-Richard, tenemos que ir a ver a Luisa. Esta en el hospital.
Richard-- Qu6 tiene? 4 Esta enferma
Sally-No, tuvo un accident esta mariana. Un choque de auto-
Richard-- Muy serio?
Sally-Si, creo que si. Tiene una pierna enyesada. Tambien
tiene dos costillas fracturadas.
Richard-Lo siento muchisimo. Es una lstima. Tan buena y
bonita muchacha!
Sally-Es muy simpatica.
Richard-I TendrA que usar muletas ?
Sally-Si, cuando empiece a andar.
Richard-Entonces, vamos a visitarla. Le llevar6 una caja de
Sally-Si, y usted se comera la mayor parte. (Ambos se rien)
Una Visita Al Doctor
Maria-Sally, voy donde el doctor. Quiere ir conmigo?
Sally-Si, con much gusto. i Cuhndo vamos?
Maria-Tengo cita para esta tarde a la una.
Sally-Muy bien. I QuB se siente ?
Maria-No tengo much apetito. De noche no puedo dormir.
Sally-El doctor le darA el remedio.
(Con el doctor)
Doctor Ramos-Vamos a ver. I Qu6 se siente usted hoy?
Maria-No tengo much apetito, doctor. He rebajado diez libras.
Doctor-i Duerme bien?
Maria-No, doctor. Me desvelo todas las noches.
Doctor-Yo s6 que enfermedad empieza asi... (Sonrie)
Maria-I Si, doctor? t Cukl?
Doctor-Mal de amores-
i Qu6 Maestros!
Richard-Juan, por que estudian ustedes tanto el espafiol?
Juan-Tenemos que perfeccionar nuestro propio idioma. Ademis
tenemos que estudiar la literature espafiola.
Richard-Me sorprende lo bien que ustedes dicen algo en ingles.
Juan-Para algo lo estudiamos desde el primer grado.
Richard-Sally y yo hemos estudiado much el espafiol en los
Estados Unidos.
Juan-Ustedes hablan muy buen espafiol.
Sally-Sin embargo nuestros maestros no son los mismos.

Richard-Mi maestro, es un hombre que domina su material. Pero
S. le gustan much los chistes. Se pasa el tiempo haciendo
Sally-Mi maestra es la sefiorita Perez. Es espaiiola. No tiene
la material bien organizada.
Richard-Algunas veces mi maestro se pone mds bravo que un aji.
Especialmente cuando no sabemos los verbos.
Juan-Una vez yo tuve una maestra que era un giiame.48 Coger
classes con ella era un paseo.47 A cada rato nos ibamos a
comer jobos.48
Sally-Cualquiera diria que no hay maestros buenos, verdad?
Richard y Juan-Si, hombre ....
i Que Cabeza!
Sally-Estoy con much coraje.
Carmen--Por que tiene coraje? 7No ha recibido carta hoy?
Sally-Si, he recibido tres cartas hoy. Es mi cabeza.
Carmen--gQu6 le pasa a su cabeza? Le duele?
Sally-No, no tengo dolor de cabeza. Mi cabeza no anda bien ....
Carmen-I C6mo que no anda bien?
Sally-Voy a buscar los retratos para mi pasaporte y me dan los
retratos del mono de casa. ... Qu6 coraje me da. Habia
equivocado los negatives.
Carmen-(Riendo) Eso no es la cabeza, es el coraz6n. .
Sally-I El coraz6n. ? Qub tiene que ver el coraz6n con eso ?
Carmen-i Ahhhhhhhhh! Cuando la gente se enamora. .Pero,
Spara qu6 un pasaporte? Para ir y venir a Puerto Rico no
se necesita pasaporte. Es posesi6n americana.
Sally-Lo s6. Es porque quiero quedarme en Cuba un tiempo
antes de regresar a casa.
Hora Latina
Enrique-Mafiana vendr6 por usted a las ocho en punto, hora
Sally-Muy bien. Pero, I qu6 es hora americana?
Enrique--(Riendo) Hora americana quiere decir que estar6 a
esa hora exactamente, ni antes, ni despu6s. En otras palabras,
puntualidad ....
Sally-Ya entiendo. Y .... no hay una hora latina?
Enrique-Si, quiere usted saber cudl es la hora latina?
Sally-Por supuesto.
46 and 47. Expressions used by students when anything is too easy.
48. Cut classes

