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A GUIDE TO (id ec Deloafme
THROUGH THE BEGINNING SCHOOL YEARS
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Colin English, Superintendent
In Cooperation With
FLORIDA CONGRESS OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS
Mrs. Walter H. Beckham, President
BULLETIN No. 53
"You know that the beginning is the most important part of any work,
especially in the case of a young and tender thing; for that is the time at which
the character is being formed." -PLATO.
INTRODUCTION ...------------------------ -------------- 5
THE HOME -....... ------------
SUGGESTIONS TO PARENTS -------- -----.....
Health and Safety ----------------------
Routine .----..... -..:----------- ----------..---------
Obedience and Discipline .---------------...
Clothing ----- -------------------
Parent Participation and Cooperation --------..
----------------------- -- ---- 8
...........................--- ------- ---------- 9
-------------------------------- --- -- --------- 10
- -------- -- -- 12
THE SCHOOL ...---.-- -----........-------- --------- 15
THE PRE-SCHOOL --------------------------15
Nursery School ___------ ----------------------------15
Characteristics of the Nursery School Child __...------------..-- 16
Program of Activities...------------------------ 23
Kin dergarten --.--___ .------------------. ------------------- __ ~22
Characteristics of the Kindergarten Child -- --------------23
Program of Readiness ..-----------------------26
THE FIRST GRADE -------- --. .. ..... 31
Characteristics of the First Grade Child ------31
The Curriculum--------- ------------- 31
Language Arts ------------ -.. .... 31
Music and Art-------------- 35
Number ----------------- 36
Physical Education--.----....-------------------- 37
Social Studies --------------- _40
Materials of Instruction and Supplies ---------40
Reports --------------------- 41
School Lunch------------ ---------- 43
Practices Regarding Health and Safety --.. ---------------------.45
SPECIAL SERVICES ---------
...------------------.. I-------- 50
APPENDIX --.__ ..-----------.....-- ---------- 51
Foods To Be Included In a Good Daily Diet for Children ----- 52
Meal Patterns _____- --------------_- ------ --54
Books for Pre-school Children ------- ---56
Poetry For Reading Aloud ----------61
References For Parents ---------------------------62
References on Equipment and Play Materials ...-----------...- -..--- 63
The Guide to Child Development Through the Beginning School Years has
been prepared at the request of the Florida Parent-Teacher Association, many
parents, supervisors, principals, and teachers.
This Guide has been designed for use by local or county Parent-Teacher
groups, county-wide teacher committees, and individual teachers and parents for
individual and group parent-conferences, as well as for planning the work for
the first year of school. Included also are suggestions for developing county hand-
books which interpret the local school to the parents. Such a parent's handbook
should (1) answer many questions from parents concerning the how, why, and
what of the first school years, and (2) suggest ways for cooperation between
the home and school.
Grateful acknowledgement is made to Dean R. L. Eyman, Florida State Col-
lege for Women, and Mrs. Dora Skipper of the Florida State College for Women
who is on loan to the State Department of Education, for guidance in the prep-
aration of the Guide; Mrs. Walter Beckham, President, and Mrs. Herman Hein-
lein, Pre-school Chairman of the Florida Congress of Parents and Teachers, Dr.
Ruth Connor, Miss Betty Hatch and Miss Elizabeth Hodges, Florida State College
for Women, Mrs. Margaret Casson, formerly of Florida State College for Women,
Miss Eulah Mae Snider, Director of Library Services, Duval County, Mrs. Thelma
Flanagan, State Department of Education, and members of the staff of the
Florida State Board of Health for preparation of materials; Dr. H. L. Waskom,
Florida State College for Women, Miss Charlotte Dunn, University of Florida,
Dr. Laura Cushman and Mrs. Mae Knight Clark, Cushman School, Miami, Miss
Gertrude Shaffner, Assistant Director of Instruction of Dade County, and Miss
Martha Alexander, Elementary Supervisor of Tampa, for conferences; to Mrs.
Elizabeth Freeman Ingram, Mrs. Florence Dulion, Miss Nettie Brogden and
Mrs. Clara Capron, and to the schools and counties who have contributed
pictures and bulletins. Appreciation is extended to Dr. W. T. Edwards, Miss Sara
Krentzman, Miss Mildred Swearingen, Joe Hall, and D. E. Williams, of the
State Department of Education, and particularly to Miss Sarah Lou Hammond
of the Division of Instruction of the State Department who assumed major re-
sponsibility for compiling and putting into written form the material contained
in the Guide.
The years from three to six are particularly important because habits and
attitudes formed at this time may affect many aspects of a child's later life.
The guidance given the child at the time he has many of these first experiences
may determine whether the habits and attitudes are good or bad even in adult
In order to give intelligent guidance in meeting the physical, intellectual,
social, emotional, and spiritual needs of the child, there should be an understand-
ing and cooperation between home and school.
While the school is the recognized agency for educating the child, it cannot
accept this responsibility alone. The home and community influences are also
schools for the child. In fact, every child has four teachers, his playmates,
his parents, the community, and the regular teachers in the public school. "There
is an increased recognition of the fact that no educational substitute has ever
been found for the home, and that only through consistent policies of home and
school can the total educational scheme be made effective."1
Parents should be eager to see their children enter school with every chance
of success. If the child is to succeed, then he must be mentally, socially, emo-
tionally, and physically prepared for this school life. Some evidences of readi-
ness for school are listed below. Parents are encouraged to check and see if
1. Looks forward to school as a place where he will find new and happy
2. Knows his own name and address.
3. Knows the safest way to and from school.
4. Understands the value of safety-crossing streets at corners, obeying
traffic signals, and not playing in the streets.
5. Puts away play-things after using them.
6. Is interested in books and hearing stories.
7. Shows fair control of large muscles in running, skipping, walking.
8. Shows fair control of hand muscles in using scissors, crayons, pencils.
9. Can attend to toilet needs.
10. Can take off and put on wraps.
11. Understands and carries out simple directions and acquires a measure
12. Keeps fingers or other objects out of mouth or nose.
13. Has overcome fears, tantrums, or other lack of self-control.
14. Has learned to cover face when coughing or sneezing.
15. Speaks distinctly in complete sentences.
16. Is responsible for completing a task or job.
17. Plays well with other children in the home and neighborhood.
IBain, Winifred E., Parents Look At Modern Education. New York. D. Appleton-Century Company,
Incorporated, 1935. p. 276.
SUGGESTIONS TO PARENTS
HEALTH AND SAFETY
The health status of the child is essential not only for his present well-being
but because of the effect that childhood health has on the life of the individual
as an adult. It is imperative that the health of the school child be a matter of
concern, but even more vital that proper health practices be observed during
the pre-natal, natal, post-natal, infant, and pre-school life of the child. Too much
emphasis can not be placed upon the responsibility of the parent to utilize the
services available from private physicians and public health agencies during
1. Parents should see that the child has a complete physical examination
before entering school. All remediable defects should be corrected.
2. Parents should see that the child is protected against contagious dis-
eases. The following are the recommended immunization policies:
a. Vaccination against smallpox: Should be obtained normally at
any time between 3 to 12 months of age, and at any age during an
epidemic. It should be repeated before entrance into school and re-
peated thereafter every five to seven years.
b. Immunization against diphtheria: Should occur first at 9 months
of age, again from 4 to 6 weeks later, and again before entering
school. If the family wishes, a Schick test may be requested before
the toxoid is administered.
c. Immunization against typhoid fever: Should be obtained at any
age during an epidemic or catastrophe, or when the individual has
contact with a known carrier. It should be obtained routinely after
two years of age in areas in which typhoid is prevalent, or sanita-
tion facilities are so poor as to be conducive to typhoid. The State
Board of Health recommends that 3 initial injections be given, to
be followed annually by 1 injection of the vaccine.
d. Immunization against whooping cough: Immunization against
this disease is recommended for children in the early months of life,
not before the third month and preferably before the sixth month.
If your baby is six months of age or over and has not been immun-
ized against whooping cough, see your family physician immedi-
ately for this immunization.
e. Immunization against Tetanus (Lock-jaw): Half of all lock-jaw
deaths occur in children under fifteen years of age. Immunization
against this infection is as outlined with diptheria or whooping
cough and it is now possible to get triple vaccine containing whoop-
ing cough, diptheria, and tetanus. If your child does not have im-
munization against this terrible disease, see your family physician
3. Parents should keep the child at home if he shows symptoms of the
common cold, such as sneezing, coughing, running nose, flushed face, and head-
ache. A child who suddenly develops a headache, chill, a vomiting spell, or other
signs of illness should be kept at home. Daily attendance should not be stressed
to the extent that the health of the child is endangered.
4. Parents should inform the school when absence is due to contagious
disease. It is recommended as the best practice that the parents obtain a state-
ment from the private physician or public health authority before the child is
re-admitted to school.
5. Parents should provide a safe place for the child to play and should ar-
range supervision of the play of the very young child.
6. Parents should help the child gradually to become aware of such haz-
ards as poisonous insects and plants, and playing in the streets.
"The formation of good habits early has an important influence on normal
growth and development."3 This training should not be started too early nor de-
layed too long. Parents should practice the kind of behavior expected of the
child. Suggestions for the routines of eating, discipline and sleeping are listed.
'Items a, b, c included in Florida's School Health Program, Florida Program for Improvement of Schools
Bulletin No. 4, State Department of Education. p. 45. Revised Edition 1943. Items d and e prepared
by the Florida State Board of Health.
