Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 The business education teacher
 Suggested sequences
 Business education courses
 Vocational and adult education
 Work experience programs
 Physical layout and equipment
 Sources of materials
 Student activities
 Evaluation checklist for admin...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bulletin - State Department of Education ; 11
Title: A guide, business education in Florida schools
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067232/00001
 Material Information
Title: A guide, business education in Florida schools
Series Title: Bulletin
Alternate Title: Business education in Florida schools
Physical Description: v, 104 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1959
Subject: Business education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Previous editions published under title: A brief guide to teaching business education in the secondary schools.
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067232
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01740821
lccn - a 59009923

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
        Inside front cover
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The business education teacher
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Suggested sequences
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Business education courses
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Vocational and adult education
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Work experience programs
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Physical layout and equipment
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Sources of materials
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Student activities
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Evaluation checklist for administrators
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text

& mAfvp2l -

Se4 5 7ae



1959 Revision

Tallahassee, Florida
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent



BUSINESS EDUCATION represents an increasingly im-
portant phase of the curriculum of the secondary school.
To be effective, business training must be realistic in its
effort to meet the economic, social, and cultural needs of
youth as well as satisfying these same needs as they are
found in the adult world.
All business subjects assist materially in helping youth
make the transition from childhood to adulthood. Business
training fosters the development of worthwhile ideals of
character and action. The habits of accuracy, neatness,
punctuality, perseverance are but a few of the very desirable
concomitants of well-taught subject matter in business edu-
The material included in this guide attempts to put into
written form some of the current ideas and ideals for the
strengthening of the business education programs. It is
hoped that these may serve in some measure to guide the
progress and development of business education in a rapidly
expanding Florida economy.
This revised guide is the result of the cooperative efforts
of a representative group of business education teachers in
the State. It was produced in a workshop at the University
of Florida during the summer of 1955 under the direction
of Dr. John H. Moorman, University of Florida, and Dr. Joseph
Young, University of Miami.
All of the business education teachers throughout the
State of Florida were given an opportunity to contribute
suggestions for additions or changes in this material. A
multilithed copy was distributed to them for examination.
The annual fall work conference of the Florida Business
Education Association, which was held in Lakeland Sep-
tember 29 and 30, 1956, was devoted to making these revisions
and additions to the guide.

This revision is another in the series of curriculum guides
recently published. We sincerely believe that its use by
teachers will result in lasting benefits for the young people
in Florida secondary public schools.

State Superintendent

of Public Instruction


T HIS REVISED BULLETIN for business education teach-
ers was prepared as a cooperative project by a group of
Florida teachers during the summer of 1955 on the campus
of the University of Florida.
Grateful acknowledgment is extended to the teachers
who participated in the workshop. Teachers in the schools
of Florida who assisted in the preparation of these materials
through a 1955 summer workshop are Mildred Anderson,
Andrew Jackson High School, Jacksonville; Frances Bar-
toszek, Lakeland High School, Lakeland; Dorothy Binger,
University School, Tallahassee; Glenna Dodson, University
of Florida, Gainesville; Carolyn Edwards, Madison High
School, Madison; Leon C. Ellis, Frostproof High School,
Frostproof; Margaret Gaston, Walton High School, DeFuniak
Springs; Vernon E. Hall, Lakeland High School, Lakeland;
Bessie R. Hiers, Columbia High School, Lake City; Clytee
Mayfield, Wewahitchka High School, Wewahitchka; Irene
Newton, Gainesville High School, Gainesville; J. Dan Phillips,
Boca Ciega High School, St. Petersburg; Joyce Smoak, An-
drew Jackson High School, Jacksonville; Joe Sparkman, St.
Cloud High School, St. Cloud; Helen Swails, Yulee High
School, Yulee; Ena Threlkeld, Lindsey Hopkins Vocational
School, Miami; Euclede Threlkeld, State Department of Edu-
cation, Tallahassee; Irma Turner, Hillsborough High School,
Tampa; Edna Long, Bartow High School, Bartow; Irvin
Cole, University School, Tallahassee; and Carrol Waggoner,
Coral Gables High School, Coral Gables.
This workshop was conducted under the direction of Dr.
John H. Moorman, University of Florida, and Dr. Joseph
H. Young, University of Miami. Dr. J. Frank Dame, Florida
State University, served as consultant. Mr. Irvin Cole, Uni-
versity School, Florida State University, served as chairman.
The contributions of Dr. Walter R. Williams, Jr., Director,

Division of Vocational and Adult Education; Dr. Sam H.
Moorer, Director, Division of Instructional Field Services;
and Mr. Rex Toothman, Consultant for Business Education,
through whose assistance the development of this bulletin
was made possible, are acknowledged with thanks.
Other members of the State Department of Education,
J. K. Chapman, Howard Jay Friedman, and John P. McIntyre,
gave assistance in editing the bulletin.

Table of Contents

Foreword ------------------------------- i
Acknowledgments _------------------------ iii
Introduction ____------------ 1
The Business Education Teacher ----------------11
Suggested Sequences -------------------------- 19
Business Education Courses --------------------- 24
Vocational And Adult Education ---_------------- 70
Work Experience Programs _-------------- ---------- ------. 76
Physical Layout And Equipment ..--------------------------. 80
Sources Of Materials --- ------------------- 88
Student Activities .......-----.--------------..------ 99
Evaluation Checklist For Administrators ---------------... 103



ALL PERSONS participate in business activities. The
business education department has the obligation of
preparing students for business activities which are common
to all youth and adults. The course offerings in this de-
partment should not be confined and narrowed to serve only
those who already have chosen selling or office occupations
as their career. It should be so organized as to be of service
to all youth.

Imperative Needs
Business education contributes to all of the ten imperative
needs of youth and society, either directly or indirectly,
with special emphasis placed on the area of economic ef-
ficiency. The study of business education helps the individual
through meaningful experiences to improve his speech, read-
ing and writing abilities, and his ability to handle numbers.
It helps him to develop his character and to understand
and accept his social and civic responsibilities. It also pro-
vides him with the necessary skills for earning a livelihood
and makes him economically literate.
A business environment surrounds the child throughout
his entire youth; therefore, provision for adjustment to
everyday business and its relationships is essential. Because
of his specialized training, the business teacher can be a
valuable resource person in contributing to the development
of materials which can be used profitably in other subject

Vocational And General Backgrounds
The teachers of business education are themselves the

product not only of a specialized vocational education but
also of a general education. The business teachers seek to
share with all students parts of their specialized knowledge,
skills, and understandings as a contribution to the total edu-
cational program. In addition, business education teachers
should seek to enlarge the horizons of their students to
include the benefits and values of a general education. Stu-
dents should be aided in understanding that education for
business activities is a part of their education for worthy
living but not a substitute. Successful business people need
knowledge, skills, and concepts associated with the tradi-
tional academic subjects.
Since there is a business side to practically every type
of life activity, regardless of the occupation in which a
person may engage, business education is an essential part
of the total school program.

Objectives Of Business Education
Business education has two major and distinct objectives,
each characterized by its respective fundamental purposes
and functions: (1) general or basic business information
of educational value to all students; (2) vocational prepara-
tion for those students planning to enter business occupations.

General Educational Aspects Of Business Education
Economic Understanding To develop in a practical way
an understanding and appreciation of the functioning of
our economic system
Exploration To provide for all students exploratory op-
portunities and introductory information relating to business
Citizenship To help the student acquire knowledge and
concepts of business principles, practices, skills, and terminol-
ogy by means of which he may become a better citizen re-
gardless of his occupation or profession
Consumer To build understanding and appreciation of
the organization of business from the point of view of the
consumer of goods and services
Character To develop ideals, habits, attitudes, and other

qualities of character which will promote wholesome business
relationships in everyday life
Vocational Aspects Of Business Education
Job Opportunities To help students discover and analyze
their interests and abilities; to aid them in their understand-
ing of the requirements of various job opportunities; and to
aid them in making intelligent occupational choices
Job Skills To develop the skills and abilities necessary
for success in business occupations, such as typist, stenog
rapher, bookkeeper, clerical worker, salesman, store-service
work, or small business operator
To develop such essential business traits and attitudes as
honesty, accuracy, neatness, orderliness, thoroughness, re-
sourcefulness, and poise
Personal Development To develop an appreciation for
the importance of good manner, appropriate dress, pleasing
personality, and correct English in business relationships
Job Advancement- To give information concerning pro-
motional opportunities and to provide a background of busi-
ness training that helps to achieve business promotion
Vocational Growth To prepare students so that further
study in the field of business might be more effective
Job, Procurement-- To give training in techniques of
securing work, interviewing, and writing application letters;
and to assist in the transition from school to job

There is no conflict between the two major objectives of
business education. Many business skills and much knowl-
edge may be readily applicable either to the solution of a
personal business problem or to a job situation. Certainly,
vocational business education contributes. to the general edu-
cation objective of economic efficiency. Moreover, objectives
related to self-realization, civic responsibility, and improve-
ment of human relationships receive a large share of attention
in the vocational program. Furthermore, it often happens
that the person who has taken business subjects only as a

part of his general education later finds them vocationally
helpful, if not actually essential. Business educators agree
that the general education aspects of business education should
be given emphasis along with vocational training.

The school of today is expected to develop each child
to his capacity along the lines of his own particular interests,
aptitudes, and abilities. If such development is to be realized,
it becomes necessary for guidance to be recognized as a
major part of all good teaching.
In accepting this responsibility, the business educator
provides various types of guidance necessary for the business
1. Educational guidance Directs students in learning
how to study, in using the common tools of learning, and in
planning a program which will aid them best in discovering
and developing their capacities for further schooling.
2. Social and personal guidance Aids students in becom-
ing mature, self-directing, and well-adjusted individuals.
3. Vocational guidance Assists students in acquiring
knowledge of the functions, responsibilities, opportunities, and
rewards of occupations. Thus, students are encouraged to
think critically concerning various types of occupations.