Enrique-Esta historic que voy a hacerle ps un poco exagerada,
pero le dark una idea. Julio pidi6 a su amigo que fuera su
padrino de bodas. Pedro, el amigo, se sinti6 muy honrado
y acep 6 con much gusto. El dia de la boda Pedro no pensaba
en otra cosa. Lleg6 la noche y empez6 a vestirse. Sali6
para la casa del padre de la novia. De alli, saldria para la
iglesia. Al llegar, not6 que todo estaba desierto. Al pre-
guntar por los novios, el padre de la muchacha le dijo .
Espere a que regresen de la luna de miel .
Sally-i QuB gracioso! Sin embargo la hora latina tiene su ventaja.
Enrique-4 Cual ?
Sally-El latino no se deja esclavizar del reloj ....
Los Arrabales
Sally-Richard, voy con Enrique a ver los arrabales de San Juan.
Richard- iCaramba! No vimos las fotografias en la revista
Sally-Si, ipero quiero verlos con mis propios ojos!
Richard-i Qu6 interns tan repentino en los arrabales! L Trabajo
social, hermana?
Sally-Enrique prometi6 llevarme hoy y ya estoy lista ....
Richard-- Tambi6n le interesan a Enrique los arrabales?
Dofia Margarita-Richard, su hermana y Enrique quieren dar
un paseo. .
Richard-Si, dofia Margarita. Entiendo muy bien. .A buen
entendedor. .
Dofia Margarita-Exactamente. Pocas palabras bastan.
La Despedida
(En la fiesta dada por los sefiores Silva para despedir
a Sally y a Richard)
Richard-Amigos, no tienen ustedes una idea de lo much que
hemos gozado en nuestra estada en Puerto Rico. Llevamos
los mejores recuerdos.
Sally-Nuica olvidaremos vuestra cortesia, vuestra hospitalidad,
vuestras atenciones.
Carmen-Para nosotros ha sido el mis grande de los placeres el
atenderlos a ustedes.
Richard-Gracias. Cuando vayan a los Estados Unidos no dejen
de avisarnos.
Sally-Nada nos alegrark tanto como el verlos por allA.
Maria-Yo pienso estudiar mi primer afio de colegio en el norte.
Sally-Nos veremos entonces.

Ramiro-Demds estA decirles que esperamos que nos visitan otra
Richard-Seguramente. En eso he pensado filtimamente. Deseo
Sally-Y yo tambien.
Dofia Margarita-Mi esposo y yo pensamos ir en noviembre. El
va de compras.
Richard--tPor que no va Ramiro? El podria quedarse en casa
mientras ustedes atienden a sus negocios.
Dofia Margarita-Lo pensaremos. Podria ser possible.
Enrique-Te envidio, Ramiro.
Ramiro-(Por decir) Podrias ir en mi lugar. (Todos rien)
Enrique-No te apures, que ya yo me ocupar6 de planear mi
visit. Mientras tanto, tendremos muy ocupados al carter,
SVerdad, Sally?
Sally-Muy ocupado .... (Todos rien)
Carmen-(Hablando por todos) Es tarde. Debemos irnos. Nos
veremos en el aeropuerto mafiana a las dos de la tarde.
Sally-Esta vez serl hora americana.
Todos-Buenas noches.
Sally y Richard y Ramiro y dofia Margarita-Buenas noches.
Descansen bien.


The following units are examples of units which teachers can
prepare on topics pertaining to life in Spanish American countries
and the contributions of certain Spanish Americans to the demo-
cratic way of life. The units also illustrate the application of
suggestions given in this bulletin for a method of teaching that
provides for training for aural comprehension, comprehension of
ideas expressed in a Spanish passage, practice on functional
grammar forms, and self-expression in Spanish. Units 2-9 could
be used in second or third year classes. Similar units can be
prepared for first year classes.



I-Introduction to Mexican geography
1. Use of familiar geographical terms to introduce
a. Spanish sounds,
b. Spanish vocabulary of geographical terms,
c. articles, es, son.
2. Use of cognates for aural comprehension.
3. Motivation by giving confidence easily through use of known to
introduce unknown.
4. Use of informative, connected material as an introduction to
study of Spanish language and to give information about a Latin
American country.
II-Learning activities given in order of presentation in class.
1. Talk in Spanish by teacher using cognates, maps, pictures, etc.,
2. Question-answer drill,
3. Common background reading unit in duplicated form,
4. Objective comprehension exercise,
a. locating expressions in reading passage
b. multiple choice
c. matching
d. completion
5. Differentiated readings in Spanish on Mexico and other Latin
American Countries in a basic text or texts, or duplicated ma-
6. Reports in Spanish by pupils about other Latin American coun-
By use of same vocabulary, a good repetition is provided in an
audience situation.
7. Foundation exercise in functional grammar on use of (1) un, una;
(2) es, son,