3Helen Brenton Proyor: As the Child Grows. New York. Silver Burdett Co., 1943. pp. 194.
1. Serve a diet adequate for the needs of the child.4
2. Serve all meals at regularly scheduled intervals.
3. If the child refuses to eat, discover the reason for this refusal.
4. The child should eat all food given him. Parents should use care as to
the size of the first servings.
5. Do not allow the child to dawdle indefinitely with his food.
Evidences of readiness for eating at school are listed in the section on The
School Lunch Program. Parents are encouraged to check and see if the child is
4For helpful suggestions on adequate diets for children, see the Appendix, "Foods To Be Included In a
Good Daily Diet for Children 2 to 5 Years Old", prepared by Dr. Ruth Connor, Florida State College
for Women, Tallahassee, Florida.
Obedience and Discipline
Obedience is a means to an end-self-control.
1. Be consistent in dealing with the child; that is, do not laugh at an act
one day and scold for the same act the next day.
2. Ask the child to do things that are physically possible for him to do.
3. Be honest with the child. If parents are to administer discipline ef-
fectively, they must gain the child's complete trust and confidence.
4. Develop a positive program of activities for the child. This helps to
eliminate the necessity for saying "No, no."
5. Commend the child for desirable attitudes or actions.
6. Provide opportunity for the child to use his own initiative and judgment.
1. The bedtime hour should be fixed and the schedule closely followed.
2. The hour before bedtime should be a happy time-free from excitement.
3. The child should sleep approximately 12 hours each night, depending on
the age of the child.
4. Parents should not deceive the child about leaving home after he has
gone to bed. If he wakes and finds his parents gone, he may be fright-
ened and feel insecure.
5. A nap should be scheduled during the day through the early years.
6. The child should be comfortable while sleeping.
7. The child should have a quiet place in which to sleep.
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1. Mark all clothes, toys, books, and other possessions with the child's name.
2. Provide sweaters in addition to coats to take care of changes in the
3. Provide removable slacks or overalls for boys and girls on cold days.
4. Provide clothes which are comfortable and suited to the size of the child.
5. Help the child learn to care for his clothing.
PARENT PARTICIPATION AND COOPERATION
1. Join the Parent-Teacher Association organization.
2. Visit the school after the child has made an adjustment to group living
3. Arrange individual conferences with your child's teacher.
4. Assist with the program of activities for the school.
Fathers may assist in teaching such skills as carpentry, while mothers may
cooperate with sewing, and weaving.
-,, X ,
The term "pre-school' includes children from the ages of three to six. We
realize that the differences between the three-year-old and the six-year-old are
Pre-schools, to provide adequately for young children, must meet the needs
of each individual child as he develops. Each child grows at a rate peculiar to
himself. There is a sequence of development, however, which may be our guide.
The work of the pre-school groups is closely coordinated, but distinctly different
in aims and programs.
THE NURSERY SCHOOL
The nursery school provides a good environment for work, play, and ad-
venture-provides for proper rest, diet and health routines-provides compan-
ionship, sharing and good will. Many homes are poorly equipped to give children
such a wide range of experiences.
The length of the nursery school day is usually from 3 to 5 hours duration,
five days per week, and is planned to provide experiences in normal living, health
practices, and play. The day nursery or day care center is organized to meet
the needs of the family-to care for children of working mothers or provide
supplementary food and health care which the family is not able to provide.
These should differ little educationally but may differ as to basic purpose.
The home and the nursery school should work closely together in order that
they may better understand and help the child.
Characteristics of the Nursery School Child5
3 Year Old
Uses clays and other manipulative play materials
Dresses spontaneously and imitatively
Strokes are well defined
Builds tower of 9 or 10 blocks
Sure-footed and quick
Turns corners when running
Can stop suddenly
Alternates feet on stairs unaided
Can jump down from bottom step
CAn jump into the air
Can pedal a tricycle
"For a detailed and helpful discussion, see Gesell, Arnold, and others: The First Five Years of Life.
New York. Harper and Brothers, 1940.
Sense of order and arrangement
Can match forms
Names things and asks what things are
Is ready to conform to a spoken direction
Large vocabulary (1000 words)
Very verbal-tries some for sound, some for melody or humor value, some
as carriers of meaning
Dramatizes to perfect his talking
Listens to learn
Anxious to please
Will give up privileges for the moment if a promise for the future is given
Uses words to express feelings, desires, and problems
Listens-suggestion takes effect
Will go on errands
Will make affectionate references to mother
Will attack objects with brief outbursts of emotion
Capable of jealousy
Talks to himself or to an imagined person
Tries to make people laugh by his own laughter
Still likes solitary or parallel play
Beginning to know how to take turns
Feeds himself-spills little, pours from pitcher
Great interest in dressing
Sleeps through night without wetting
Can toilet himself in daytime
Naps one hour or more-less dependent on dolls, toys, etc., as solace at rest
Words used as exchange socializes his behavior
4 Year Old
Runs with greater ease
Can make running broad jump
Can make standing broad jump
Can balance on one foot, increased body equilibrium
Likes to try motor stunts
Leg muscles more mature
Bodily responses less dependent on each other, hence joints seem more
Likes activities of smaller muscles: buttons clothes, laces shoes with ease,
gestures with index finger
Drawing-may show attention to detail
Unilateral preference not so dominant
Experiments in activity-face making
Power of generalization and abstraction
Senses himself as one among many
Intellectual processes-narrow in scope
SMeager understanding of past and future
Little interest in plot of stories-likes sound of words
Can count to 4 by rote
Concept of one-two and many
Dramatic play changes quickly, questions change quickly
Busy rather than profound mind
Makes reference to each thing in a comparison-this is small, this is large
Literal analogies in stories befuddled-moved muscularly when hearing
Mixture of literalness and symbolism in his drawings-man, head, 2 eyes,
When given an incomplete picture of man he can supply 3 parts
Can match 8 out of 10 test forms
Interested in balance, etc.; cares little for good construction
Names construction after it is made-same with drawings-does not repeat
-goes from one thing to another, interests averted quickly
Can carry a melody in snatches
Questioning at peak-volubility and fluency
Sometimes chatters for hours socially or to attract attention
Why and how frequent-not always interested in answers, except to see
how they fit into his own thoughts
Soliloquizes: projects verbal constructions, rearranges images, formulates
Does not like to repeat things, can carry on long conversations, mixes truth
with fiction in his stories-sometimes with a purpose
1500 words average
Need for social recognition
Crisp and frank
Can flounder through discussions, conversation in an adult manner
Combination of independence and sociability
Self-reliant in personal habits-independence-assertive-emphatic dogma-
In test situations: less social dependence, careful, more drive, makes unin-
vited comments, may do the examining
Homelife: needs less care, dresses with little help, laces shoes, (can't tie
them usually), combs hair, brushes teeth, can choose food-needs
little direction, can talk and eat, can set table, may not nap but if he
does it is long, toilets himself-curious about others, does need toys
to sleep, can sleep without waking up
Play: combination of independence and sociability, less enjoyment in soli-
tary play, more social advances, associative group play, 2 or 3 children,
shares possessions, suggests turns-not aways orderly, dramatic play-
changeable, bossy, talkative (complete sentences, personal pronouns,
makes alibis-denotes awareness of opinions and attitudes of others,
makes self appraisals and self criticisms), growing reasoning powers,
Unreasonable fears: dark, old men, feathers, etc.
Less mature than speech would suggest
Fabrications also display social insight
Does not make realistic distinctions between truth and fable
Program of Activities6
For our purposes, we shall consider the nursery school day as divided into
three types of activities:
1. The routine activities. The adjustments which a child makes to these
routines form what we call his "habits": eating; sleeping; dressing;
toileting; arrival, including health inspection; dismissal.
2. Individual and small group activities. Both indoors and outdoors, a great
part of the nursery school day falls under this heading: building-with
blocks, carpenters' tools; handwork-drawing, painting, clay work, ma-
nipulative toys, and the like; housekeeping, storekeeping, and many
other kinds of dramatic play; gardening; climbing; some music and
3. Group activities. For the more mature children in the nursery school,
group experiences form an important part of the daily program: story;
music-singing and rhythms; discussion.
A. Nursery schools are not simply "habit training clinics," with a goal of sup-
plying the child with adequate responses to care for his physical needs. In
building habits in young children, we are concerned primarily with his
catching a spirit of cooperativeness, of wanting to perform his job correctly
for its own sake. We work toward building this spirit as we work with each
child's actual behavior in the routines. The same spirit is our concern in the
whole program: work and play, music, story, social contacts, and the rest.
B. Principles of habit building, as given by Rose Alschuler in Two to Six (W.
M. Morrow & Co.) include the following:
1. It is fundamental that there be thorough cooperation and understanding
on the part of the parents and other adults in charge of the child.
2. Sufficient time should be allowed so that (a) the child understands and
accepts the idea, and (b) neither adult nor child feels pressed or hur-
3. The child's interest and cooperation should be secured, as it is funda-
mental to any sound formation of habits. The adult's responsive attitude
and the child's joy in doing things for himself are fundamental in this
C. The teacher must set standards of behavior in routine activities in terms of
each child. Although it gives some "ground to stand on" to be familiar with
age expectancies in these routines (good sets of expectancies given in Al-
schuler's, Two to Six) we must be careful to operate on what the child does
do, rather than on what he should do.