Role Of Business Teacher
Teachers of business subjects should play an important
part in the guidance program of the school. They are in a
position to know:
1. Current occupational trends in the business fields
2. The areas that are overcrowded
3. Areas in which job opportunities are increasing
4. Duties involved in specific jobs
5. The traits and skills required or specified by the em-
ployer for each type of job available

Their responsibility is not only to prepare students for suc-
cessful wage-earning but also to assist students in selecting
a suitable business occupation. This selection of a suitable
occupation looms large in achieving more complete living
in today's general society.

Every possible effort should be made to utilize the time
of the student to the best advantage. Business teachers can
assist the student in discovering his own interests, aptitudes,
and abilities in order to guide him into the courses in which
his chance for success will be greatest.
The results of prognostic tests for clerical and office
occupations have some predictive value, even though prognosis
of success in business subjects is not highly developed.
Responsible business educators are reluctant to suggest the
use of any one measure for individual prediction. However,
the results of tests, when coupled with other available in-
formation, may prove valuable. It is only the combination
of these items that is significant in prognosis.
A high school student's permanent folder should contain
data, such as accumulated scholastic record, results of interest,
aptitude, achievement, and mental maturity tests, all of which
contribute information of predictive value. For example,
evidence indicates that the student with an I. Q. of less than
90 who is weak in English skills and spelling is likely to
have difficulty in shorthand. If the student has had many
different teachers and has taken a variety of subjects, his
grades will give information as to his work habits and general
capacity to handle subject matter. Therefore, if the I. Q.
is used in conjunction with the total school record and ex-
pressed interest of the student, there is prognostic value.
It should be remembered also that interest quotients or
strong desire to do a particular thing are important con-
siderations. This is true in shorthand as well as in other
The use of exploratory courses is a valuable device for
discovering the interests and aptitudes of students in business

subject areas. This may be an actual tryout of subject
matter such as in shorthand, recordkeeping, and selling.
Business education courses which have as their major objective
general education should be made available to all students.
Included would be such subjects as salesmanship, general
business, business law, economic geography, consumer edu-
cation, first-year typewriting, business English. first-year
bookkeeping, and business arithmetic.

Placement is the process of assisting the individual. to
find an appropriate place in the world of work. This work
should appeal to his interest and at the same time challenge
his abilities. It should serve the best interests of not only
the individual but also of society as well. The responsibility
of the school is not discharged simply by producing well-
prepared business workers. Placing students in a satisfactory
position for which they have been trained adequately, as
well as offering assistance after placement, is a joint re-
sponsibility of business teachers, administrators, and the
Effective use of some type of record system will assist
in attaining the desired outcomes in a placement program.
Business education teachers have an obligation to contribute
to a card file for use by placement personnel. Such a card
file should contain all information on the prospective workers,
their training, proficiency in skills, grades, work experience,
personality traits, and summary comments by teachers.

After the students have been placed on the job, the school
has the additional responsibility to follow up on each individual
placed. Without periodic follow-up studies, the business
education offerings cannot be fully evaluated. Such studies
should provide a basis for analyzing the need for new courses
and for improving present courses. The findings may result
in curriculum changes varying from partial changes in some
areas to total revision in others. The follow-up must reach

as many graduates and drop-outs as possible to be of maxi-
mum value to the school and to the individual.
Regardless of the size of the school or the extent of the
guidance facilities, good guidance starts in any situation in
which the teacher has an understanding of the student founded
upon a genuine interest in him. Some of the best guidance
can be rendered through very informal discussions. The
business education teacher is in a position to render a valuable
service to his students by helping them develop their po-
tential abilities and interests.

Community Relations

Community relations are the results of a continuing
process whereby the school attempts to build the good will
and understanding of the public for purposes of improvement
in the school's program.
Some of the principal reasons for promoting better public
understanding of the schools are:
1. The increasing school population
2. The cost of education
3. The changing patterns of the educational program
4. The tendency of people to make judgments in terms of
past experience.
Business teachers should be concerned about community
relations. In part, the esteem that businessmen of the
community have for the school is a result of the attitudes
and skills possessed by the young people they employ. Good
teaching is, therefore, the first step in good public relations.
Business teachers come into contact with most groups found
in the community, and their actions help mold public opinion.
Among the most essential attributes of a teacher who pro-
motes good public relations are these: a pleasing appearance,
attractive personality traits, wholesome attitudes, professional
pride, the ability to make the necessary adjustments to
community practices and standards, a willingness to work,
and a respect for those who hold differing opinions.

Perhaps no other phase of the high school program offers
opportunities for good community relations superior to those
available in the work of the business education department.
Local businessmen usually are eager to cooperate fully with
the school in promoting better business education. They
not only enjoy doing so but also, as a result of such co-
operation, learn to know and appreciate the program and
objectives of the entire local high school. Since these same
businessmen frequently exercise a major influence in our
democratic control of local schools, it is important that every
effort be made to maintain good public relations with
them through the business education department. The busi-
ness teacher may find it necessary to assume the initiative
even though the businessmen are cooperative.

An effective public relations program for the school will
promote mutual understanding of the purposes and activities
of the business education department with the parents, the
general public, and the businessmen. There are many ave-
nues of approach and many different procedures that may
be used with varying emphasis in the different communities.
The following list will suggest some of the more important
approaches to this problem:

The parents can be most effectively informed by:
1. Students of the Business Education Department.-
Whatever students think about school has some in-
fluence on the parents' thinking.
2. Open House.-Patrons may be invited as guests to
the classrooms of the business education department
where they can observe, not only the teaching methods
but also the physical equipment with which the de-
partment has to work.
3. Conferences.-An effort should be made by the teacher
to arrange for conferences with parents to discuss
their children's work.
4. Special Programs.-Programs portraying the work of
the business education department can be presented in
a regular assembly and before such groups as the P.T.A.

The general public can be informed through the following
1. The School Paper and the Local Newspaper.-Space
can usually be obtained for publicizing activities of the
business education department and items concerning
students and graduates working in business. News-
paper items should be properly channeled.
2. Radio and Television.-Dramatic presentations, dis-
cussion panels, and spot announcements concerning
activities of the business education department can be
prepared in cooperation with the local radio and tele-
vision stations.
3. Service Clubs.-The educational committees of the
various service clubs, NOMA, Business and Profes-
sional Women's Club, National Secretaries' Association,
and many other organizations are glad to cooperate
in informing the public of the worth and work of the
business education department.
4. Adult Education Program.-Education programs for
adults are effective means by which the school can
serve the community.
5. Public Exhibits.-Students' work can be displayed in
such places as fairs and store windows.

Some of the most effective practices that are being used
to inform the businessmen concerning the business education
program at the local high school include:
1. Advisory Committee.-An advisory committee of local
business and professional people can be organized to
advise with the school administration and the business
teachers relative to job placement; job standards; de-
sirable habits, traits, and attitudes; and other items
in which it may appear the group will be interested.
2. Community Surveys.-Community surveys should be
conducted to determine job opportunities and job re-
quirements. Much assistance can be obtained from
an advisory committee.

3. Resource Persons.-Business and professional people,
who because of special accomplishments or particular
abilities can provide information of value for students,
may be invited to discuss selected subjects with classes.
Arrangements may be made for various local business-
men to counsel with individual students who may be
interested in their particular professions or types of
4. Community Resource Materials.-Many business firms
are willing to supply or lend forms, films and film-
strips, correspondence samples, pamphlets, charts, dis-
plays, and tests, to schools for use in the business
5. Membership in Civic Organizations.-Membership in
various clubs provides personal contact for the business
teacher with the business leaders of the community.
Selected students might be given honorary member-
ships in local service clubs and allowed to attend their
6. Field Trips.-Visits to nearby places of business should
be well planned and properly conducted.
7. Work Experience Program.-A carefully supervised
part-time directed work experience program can be
developed for students. Supplemental non-classroom
learning experiences can be provided with the cooper-
ation of local stores and offices. (See Chapter 6, on
Work Experience Programs.)
8. Placement Service.-The business education depart-
ment should assist in maintaining a well-planned re-
ferral system so that the employers of the community
can look with confidence to securing reliable informa-
tion concerning those workers who are recruited from
the high school business education department.
9. Follow-Up.-Follow-up studies of graduates, par-
ticularly of those who remain on jobs in the local
community, will indicate to employers that business
teachers are interested in adequately training students
to fit the needs of business.


The Business Education Teacher

PROFESSIONAL GROWTH of the business education
teacher necessitates increasing awareness of changing
social conditions, continued development in the understanding
of youth, as well as studied improvement in classroom methods
and teaching techniques. It necessitates a real appreciation
for human relationships. A person who is growing pro-
1. Maintains an open mind
2. Recognizes the limitations of his own experiences
3. Maintains an enthusiasm for his job
4. Provides for renewal and extension of his knowledge,
skills, and understanding
5. Broadens his understanding and compassion for the
problems of youth.
The school program will succeed or fail in proportion to
the degree that teachers are willing to accept the challenge
of growth and to meet its needs. A teacher with a profes-
sionally impoverished background and no desire to enrich
or expand his personality cannot be expected to assume a
position of leadership. A teacher with a genuine professional
spirit, however, realizing the significance of a forward-
looking program and at the same time conscious of what his
particular contribution should be, soon discovers endless ways
of developing the personal qualities necessary for the reali-
zation of such a program.
The business education teacher should not feel that he
must confine his teaching to any one business subject. Teach-
ing a variety of subjects makes it possible to obtain a proper
perspective of course content and an opportunity to provide

for better integration of learning materials.
Because business education is by its nature dynamic, it
is necessary for the business teacher to keep abreast of
developments in the business world as well as in his teaching
field. To assist him in accomplishing this professional growth,
several means are available:

Professional Associations

Membership in professional associations is urged. As-
sociations that will prove helpful to the business teacher
are the National Education Association, the American Vo-
cational Association, the Florida Education Association, the
Florida Vocational Association, and the Classroom Teachers
Association. Those specifically limited to teachers of business
education are:

The United Business Education Association is a section
of the National Education Association. Membership in this
organization entitles the teacher to receive the UBEA Forum
each month. If he has a comprehensive membership, he will
also receive the National Business Education Quarterly. The
UBEA convention is held concurrently with that of the NEA.