a. Inductive presentation through use of leading questions,
b. Drill for fixing words, form,
c. Objective exercises,
8. Writing from memory a resume in Spanish.
III-Collateral Integrative Activities
1. Optional readings in English on Mexico.
2. Learning an easy Mexican song.
3. Memorization and dramatization of short dialogues about Mexico,
Puerto Rico, or another Latin American country.
1. Map of Mexico, preferably with Spanish terms, travel bulletins,
and literature.
Maps, bulletins, etc., are distributed on request by:
(1) Club de Viajes Pemex, Articulo 123 No. 116, Apdo. 55 bis,
Mexico, D. F.
(2) Mexican Travel Agents of Mexican or Government Tourist
(a) Sr. Andres Horcasitas, Whitney Bank Bldg., New Orleans,
(b) Departamento de Turismo de la Secretaria de Gobernaci6n.
Bucareli 99, Mexico, D. F.
(c) Asociaci6n Mexicana de Turismo, Ave. JuArez 76, Mexico,
D. F.
2. Songs
a. El Camino Real (Jarrett) v.1 and 2, contain several songs used
by Mexican schools and adapted for school use.
'b. La hora de encanto, E. B. Marks Music Corp. Good collection
adapted for use by schools.
c. Vamos a cantar (A. Luce), D. C. Heath, 1946.
3. Classroom library
(1) Bulletins in English on Latin American countries prepared by
(a) Pan- American Union-American Nation Series, 5 cents
(b) Office of Inter-American Affairs.
(2) Books on Latin America from school library; Florida State
Adopted Books.
4. Reading list prepared for students of English, social studies, and
5. Unit for mimeographing for distribution to class.
6. Comprehension exercises.
7. Foundation exercise on es, son, or other basic grammatical forms.
1. Talk by teacher:
Esto es un mapa. Es un mapa de Mexico. Es un mapa de Tejas.
Tejas es un estado. Es un estado de los Estados Unidos. No es
un estado de M6xico. California es *un estado de los Estados
Unidos. Nuevo Mexico y Arizona son estados de los Estados
Unidos. Son parties de los Estados Unidos. No son parties de

2. Comprehension
a. Underline the words that make the following sentences true.
(1) Nuevo M6xico es (un mapa, un estado de los Estados
(2) Tejas es una parte de (Mexico, los Estados Unidos)
(3) Tejas, California, y Arizona son partiess de los Estados
Unidos, parties de Mfxico).
b. Complete by using a Spanish word or words in place of the X
(1) California no es un estado de X
(2) Un estado es X de los Estados Unidos
3. Functional Question-Answer Pattern
a. After the teacher introduces the pattern, pupils can ask each
other the following questions:
S(No) es Tejas una parte de Mexico?
-Tejas no es una parte de Mexico.
I (No) son Tejas y Arizona parties de Mexico?
-Tejas y Arizona no son parties de M6xico.
LSon Tejas y Arizona parties de los Estados Unidos?'
-SI, Tejas y Arizona son parties de los Estados Unidos.
LEs California una parte de MIxico?
-California no es una parte de Mexico.
jEs California un estado?
-SI, California es un estado.
b. Have pupils repeat above drill using names of other states-
La Florida, Colorado, Montana, Nevada, Pensilvania, MisisipI,
Carolina del Norte, etc.
c. Leading questions
(1) What word means a in Spanish?
(2) Is there another one?
(3) Why do you suppose there are two?
(4) What word means ist are?
(5) Where does no come in a Spanish sentence?



I-Presenting information about a democratic leader of a Latin American
1. As an educator introducing educational principles of Horace Mann.
2. As a writer portraying life in Argentina in the days of Rosas.
3. As a political leader.
II-Learning Activities.
1. Talk in Spanish by the teacher, using cognates, pictures and
other comprehension aids.
2. Common background reading in Spanish in basic text or a mimeo-
graphed unit.
3. Differentiated readings in Spanish according to reading abilities
of individual pupils.