D. Regularity of these routine activities in the schedule gives the child a feel-
ing of security.
E. The teacher must realize that the building of habits in these routines is
complicated in the pre-school by the social situation. In working toward
building a child's independence in these routines, she must frequently make
the setting as nearly a home-like setting as is possible.
'Prepared by Miss Betty Hatch, Director of the Nursery School, Florida State College for Women,
F. Courtesy habits-"Please," "Thank you," etc., are "caught" from the child's
being associated with adults who are careful to include them in his environ-
ment. Again, a spirit, or attitude, of considerateness, sharing, thankfulness,
are of primary concern-the words themselves, secondary.
G. "Bad habits" are of concern because they are probably symptoms of some-
thing wrong in the child's make-up-perhaps too much fatigue, or over-
stimulation, or his feelings toward a new baby in his home. The teacher's
attack must be double-barrelled: she must discover and work on the funda-
mental cause, and she must, at the same time, build with the child the
correct responses to routines. For example: she works on adding more feel-
ings of security to a child whose thumb-sucking seems to be springing from
feelings of insecurity; and, at the same time, she helps him as unobtrusively
as possible, to lie down "with his hands by his side" when he takes his nap.
Another point: a "bad habit" is frequently the normal or "expected" reac-
tion of children of a certain level of maturity to a routine, and, when this
is true, the teacher avoids raising issues about the behavior.
H. Important qualities for the teacher to maintain are:
1. Consistency in her dealings with each child in these routines.
2. Unemotional, unhurried attitude when child is slow or makes mistakes-
building habits in these common routines is as integral a part of her
job for the nursery school teacher as the teaching of reading is for the
3. Friendliness-interest and responsiveness toward the child as he accom-
plishes a "next step" toward independence in habit building.
4. An attitude of expecting the child's compliance with the requirements
the teacher sets up for each child. In order to maintain this attitude,
the teacher must be very careful to set up for each child standards he
can meet in each routine activity.
Individual and Group Activities
These activities provide an opportunity for social growth. The child learns
to live happily with others-to share toys and take turns.
As the child uses materials for handwork, crayons, paint, clay, he has
experiences in distinguishing differences in size, form, color, relationships, or
numbers. The group activities in music, play, and stories provide stimulating
experiences which form a basis for understandings and judgment and encourage
It is the responsibility of the kindergarten to provide an environment in
which a five-year-old may have experiences to provide for physical, mental, emo-
tional, and social growth. With proper teacher guidance, the child should be able
to: work happily as a member of the group and accept definite responsibilities;
express himself freely, yet in a courteous manner; show increased muscular
maturity by better handling of playground and classroom equipment-blocks,
ladders, pencils, crayons, and scissors.
A wide variety of experiences provide a rich background for further activ-
ities. One of the main functions of the kindergarten is to help parents under-
stand and provide for development of children.
Characteristics of the Kindergarten Child7
5 Year Old
General bodily activity more controlled, skips smoothly, jumps, self-reliant,
can balance on his toes-graceful postural attitude
Greater precision and command of tools-dawdles less
Can wash face, comb hair, brush teeth
Can handle crayons with deftness, draw a recognizable man
Straight strokes show an increased neuro-motor command over these axes:
downward vertical (easiest), left to right horizontal, downward oblique
Competence in washing dishes
Keeps time to music in dance-suggests advanced development of the neuro-
Will not try what he can not do
Adapts to spatial problems
Understands diagonally cut cards better
Can make rectangle out of two halves
Solves Goddard formboard with directness and dispatch adjusting movement
Can insert series of nested blocks
Perception of order-form--detail
Draws men with differentiation of parts
Likes to finish jobs
Can count 10 objects-can tell age
Sense of time and duration developed more
Can carry a plot
Can carry over play projects from day to day
More interest in remote places
Can carry a melody
Idea in mind precedes production in art
Psycho-motor arc is more sensible-accurate relevant and practical
Seriousness makes fancies confusing-likes realism, drawing widens this
(significant gain in intelligence), does not like fables
Longer attention span
Verbalized judgments-immaturity in his thinking
More practical: dependable, sensitive, very adult-lacks only in experience
Ready for socialization-must be like all others
'For a detailed and helpful discussion, see Gesell, Arnold and others: The First Five Years of Life.
New York: Harper and Brothers, 1940.
Talks without infantile articulation
Answers questions to the point
Asks fewer questions, more relevant, asks for information
Questions more meaningful
Excessive unrealities confuse
Imaginations not as loose as they will be later
Singles out words and asks questions
2,200 words average
Dramatic play-practical dialogue
Things are factual rather than emotional-death, sickness, accidents, etc.
Tries to understand social organization
Real interchange of ideas limited-cannot suppress own point of view long
enough to understand others
Knows left and right hand in himself but not in others
Lacks power of explicit reasoning
Unaware of own thinking as a subjective process
Intellectual innocence in spite of mature facility in grammar and speech
Independent and self-sufficient
Dependable and obedient
Gives little trouble: in sleep, toilet habits, dressing
Shows interest in: sweeping, washing, wiping dishes
Protective toward younger playmates
Can tell name and address
Innocent of complex emotions, but serious, purposeful, patient, poised, proud
of accomplishment, pride in artistic production, pride in possession
Has a capacity for friendships
More sociable in groups of 2 or 3
Plays with imaginary playmates
Social and talkative at meal time
Quarrels less than 4-year-old
Spurred by rivalry
Shows amenability and docility
Speech shows strain of politeness and tactfulness
Tricycle and sled favorites
Crayons and scissors
Likes excursions, makes collections
Enjoys group projects, associative play
Sensitive to social situations
Likes clothes-to dress up in masquerade
Likes to make an impression
May cheat or fabricate
Elementary sense of shame
More conscious of sex
More conscious of caste
Anxiety: capable of fears but typically adjusted emotionally as well as in
his intellectual outlook
Personal traits: self assurance, confidence in others, social conformability
General characteristics: nearly the end of childhood, enjoys kindergarten,
self-contained, self-dependent, beginning to understand world and his
place in it, more socially mature (recognized as such by society), cap-
able of regimentation
Place for introduction of physical and natural sciences
Program of Readiness8
To provide experiential background for first grade reading material
To develop visual discrimination
To train eyes for left to right eye movements
To develop interest in stories
To teach use and care of books
To build vocabulary
To understand the purpose of symbols
To develop the ability to interpret pictures
Emphasizing left to right eye movements in- all activities such as
counting objects, writing name in. left hand top corner of
To stimulate interest in and need for understandings in numbers
To teach child to count objects up to the number of children in the
To give experience in number recognition of group of things up to five
To count by rote to 100
To begin the concept of measurement: Calendar, time, temperature,
To develop a vocabulary
Experience with sale of savings stamps
Weighing and measuring
To teach child to write his name
To give the child opportunity to organize and express ideas to a group
To help the child organize material in logical order
To help the child build a good vocabulary
To help the child speak in complete sentences
SPrepared by Mr. Margaret Holway Casson, formerly Director of the Kindergarten, Florida State College
for Women, Tallahassee, Florida.
Free activity periods
Dictating letters and reports of experiences, etc.
To give the child experience with many different media
To encourage the child to express himself creatively without placing
too much emphasis on the finished product
To teach child to match tone and to sing in a high, clear voice
To encourage the child to use his body as a means of expression
To encourage the child to express himself through singing
To help the child build a repertoire of songs
To give the child experience in listening to good music
Library of records
Rhythm band instruments
Singing during activity time and in group meetings
Listening to music
To develop interest in learning to write
To help the child see the need for learning to write
To teach child to write his own name
To teach child to write from left to right
Writing names on own papers
Printing names to identify lockers
Dictating stories, poems, and songs for the teacher to write and read
To develop a questioning mind
To give experience in getting knowledge by observation, experimenta-
tion, and reference from books
To encourage curiosity in things about us
Caring for aquariums
Caring for terrariums
Caring for potted plants
Caring for pets that visit or remain at school
Experimenting with such things as steam, prisms, magnets
t Ci, ~L-
THE FIRST GRADE
The first grade is considered one of the primary period. During this period
reading, writing, and beginning arithmetic are systematically introduced. The
development of character, personality, and capacity for effective social living
are also considered as fundamentals for this year. Yet the first steps in acquiring
these abilities are not taken in the first grade. "The importance of the pre-school
period for success in the first years of school cannot be overemphasized."9
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SIX YEAR OLDo1
It is much more difficult to find characteristics which six-year-old children
have in common than it is with pre-school children. Chronological age is about
the only way in which children of this age are alike. While there are wide indi-
vidual variations in physical development, an annual growth of 2 or 3 inches in
height and a gain of 3 to 6 pounds in weight may be expected. The amount of
gain is not the important thing but the relation it bears to the child's general
growth and health. Other characteristics of a healthy six-year-old include bright
eyes, color in his cheeks, straight legs, and vitality. About this time the child
begins to lose his milk teeth.
The muscles of the hands and fingers are not so advanced in their develop-
ment as those of the trunk, arms, and legs. For this reason, the child will stay
at tasks such as sewing or writing for only a short time. Signs of strain may
also be evident which are not present when the large muscles are used.
Intellectual interests of the child center around things and people who touch
his life. Children of this age can play together nicely in groups of seven or eight
for quite long periods of time, but they may also show a great deal of individual-
ism and rivalry.