The Southern Business Education Association is affiliated
with the United Business Education Association. The annual
convention is held during the Thanksgiving holidays in one
of the twelve southeastern states.
The Eastern Business Teachers Association and the Na-
tional Business Teachers Association are also regional or-
ganizations for promotion of business education. They jointly
publish the quarterly, American Business Education, and the
annual Yearbook of the two associations. Payment of the
membership fee in either organization entitles the member
to receive all publications. NBTA meets during Christmas
holidays, and EBTA meets in April.

Florida Business Education Association is a section of
the Florida Education Association. The annual meeting of
the FBEA is held in conjunction with the Florida Education
Association convention in the spring. FBEA also plans the
program for a work conference held each fall which is
sponsored by the State Department of Education. The work
conference is designed to be of help to all business education
teachers, and emphasis at each conference is placed on one
phase or subject area. The meetings at the work conference
are inspirational and instructional; no business is transacted.

The State of Florida is divided into twelve FEA districts.
The FBEA recommends that business education teachers in
each district organize and hold at least one meeting a year
at district FEA meetings.

In some counties there is a sufficient number of business
education teachers to make a county organization feasible.
A county organization might:
1. Establish a businessmen's advisory committee
2. Make community surveys
3. Obtain work opportunities for teachers
4. Cooperate with the county administration and institu-
tions of higher learning in securing in-service training
for teachers
5. Work toward the satisfactory development of a business
curriculum in the county
6. Establish uniform business efficiency certificates.
A teacher must participate actively in organizations if
he is to receive maximum benefit from membership. At-
tendance at meetings and participation in their program
are privileges that are available to all business education
teachers. It is especially recommended that teachers in
Florida endeavor to attend work conferences and conventions

of business education associations as well as county and district

Business education teachers who attend and participate
in their organizations will find that they not only profit
from the standpoint of help received but also will grow
through the exchange of ideas and the widening of ac-

Professional Reading

The professional reading of the business teacher should
include the literature of education in general, particularly
the NEA Journal. To be informed about business trends,
he should read a metropolitan newspaper, particularly the
financial sections; commercial publications; government
pamphlets; United States Chamber of Commerce bulletins;
and annual reports of corporations and other organizations.
To attain the objectives of self-realization and civic respon-
sibility, the business teacher should include in his reading
a broad sampling of economic, social, scientific, and literary

1. For information on business education publications
which are free or available at a reasonable price, see
Sources Of Materials, Chapter 8.

2. The reading of professional business magazines and
current news-magazines familiarizes the teacher with
trends and changing concepts in business.

3. Through more specialized professional reading the
business education teacher may enjoy continued growth.
Since books are expensive, it is recommended that the
teacher make use of the county and the individual
school's professional library. The beginning teacher
as well as the experienced teacher will profit through
the development of a personal professional library.
To begin with, he may use those methods books, pam-
phlets, and other professional books which he purchased
as an. undergraduate or a graduate student.

Professional Activities

Work Experience
The business teacher who has had business experience
brings confidence and authority to his teaching. The busi-
ness-like atmosphere of the classroom provides incentive for
students. Through work experience the teacher acquires
knowledge of business practices which helps in setting up
course standards in terms of job requirements. Business
experience must be kept current, since business requirements
and procedures change quickly.
Summer employment offers an opportunity for the in-
service teacher to gain work experience. Such work, because
it is necessarily temporary, may not be commensurate with
the teachers' abilities, but the experience gained is in line
with the initial jobs to be obtained by those teachers' students.
Teachers can use this opportunity to improve their teaching
methods and to gain further community respect for a prac-
ticable knowledge.

Field Trips
Visits to places of business and industry to observe modern
office practices, new developments, and techniques are en-
couraged for the purpose of helping the teacher keep the
business education program functional. Further information
about field trips is included in Bulletin 22-F, Why Take A
Field Trip?

Educational Growth
Additional study is essential to professional growth. One
can take work in education courses, courses in his special
field, or select studies for the purpose of exploring new areas
or perfecting skills.

With its unlimited opportunities, travel is suggested for
the general education it affords and for the rest and relax-
ation that every teacher must have if he is to maintain

enthusiasm for his work or to find inspiration for better

Community Participation
Affiliation with civic, business, and religious organiza-
tions in the community will prove beneficial to the teacher
through increasing his opportunities for contact with leading
men and women.
The National Office Management Association (NOMA,
132 W. Chelton Ave., Philadelphia 44, Pa.) invites business
teachers to cooperate with its chapters in making business

Conventions And Conferences
Numerous business conventions and conferences are held
in various cities of Florida. Many of these are sponsored
by universities. Attending these meetings is another means
of widening the teacher's viewpoint and enlarging his circle
of interests. The State Chamber of Commerce in Jackson-
ville will furnish names, dates, and locations of conventions
meeting in Florida cities.

Recreation And Social Contacts
Interest and success in work are closely related to recrea-
tional activities. The teacher needs to make use of his
leisure time in activities that will provide suitable recreation.
A well-rounded program of recreational and social activities
develops health, vitality, personality, and breadth of interests.

Business Clubs
Developing and sponsoring a business club affords pro-
fessional contacts and enlarges the teacher's local service.

Writing For Publication
Numerous professional magazines are interested in re-
ceiving articles contributed by business teachers. Teachers
who have new or unique ideas and techniques are encouraged
to share them by submitting them for publication.

Other Means Of Increasing Competencies
1. Listening to selected radio and television programs
to keep up to date on business developments
2. Making community surveys
3. Serving as consultant for businessmen in the com-

Professional Cooperation
The business teacher should be interested in the entire
school system, know its administrative policies and plans,
and cooperate with teachers and departments in helping
them achieve their objectives.
Such cooperation can be effected through:
1. Faculty and committee meetings
2. Participating in joint conferences with other teachers
at any level of education: elementary, secondary, college
3. Preparing courses of study individually or cooperatively
with others in the department, school, or other level,
such as state educational committees
4. Attending workshops and/or committee meetings where
problems and issues in business education and general
education are discussed
5. Observation of teaching methods
6. Observation and practice of professional ethics in
everyday contacts
Cooperation will result in such practical outcomes as
understanding of mutual problems, avoiding of undesirable
overlapping of course content, and developing school spirit
among the teachers.

Recruitment Of Business Teachers
Enthusiastic teachers are among the best recruiters for
prospective business teachers. By personal enthusiasm and
by professional attitude and conduct, the classroom teacher
can encourage others to select teaching as a rewarding career.

It is necessary to provide a greater number of business
education teachers because:
1. The annual supply of business education graduates
from Florida institutions is far short of the number
2. The demand for teachers will continue to increase at
a tremendous rate due to greater enrollments.
Principles in recruiting prospective business education
teachers are:
1. All persons concerned with business education must
cooperate in recruiting business education teachers.
2. The requirements of the profession should be known to
those engaged in recruitment.
3. Those helping to recruit business teachers should be
informed as to the opportunities (immediate as well
as long-range) offered by the profession.
4. Students selected for business teacher training should
have high intellectual and personal qualifications.
5. Prospective teachers should be contacted early in the
secondary school.
The fact that there is a great demand for business teachers,
however, does not justify the recruiting of those who do not
have the potential to succeed in teaching.
Every opportunity should be used to develop interest on
the part of school students in teaching as a career. Some
activities, persons, and agencies that may develop such in-
terests are:
Career Days Former Students
Future Teachers of America Guidance Counselors
Future Business Leaders of America Conferences
Visitation to Teacher-Training Bulletin Board Displays
Institutions Financial Aid Information
Student Attendance at Business- Scholarships
Teacher Conferences
More complete information on student activities which
might develop student interest in business teaching is included
in Chapter 9, Student Activities.


Suggested Sequences

T HE BUSINESS CURRICULUM should be adapted to
local needs. It is unwise for any school to adopt a busi-
ness curriculum developed in another school merely because
of its apparent success in that school. The following factors
should be considered in establishing a curriculum:
1. Student Interest
2. Size of the School and the Teaching Staff
3. Records of Placement
4. Follow-Up of Graduates
5. Social and Vocational Characteristics of the Community
6. Advice of Local Businessmen

A Flexible Curriculum
Business education provides training for vocational com-
petence in the office and distributive occupations. It builds
definite skills, abilities, attitudes, and character for general
business competence in the home and community. Regardless
of the size of the high school, the business curriculum should
be both flexible and functional. It should be designed to
fit the needs of the students and the community to be served.

Typewriting For All
Typewriting is rapidly becoming a general method of com-
munication; therefore, all students should be permitted to
elect typewriting. It is recommended that typewriting be
offered in the tenth grade so that students may be able to
use the skill during their high school days. A minimum

of one year of typewriting is recommended; however, seniors
may be permitted to take typewriting for one semester to
meet personal-use objectives.

Importance Of General Business
Everyone needs general and specific business knowledge
that are applicable in everyday situations. A number of
subjects are offered in the business education department
which can meet these needs. One of the most valuable of
these courses is general business which should be offered
early enough in the program so that those who drop out
by the end of the tenth grade will have some understanding
of general business practices. There should be freedom of
selection of all business courses except in the advanced skill
subjects (second-year typewriting, second-year shorthand,
second-year bookkeeping, office practice, work experience,
and merchandising) to give as many students as possible
the opportunity to take business courses of consumer value.
For suggested grade levels, see subject section of this bulletin.
The business curriculum has vital general education ma-
terial to offer all secondary school students, but some subjects
are essential for preparation for specific job competence.
A limited number of skill subjects may enable a student to
obtain a job, but for meeting various vocational competencies
adequately, specialized sequences are recommended.

Guiding Principles On Sequences
Each school should design its business offerings so that
students may develop vocational competencies to the extent
that resources will permit. Guiding principles for the adapta-
tion of the vocational sequences to community needs and
school resources are:
1. There should be a balance between the skill and non-
skill courses; that is, before the second year of type-
writing, bookkeeping, and shorthand is offered, careful
consideration should be given to the offering of busi-
ness subjects such as general business, consumer edu-
cation, and business English.