4. Reports or discussions in Spanish by pupils in class on informa-
tion gathered from readings.
5. Objective, comprehension exercises. Correction and discussion by
pupils in class.
6. Foundation exercises in functional grammar only as needed.
Multiple choice or matching exercises to. train for recognition.
Completion exercises for recall for use In conversation or written
work. Grammar principle.
7. Writing from memory of Spanish resumes, or summaries dealing
with life and contributions to democratic way of life.
III-Collateral Integrative Activities.
1. Optional reading in English, perhaps in correlation with work in
English or social studies.
2. Talk in Spanish by competent outsider.
3. Optional readings in English on Rosas, Alberdi, Facundo In trans-
lation, and other literary works of period in translation.
4. Dramatizations written on North American teachers going to
Argentina, stories of Callbar based on Facundo.
5. Oral reading, choral treatment of El omb~, poem by Luis L.
1. Basic readers
a. Spain and America (Arjona et al.) "Callbar", pp. 377-379
b. El Camino Real (Jarrett) v.2. pp. 429-455
2. Classroom library of simple texts in Spanish containing informa-
tion on unit
a. Hombres de las Americas que lucharon por la democracia.
(Pamphlet published by Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs).
In Loan Packets
b. Amigos inolvidables. Ciclo I. Asociaci6n de Difusi6n Inter-
americana. Buenos Aires. (Booklet distributed by Office of
Inter-American Affairs). In Loan Packets
3. References for teacher and pupils interested in optional activities
a. Neighbors. A Self Portrait. Brief survey of Latin American
literature prepared by Office of Inter-American Affairs.
b. Blackwell, A. S., Some South American Poets. (English and
Spanish versions)
c. Nichols, Madoline, The Gaucho
d. Welsinger, Nina, A Guide to Studies in Spanish American
Literature, pp. 18-20
e. Pan American Union. The Literature, of Latin America, v.1
of Series on Literature, Art, and Music
f. Hespelt, et al., An Outline History of Spanish American Lit-
erature, pp. 72-74
g. Jarrett, E. M., "El Omb4", El Camino Real, v. 2, pp. 454-455
h. Weisinger and Johnston, Los otros americanos, pp. 137-152
i. Brown, Harriet M., Latin American Neighbors
j. Inman and Castafieda, A &History of Latin America for Schools

4 Mimeographed reading selections prepared by teacher
5. Foundation exercises
a. Exercises to test comprehension
b. Functional grammar drills for practice on forms not mastered
by pupils, i.e., use of idiom darse cuenta de in preterite
6. Pictures of gauchos, Sarmiento

Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, ilustre president de la Repiblica
Argentina de 1868 a 1874, pas6 en los Estados Unidos cuatro
aflos de los setenta y siete que vivi6.
Naci6 en 1811 en la provincia de San Juan y creci6 en medio
de la mayor pobreza. De sus antecesores maternos, que habian
sido educadores y cl6rigos, hered6 (recibi6) el anhelo (deseo) de
adquirir (obtener) conocimientos y de implantar reforms edu-
cativas entire sus conciudadanos (los que vivian con 61 en la
Argentina.) Desde muy joven se di6 cuenta (observ6) de la
incredible (lo que no puede ser creido) ignorancia que predominaba
entire las gentes del campo de su provincia natal (en que naci6), y
pronto vi6 que uno de los problems mas series del pais era el de
los pobres medios de instrucci6n que se ofrecian al pueblo.
Su oposici6n al tirdnico gobierno de Juan Manuel de Rosas,
que permitia tan lamentable estado de cosas, fu6 motivo de que a
los veinte afios tuviera que emigrar a Chile como exilado politico.
En Chile fu6 sucesivamente maestro de escuela, hostelero (duefio
de un hotel o posada), y capataz (un hombre que dirige) de
peones en una mina; pero lela con avidez (ansia) cuanta buena
obra caia en sus manos. Le gustaban las ideas de Cicero, las de
Benjamin Franklin, el escritor, estadista, y hombre de ciencia
norteamericano quien como Sarmiento habia nacido en la pobreza
y se habia instruido (edueado) por medio de la lectura constant
y la reflexi6n. A los quince afios de vivir en Chile, cambi6 el
gobierno de la Argentina y Sarmiento pudo regresar a la patria.
Se dedic6 a ensefiar dibujo (una forma del arte), a ser abogado;
pero, mAs que nada, a luchar por dar al pueblo instrucci6n pfblica
gratuita (no cuesta nada). Estas ideas se consideraban radicales
en aquel tiempo. En 1840 fue a prisi6n; luego lo pusieron en
libertad a condici6n de que abandonara el pais una vez m~s.
Fu6 a Chile otra vez, fund la primera escuela normal del
pals, fu6 nombrado catedrdtico professor ) de la facultad de
Filosofia y Letras de la Universidad de Chile, y se dedic6 activa-
mente al periodismo, participando de lleno (completamente) en la