The child now uses language as a means of communication more than he did
in the pre-school. He is capable of using long sentences and putting several sen-
tences together to tell a story. He asks many questions beginning with "why",
"what", and "how".
Parents and teachers can gain much from careful observation of the child
in many situations. Deviation of the child from these suggested characteristics
is important only in the relation it bears to the total growth of the child.
The language arts include all the skills of communication-reading, writing,
listening, speaking, and spelling. It is the responsibility of the teacher to direct
the child's speaking and writing activities so that he can express himself accur-
ately and effectively. The teacher is also responsible for directing the child's
reading so that he develops effective habits and skills and desirable tastes and
interests in reading.
*Ruth Strang. An Introduction To Child Study. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1938. p. 290.
"For a detailed and helpful discussion, see Reynolds, Martha May: Children From Seed to Saplings.
New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc. 1939.
A child's readiness for reading cannot be judged by chronological age alone.
Some children are ready to read when they come to school. Others are less well
prepared. To force them into reading may mean only failure and discouragement
for them as well as for teachers and parents. To determine the readiness of the
child,,the teacher'must consider: (1) Maturity (social, emotional) and self-re-
liance; (2) vision and hearing; (3) knowledge of world about him; (4) ability
to listen and follow directions; (5) ability to speak distinctly and in complete
sentences; (6) interest in stories and books.
In developing this physical, social, emotional, and mental readiness, the
teacher takes the child where he is and plans for his continuous growth and
development. The teacher may (1) try to encourage an interest in books and a
desire to read, (2) help the child look at a sentence from left to right, (3) pro-
vide practice in matching objects, pictures, and colors, and (4) provide experi-
ences which will enlarge the child's speaking and hearing vocabulary.
This period of readiness normally lasts from eight to ten weeks, and parents
should not expect the child to read from a book the very first day. Once the child
begins reading, his progress depends to a large extent on his work habits, his
health, regular attendance, attitude toward school, and his rate of learning.
Teachers have found that the pupils make better progress in reading when
the class is divided into at least two or three groups, according to the level of
development. The attention of the pupils can be held more successfully and the
work better suited to the needs and levels of accomplishment of the children.
These groups are flexible and vary in size as pupils vary their rate of progress.
Levels of reading in first grade include Readiness, Pre-primer, Primer, and
First Reader. As one reading group completes one level of the reading material,
they can proceed to the next level of material and free the books which they
have completed for use by other pupils.
Most reading is more satisfactorily done at school under the guidance of
the teacher. Therefore, except in unusual cases, there is no need for homework
in the first years of school.
The parent can do much to build right attitudes toward reading-reading
to the child, discussing pictures with him, talking with him about what he sees
and hears, arranging visits to interesting places, and providing a quiet place for
reading at home.
If the beginning in reading seems slow the parent should not let the
child become aware of any dissatisfaction. Consult with the teacher, develop a
plan of action, and cooperate in the plan decided upon.
Manuscript writing is used in the first grade for several reasons: (1) The
letters, based on circles and straight lines, require only simple strokes and are
better suited to the child's level of maturity; the child learns to write more
quickly and can use writing as a means of communication; (2) the manuscript
writing is very much like the print which the child reads in books; as he begins
to read he is not confused by two types of writing.
Large sheets of paper and good sized writing pencils are used. These per-
mit the use of the large muscles and freedom of movement natural to the six-
year-old child and prevent the strain which may result when adjustment is re-
quired for the smaller letters.
It is recommended that if the habit of using the left hand is firmly fixed
when the child reaches school age, no attempt be made to change him. Such a
transition involves a great deal of nervous strain and a possible danger of inter-
ference with speech.
Parents can encourage the child when he attempts to write at home. This
writing has the value of reality. The alphabet, as presented in the New Laurel
Handwriting Series, recently adopted by the State, is reproduced below. When
the same form is used at home and school there is little danger of confusion.
STANDARD MANUSCRIPT ALPHABET
Aa b Cc Dd F e F*-
NnLo \v, XqrSs t-
-11u Vv w xYyZ
Language is largely oral in the first grade and closely interwoven with the
reading program. Dramatization, storytelling, telling experiences, writing simple
stories or statements, all provide opportunity for free expression. The child who
is too shy to speak must be helped to feel a part of the group and gain the assur-
ance which will enable him to express himself. The child who is too forward in
expressing himself needs experience in taking turns and listening politely to
No formal, artificial language drill can be a substitute for natural conver-
sation between children or children and adults.
Baby talk, lisping, stuttering, and indistinct speech handicap the child.
In reading, the child associates the sound of the word with the printed
symbol. Mispronunciation of the sound may result in confusion in recognition of
the printed form.
The child hears the word as spoken by the teacher and as spoken by him-
self. When he sees the printed work he may remember either sound. If he sub-
stitutes "th" for "s", he may read "thee" for "see". "See" has a totally differ-
ent meaning from "thee".
This confusion may also result in spelling difficulty since correct pronun-
ciation is an aidin studying a word.
A speech handicap may also cause the child to feel socially insecure and
embarrassed when speaking before a group. This may result in a dislike for all
reading or language situations.
The teacher and parents should cooperate in endeavoring to help the child
overcome any one of these. In case of extreme difficulty, special treatment should
One of the best methods of speech correction with little children is by im-
itation. Parents can do much for the child by setting a good example in correct
speech, and discouraging infantile or indistinct speech. Poems, rhymes, and
jingles are helpful in developing an awareness of sounds and rhyming words.
Parents can also assist in the child's speech development by providing inter-
esting experiences which the child can discuss-a visit to a farm, bakery, library,
the beach, fire department.
In writing invitations, notices, or reports of activities, the child may learn
to spell a number of frequently used words. However, formal instruction in spell-
ing does not occur until the second grade. This is delayed until the child has
learned to recognize the entire word by its form. If, at the beginning, he is
taught to look for the individual letters in the word which is necessary in spell-
ing, his speed in reading may be greatly reduced.
Parents can assist by providing a correct copy when the child wants to
write at home. This prevents the child's practicing error and learning the word
Music and Art
The alert classroom teacher provides opportunity for these activities In music
the child may learn to sing many songs, play simple instruments, enjoy rhythmic
games, and listen attentively to music.
Art provides an opportunity for expression through crayons, paint, clay,
etc. Drawings at this age usually tell a story. The drawing is usually done
quickly since attention shifts rapidly and ideas do not linger long.
These experiences should be so happy that they will carry over into other
actiivties outside school. The emphasis is upon the development of the child and
his attitude toward these experiences rather than upon the skill to be achieved.
The child's work is important to him. Parents should discuss the child's work
with him, appreciate and understand it.
It is suggested that parents defer private lessons in these areas until the
second or third grade-after the child has made his initial adjustment to school.
While young children may be interested in numbers, they must build up an
understanding of the number concepts very slowly over a period of time if the
number facts and concepts are to be really understood. Skill, accuracy, and speed
in the upper grades depend upon firsthand experiences in the first grade-ex-
periences in counting, reading, numbers, writing numbers, playing games, meas-
uring, comparing, and shopping. Only after the child has an understanding of
the meaning of numbers should the addition and subtraction facts be introduced.
If these are introduced too soon the child may repeat error or resort to indirect
methods of computation as counting on fingers or .counting marks. These prac-
tices are serious because they tend to persist.
Parents can assist greatly by making numbers meaningful to the child. In
the home there are many real situations involving the use of number: Counting,
as three slices of bread; comparison, the tallest can; measurement, a quart of
milk, a pound of butter, a dozen oranges; use of money, cost of ice cream; recog-
nition of groups, four chickens, three children.
By use of simple questions, the parent may check and see if the child
understands the meaning for the words of comparison: more, most, less, least,
1. In which box are there the most oranges?
2. In which glass is there less water?
3. In which box are there fewer chickens?
Likewise, the understanding of the meaning of the word same is important.
For example, the number of pencils (5) and apples (5) may be the same, even
though the objects are different. The child may select the same number of cups
and saucers, the same number of napkins and plates.
The following questions indicate whether or not the child knows the names
of the numbers he has used:
1. How many ears have you?
2. How many feet has the dog?
3. How many fingers are one one hand?
After acquiring the basic concepts of number, the child is ready for counting.
The first counting is usually through 10. Parents should utilize the many oppor-
tunities for purposeful counting in the home.
Health and Physical Education
Health instruction in grade one should be centered chiefly around the every-
day living experiences of the child as he comes to school, lives with others in
the classroom, as he selects and eats his lunch, as he engages in play activities,
as he participates in rest and relaxation periods, and the many other daily
practices. Definite and effective teaching should occur whenever these situations
or needs arise. Health textbooks should be utilized to make the teaching more
Physical education contributes to health by its very essence, because par-
ticipation in joyous physical activity contributes to the normal growth and de-
velopment of children. A daily period of thirty minutes in physical education is
recommended for the first grade. Physical education is no longer regarded as
merely a recess period but a definite instructional period, closely integrated with
the entire school program. Physical education seeks to develop and maintain:
1. Normal functioning of the organic system;
2. Ability to coordinate muscular movements, as running, skipping, throw-
3. Desirable attitudes and behavior patterns. The child has an opportunity
to use initiative, resourcefulness and independence. The child also has experi-
ence in good sportsmanship, fair play, cooperation, and unselfishness;
4. Desirable attitudes toward physical activity and a number of leisure
time activities which will carry over into after-school hours and activities.