2. Before a second section in the advanced office skill
subjects is offered, careful consideration should be
given to the development of courses unique to the
selling and business foundations sequences.
3. In those areas where publicly supported post-high
school education is readily available, the business pro-
gram in the high school should be designed to work
closely with the post-high school program.
The specialized sequences that follow are designed to
develop a higher degree of vocational competency than many
schools can currently afford. In balancing skill and non-skill
courses, the small high school, however, faces the problem
of providing sufficiently diversified training within the limits
of its facilities to meet the needs and desires of the students
and the community. Some of these problems may be resolved
by combining subject matter from several courses and inte-
grating such subject matter into a single unit.

Alternate-Year Programs For A One-Teacher Department

(To provide a higher degree of training than would
be possible through unvarying yearly offerings)
General Business General Business
First-year Typewriting First-year Typewriting
First-year Bookkeeping First-year Shorthand
Office Practice' Senior Business2
(A selection of two or more sub-
Business Law
Consumer Education
Principles of Selling
Business Organization and
1Since second-year typewriting and second-year shorthand are not offered, the course
in office practice will develop skills in these fields as well as include some clerical practice.
2Since there is no book at the present time that can be used to include all four subjects
listed in senior business, it is suggested that two or more subjects be selected and two
or more books obtained.
Clerical And/Or Bookkeeping Sequence

Suggested courses for training for positions as reception-
ists, file clerk, clerk-typist, other general office positions,
or bookkeeper:

General Business Consumer Education
First-year Typewriting Clerical Practice
Business Arithmetic Office Machines
Second-year Typewriting Second-year Bookkeeping1
First-year Bookkeeping Work Experience (See Work Ex-
Filing perience Programs, Chapter 6)
Business English
1Students might select second-year bookkeeping instead of clerical practice for a
bookkeeping sequence of studies.

Stenographic Sequence
Suggested courses for training for positions where short-
hand is essential, primarily stenographic and secretarial:

General Business
Business Arithmetic
First-year Typewriting
Second-year Typewriting
First-year Shorthand
First-year Bookkeeping
Second-year Shorthand

Business English
Office Machines
Secretarial Practice
Consumer Education
Work Experience (See Work Ex-
perience Programs, Chapter 6)

Selling Sequence
Suggested courses to develop the student's ability to sell
goods and services, to familiarize him with the fundamentals
of retailing, and to show occupational opportunities in the
field of selling and retailing:

General Business
Business Arithmetic
First-year Typewriting
First-year Bookkeeping
Second-year Bookkeeping

Consumer Education
Business Law
Business English
Work Experience (See Work Ex-
perience Programs, Chapter 6)

Business Foundations Sequence
Suggested courses designed primarily for students whose
interest is centered in the possibility either of (1) owning
or directing a small business, or (2) working in a larger
business in a non-technical or pre-managerial capacity.

General Business
Business Arithmetic
First-year Typewriting
First-year Bookkeeping
Consumer Education

Business English
Clerical Office Practice
Business Organization and
Business Law
Work Experience (See Work Ex-
perience Programs, Chapter 6)

Proficiency Certificates
The issuance of proficiency certificates can serve as an
indication to the employer that a student has acquired ade-
quate job skills. It is suggested that if the individual school
decides to issue proficiency certificates it should, in the light
of its curricular offerings, determine the number of courses
the student should take to reach the highest vocational com-
petency which the school hopes to develop. Courses which the
student has successfully completed might be indicated on
the certificate.


Business Education Courses

T HE OBJECTIVES AND METHODS of teaching business
education courses will be influenced by many things,
including size of the school, type of community, teaching
personnel, and employment opportunities. In an effort to
give some degree of continuity to the high school business
education courses, however, the curriculum guide committee
members carefully studied each course in the business edu-
cation curriculum. Objectives and suggestions to teachers
are listed for each course as guides to the experienced teacher
who is re-evaluating his courses and to the new teacher who
wants assistance in planning and developing his courses.

First-year bookkeeping contributes to the general edu-
cation of the student through the concepts and knowledge
he acquires and the application he is able to make to his
everyday living, regardless of his occupation or profession.
Bookkeeping also provides the fundamental skills and
knowledge required for entering employment as a bookkeeper
or clerk and for studying advanced accounting. Students
planning to take accounting in college should be urged to
take one year of bookkeeping in high school.
Some jobs for "bookkeepers" do not require the formal
study of bookkeeping; nevertheless, even clerks who do
simple, routine bookkeeping jobs will be more effective work-
ers if they understand why they are doing such things as
reconciling bank statements and posting to the accounts
receivable ledger.
Grade Placement: 10, 11, or 12
Length of Course: 2 semesters

Bookkeeping should preferably be placed in the junior or senior
year. However, it may be taught earlier in order to leave time for
terminal courses in the skills during the senior year.
1. To develop an understanding of the value, use, and need of
systematic records as a guide to intelligent personal, social, and
business management
2. To develop a better understanding of business agencies, services,
methods, practices, procedures, and organization through the
study of business transactions and their effect on business
3. To give students experiences in record-keeping and interpreta-
tions that will aid them in determining their interests and
aptitudes for bookkeeping or other business work as a vocation
4. To acquaint the student with job opportunities and possible
advancements through the study of bookkeeping and accounting
5. To give interested students vocational training that will qualify
them for elementary bookkeeping positions open to students on
graduation from high school
6. To provide a good foundation for interested students who wish
to continue more advanced study of bookkeeping and accounting
7. To develop within each student desirable business attitudes,
work habits, and ideals necessary for success on the job: regular
attendance; neatness in records; accuracy in arithmetic; wise
use of time; and ability to meet obligations promptly, follow
instructions, accept responsibility, and get along with people
8. To increase legibility in handwriting
9. To develop self-confidence, respect for honest effort, and reali-
zation that nothing is accomplished without work
10. To develop a technical business vocabulary
11. To give training in the preparation and use of business papers,
forms, and reports that are employed in connection with business
12. To develop an understanding of current business practices
a. Skills in writing checks and using bank services
b. Acquaintance with taxation records and the preparation of
simple income tax returns
c. Acquaintance with correct procedures in payroll record-
Suggestions To Teachers
1. The teacher's manual, prepared by the publisher of the textbook
gives many helpful suggestions for the use of the textbook,
workbook, study guides, practice sets, and visual aids. In addi-
tion to using the manual for the edition being taught, the teacher
will find more recent information in the manual for the latest
edition of the textbook.
2. The bookkeeping teacher is in a position to make his instruction
practical and valuable. To do this, he should have some prac-
tical bookkeeping experience as well as adequate formal training
in accounting and related subjects.

3. Much basic business information can and should be incorporated
into the bookkeeping course. The nature of this information will
depend, in part, upon the other business education courses
available in the school.
4. Learning of principles and procedures in bookkeeping is of a
cumulative nature. Bookkeeping is best learned when each item
is diagnosed and understood through class activities, then
intensively practiced and applied. Outside work must be con-
sidered as practice on today's lesson as well as preparation for
tomorrow's lesson.
5. The first few weeks in the bookkeeping course are the most
important ones of the whole year. The good teacher makes sure
that he over-teaches the early work, because he knows how
important it is to the ultimate success of the students.
6. Students' business experiences should be used in developing
vocabulary. Analysis of each unit or chapter and preparation
of a vocabulary list of technical terms and common words or
phrases that have a special bookkeeping connotation will help
the teacher to be alert to present the special meaning of those
words, both in and out of context.
7. Every new principle should be explained thoroughly by chalk-
board illustrations and class discussion before exercises are
assigned for application of the principle.
a. Student attention may be directed by such devices as colored
chalk to point out key items or amounts.
b. "T" accounts drawn on the chalkboard provide an effective
means of illustrating the effect of certain transactions on
8. Learning often can be accomplished with greater ease and
economy of time when students understand why they are per-
forming a certain task and not merely how to perform it. Em-
phasize understanding of the subject matter, rather than mere
memorization of forms and devices.
9. Reversed figures, or transposition, is a common error and
should be explained to the students. If the difference between
two totals that should be equal is divisible by 9, it usually
indicates a transposition of numbers. For example: 47 +21=
68; 47 + 12 = 59: the difference is 9, indicating a transposition.
If the difference between the two totals is divisible by 2, it
usually indicates a debit for a credit or vice versa.
10. It is more beneficial to help the student locate his errors than
to give him the correct answer.
11. Students must learn to do neat, careful, and accurate work.
The teacher should refuse to accept any piece of written work
that does not measure up to business standards. Students
should be required to do an assignment until it is satisfactory.
Some students will probably need improvement in penmanship,
but the teacher must not compromise on the quality of written
work turned in.