political national. En 1846, el gobierno chileno lo envi6 a estudiar
los sistemas de ensefianza europeos; de sus viajes por Francia,
Espafia, e Italia, Sarmiento sac6 en limpio (eomprendi6) que
las monarquias tendian a sofocar la actividad intellectual. El
gran educador y legislator norteamericano, Horacio Mann, habia
hecho un viaje a Europa tres afios antes, con id6ntico fin. Sarmiento
tuvo ocasi6n de leer el informed que escribi6 Horacio Mann sobre
el resultado de su viaje y resolvi6 conocer al norteamericano.
Lleg6 a Nueva York en 1847. Con una carta de presentaci6n
se encamin6 (fu6) a Concord donde vivia Mann. Ninguno de
los hombres hablaba el idioma del otro, pero la esposa de Mann
sabia el espafiol y les servi6 de int6rprete. Mann habia establecido
un sistema de escuelas pfblicas en Massachusetts y Sarmiento se
convirti6 desde entonces en fiel discipulo suyo. Mann ayud6 a
Sarmiento para que tuviera 6xito su misi6n en los Estados Unidos.
Desde entonees Sarmiento era un ardiente propagandista de lo
que podriamos llamar el espiritu norteamericano.
Sarmiento regres6 a Chile con un voluminoso informed sobre la
instrucci6n popular. Bajo su influencia fund6 un centenar de
escuelas normales, un "kindergarten", etc.
Sarmiento visit a los Estados Unidos otra vez en 1865, porque
habia sido nombrado representante diplomftico de su patria en
este pals. Se le nombr6 miembro de la Sociedad Hist6rica de
Rhode Island y la Universidad de Michigan le concedi6 el titulo
de Doctor en Derecho. Su misi6n diplomitica termin6 en 1868
y regres6 a la Argentina para ser president. En su character de
president de la Repfblica Argentina, Sarmiento reorganiz6 por
complete y extendi6 el sistema national de instrucci6n pfiblica.
Su fama de hombre pfblico se basa principalmente en las reforms
fundamentals que introdujo en Chile asi como en la Argentina.
Por lo demfs (tambi6n) fu6 escritor acabado, atento a los detalles
y fAcil de expresi6n. Facundo, en que describe la vida del gaucho,
y Recuerdos de provincia han llegado a ser obras clasicas.
Comprehension Exercise. Use of Spanish without translation
being used. Directions: In column A are beginnings of sentences.
Find in Column B the correct ending and read, or write (as your
teacher directs) the completed sentence.

1. Desde muy joven observe
2. Escribi6 muchos libros en que
3. Sarmiento tuvo que irse de su
4. Bajo la influencia de Horacio
5. Los padres de Sarmiento
*6. Fue nombrado representante
diplomitico de su patria
7. A Sarmiento le gustaban
8. Sarmiento fu6 nombrado
president de la Repiblica
9. Sarmiento conoci6 a Horacio
10. Ley6 un artfculo de Horacio
Mann cuando estaba

1. en Boston.
2. despues de su segundo viaje a
los Estados Unidos.
3. despuds de su primer viaje a los
Estados Unidos.
4. en Europa.
5. la ignorancia de las gentes- de
su provincia de San Juan.
6. estableci6 Sarmiento el sistema
de escuelas normales y la educa-
ci6n pfiblica en su patria.
7. eran educadores.
8. describi6 la vida de los gauchos
y la vida de la provincia de San
9. las obras de Benjamin Franklin.
LO. dos veces.
11. pero la esposa de Horacio Mann
pudo ser intdrprete.

Functional Grammor Drill for Practice on forms found in selection:
1. Preterite tense of dar in the idiom darse cuenta de:
a. Model: (not) to notice the ignorance: (no) darse cuenta de
la ignorancia.
iNo se di6 Vd. cuenta de la ignorancia de la gentle?
-(Yo) no me di cuenta de la ignorancia de la gene.
I No se dieron Vds. cuenta de la ignorancia de la gente?
-No nos dimos cuenta de la ignorancia de la gente.
b. Application:
Repeat using different objects of the verb:
(No) darse cuenta de
1. el lodo
2. el tren
3. las nubes
4. las estrellas
5. el ruido en la calle
6. la lluvia
7. su importancia, etc.
2. Imperfect subjunctive of tcner after para que
a. Model: He helped Sarmiento so that he might succeed in his
Ayud6 a Sarmiento para que tuviera dxito en su mission.
L (No) ayud6 a su madre para que tuviera mras dinero?
-SI, ayud4 a ml madre para que tuviera mas dinero.
L (No) ayudaron sus hermanos a su madre para que tuviera
m&s dinero?
-No, mis hermanos no ayudaron a nuestra madre para que
tuviera mis dinero.
b. Application:
Repeat.using different subjects and objects for tener.