Pupils in the first grade should have sufficient physical activity (4-6 hours
.daily) to contribute to normal growth and development. Obviously, this amount
of activity cannot be scheduled within the school day proper. Parents can assist
by providing an opportunity for some of this activity in after-school hours.
The theme for the first year in social studies is "Living in Home and
School". In studying his relationship to home and school, the child comes to
realize that he should not express himself creatively at the expense of others
but, rather, cooperate with the family, teachers, and classmates for the good of
the group. Parents and teachers should cooperate also. Domination by them
should not blot out all individual freedom. Children imitate parents and teachers.
In home and school the child sees how life really works. He learns many lessons
on the value of healthful living, attitudes of cooperation, respect for the rights
of others, and respect for law.
Materials of Instruction and Supplies
Textbooks: The textbooks used in the schools are furnished free to the
child by the State. Books used in the first grade include texts in reading, writing,
health, safety, art, music, and science. No texts are provided for arithmetic,
language, social studies, and spelling for the reasons discussed earlier in this
Guide. Each pupil is asked to care for the books properly and return them to the
teacher after finishing.
Library Books: If all textbook funds allocated to the county by the
State are not'needed for the purchase of textbooks, some of this amount may be
used for the purchase of library books selected from the State Library List.
Additional costs of library services may be defrayed from available county gen-
eral funds or district funds. This does not limit the right of individual schools
or agencies to raise or expend money for school library books.
Library services include the organization, housing, and administration of
the library. Each school should have access to a wealth of materials of all kinds,
books, pamphlets, recordings, prints, pictures, film strips, etc., which are suited
to the needs and interests of the pupils. Parents may assist by cooperating with
the school in securing these services for the schools.
Workbooks: Many schools feel that workbooks provide material which
supplements the textbooks. This is especially true of workbooks designed to ac-
company the state-adopted readers. These books provide exercises which extend
the concepts of the text and provide for practice which the child can do inde-
pendently. Number workbooks are also used in many schools. Care should be
exercised in the selection of these books in order that the material presented
and skills developed are consistent with the program outlined in the Florida Cur-
riculum Bulletin No. 26, Arithmetic in the Elementary Schools. The directions
of the workbook should be such that the child can read them independently or
with a minimum of teacher direction.
A statement of local school or county policy should include the names of
the workbooks used and the price, if such are to be provided.
Supplies: A variety of materials, equipment, and supplies are necessary
for child development which are not furnished by the State or county.
In order to provide these supplies, as paper, pencils, paste, scissors, and crayons,
many schools charge a small fee. (When these are purchased by the school the
supplies are uniform.) Other schools request the parents to purchase the sup-
plies. A local school or county policy would need to include this information.
Educational progress includes habits, attitudes, skills, and knowledge. The
reports sent to the parents by the school endeavor to interpret the child's prog-
ress in light of his own growth-not in competition with others. Many schools
today find some other type of report more satisfactory than the traditional card.
A grade of "C" or "A" or "90" does not explain to the parent the "why" of a
good or poor grade. Such comments as, "understands what he reads", "shows
growth in use of new words", "works independently without disturbing others",
interprets to the parent some of the reasons for the child's success. On the other
hand, "needs much improvement in finishing work, or working independently"
indicates a reason for slow progress.
Children differ greatly in rate of growth in various abilities. Such varia-
tions are to be expected. Comparisons with other children often result in unhap-
piness and inferiority or an unwarranted sense of superiority. Parent-teacher
conferences are of great value as a means of interpreting pupil progress.
A statement of local school or county policy would need to indicate the type
of report (card, letter, or conference) used in the schools, the approximate
number of times the report may be expected during the term, and the date
when the first report will be issued.
In addition to the reports to parents, the school needs other records of the
child's growth and development. The State recommends the use of "The Cumu-
lative Record" which includes information as to the child's mental, social, and
physical growth. Since these records are cumulative they may be passed on to
succeeding teachers. These will be of great assistance in meeting the needs of
the child during the school years. Parents can assist greatly in providing perti-
nent information for these records as requested by the school.
The School Lunch
An adequate diet is a very important part of every child's life. The school
lunch program is a phase of health education which, in the first grade, is largely
a matter of developing health habits through continued practice and desirable
Parents can assist greatly by helping the child (1) to look forward to the
school lunch department as a place where he will find new and interesting foods,
(2) learn to eat many foods, (3) wash his hands before he comes to the table,
(4) carry his plate or tray to the table without spilling food, (5) seat himself
at the table and keep his feet firmly on the floor, (6) sit quietly with bowed
head while the blessing is said, (7) eat all of the food on his plate (size of serv-
ing should make possible the "clean plate"), (8) chew with his mouth closed,
(9) swallow before speaking, (10) hold his spoon, knife, or fork in a grown-up
grip, (11) drink from a glass without spilling, (12) use bread or other food as
a pusher, instead of fingers, (13) turn his head away from the table and cover
his mouth when coughing or sneezing, (14) take such foods, as bread, from a
plate which is being passed, and pass dishes of food, etc., (15) say "thank you",
"no, thank you", "if you please", (16) remain at the table until he finishes or is
excused by the teacher, (17) assume some responsibility as removing, scraping,
and stacking empty dishes, and keeping floor clean of litter.
It is believed that the child benefits if he eats the lunch prepared and served
at school where the school has a good school lunch program. Children "learn
what they live". The school lunch department is used as a school laboratory for
all subjects, and it is well if the child can participate in these experiences. First
grade children are susceptible to group influence and, with little encouragement
from adults, the parent or teacher may find the child eating foods previously
It is especially desirable for first grade children to have at least a forty-
minute noon hour that includes a handwashing period, lunch period, and a rest
period. In many schools there are too many children to feed at one time in a
limited space. For this reason, it is sometimes necessary to begin serving pri-
mary students at a time earlier than the usual noon hour. This does not seem
to work a hardship on the students generally, since the average child is ready
to eat at this time.
Every community should have common policies explaining the grade cf
lunch sold, whether or not milk is available, price of lunch, sale of lunch tickets,
daily or weekly provisions for purchase of tickets, and free lunch for needy
A mid-morning lunch of milk or fruit juice is desirable for all first grade
children. It is especially necessary for children who have had an early breakfast
or a long bus ride. Schools in which children eat an early lunch and must wait
for a late bus in the afternoon may need to provide a mid-afternoon lunch.
Practices Regarding Health and Safety in the School
1. Schools and parents should secure from the local health authorities reg-
ulations concerning communicable diseases and follow these regulations.
2. Schools and parents should secure from the local public health authori-
ties information concerning services available at the health unit and the hours
at which services may be obtained.
3. The school administration is responsible for providing a hygienic phy-
sical environment-clean building properly heated and ventilated, pure drinking
water, sanitary toilets, adequate lighting, shades, and suitable furniture and
seats. The classroom teacher is responsible for the best educational use of the
4. Classroom experiences should be so guided as to eliminate fears in
children and to develop in them self-confidence, self-respect, and self-direction.
"The social and emotional tone of the classroom provides atmosphere for mental,
social, and emotional, as well as physical, well being".11
"State Department of Education, Bulletin No. 4: Florida's School Health Program. p. 35.
5. A room equipped with first aid supplies and other provisions for caring
for a child in case of accident or sudden illness should be a part of each school.
If such a room is not available, parents may assist the school in securing such
6. The daily schedule should be arranged so that play periods do not come
just before or just after lunch. (See also the section on School Lunch.)
7. Time and space should be provided for a rest period. Parents should
provide a rug or towel for the rest period. The towel or rug should be as long
as the child is tall.
8. The following safety habits are observed in the majority of schools:
(a) obey school patrol, (b) carry small chairs properly without bumping into
others or tripping, (c) use playground equipment carefully, (d) walk up and
down stairs properly; keep to the right, use banister, (e) fire drill.
PUBLIC NURSERY SCHOOLS
"Nursery schools shall comprise classes for children between the ages of
three and five years, inclusive, and may be established at the discretion of County
Boards where sufficient children of these ages are available to make possible
an organization of at least twenty such children at any school center."12
"Children who will have attained the age of three years by December 1 of
any school year may be eligible for admission to public nursery schools during
that year under rules and regulations of the County Board: Provided that if any
school in which a nursery school department is organized has mid-year admis-
sions, then and in that event a child who is three years of age at the beginning
of the second semester may be enrolled in such nursery school at that time."13
"Provided that nursery schools and kindergartens may be established, as pro-
vided by law, and fees for such schools may be prescribed in the discretion of the
A local or county handbook should include the location of nursery schools
available in the county, time of daily session, date of entrance, and cost.
"Kindergarten classes comprising children between the ages of four and
six years, inclusive, may be established at the discretion of the County Boards:
Provided, sufficient children of these ages are available to make possible an or-
ganization of at least twenty such children at any school center."'5
"Children who will have attained the age of four years by December 1 of
any school year shall be eligible for admission to public kindergartens during
that school year under rules and regulations prescribed by the County Board:
Provided that if any school in which a kindergarten department is organized
has mid-year admissions, then and in that event a child who has attained the
age of four years at the beginning of the second semester may be enrolled in
such kindergarten at that time."'6
"Provided that nursery schools and kindergartens may be established, as
provided by law, and fees for such schools may be prescribed in the discretion
of the County Board.""17 However, no state funds are available for either nursery
schools or kindergartens.