12. Students should be taught to use pen and ink during the first
semester of bookkeeping. This use should not be delayed beyond
the first twelve weeks of the first semester. Pencils should be
used for footings and the work sheet after the introduction
of pen and ink.
13. Students tend to have more respect for the teacher who is not
constantly dependent on a key. The teacher may become more
aware of the learning problems of the students when he works
out problem materials in advance.
14. An informal survey of the teachers of Florida indicates that
the most difficult teaching of bookkeeping occurs in the section
on subsidiary or controlling accounts. The teacher should give
much time in the preparation of his presentation of this section.
15. This device may help students see the relationship of the theory
of the classroom to actual bookkeeping practices in the business
a. Have each student (or small committees) select one business
firm in the community for intensive study. Contact the
selected firms and solicit their cooperation in the project.
b. As each topic is presented in class, the student is responsible
for determining how the business he selected (called his
firm) carries out the recording procedures and reporting
his findings to the class.
c. The information is compiled by the student in the form of a
manual. At the completion of the course the student has
in his manual a complete picture of the records of "his"
16. To develop dependability and reliability, the teacher should set
deadlines for assignments. Students who submit work after
a due date might be penalized.
17. Students should have the actual experience of bookkeeping
nature in a business office, whenever possible.
18. When former students visit the school during college holidays,
have them speak to the class giving their current experiences
in accounting and the relationship to their bookkeeping ex-
periences in high school.
19. Adding machines are to be found in nearly every office, and the
bookkeeper is expected to use the machine. To give the student
self-confidence in learning to use the adding machine, he should
be given basic instructions and allowed to add problem columns
beginning with the introduction of the worksheet.
20. Students who have completed the class assignments may be
permitted, under teacher supervision, to assist individuals who
need help. Individual students who have the ability should be
encouraged to progress beyond the class assignments.
21. Bookkeeping is one of the areas in business education which is
particularly adaptable to individual instruction. A common
rate of progress for all students will be harmful to both the
superior students and the weaker students. After the intro-
ductory chapters, the class can be organized in groups according
to the ability of the students and each group permitted to

progress according to the capacities of the individuals in the
group. Each group should be given a test over a unit of work
upon completion of the unit.
22. If commercially-prepared bookkeeping charts are too expensive
for the present budget of the department, the teacher may
purchase white window blinds and construct desirable charts
using India ink and a flow-pen.
23. The United States Treasury Department provides large wall
charts of current income tax forms and miniatures of Form
1040 for student use to help students learn how to file income
tax returns. Since many high school students have had taxes
withheld, instructions should be given regarding the W2 forms.
The actual 1040 forms may be obtained from the nearest In-
ternal Revenue Bureau office or from the local post office so
that the teacher can assist the students in properly filing for
the return of their withheld taxes.
24. The teacher should be familiar with employment possibilities
for the bookkeeper in the area, as well as job requirements,
pay, working conditions, and related matters.
25. To make field trips more meaningful and to show the link
between "Paper-and-Pen" bookkeeping of the classroom and
machine bookkeeping of the office, students might take with
them some pages from their classroom ledger and ask the
office bookkeeper to show how, in one operation, he does several
bookkeeping processes.
26. The following methods of using study guides are in addition
to those listed in the manual.
a. After class discussion of the textbook, the student studies
the textbook material. The student then checks answers in
the study guide and re-studies the textbook for those answers
he does not know. Papers may be checked in class for
b. After class discussion of the textbook, individual study, and
perhaps after solving chapter problems, the student studies
the study guide (He does not write on it.), using the text-
book to ascertain the correct answers to questions about
which he is in doubt. If he is still uncertain, he may ask
for help from the teacher. Then the study guide may be
used as a test to measure the effectiveness of learning of
the chapter material. After papers have been exchanged
and checked, incorrect answers will indicate areas that need
c. All study guides might be left in the workbook for student's
use in reviewing.
27. Copies of rules and regulations for becoming a certified public
accountant in the State of Florida may be obtained from the
nearest office of the American Institute of Accountants. See
page 94.
1. Inspection of student papers is the "ounce of prevention" that
warns the teacher when his class is heading into difficulty.

2. Study guides may be used as a basis of evaluation.
3. Tests should be given frequently to ascertain if the students
have learned the why as well as the how in their work.
4. A test to be effective should follow immediately the presenta-
tion of a definite unit of subject matter.
5. Prepared tests issued by publishers of the bookkeeping text-
book are designed for periodic testing as the various blocks of
subject matter are completed.
6. Teacher-constructed essay and problem tests should be as much
a part of the testing program as the objective tests prepared
by the publishers.


Second-year bookkeeping is intended for those students
who want further knowledge of the subject for more advanced
positions as bookkeepers and for those who desire a book-
keeping foundation in preparation for executive positions.
The students who enroll should have been recommended
by their first-year bookkeeping teacher.
Grade Placement: 12
Length of Course: 2 semesters
Prerequisite: First-year bookkeeping
Second-year bookkeeping strengthens the outcomes of first-year
bookkeeping and assists in the development of:
1. Proficiency in bookkeeping involving advanced procedures
2. A further understanding of the accounting techniques involved
in the formation, operation, and dissolution of a partnership
3. An understanding of records and accounts that are applicable
to a corporation
4. Determination of the condition of a business by thoroughly
interpreting its financial reports
5. An understanding of the special accounting problems involved
in the handling of C. O. D. purchases and sales, installment
sales, consignment sales, and departmental purchases and sales
6. An understanding of the essentials of an accounting system
for a manufacturing business
7. An understanding of the voucher system of accounting
Suggestions To Teachers
1. Visits to offices are especially helpful to the advanced book-
keeping students. When it is feasible, students should be given
the responsibility of securing administrative permission to be
out of school. They should compose and produce the letters
requesting permission to visit certain local offices, stating
objectives of the visits and listing specific questions they would
like answered.

2. Students may be divided into groups of three or four each, in
order that they may receive more individual attention. On
the following day, reports should be given, and any forms,
such as different ledger papers, should be displayed.
3. Adding machines should be available for the students' use.
When bookkeeping machines are available, assistance should be
given those students who are interested in gaining some skill
on those machines.

In addition to procedures listed under first-year bookkeeping, tests
with vocational emphasis, such as the National Business Entrance Tests,
are appropriate for second-year bookkeeping. These tests are not
available to teachers for use in the class, but students should be en-
couraged to take them when testing centers are established in the area.
Teachers may obtain sample copies of the test as an aid in preparing
students. Requests should be directed to National Office Managers
Association, 132 West Chelton Ave., Philadelphia 44, Pa.


The primary purpose of a course in business arithmetic
is to assist students to solve personal business problems
through arithmetic. This course is helpful as a basis for
many of the other business subjects, such as bookkeeping,
consumer education, and merchandising. The teacher of
business arithmetic should bear in mind that business concepts
are as important as the arithmetic concepts.

Grade Placement: 10, 11, or 12
Length of Course: 1 or 2 semesters (Two semesters are recommended.)

1. To develop a mastery of the basic arithmetic processes, with
particular emphasis on practical application to personal business
problems, such as:
a. Buying groceries
b. Using bank services
c. Investing in stocks and bonds
d. Preparing a personal budget
e. Computing wage income
f. Buying insurance-real and life
g. Owning a home
h. Owning an automobile
i. Preparing income tax returns
j. Traveling by train, airplane, bus
k. Mailing via regular and air mail, parcel post, rail and air
1. Reading meters and figuring utility bills
m. Keeping simple records

2. To find the difficulties of the students in the basic principles
and in problem solving through a program of testing, and to give
remedial work to improve the effectiveness of the subject matter
3. To develop speed, accuracy, and neatness in solving problems
4. To develop proficiency in the practicable short-cut methods of
calculation, including aliquot parts
5. To develop the habit of judging the reasonableness of mathe-
matical computations by making estimates, and to instill in the
student a desire to check all solutions
6. To train the students in problem reading, interpretation, and
7. To develop skill in solving problems involving fractions and
decimals encountered in business transactions
8. To provide a background in business arithmetic which will help
in courses to be studied later, such as accounting and retail
9. To develop an understanding of transactions involving discount,
interest, percentage, mark-up, and mark-down
10. To develop an understanding of installment buying, using prac-
tical business situations
11. To familiarize the students with methods of determining rate
of return on investments
12. To develop the ability to understand, to read, and to make
graphs, charts, and tables
13. To familiarize students with the calculation of weights and

Suggestions To Teachers
1. Utilize purposeful drill, using problems within the experiences
of the students. Make use of rapid oral drill in fundamental
2. Make substitutions in subject matter that seem advisable con-
sidering students' interests and experiences-include supple-
mentary topics and exercises.
3. Present problems in order of difficulty; that is, use graded
problems throughout the course.
4. Give complete instructions in words that the students will
understand. Explain thoroughly the new terms in each day's
5. After a topic has been completed, give a test to determine the
need for remedial teaching.
6. Work toward student understanding of formulas, not memori-
7. Use class time to explain exercises not worked satisfactorily by
the majority of students. Give individual attention to those
students needing further explanation.

8. Emphasize the fact that in arithmetic a computation is either
right or wrong.
9. Allow sufficient time during the class period for students to
start on homework assignments, with definite directions as to
how to proceed.
10. Use visual aids and materials including those furnished by
business concerns and materials from the daily newspapers and
magazines. (See sources of materials, page 93.)
11. Prepare flannel-board demonstrations for review of fractions
and the study of graphs.
12. Encourage field trips to see the operations carried on at local
banks, stores, and other enterprises of the community.
13. Introduce the use of adding machines to the students.
14. Use resource people; for example, ask a local banker to dem-
onstrate to the class the proper way of filling out and endorsing
a check.
15. Use the workbook furnished by the publisher of the textbook,
which is correlated with the textbook, as an aid to the learning


Pretests to determine pupil status and needs are important in
business arithmetic. Standardized tests are available for some phases
of the subject and provide an objective means of comparison and diag-
Speed tests may be used in connection with the unit on review of
fundamental processes. In this type of test more examples are presented
than any pupil can finish, and achievement is measured by the number
of correct responses.
Most of the subject matter can be covered by such types of teacher-
made or standardized tests as right-wrong, completion, multiple choice,
computation, and problem tests. Emphasis should be placed on prob-
lem-type tests.
A distinction should be made between the ability to handle simple
business calculations and problem-solving ability. Partial credit should
be allowed for the correct analysis of the business problem even though
a minor error may have been made in the calculation.
For a measure of achievement in the units on graphs, charts, and
tables, the student may be asked to convert a table into a graph, to
convert a graph into a table, and to construct a simple chart.
Daily problem work, completed workbook forms, and class partici-
pation should be considered in evaluating a student's progress.