Aspect: Early 16th century explorations in Florida
A. Learning Activities
1. Talk in Spanish by teacher using cognates, pictures, and other
2. Common background reading in Spanish in basic text or in mimeo-
graphed unit.
3. Differentiated reading in Spanish according to varying abilities
of individual pupils.
4. Reports and discussions in class or information gathered through
differentiated reading in Spanish.
5. Objective comprehensive exercises with correction and discussion
in class.
6. Foundation exercises in instrumental grammar only as needed.
7. Writing from memory in Spanish of r6sumes dealing with Spanish
B. Collateral Integrative Activities
1. Optional reading in English of interesting articles, books, and
pamphlets on Spanish explorations and development of Florida,
perhaps in correlation with English and history classes.
2. Talks in Spanish by competent outsiders.
3. Interviews with local residents of Spanish extraction; in class
or by committees during out-of-school hours.
4. Talks or interviews with representatives of the Florida State
Historical Society.
5. Reviewing movies having a bearing on historical development of
6. Visits to Spanish settlements in Florida and seats of historical
interest: St. Augustine, New Smyrna, Key West, Ybor City,
7. Painting of murals and doing other work in art illustrating the
explorations of the early explorers.
C. Materials
1. Basic Texts: Friedman, Arjona, Carvajal, Spanish Book I, pp.
328; 363-6.
Friedman, Arjona, Carvajal, Spanish Book II, pp. 327-330.
Arjona, Friedman, Carvajal, Spain and America, pp. 96-192.
2. Classroom libraries of simple texts containing information about
explorations in Florida.
Arjona, Siglo de Aventuras, pp. 51-55
Bedichek, Lillian Greer, and Campa, Arturo L., Mastering
Spanish, pp. 1-24
Jarrett, El (amino Real, Vol. I, pp. 415-416; Vol. II, pp. 38-43
Wilkins, L. A., Quinito en America, pp. 64-67; 124-125
3. Mimeographed readings prepared by teacher.
4. Foundation exercises prepared by teacher.

5. Pictures of Spanish explorers, forts, architecture, etc.
6. Interesting books and publications for collateral reading in English:
Carson, Ruby Leach, Fabulous Florida, Florida's Story for
Grismer and Arjona, The Pageant of Spain, (In Spanish)
Kenny, Michael, The Romance of the Floridas
Longstreet, R. J., and Goulding, R. L., Stories of Florida
Vannest and Smith, Socialized History of the U. 8., Supplementary
History of Florida
Florida Historical Society Quarterly:
Boyd, Mark F., "From a Remote Frontier, San Marcos de
Apalachee, 1763-1769", Vol. XX, No. 3, Jan. 1942, No. 4,
April, 1942; Vol. XXI, No. 1, July, 1942; Vol. XIX, No. 3,
Jan. 1941; Vol. XIX, No. 4, April, 1941; Vol. XX, No. 1,
July, 1941.
"Expedition of Marcos Delgado", Vol. XVI, No. 1, July,
"Spanish Mission Sites in Florida", Vol. XVII, No. 4,
April, 1939.
Chatelain, Verne E., "Spanish Contributions in Florida to
American Culture", Vol. XIX, No. 3, Jan. 1941.
Corse, Herbert M., "Names of the St. John's River", Vol. XXI,
No. 2, Oct. 1942.
Davis, Frederick, "Fort Caroline", Vol. XII, No. 2, Oct. 1933.
Detwiler, John Y., "Antiquities at and Near New Smyrna",
Vol. I, No. 3, Oct. 1908.
Dewitt, Webb, "Old St. Augustine", Vol. I, No. 3, Oct. 1908.
Faye, Stanley, "Spanish Fortifications of Pensacola, 1781-
1821", Vol. XX, No. 3, Jan. 1942.
Fleming, E. P., "The Story of Juan Ortlz and Uleleh", Vol. I,
No. 2, July, 1908.
Gonzalez, Mrs. S. J., "Pensacola, Its Early History", Vol. II,
No. 1, April, 1909.
Mauncy, Albert and Johnson, Alberta, "Castle St. Mark and
the Patriots of the Revolution", Vol. XXI, No. 1, July, 1942.
Siebert, Wilbur, "Some Church History of St. Augustine During
the Spanish Regime", Vol. IX, No. 2, Oct. 1930.
"How the Spaniard Evacuated Pensacola in 1763", Vol. XI,
No. 2, Oct. 1932.
"The Departure of the Spaniards for East Florida, 1763",
Vol. XIX, No. 2, Oct. 1940.
Map of Ponce de Leon's Landings, Vol. XI, No. 4, April, 1933.
7. Moving Pictures and Scripts
General Extension Division, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Los Conquistadores y la Florida
Juan Ponce de Le6n, que fu6 el primer gobernador de la isla
de Puerto Rico, queria hallar la "fuente de la juventud" de la
que hablaban los indios. Con tres barcos Ponce de Le6n sali6 de