A local handbook should include the location of kindergartens available in
the county, date of entrance, time of daily sessions, and cost.
12Florida School Code, page 34, section 214
"FFlorida School Code, page 147, section 605
"Florida School Code, page 64, section 423
"Florida School Code, page 34, section 214
"lFlorida School Code, page 146, section 604.
"'Florida School Code, page 64, section 423.
AGE OF ENTRANCE TO FIRST GRADE
"Provided, further, that a child who has attained the age of five years and
nine months on or before the opening day of school of any year shall be admitted
at the beginning of the school term or at any time during the first month of the
school year to the first grade of any public elementary school having only annual
promotions, but if any child is not so enrolled in the first grade during the first
month of the school year, he shall not be admitted to the first grade until the
beginning of the following school year. And, provided, further, that any school
having semi-annual promotions a pupil who has attained the age of five years
and eleven months on or before the opening day of any semester shall be ad-
mitted at the beginning of the said semester or at any time during the first two
weeks of the said semester."18
Minimum Age Limit for Admission to the First Grade. The "first month"
referred to in section 601 is the first calendar month after school opens. Thus, a
child may be permitted to enter a school having annual promotions who reaches
five years and nine months of age within the first calendar month after school
opens and who makes application for admission during that time. If a child has
been properly admitted to one school and transfers to another school which has
an earlier opening date he would be eligible for admission to the second school
even though he might not have been of a proper age for admission had he orig-
inally enrolled in that school."19
"In schools having semi-annual promotions, any child who attains the age
of five years and eleven months during the first two weeks of the semester and
who applies for admission during that time may be admitted to school. In schools
having annual promotions, any child who attains the age of five years and nine
months during the first month of the school year and who makes application for
admission during that time should be admitted to the first grade."20
EVIDENCE OF BIRTH
"Before admitting a child to the first grade, the principal shall require evi-
dence that the child has attained the age at which he should be admitted in ac-
cordance with provisions of Section 601 of the Florida School Code. The County
Superintendent or attendance assistant may require evidence of the age of any
child whom he believes to be within the limits of compulsory attendance as pro-
vided for in this Article. Evidence shall be submitted as prescribed below in this
Section: Provided that if the first prescribed evidence is not available, the next
evidence obtainable in the order set forth below shall be accepted:
1. A duly attested transcript of the child's birth record filed according to
law with a public officer charged with the duty of recording births; or
2. A duly attested transcript of a certificate of baptism showing the date
of birth and place of baptism of the child accompanied by an affidavit
sworn to by the parent; or
iFlorida School Code, p. 145, section 601
39"Attorney General's Opinion on School Code", Handbook for County Superintendents of Florida, p. 315,
""Attorney General's Opinion on School Code", Handbook for County Superintendents of Florida, p. 316,
3. An insurance policy on the child's life which has been in force for at
least two years; or
4. A bona fide contemporary Bible record of the child's birth accompanied
by an affidavit sworn to by the parent; or
5. A passport or certificate of arrival in the United States showing the
age of the child; or
6. A transcript of record of age shown in the child's school record of at
least four years prior to application, stating date of birth; or
7. If none of these evidences can be produced, an affidavit of age sworn
to by the parent, accompanied by a certificate of age signed by a public
health officer or by a public school physician, or, if neither of these
shall be available in the county, by a licensed practicing physician des-
ignated by the County Board, which certificate shall state that the
health officer or physician has examined the child and believes that the
age as stated in the affidavit is substantially correct."21
2Florida School Code, p. 146, Section 603
"Birth certificates, records of marriages and divorces may be secured by
making application to the Bureau of Vital Statistics, care of the State Board of
Health, Jacksonville, Florida.
"State institutions for children in Florida are located as follows: Florida
Industrial School for Boys, Marianna; Florida Industrial School for Girls, Ocala;
Florida 'Farm Colony (for epileptic and feeble-minded children), Gainesville;
Florida School for Blind, Deaf and Dumb Children, St. Augustine.
"The Florida Crippled Children's Commission for the treatment of physically
handicapped and crippled children maintains treatment clinics in most of the
larger cities of the state and has headquarters in Tallahassee.
"The state headquarters of the State Welfare Board is located in Jackson-
"The Florida Industrial Commission has headquarters in Tallahassee."22
Specialists are available to assist in severe cases of speech difficulty, read-
ing difficulty, or social maladjustment. These services may be secured through
the State Department of Education, and the Florida State College for Women,
Tallahassee, the University of Florida, Gainesville, and other approved agencies
within and without the State.
"2Florida Laws Relating to Children, comp. for the Florida Congress of Parents and Teachers by tue
Office of the Attorney General, Tallahassee, Florida, 1945. p. 5.
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1. Cereal, with milk, little or no sugar.
Use of ready-to-cook, rather than ready-to-serve cereals, serves, as a rule,
to keep down expense.
Rolled oats, whole wheat cereal, well-cooked grits or cornmeal mush, rice
(brown if possible), enriched cereals. Occasionally substitute an egg for
Undiluted evaporated milk may be used on cereal for extra food values.
2. Bread or toast.
a. Whole wheat bread made from the whole grain
b. "Wheat bread" (notice label), ordinarily containing about 50% white
flour; or wheat rolls; or
c. Cracked wheat bread, which contains 70% white flour; or
d. Enriched white bread, which has had returned to it some of the vitamins
and minerals taken out of the whole wheat when the white flour was
e. Muffins, preferably made with half whole wheat flour; or, with cooked
or raw oatmeal; or
f. Wheat biscuits, drop, half whole wheat flour. (Drop biscuits can be made
less rich and soggy, more digestible than some types of white biscuits.)
g. Corn bread or corn muffins, or spoon corn bread. Yellow corn meal and
grits contain vitamin A; white contains none. But water-ground (stone
ground) white meal, often preferred in the South, is believed to be higher
in the B vitamins than the roller-ground meal or grits of ordinary mills.
h. Crisp toast squares, made by baking quarter-slices of bread in single
layers in the oven, give the teeth and jaws good exercise and improve
the circulation; as also do pieces of raw vegetable and fruit. (However,
toasting causes some loss of food values.)
3. Butter, or oleo containing vitamin A, spread sparingly on bread, about 2/3
tsp. per slice.
4. Milk to drink, may be served warmed or in cocoa on cold days. About 1
measuring cupful. Milk for children should be pasteurized and bottled, or
canned evaporated milk diluted with equal water. Also skim milk may be
used, especially for cooking, if accompanied by 3 tbs. butter or fortified
oleo per quart.
If possible, breakfast should be ready to serve as soon as the children arrive.
Fruit juice. Fish-liver oil capsule; amount to be specified by medical adviser to
Orange, grapefruit, lemonade or limeade, mixed fruit juices, tomato juice.26 Oc-
casionally, quarter-apple or orange, or piece of grapefruit or other fruit,
fresh or canned.
1. Meat dish or substitute
Liver, beef, lamb, mutton, lean pork, fish, sea food, poultry, eggs, cheese
dish, cream soup with small serving of egg.
=Lemonade, limeade, or mixed fruit juices are not equivalent in vitamin C value to orange or grapefruit
juice. When using canned grapefruit juice use 1/3 larger serving, and twice as much tomato juice
as orange juice.
2. Potatoes, white or sweet
Baked. Boiled and buttered, or creamed or scalloped or mashed. Browned
potatoes are best done in the oven, rather than fried in a skillet, since they
must not be "greasy" with too much fat.
Instead of potatoes, use occasionally fresh or canned beans or peas, or rice
(brown if possible), or grits (often yellow).
Dried beans and peas may be used occasionally, mashed or chopped, perhaps
once each two weeks.
Blackeyed peas are worthy of special attention, being particularly high in
3. A second vegetable, cr perhaps a second and third vegetable, cooked or raw.
Among cooked vegetables, the lead may well be taken by cooked or canned
tomatoes, carrots, string beans, and greens, using turnip greens often.
Buttered rather than cooked with fat pork; or scalloped.
Less often are served: cooked cabbage and cabbage-like vegetables, such as
broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi; cooked squash, beets, onions, turnips, cel-
Raw vegetable (or fruit) should be served at most dinners. Among raw
vegetables, celery stalks and lettuce leaves take the lead, with raw carrot
and turnip sticks (or grated). Raw tomato or apple wedges may be often
used. A raw cabbage or lettuce leaf is cut to a size easy to hold and chew,
also into small wedges. Raw beet sticks may appear occasionally.
Raw vegetables are to be served without condiments or dressing. They may
be chopped and used in sandwiches or gelatin.
Salad consists of grated or chopped or shredded raw vegetables, perhaps
with fruits or cottage cheese, slightly moistened with a little evaporated
milk and/or lemon juice or other fruit juice, slightly salted.
4. Fruit, fresh, canned or cooked, occasionally with crackers or cookies.
Substitute soft or baked egg custard or milk pudding.
5. Bread. (See Breakfast, Bread)
6. Milk to drink. (See Breakfast, Milk) About 1 of a measuring cup full.
Milk, 1/2 to 1 cupful, cold or hot, occasionally flavored with fruit juice or as cocoa.