Suggested Tests And Readings
1. Reavis and Breslich, Diagnostic Tests in Fundamental Oper-
ations of Arithmetic and in Problem Solving. University of
Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

2. Rosenberg, R. R., Business Mathematics Tests, Series B.
Eleven tests and a final examination for business mathematics.
Gregg Publishing Company.
3. South-Western Publishing Company. Standardized tests cor-
related with the textbook.
4. Stevenson Problem Analysis Test. Public School Publishing
Company, Bloomington, Illinois.
5. Brueckner, Leo J., Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching in Arith-
metic. The John C. Winston Company, Philadelphia, Pennsyl-
6. Eastern Business Teachers Association and National Business
Teachers Association, The Fundamental Processes in Business
Education, Herbert A. Tonne, editor. Chapter V, pp. 71-123,
"Remedial Learning in Arithmetic," and Chapter XVIII, pp.
317-335, "The Fundamental Processes in Arithmetic." The
American Business Education Yearbook, Volume XII, 1955.
New York University Bookstore, 18 Washington Place, New
York 3, New York.


Business English includes the application of grammar,
vocabulary, effective expression, punctuation, and psychology
to the varied situations and problems of modern business.

Grade Placement: 11 or 12 (strongly recommended for 12)
Length of Course: 2 semesters

General Objective
To develop the students' ability to speak and write correct and
forceful English in business situations

Specific Objectives
1. To acquaint the student with different types of social and
business letters and business forms used by individuals and
business concerns
2. To provide an understanding of how and why people react as
they do to oral suggestions or directions or to business letters
3. To improve the student's oral expression in personal and busi-
ness situations
4. To develop the student's ability to express himself correctly
and forcefully in the writing of acceptable personal and business
5. To review the fundamentals of grammar, stressing the im-
portance of spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure
6. To encourage the student to develop an extensive vocabulary
with emphasis on business terminology
7. To encourage legible handwriting

Suggestions To Teachers
1. Have students bring to class advertisements and other clippings
from magazines and newspapers which relate to the topics
being discussed in class.
2. Have students bring sample business letters to class for study.
3. Have students prepare and give three to five-minute talks on
as many phases of work as possible.
4. Maintain an attractive bulletin board of materials directly
related to business communications.
5. Write a letter on the board omitting all punctuation and have
the students write the letter as it should be.
6. As a drill on adjectives and adverbs, have students describe a
picnic scene, bringing out color. Describe a rainy day without
using the word rain.
7. Have students interview business men to solicit support for
school activities, to sell advertising for the school paper, or
to get permission for a school parade.
8. Have students write letters which will actually be mailed.
Some should be typewritten.
9. Compile a list of errors made by the students to use in the
teaching and testing of grammar.
10. Guide the class in a group project of composing a letter which
is placed on the chalkboard. The purpose of the project is to
demonstrate correct processes in the organization of the letter
applying principles previously taught.
11. Have students prepare application blanks.

All letters and other written work that serve as a measure of
achievement and progress should be considered.
When particular abilities are to be tested, one or several of the
following methods may be used:
Assignments in composing and writing business letters give a basis
for checking students' use of words, correct sentence structure,
spelling, syllabication, punctuation, correct application of the prin-
ciples of grammar, and application of principles pertaining to effec-
tive business letters. An effective procedure is to give three separate
marks for each letter: one for layout, one for content, and one for
English usage.
When recognition of letter styles or types of letters is to be tested,
samples of real letters illustrating these styles and types may be pre-
sented for identification.
Oral expression may be measured by a simple rating scale, prepared
by the teacher, for checking abilities in the use of words, voice, tone,
pronunciation, and poise.
For testing vocabulary, standardized tests may be used. The
progress of the individual can be measured by comparing the results
of a test given at the beginning of the course with the results of an
identical or equivalent test at the close of the course.

Particular areas of grammar, punctuation, and capitalization may
be tested by means of diagnostic and achievement tests given at intervals
and at the end of the course. A comparison of the results of an achieve-
ment test with results of protests will show the student's growth in
that area. The testing may be particularized by asking the student to
write an assignment and telling him that he is to be rated on any one
or all of these attainments: (a) spelling, (b) sentence structure,
(c) grammar, (d) content, (e) layout, (f) psychology.

There are few subjects in the high school which have
more personal-use value than business law. Everyone, regard-
less of his vocation, makes contracts, uses negotiable instru-
ments, buys or rents property, becomes involved in bailments,
and finds need for a knowledge of other principles of every-
day law.

Grade Placement: 11 or 12
Length of Course: 1 or 2 semester(s)
General Objectives
1. To familiarize students with basic principles of business law
and their applications.
2. To provide the student with an understanding of the develop-
ment of modern law.
Specific Objectives
1. To teach students to withhold judgment until essential facts
have been made known.
2. To develop a working vocabulary of most frequently used legal
3. To develop in the student the ability to recognize problems
which require professional legal services.
4. To acquaint students with the organization, advantages, juris-
diction, and uses of the various courts.
5. To teach students to read and understand the terms of written
instruments before signing.
6. To familiarize the future citizen with the duties and responsi-
bilities imposed upon him by both the legal and moral codes.
7. To develop in the student an understanding of contractual
8. To give information about the fundamental aspects of negotiable
9. To acquaint the student with legal rights and obligations per-
taining to insurance contracts.
10. To acquaint the student with property rights and laws relating
to the acquisition and sale of property.
11. To give information about Florida statutes as they apply to
common aspects of business life.

Suggestions To Teachers
1. Arrange a class visit to a courtroom while civil court is in
session. These visits might best be made to small claims courts
because there the trials are shorter and the students may see
a case completed. The teacher should check with the judge
ahead of time to see that the case is the type which high school
students should see.
2. Put on mock trials in which students may participate.
3. Invite local attorneys to address the class.
4. Collect newspaper clippings concerning a case being tried.
5. Have students collect contracts or other forms of legal docu-
6. Encourage individual students or the group to prepare a scrap-
book made up of legal forms, newspaper clippings, and other
illustrative materials.
7. Make a trip to the state legislature while it is in session if
distance is not too great.
8. Help students plan some big expenditure, such as buying a
home, buying a car, or buying appliances. All necessary forms
to be filled out might be prepared, including those necessary
for installment buying.
9. Arrange a class visit to a law library and have the librarian
discuss the various law books with them.
10. Obtain pamphlets concerning the use of legal reference work
from the publishers of law books.
11. Present a case, leaving out some fact. Show how the judgment
of the case should be reserved until all the facts are presented.
12. Use many illustrations when presenting any principle of law.
13. Have students keep a notebook in which they record all de-
cisions to cases at the end of the chapters.

1. Factual knowledge might be determined by administering ob-
jective tests.
2. Knowledge of legal principles may be measured by requiring
the student to justify decisions in specific cases.
3. Unannounced daily quizzes will measure preparation of daily


Business organization and management helps the student
to get a practical working knowledge of business organiza-
tion, business procedures, and business management.

It is specifically designed to help three types of individuals:
1. Those who will work in business

2. Those who may have an opportunity to manage a

3. Those who may eventually own their business
The values to be obtained from the course are:
1. Career advancement
2. Better services as employees
3. Preparation for business ownership

Grade Placement: 12
Length of Course: 1 or 2 semester(s)

Course Content
The state-adopted textbook and manual are very good sources for
planning the material to be studied.

General Objectives
1. To contribute to the student's understanding of how businesses
are organized and directed
2. To gain an insight into the various types of duties and re-
sponsibilities which lead into managerial careers
3. To give the student an appreciation of the interdependence of
4. To give the student some knowledge of the economic problems
that businesses have in common
5. To contribute to the student's concept of the relation of business
to society.

Specific Objectives
1. To give information of the legal, financial and operational
organization of business
2. To show the importance and functions of business record-
keeping and business budgets
3. To extend the student's knowledge of money and credit and
the safeguarding of business investments
4. To understand purchasing, merchandising, and production prob-
lems of business
5. To understand personnel and office problems
6. To understand growth and expansion and the need for adjust-
ments in order to keep abreast of the times
7. To give information about business cycles
8. To emphasize the importance of business ethics
9. To direct the individual's attention to business aspects that
should be considered in contemplating starting a business of
his own

10. To provide business information that is directly related to the
individual's choice of vocation, initial employment, and ad-
11. To tie in the principles previously learned by showing rela-
tionships of such courses as bookkeeping, business law, and

Suggestions To Teachers
1. The learning materials cannot be limited to textbooks. The
objectives and the course are difficult to achieve by the tradi-
tional assignment and question-answer recitation. A combina-
tion of the library plan of instruction and the laboratory plan
is worthy of consideration.
2. Classroom activities should vary according to the interests,
capacities, and experiences of the students.
3. The approach to business organization should be in terms of
local businesses and industries; later, comparisons with busi-
nesses in other communities and other states will enrich the
4. Trips to local business firms are of value, but each trip should
be carefully planned in advance and the active cooperation of
the firms should be assured. Information desired, questions
to be asked, and problems to be solved should be worked out
by the teacher and the class before starting on the trip. The
trip should be followed by class reports.
5. The teacher and class may invite local business managers to
talk to the class on specified aspects of business organization
and operation.
6. The classroom should become a clearing house for ideas,
findings, and results of investigations.
7. The level of instruction for this advanced course should be in
keeping with the difficulty of the material and the maturity
of the students.
8. The problem method may be used to motivate the student
whereby he may choose a particular business in which he is
interested and at the same time extend activities for the superior
students. From reference materials, trips, and conferences, he
may compile a written report covering such phases as:
a. Desirable location for the business
b. Housing facilities
c. Possible market for goods and services
d. Financial requirements for starting the business
e. Problems in selecting and obtaining equipment

1. The student's progress can be measured by tests and oral or
written reports. Individual reports should be judged for com-
pleteness and importance of content.
2. Cooperative projects are difficult to evaluate in terms of in-
dividual contributions; their educational value, however, exceeds
the importance of assigning a grade to the individual.

Additional Sources Of Information
1. Non-retail trade associations, such as American Association of
Advertising Agencies and American Association of Railroads.
2. Retail trade associations, such as American Booksellers' Asso-
ciation and American Meat Institute.
3. General manuals, guides, and directories of private publication,
such as Industrial Digest and Pocket List of Railroad Officials.
4. Retail trade magazines and journals, such as Advertising and
Selling and Furniture Age.
5. Textbooks pertaining to subjects, such as general business,
selling, management, business English, retailing, economics,
advertising, and business administration.
6. Harvard Case Reports in business.
7. More than five hundred pamphlets designed to aid the small
business man are available from Office of Small Business, Dept.
of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C.