Puerto Rico en 1513 y en este afio descubrio la costa de la Florida.
El di6 este nombre a esta tierra porque la descubri6 el dia de
Pascua Florida.
Desde aquellos tiempos hasta muchos afios despu6s casi toda la
region de Labrador al Rio Grande se llamaba la Florida. Los
mapas no eran buenos y habiaalgunas personas que creian que
la peninsula era una isla. De algunos ensayos para explorer a
la Florida various eran actualmente desembarcaderos en las costas
de lo que es ahora South Carolina cerca de Cape Fear y de
Chesapeake Bay.
Panfilo de Narvaez obtuvo del rey de Espafia un nombramiento
para conquistar y gobernar a la Florida en 1527. Un afio mds
tarde, el 14 de abril de 1528, 61 desembarc6 cerca de Tampa Bay.
Despu6s de quedarse en Apalachee y en Aut6 (que es ahora St.
Mark's) fue perseguido por los indios, y los espafioles construyeron
buques en que salvarse. Naufragaron, y de los siete sobrevivientes
que llegaron a M6xico uno era Cabeza de Vaca.
Los cuentos de la Florida que Cabeza de Vaca cont6 al rey de
Espafia eran tan atractivos que expediciones nuevas fueron
formadas. Coronado supo de las siete ciudades de oro y comenz6
sus planes para la conquista de Nuevo M6xico. Otra expedici6n
fu6 formada por Hernando de Soto quien se habia distinguido en
la conquista del Peri.
Los miembros de esta expedici6n de nueve buques eran 600
soldados, muchos nobles en busca de riquezas, y various curas.
Llevaron 213 caballos, unos puercos, y otros animals 4ombsticos,
cadenas para fugitives, y todo el equipaje necesario. 'El 25 de
mayo de 1539 sus buques entraron en una bahia llamado por de
Soto, Espiritu Santo, que ahora se cree que esta cerca de Tampa
Desqu6s de sufrimientos terrificos en cruzar las ci6nagas
(swamps) y despu6s de ensayos para obtener bastante alimento ellos
llegaron a Apalachee, un pueblo indio en la vecinidad de Tallahas-
see. Era a fines de octubre en 1539, y hallando este lugar abun-
dante en maiz, calabazas, y otras legumbres, 61 determine a pasar
el invierno alli. En marzo del afio siguiente 61 fu6 a la parte de
los Estados Unidos que se llama ahora Georgia, South Carolina,
y a otros estados.
Objective Comprehension Exercise:

Complete each sentence by choosing the phrase which makes
the statement true according to the story:
1. Algunos espafioles creIan que la Florida era X
2. Ponce de Le6n fu6 el primer gobernado de la isla de X
3. La fecha del descubrimiento de la Florida por Ponce de Le6n
fu6 X
4. Panfilo de Narvaez se qued6 un rato en Apalachee y en Ante
5. Uno de los sobrevivientes de la expedici6n de Narvaez era X
6. De Soto se habia distinguido en la conquista del X
7. La flota de De Soto'consistl6 en X buques.
8. La bahia en donde entr6 la flota fu6 llamada por De Soto X
9. 'Ahora esta bahia se cree que estl cerca de X
10. La expedici6n de De Soto pas6 el invierno de 1539 en la
vecinidad de X

Foundation Exercise in Instrumental Grammar

The following is a drill in question and answer form on the
preterite tense of oir and obtener, combined with vocabulary from
the reading material given earlier in the unit.
ofr (to hear):

LOy6 Vd. la historic de Cabeza de
-Yo no of la historic de Cabeza
de Vaca.
pOyeron Vds. la historic de Cabeza
de Vaca?
-Nosotros no olmos la historic de
Cabeza de Vaca.

Did you hear the story of Cabaza
de Vaca?
I didn't hear the story of Cabeza
de Vaca.
Did you hear the story of Cabeza
de Vaca?
We didn't hear the story of Cabeza
de Vaca.