Cracker, cookie, crisp toast, small sandwich, a few nuts, or piece of fruit may
1. Main dish: Egg, or creamed or scalloped vegetable or creamed soup, or baked
potato or cooked cereal with milk. (Be careful not to repeat same dishes used
earlier in the day. Or, if left-overs from dinner are to be used, vary the form
in which they are served; as, in adding potato to meat-loaf scraps, to make
hash; changing stewed tomatoes to scalloped or to soup; adding a little cus-
tard to sliced bananas, etc.)
2. Bread, as above. A hearty sandwich (e. g. peanut butter or cottage cheese)
may be used.
3. Fruit, cooked, perhaps with.cookie. Substitute custard or pudding.
S4. Milk to drink, about 1 measuring cup.
For more hearty or older children, the supper may be a "little dinner" with-
out meat and with only one or two vegetables instead of three.
BOOKS FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN23
Austin, Margot: Peter Churchmouse. Dutton, 1941. $1.00
Picture story of a hungry churchmouse and the kitten who was supposed to
keep the church free of rats. Three- to six-year-olds will enjoy their adventures
in getting cheese for Peter.
Bannerman, Helen: Story of Little Black Sambo. Stokes, 1923. 50c
"First published about 1900, this naive, humorous story of Black Sambo, his
beautiful clothes, and his adventures with the tigers is still one of the most popular
stories for little children." Children's catalog.
Further adventures of Black Sambo will be found in Sambo and the twins
Baruch, Dorothy: I know a surprise; il. by George and Doris Hauman. Lathrop, 1935.
"Nancy shows pride in her new baby brother by bringing all her pets to see him.
Live drawings are in four colors." Lib. Bks. Fla. Sch.
Baruch, Dorothy W.: Pitter patter. W. R. Scott, 1944. $1.00
This is a book about the rain-the rhythm and sound of the rain, and the won-
derful noises that belong to a rainy day. Spiral binding.
Becker, Charlotte: Unlike twins in nursery school. Scribner, 1944. 75c
A day in nursery school is described in pictures and simple text. Other books
about the unlike twins and their experiences are to be found in Unlike twins and the
animals, Unlike twins in the park (Scribner, 75c each).
Beskow, Elsa M.: Tale of the wee little old woman; tr. by Marion Woodburn. Harper,
"Exceedingly brief story of a little old woman who says 'Scat' to her cat-for
reasons. The pictures with their geranium coloring offer the reasons and amuse-
ment for those who cannot read." Right book for the right child.
Another picture book by the author is Pelle's new suit (Harper, $1.50).
Bourgeoise, Florence: Beachcomber Bobbie. Doubleday, 1935. 50c
A summer vacation at the seashore.
"The pictures are pleasing in color, and boys and girls will enjoy finding the
starfish, skate's egg, whelks, cockles, clams, and all the other sea creatures that
Bobbie brought home in his little red pail, shown in their actual sizes." A. T. Eaton
in N. Y. Times.
Brooke, L. L.: Johnny Crow's garden. Warne, 1904. $1.25
"Old nursery rhyme with humorous illustrations in black and white and full-
page drawings in color." Children's catalog.
Brown, Margaret W.: Noisy book, il. by Leonard Weisgard. W. R. Scott, 1939. $1.00
A picture book in which attention is focused on the sounds made by familiar
things. Other books in this series are The country noisy book, The indoor noisy.
Brown, Margaret W.: The runaway bunny; 11. by Clement Hurd. Harper,1942. $1.50
Brightly colored pictures, repetition, and exciting adventures make this an at-
tractive book for little children.
Budd, Denison: Railroad ABC. Franklin Watts, 1944. 50c
Small alphabet book with rhyming text and pictures in strong colors about trains
and other railroad equipment.
2"Compiled by Miss Elizabeth Hodges and Miss Eulah Mae Snider, Library Science Department of
Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, Florida, 1945. For additional materials see List of
State Adopted Library Books.
Burton, Virginia L.: Mike Mulligan and his steam shovel. Houghton, 1939. $1.50
Mike Mulligan remains faithful to his steam shovel, Mary Anne, despite the
threat of gas and Diesel engines. The fun in text and crayon drawings makes this a
gay picture book. Another book by this author for the mechanically minded is Katy
and the big snow (Houghton, 1943. $2.00).
Chalmers, Audrey: I had a penny. Viking, 1944. $1.00
Story of a little girl who has a penny to spend for a green lollipop. The things
she sees on her way to the candy shop are told in rhyme and pictures.
Donaldson, Lois: Karl's wooden horse; il. by Annie Bergmann. Whitman, 1931. $1.00
A simple picture story for the very young of a Swedish toy in action. "Has nice
color and is a pleasant size to handle." Rachel Field.
Ets, Marie H.: In the forest. Viking, 1944. $1.00
Picture story of a little boy with a new horn who went for a walk in the forest.
A new animal joins him on every page "when I went for a walk in the forest." Black
and white illustrations.
Falls, C. B.: ABC book. Doubleday, 1923. $1.50
"The alphabet cut on wood blocks and printed in brilliant colors." The pictures
are of wild and domestic animals, without text. Pratt Quarterly.
Field, Rachel L.: An alphabet for boys and girls. Doubleday, 1926. 75c
A small picture book with the name of a boy or girl, a simple rhyme, and a gay
picture for each letter of the alphabet.
Field, Rachel L.: Prayer for a child; il. by Elizabeth Orton Jones. Macmillan, 1944.
This simple prayer for a little child is beautifully illustrated on every page with
pictures which make real to the child its meaning in terms of everyday living.
Flack, Marjorie: Angus and the ducks. Doubleday, 1930. $1.00
A picture book about Angus, a Scots terrier puppy, who was very curious about
everything until he slipped under the hedge one day and encountered the ducks.
Further adventures of Angus will be found in Angus and cats and Angus lost (Double-
day, $1.00 each).
Flack, Marjorie: Ask Mr. Bear. Macmillan, 1932. $1.00
"While 'Ask Mr. Bear' has less distinction than the author's picture books about
Angus, the Scots terrier, it will have a strong appeal to very young children because
of its repetition, its use of the most familiar animals, its gay pictures, and the cumu-
lative effect of the story of the little boy who starts out to find a birthday present
for his mother." A. T. Eaton in N. Y. Times.
Flack, Marjorie: Lucky little Lena. Macmillan, c1937. $1.00
Ted and Nell felt sorry for their little dog Lena because she couldn't ride in an
airplane or on the train or on a bus or a boat as they could. But Lena didn't care
because what she really wanted to do was to play in the park with Ted and Nell.
Flack, Marjorie: Tim Tadpole and the great bullfrog. Doubleday, 1934. $1.00
"Following the advice of the big bullfrog, Tim, the little tadpole, began to swim
and one day found he had legs and arms, was no longer a tadpole but Tim Frog.
A delightful picture-story book." Ontario library review.
Flack, Marjorie: Wait for William; pictures by Marjorie Flack and R. A. Holberg.
Houghton, 1935. $1.25
"A jolly little story with a pleasant touch of humor, repetition that will make it
easy reading for beginners, and delightful pictures, gay with color, in which we seem
to see the circus move along before our very eyes." A. T. Eaton in N. Y. Times.
Gag, Wanda: ABC bunny; hand lettered by Howard Gag. Coward, 1933. $2.50
The adventures of a lovable, frolicsome, and frightened bunny are told in rhyme
with a letter of the alphabet illustrated in lithographs on each page.
Gag, Wanda: Millions of cats. Coward, 1928. $1.50
A very old man and his wife wanted one little cat. This picture story tells how
they found "millions, and billions, and trillions of cats."
Gay, Romney, pseud.: Hi-ho for the country. Grosset, 1944. 50c
Penny goes to visit her cousin Jon in the country. There she learns about the
animals and plants which provide her food. Each page has one line of text accom-
panied by bright pictures.
Gale, Leah: The alphabet from A-Z; il. by Vivienne Blake. Simon, 1942. 25c (Little
"A is the apple for Jimmy to bite; B is the bed he sleeps in at night"-on through
the alphabet with rhyme and pictures about objects familiar to the little child's
experience. Illustrations are black and white, and full pages in color.
Gramatky, Hardie: Loopy. Putnam, 1941. $1.75
Loopy is a little airplane used and misused by students learning to fly. His
adventures when a stupid flyer leaves him to fight his way out of a storm alone make
an exciting story for the air-minded.
Hogan, Inez: Bear twins. Dutton, 1935. $1.00
Two little brown bears disobey their mother and wander into the forest. "The
illustrations and plain hand-lettered type are in sepia tones." Elephant twins is a
similar picture story by the same author (Dutton $1.00).
Huntington, Harriet E.: Let's go outdoors. Doubleday, 1941. $2.00
The bugs, the worms, the ants, and other creatures found outdoors are illus-
trated with realistic photographs. Simple text. A similar book by the author is Let's
go to the seashore (Doubleday, 1941. $2.00).
Lefevre, Felicite, pseud.: The cock, the mouse and the little red hen; an old tale
retold with twenty-four illustrations by Tony Sarg. Macrae, 1917. $1.00
"An old folk-tale retold. One of the best-liked of little children's books." F. J.
Lenski, Lois: Little airplane. Oxford, 1938. 75c
"The factual material about flying an airplane so simply presented, will satisfy
the questions younger boys and girls ask, and there is also enough of the dramatic
in the story .. to appeal to the child's imagination." Wisconsin bulletin.
Lenski, Lois: The Little family. Doubleday, 1943. 75c
This petite book shows in pictures and simple text a typical day in the life of
Mr. and Mrs. Little, Tommy, and Sally. Other little books for little children are
Davy's day and Let's play house (Oxford, 75c each).