Office practice is primarily a laboratory course. It in-
cludes knowledge and applications of typewriting skills,
machine techniques, other typewriting skills and transcription
(for secretarial students), and filing skills. It should train
workers to be responsible, loyal, cooperative, dependable, in-
dustrious; it should train them to be accurate; and, at the
same time, it should teach them "drive" and production on
the job. All office practice classes should simulate insofar
as possible the actual office situation.
The basic difference in the clerical and secretarial office
practice courses lies in the prerequisite skills for each. Sec-
retarial office practice emphasizes office work involving
dictation and transcription in addition to related office duties.
Clerical office practice is limited to office work situations
which do not involve the use of shorthand. However, through
effective organization of a small group, an office-practice
class may include both secretarial and clerical students.

Grade Placement: 12
Length of Course: 1 or 2 semester(s)
Prerequisite: First-year typewriting

General Objectives
1. To develop skills and techniques in the performance of various
office duties
2. To develop personal traits that will enable the student to use
successfully his acquired business skills and knowledge

Specific Objectives
1. To improve or maintain the student's production typewriting
rate by applying that skill to specific business-situation problems
2. To integrate the fundamental skills and knowledge of arith-
metic, penmanship, English, punctuation, and spelling through
projects involving clerical tasks
3. To acquaint students with equipment and reference books which
give a better understanding of business terms, procedures, and
4. To develop responsibility for assuming tasks and carrying them
to completion without close supervision
5. To develop the ability to follow instructions
6. To develop the ability to check work and to make necessary
7. To develop habits of working cooperatively
8. To develop a workable knowledge of the principles of filing
9. To practice correct job-getting procedures
10. To develop the ability to recognize various business forms and
to understand their purposes
11. To develop an awareness of the importance of personal appear-
ance and good grooming

Specific Objectives Unique To Secretarial Office Practice
1. To develop students as competent stenographic office workers
2. To provide additional training in secretarial skills-shorthand,
transcription, and typewriting-in specific office-situation prob-

General Suggestions To Teachers
1. When the class is small and equipment is adequate, all members
may work as one group, but for large classes rotation of assignments
may be necessary in order to adjust to the equipment.
2. Management and instruction can be facilitated by the appoint-
ment or election of an office manager who sees that each student is
busy with a learning task, supervises the assignment of machines and
the housekeeping of the office classroom, and sees that the secretary
takes the roll.
3. Realistic situations for the practice of office duties should be
the aim of all lesson planning. Pre-testing of basic skills should
determine needed remedial training. Job sheets to provide definite
instructions and job-progress reports are recommended. It is the
student's responsibility to have the assigned jobs completed in usable

form and on time. Work may be judged on usability and promptness
and rated as "Acceptable" or "Unacceptable."
4. Local business and professional men may provide a series of
lectures on skills, attitudes, and abilities generally expected of a worker
in specific fields. Many students decide from these lectures in which
fields they will apply for positions.
5. Training films and other audio-visual aids, field trips, and work
experiences are effective in acquainting students with office procedures.
The school offices, the cafeteria, library, and departmental offices can
provide training of value if the plans are carefully made. These
experiences can, for the most part, be provided outside the class time.
Reports should be kept by the person to whom the student has been
assigned in order to correct weaknesses and as an assurance that the
student will not be exploited.
6. Cooperative attitudes are engendered when students are allowed
and encouraged to assist one another by demonstrating an operation
or giving help in difficult tasks.

Course Content
For classification purposes, the course is outlined in six divisions
of instruction, but some of the knowledge and skills will be integrated
in the planned projects throughout the course. The suggested content
covers these divisions:
I. Essential Traits and Knowledges
II. Typewriting Activities
III. Filing
IV. Machines
V. Other Non-Typewriting Skills
VI. Dictation and Transcription (for Secretarial Office Practice)
A course in office machines is outlined elsewhere in this bulletin.
In schools having insufficient equipment, the separate course may not
be justified. The office practice course, in either case, should be or-
ganized to provide some instruction in office machines.
The amount of time for any one unit will be affected by the nature
and amount of equipment and the range of other units desired. Twenty
hours in filing is the minimum recognized for proficiency awards.
Suggested time allotments for machines specify five hours for stencil
or fluid duplication, 10 to 15 hours for addition and subtraction on
listing machines, and 18 to 30 hours on calculators.

I. Essential Traits And Knowledge
A. Materials: textbook, magazine articles, personality charts and
rating scales, office reference books, supplementary textbooks,
office forms from local businesses
B. Topical Content
1. Desirable personal qualities
2. Desirable character traits
3. Office deportment
4. Business ethics

5. Place of the clerk or stenographer in the office organization
6. Application and interview
7. Use of office supplies and equipment
8. Acquaintanceship with reference books
C. Suggestions to Teachers
1. Students should rate their own personality on a published or
original chart and mark the items in which they wish to
2. A suggested reading list on personality from magazines and
library books may be posted on the bulletin board. Some
method of checking on this reading should be devised.
3. Business ethics is taught by incidental instruction as situ-
ations arise in the office classroom.
4. The importance of office deportment and the ability to get
along with people may be emphasized by talks given by
personnel directors or other qualified persons.
5. Teachers will wish to assign special reports and make avail-
able materials for areas not treated in the textbook.
6. Opportunities for the practice of good interview techniques
and learning of the complete job-getting cycle should be
7. The more commonly used reference books, such as the tele-
phone directory, dictionaries, office manuals, should be
available as part of the standard equipment in the office
practice room. The library may furnish books that are not
available in the classroom. Each student should be given
a list of questions which are to be looked up in various
reference books. Note taking and use of index cards for
recording and filing this information for future use should
be explained.
D. Methods of Evaluation
1. Objective tests may be given to determine the degree of
mastery of material covered.
2. Oral reports may be given on reference projects.
3. A check list for rating students' attitudes should be kept.
The results of this check list should have some bearing on
the grade.

II. Typewriting Activities
A. Materials: textbook, typewriting textbooks, workbook of busi-
ness forms, cards, envelopes, labels, letterheads, carbon paper,
B. Topical Content
1. Typing letters
a. Dictation at the machine
b. Original composition
c. Transcription from voice-recording machine
2. Developing manipulative skills
a. Addressing of envelopes
b. Typing of carbon copies
c. Typing of tabulated materials
d. Typing of cards and labels

e. Typing of fill-in letters and forms
f. Typing on lines
g. Typing of numbers
h. "Short-cuts"
3. Typing business reports
a. Manuscripts
b. Rough drafts
c. Minutes and resolutions
d. Statistical reports
e. Bills and invoices
f. Financial reports
4. Evaluating work
a. Proofreading
b. Making corrections
5. Duplicating
a. Cutting stencils and making corrections
b. Typing master copies for direct process duplicators
C. Suggestions to Teachers
1. Timed writings of straight-copy typewriting, with errors
uncorrected, should be restricted to (a) very short drills
to improve techniques and rate, and (b) timings for the
purpose of comparing individual's production rates with his
basic stroking rate. The student then has a basis for setting
his own goals and can measure his progress in goal-attain-
2. Constant alertness may be needed to establish techniques
of neat erasing, with proper protection of the machine, and
to develop abilities and habits in correcting all errors.
3. For the students who have had second-year typewriting,
these activities should be minimized.
D. Methods of Evaluation
1. Production standards may be developed for typewriting
2. In evaluating finished typewritten copy from handwritten
copy and rough draft, consideration should be given to (1)
accuracy, (2) arrangement, (3) time required for comple-
tion, (4) compliance with directions, and (5) usability.

III. Filing
A. Materials: textbooks, miniature or full-size filing practice units,
supplementary materials, desk trays.
B. Topical Content
1. Methods of filing
2. Types of filing equipment
3. Time-and-motion-saving skills
C. Suggestions to Teachers
1. Save letters from typewriting class for practice filing-
may be filed in folders.
2. Visit offices to observe various ways of filing and various
filing equipment.
3. Check with teachers to see if they have materials to be
sorted or files which need reorganization.

4. Make use of films on filing.
D. Methods of Evaluation
Achievement tests and timed filing practice can be used for
evaluating filing knowledge and skills.

IV. Office Machines
A. Materials: manuals of instructions for all machines, textbooks,
job sheets.
B. Topical Content
1. Duplicating machines
a. General information
b. Kinds and advantages
(1) Stencil
(2) Fluid
c. Operation and care
2. Illuminated drawing board, styluses, and lettering guides
3. Adding-listing machines
4. Calculating machines
5. Dictating machines
a. General information
b. Kinds and advantages
(1) Wax cylinder
(2) Wire or tape recording
(3) Plastic disks or belts
c. Operation and care
C. Suggestions to Teachers
Consider those suggestions applicable on page 54.
D. Methods of Evaluation
1. Students may be asked to type and run stencil or master
copy after the unit on office duplication.
2. Students may answer objective-type questions.
3. Performance tests will help to measure a student's ability
on the calculating machines.

V. Other Non-Typewriting Skills
A. Materials: textbook, workbook of office forms, supplementary
textbooks, paper clips, staples, large worktables, paper cutter,
letter opener, telephone.
B. Topical Content
1. Improvement of the fundamental skills and knowledge of
arithmetic, penmanship, English, punctuation, and spelling
through projects involving such things as:
a. Problems to improve mental calculations
b. Checking names and figures
c. Making extensions
d. Writing letters and memoranda
e. Longhand business forms
f. Simple recordkeeping
g. Making corrections and adjustments
h. Filling out application forms correctly

2. Duties of a clerk
a. Attending to the mail
b. Using the telephone
c. Writing and sending telegrams
d. Receiving visitors
e. Arranging transportation
(1) Travel information
(2) Shipping information
f. Banking
(1) Commercial papers
(2) Services available
(3) Procedures in maintaining an account
3. Instruction and practice in "periphery skills"
a. Collecting and distributing papers,
b. Efficient arrangement of materials
c. Collating materials
d. Stuffing and sealing envelopes
e. Improving the "little things" in everyday tasks
C. Suggestions to Teachers
1. Take students, six to eight at a time, to Western Union
office to receive instruction.
2. Ask telephone company to set up classroom equipment.
3. Obtain travel information from agencies. Plan trip, in-
cluding itinerary, cost, stop-overs, reservations, etc.
4. Assist teachers in keeping accounts and records.
5. Assign students to act as receptionists.
D. Methods of Evaluation
Objective tests and time production tests can be used to measure
achievement in non-typewriting skills.