-Repeat, using the following instead of "la historic de Cabeza de Vaca":
1. de las siete ciudades de oro
2. el ruido
3. del naufragio
4. de los sufrimientos de los espafloles
obtener (to obtain) (like tener):

.,No obtuvo Vd. los buques?
-Yo no obtuve los buques.
.No obtuvieron Vds. los buques?
-Nosotros no obtuvimos los buques.


using the following instead
el nombramiento
la riqueza
bastante alimento
la fama de un conquistador

Didn't you get the boats?
I didn't get the boats.
Didn't you get the boats?
We didn't get the boats.
of "los buques":


I-Understanding of culture in Latin America as found in
A. Fiestas
1. DIa de los Muertos (All Souls' Day) in Mexico
a. Passive acceptance of death by Indians
b. Graves covered with candles, flowers, food
c. Subdued but real holiday
(1) Los Chicos November 1
(2) Dia de los Grandes ... November 2
d. Calendulas Flowers of the dead
e. Pan de muertos (bread of the dead)
Round loaves representing bones and skull
2. Recommendation: that teachers prepare similar units during
the year; purchase "Vistas Panamericanas" from Odyssey Press.
a. El dia de San Valentin
b. Los dias carnavalescos en Hispanoambrica
c. La semana santa
d. Dla de las Americas
e. Dia do Col6n
f. La fiesta de Copacabana
(1) Festivals and Folk Dances, Pan American Union 1939,
p. 6
g. Las Posadas y la Pifiata
(1) Garner, B. A., Mexico
(2) Tercero, Josd, "Christmas in Mexico", Bulletin Pan
American Union, Dec. 1931, p. 1232-1236
II-Learning activities
A. Talk in Spanish by teacher using cognates, pictures, and other
comprehension devices
B. Background reading of mimeographed unit or from basic text
C. Reports and discussions
D. Objective comprehension exercises
E. Exercises in instrumental grammar as needed; e.g., multiple
choice and matching for recognition of forms; completion tests
for recall for use in conversation
F. Write from memory resumes of material read
G. Report on Don Juan Tenorio based on
1. Harrison, S., Mexico Simpdtico
2. Adams, N. B., Heritage of Spain, pp. 233-4
III-Collateral integrative activities
A. Club party on All Souls' Day instead of traditional Hallowe'erl
1. Art masks, "esqueletos"
2. "Ofrendas"
3. Make tombs of books; "Mark" in Spanish with pupil's names
(Spanish) or epitaphs
4. "Pan de muertos". refreshment


B. Guest speakers who have seen these fiestas
C. Rivera's painting of All Souls' Day for talk in Spanish
A. Mimeographed readings
B. Classroom library
C. Loan Packets from U. S. Office of Education.
A. Spanish references
1. Revista Mexico, Paseo de la Reforma, 36-2, Mexico, D. F. Vol.
I, No. 1, Oct.-Dec., 1943, pp. 28-29
2. Vistas Hispanoamericanas, (Pan American Activities, Packet
No. 14) p. 27
B. English references
1. Bairos, Peggy, "Mexican Holiday", Pan Pacific, April-June
1940, p. 35-37
2. Ferguson, E., "Merry Festival of the Dead", Travel, June, 1934
3. Ferguson, E., Fiesta in Mexico, pp. 199-215
4. Friedman, Arjona, Carvajal, Spanish Book I
5. Goetz, A., South of the Border
6. Peck, Anne, Young Mexico
7. Schwendener, Norma, Legends and Dances of Old Mexico
8. Spicer, D. G., Book of Festivals
9. Inter-American Magazine, November, 1945
El Dia de Todos los Santos y el Dia de Muertos
En los filtimos dias de octubre, en los lugares en que se
instalan las ferias, las tiendas ceden su sitio a los "puestos" en
que se venden dulees tipicos, tradicionales de las fiestas de "Todos
los Santos" y "Dia de Muertos", 10 y 20 de noviembre.
En los mostradores de los dulceros, contrast la candida humil-
dad de los animalitos de azfcar con la c6mica truculencia (calidad
cruel) de las calaveras (las cabezas de los muertos) de azficar con
ojos de lentejuela (ojos brillantes), entire el scenario de "en-
cubiertos" de variadas frutas, de colaciones (dulces) y confites
de almendra, cacahuates (palabra azteca que quiere decir "pea-
nut") y nueces.
En las carpas (tiendas del campo) dramatizaciones ingeniosas
presentan en lfigubres bromas (chistes fdnebres), el moment
politico, la actualidad local, haciendo con ello la competencia a
los'teatros profesionales, en qde es de rigor (absolutamente
necesario) el drama de Zorrilla, Don Juan Tenorio.
En las panaderias se expende el tipico "pan de muertos". Los
vendedores ambulantes ofrecen infinita variedad de juguetes
(mufecas) que trivializan (hacen sencillo) el tema severe de la
muerte, con singular sentido filos6fico, privativo (propio) del
pueblo mexicano: un esqueleto-titere figurea pequefia) que hacen

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