Lenski, Lois: Little train. Oxford, c1940. 75c
Mr. Small and his train are shown in simple text and pictures. Details about the
inside of the roundhouse, the cab, and the station are clearly and interestingly given.
Lenski, Lois: Spring is here. Oxford, 1945. 75c
This happy little book, with a jingle and a picture in four bright spring colors
on each page, shows Easter rabbits, flowers, and children welcoming the arrival of
Lindman, Maj. J.: Snipp, Snapp, Snurr and the red shoes. Whitman, 1932. $1.00
This book introduces'American children to three little Swedish boys. This first
volume tells how they saved money to buy their mother a birthday present. There
are five other books in this series (Whitman, $1.00 each).
Lowrey, Janette S.: The poky little puppy; il. by Gustaf Tenggren. Simon, 1942. 25c
(Little golden book).
Five little puppies seek adventure in the outside world. One little puppy had to
be taught a lesson.
McCloskey, Robert: Make way for ducklings. Viking, 1941. $2.00 (Caldecott award).
Mr. and Mrs. Mallard seek a home to raise their ducklings. With the help of
a policeman they take their family through the streets of Boston to the Public
MacDonald, Golden: Big dog, little dog; il. by Leonard Weisgard. Doubleday, 1943.
A little dog goes walking with his father and has many interesting and amusing
Martin, Mary S.: The first picture book; everything for babies; photographs by
Edward Steichen. Harcourt, 1930. $2.00
Simple photographs of familiar things arranged without text'by a mother for
her own children. Enjoyed by nursery school children from one and a half years
upward. Things chosen for pictures are those first met by baby.
Milius, Winifred: Here comes daddy. W. R. Scott, 1944. $1.00
A little boy goes to the street corner to wait for his daddy. He sees many
people and vehicles before his daddy comes in on a bus.
Mother Goose: The real Mother Goose; il. by B. F. Wright. Rand, 1916. $2.00
This is probably the most practical of the many editions of these famous nursery
rhymes. A smaller edition of same book is a desirable substitute (Junior ed. Rand,
75c). A more recent book has been beautifully illustrated by Tasha Tudor (Oxford,
1944. $2.00). Another useful collection of the rhymes including games and songs
with musical scores is the Haders' Picture book of Mother Goose (Coward, 1944.
Newberry, Clare T.: Cousin Toby. Harper, 1939. $1.50
Jill (six, going on seven) and Gordon (four, going on five) go to visit their
cousin Toby (one, going on two). The adventures of the day are climaxed by the
surprise which they find when they go home.
Newberry, Clare T.: Mittens. Harper, 1936. $1.50
There is an irresistible charm about the kittens drawn by this author-artist.
Mittens belongs to six-year old Richard. More of the author's kittens are to be found
in these longer stories: April's kittens and Pandora (Harper, $1.75 each).
Potter, Beatrix: Tale of Peter Rabbit. Warne, 1903. 85c
Peter Rabbit has been a favorite with little children for nearly a half-century.
There are eighteen other charming little books in the Peter Rabbit series (e. g. Tale
of Squirrel Nutkin, Tale of Benjamin Bunny, Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck, etc.
Warne, 85c each).
Robinson, W. W.: At the seashore- il. by Irene Robinson. Macmillan, 1942. $2.00
A day at the seashore with Ann and Bill. They paddle in the surf, build tunnels
in the sand, feed the sea gulls, and make a collection of shells. Illustrated with large
pictures on every page, with many in colors.
Slobodkin, Louis: Friendly animals. Vanguard, 1944. $1.50
"A nursery book with delightfully realistic drawings of animals of the farm and
countryside, accompanied by pleasantly appropriate jingles which tell how some of
the friendly animals like to be treated." Hornbook.
Tate, Sally: Fluffy, the pink bunny. Leon and Cupples, 1944. $1.25
The twins want a pet for their very own. They ask the bluebird to find one,
and the bluebird asks Fluffy to help. Children will love to feel the fuzzy picture in
this book and other "fuzzy wuzzy" books of this type: Hoke and Fox, Wooly lamb
and Hoke and Teichner, Fuzzy kitten (Messner, $1.25 each).
Tudor, Tasha: Dorcas Porkus. Oxford, 1942. 75c
A small, brightly colored book with delicate illustrations in water colors, telling
the adventures of a pet pig who found that she liked the company of other pigs
better than that of the ladies at the quilting bee.
Whitehead, Roberts: Five and ten; il. by Lois Lenski. Houghton, 1943. 85c
"A picture story of the joys (and indecisions) of shopping in the five-and-ten-
cent store if you are four years old and have five shiny pennies in your pocket."
Williamson, Hamilton: Lion cub; a jungle tale; with pictures by Berta and Elmer
Hader. Doubleday, 1930. 75c
"Simple and engaging story of the adventures of a lion cub in the jungle the
day she ran away." Children's catalog.
Willis, Fritz: Me Too. Mancel Rodd, 1944. $1.00
Picture story of a little duck.
Wright, Ethel B.: Saturday flight. W. R. Scott, 1944. $1.00
Picture book of an airplane trip. An earlier book by same author is Saturday
walk (Scott, $1.00).
POETRY FOR READING ALOUD
Aldis, Dorothy K.: Everything and anything; il. by H. D. Jameson. Putnam, 1936.
Spontaneous verses about "everything" in the very young child's environment.
Bible. Selections.: Small rain; verses from the Bible; chosen by Jessie Orton Jones; il.
by Elizabeth Orton Jones.
Familiar Bible passages interpreted in beautiful and childlike illustrations.
Geismer, Barbara P. and Suter, Antoinette B.: Very young verses. Houghton, 1945.
A new collection of poetry intended for nursery school and home reading for the
very young child.
Hubbard, Alice and Babbitt, Adeline, comps.: Golden flute; an anthology of poetry for
young children. Reynal, 1932. $3.00
519 poems by 160 different authors, ungrouped. Contains a foreword. Introduc-
tion by Patty Hill Smith. Indexed by authors, first lines, and interests.
Milne, A. A.: When we were very young; il by E. H. Shepard. Dutton, 1924. $1.00
"Delightfully imaginative poems for and about little children, in most engaging
rhyme and meter, with illustrations that match."
Another book of verse by the author is Now we are six (Dutton, $1.00).
Moore, C. C.: 'Twas the night before Christmas; il. by Jessie Wilcox Smith. Houghton,
A charming edition of the famous Christmas poem which has become a nursery
classic. Another beautiful edition is illustrated by Everette Shinn (Winston, 1942.
Stevenson, Robert L.: A child's garden of verses. Scribner, 1905. $1.50
A nursery classic with colorful illustrations by Jessie Wilcox Smith.
REFERENCES FOR PARENTS
1. Alschuler, R. H., et al. Two to Six. New York. Wm. Morrow & Co., c 1937.
2. Bane, Winifred E., Parents Look at Modern Education. New York. D. Appleton-
Century Company, Incorporated, 1935.
3. D'Evelyn, Katherine E., Individual Parent-Teacher Conferences, A Manual for
'Teachers of Young Children. New York Bureau of Publications, Teachers College,
Columbia University, 1945.
4. Gesell, Arnold, and others. The First Five Years of Life. New York. Harper
and Brothers, 1940.
5. Pryor, Helen Brenton, As the Child Grows. New York. Silver Burdette Co., 1943.
6. Reynolds, Martha May, Children From Seed to Saplings. New York. McGraw-
Hill Book Company, Inc., 1939.
7. Strang, Ruth, An Introduction to Child Study. New York. The Macmillan Com-
REFERENCES ON EQUIPMENT
AND PLAY MATERIALS
EXTENDED SCHOOL SERVICES U. S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION
Preschool Equipment. By Ann Hungerford. University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
Make it for Children (apparatus, furniture, toys). Association for Childhood Educa-
tion, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W., Washington, D. C.
Equipment and Supplies for Nursery Schools, Kindergartens and Primary Grades.
Compiled by the Committee on Equipment and Supplies. Association for Child-
hood Education, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W., Washington, D. C., 1941. 50 cents.
Homemade Playthings and Material to Promote Success in Routine Activities. By
Marie Belle Fowler. Bulletin 360, New York State College of Home Economics,
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.
Uses for Waste Materials. Association for Childhood Education, 1201 Sixteenth Street,
N. W., Washington, D. C., 1939. 20 cents.
Home Play and Play Equipment for the Pre-school Child. Children's Bureau No. 238.
U. S. Department of Labor, Washington, D. C.
Home-made Toys and Toys and Play Equipment. By Agnes Tilson. Farmer's Wife,
St. Paul, Minn., 1933.
You Can Make It, Volume I. U. S. Department of Commerce, Wood Utilization,
Washington, D. C.
Play Material Made from Waste. By Clara Lambert. Play Schools Association, 1841
Broadway, New York, N. Y.
Emergency Nursery School Bulletin No. 2, Housing and Equipment. U. S. Office of
Education, Washington, D. C.
National Advisory Committee on Emergency Nursery Schools Bulletin No. 5, Nursery
School Equipment, 1936. Order both from Association for Childhood Education,
1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W., Washington, D. C.
Guides for Establishing Nursery Schools and Child Care and Development Centers
Bulletin 2. New York State Education Department, Albany, N. Y., 1942.
, ,,," 205821
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