VI. Dictation And Transcription
A. Materials: textbooks, secretarial handbooks, dictionaries, direc-
tories, letterheads, carbon paper, envelopes, and shorthand
B. Topical Content
1. Dictation
a. Timed
b. Office style
2. Transcription
a. Organization of materials
b. Production of mailable letters
(1) Correct letter form and placement
(2) Proofreading and correcting errors
C. Suggestions to Teachers
1. Collect and study various types of stationery and letterheads.
2. Collect and study various styles of letters and their use in
different situations.
3. Increase students' dictation speed through sustained dicta-
tion by the teacher; use of dictation records; frequent
review of brief forms, phrases; and the practice of difficult

4. Give office-style dictation to acquaint students with real
office dictation practices.
5. Require mailable transcripts.
6. Arouse pride in English mastery and well-placed letters.
7. Show films illustrating actual office routines.
8. Let students prepare bulletin boards on subjects related to
secretarial work.
9. Testing should include timed dictation of letters and timed
production of mailable letters.
D. Methods of Evaluation
In the dictation and transcription unit, organization of materials
and production of mailable copies should be the criteria for
grading. On tests students should be discouraged from retyping
the problems; they should be graded on the number of letters
they can do.

Consumer education is designed to develop economic un-
derstanding from a consumer viewpoint. The material in
this course should be organized around the actual activities
in the life of each student. Consumer activities become
more important when presented close to the time when the
individual earns money and spends it for those goods and
services necessary for maintaining a standard of living. The
objectives of this course should tend to develop a workable
philosophy of consumption.

Grade Placement: 11 or 12
Length of Course: 1 or 2 semester(s)
General Objectives
1. To develop an awareness of consumer problems.
2. To acquaint students with agencies for consumer protection.
3. To develop a scientific and critical attitude toward advertising.
4. To familiarize students with sources of consumer information.
5. To improve students' ability to choose goods and services in-
6. To develop in a practical way an understanding and apprecia-
tion of our economic system.

Specific Objectives
1. To aid students in understanding the many complex relation-
ships existing between business and the consumer.
2. To increase students' abilities in evaluating goods and services
in terms of values and prices.
3. To teach the students the importance of intelligent management
of personal and home finances.

4. To develop an inquiring attitude to enable the students to detect
misrepresentations, misleading statements, and fraudulent prac-
5. To develop an understanding of the importance of saving and
the ways to save.
6. To teach students sound principles of investment.
7. To give the students an understanding of values in renting,
buying, and maintaining a home.
8. To acquaint the students with the characteristics and practices
of various lending agencies.
9. To acquaint the students with the methods and importance of
computing the cost of credit, installment buying, and borrowing
10. To encourage initiative on the part of the student to avail
himself of information supplied by the government and other
11. To make the student conscious of his social and economic re-
12. To develop the ability and habit of budgeting time, energy,
and money.
13. To acquaint the students with our monetary system.
14. To acquaint the students with the common business law govern-
ing adult-minor relationships and contract parties and agencies.
15. To help the students understand banking services, such as
savings, personal checking accounts, and credit.
16. To develop in the students an appreciation of the problems
a. Business cycles
b. Monopoly and competition
c. Prices
d. Wages
e. Regulation of business
f. Distribution of income.

Suggestions To Teachers
The content of this course will depend on the needs of the students
and the community. The state adopted textbook and teacher's manual
are very good sources for planning the material to be covered. The
teacher should work with the students in deciding the order of presen-
tation of the different units suggested. Outside materials should be
brought in to supplement the textbook.
1. The teacher may construct a series of study outlines, each
covering a topic of the course. These outlines should include
challenging questions and problems for students to investigate
and should provide each student with a copy of basic and supple-
mentary references to books, magazines, and newspapers.
2. Class activities and discussions should start from the students'
own experiences and interests.
3. The school library and public libraries should be used exten-
sively by the students and teacher.

4. Current magazine and newspaper articles pertaining to con-
sumer and economic problems should supplement textbook
5. Advertising pamphlets and free samples of fabrics can be col-
lected and exhibited for inspection or study by the students.
6. Simple classroom experiments and tests (e.g., comparison of
wool and rayon, linen and ramie) can be performed in class
as a group project.
7. Laboratory experiments and demonstrations by the science
teacher, the home economics teacher, or student representatives
are desirable school experiences.
8. Students should be encouraged to make special reports when
they find something which they would like to contribute to the
9. Outside speakers, such as bankers, insurance agents, travel
agents, and realtors, speaking on consumer problems, lend
interest to classwork.
10. Analysis of advertisements should be made from the consumer's
point of view, and the reporting of misleading advertising
heard on the radio may be of educational value in the unit on
11. Students should write government and research agencies, asking
for reports and pamphlets on standards and labeling of consumer
12. Students should be encouraged to bring in labels and cartons
that illustrate the principle of standards legally required for
consumer goods.
13. Specimen insurance policies should be analyzed as to policy
provisions to develop ability to interpret and evaluate insurance.
14. Provision should be made for realistic budget-planning and
budget-keeping by the students.
15. Students should have experiences in rating the quality and prices
of different brands of a commodity. Students might bring
empty cans of varying sizes and grades of similar canned foods
and arrange a display.
16. Field trips may be taken to commercial establishments.
17. Civic clubs interested in consumer research will cooperate to
the extent of sending representatives to the school.
18. Advantage should be taken of films and other audio-visual aids.
19. Activities may be developed on the utilization of old clothing,
used furniture, and do-it-yourself projects.
20. The class may be able to visit the local stock broker and have
him explain the buying of stock and the meaning of stock
reports in the paper.
21. Driver-training instructors might talk to the students describing
the qualities, prices, and outstanding features of various makes
of cars.
22. Throughout the course opportunities should be taken to lead
from the immediate topic to those economic concepts appropriate
to the topic.

1. Essay type test may be given after each unit of work.
2. Objective test may be obtained from publishing companies.
3. Laboratory projects should be evaluated.
4. Students should be recognized for contributions to class dis-
cussions and for all written and oral classwork.

This course should be offered early enough in the school
program so that those who drop out by the end of the tenth
grade will have some understanding of general business
practices. General business can provide exploratory ex-
periences useful for guidance in planning courses. The train-
ing and experiences needed by a teacher of general business
are as broad and varied as are the personal business activities
and business problems of youth and adults. The teacher
of this course should be genuinely interested in teaching
boys and girls of the ninth or tenth grade age level.
General business offers a basic business background of
value to every student. It acquaints him with the business
services of the community, gives him occupational information,
and teaches him how to manage his personal business affairs
more intelligently. The state adopted textbook and teacher's
manual are very good sources for planning material to be
Grade Placement: 9 or 10
Length of Course: 2 semester(s)
General Objectives
1. To give general information and to develop concepts of business
practices and procedures which are necessary to an intelligent
understanding and appreciation of our economic society.
2. To develop a knowledge of the business procedures which are
used in everyday living.
3. To provide a basic background for further study in business.
4. To survey the field of business occupations, consider their
requirements for successful workers in each occupation, and
carry on a program of self-discovery and self-evaluation in
relation to these occupations.
Specific Objectives
1. To help the student gain understandings of the structure and
operations of business enterprises.
2. To give the student an understanding of and an appreciation
for the relationships between business and the community.

3. To show the student the importance of good personal habits and
skills in spelling, English, penmanship, and arithmetic in
4. To enable the student to understand and use business terminol-
ogy as it applies to personal business problems.
5. To aid the student in the handling and use of money and its
substitutes in budgeting, saving, and investing.
6. To help the student recognize the importance of insurance as
it relates to the individual and to business.
7. To help the student gain consumer knowledge of communica-
tion, merchandising, traveling and transportation, and banking
8. To assist in the understanding, appreciation, and cultivation
of ethical business attitudes in everyday business situations.
9. To provide the student with business information concerning
the buying of goods and services.
10. To help the student realize how a continued study of business
in the secondary school may assist him to meet his immediate
and future needs and plan his future education.
11. To provide opportunities for the student to discover aptitudes,
interests, and abilities for business occupations.
12. To provide the student with an opportunity to explore business
as a field of work.
Suggestions To Teachers
1. Field trips to various types of business offices help in making
the classwork more interesting and realistic. Arrangements
for trips should be made in advance in order that an official
or an employee will be able to receive the class and contribute
to the planned visitation. Some suggested field trips which
may prove worth while are:
a. Local bank
b. Post office
c. Transportation offices
d. Communication office
e. Insurance offices
f. Travel agencies
g. Credit departments of mercantile businesses
h. City offices
i. Real estate offices
j. Savings and loan associations
2. Local business and professional men and women should be
invited to speak to the class while on selected units of work.
They may be insurance specialists, real estate agents, merchants,
or representatives of transportation and communication agen-
3. Students should be encouraged to bring in clippings pertaining
to general business. These may be displayed on the bulletin
board and, if desired, later placed in an individual or class
scrapbook. Every contribution should receive definite recog-
nition for the satisfaction of the student.

4. Students should be made to feel free to contribute observations
or experiences relating to general business, even though the
particular topic does not pertain to the current assignments.
5. Workbooks
a. If workbooks are used, the students will have most of the
forms needed. For example, when checking accounts are
taught, the student may tear from the workbook the indi-
vidual checks and compile a complete checkbook, following
through the procedures of keeping a bank account.
b. If workbooks are not used, the teacher, with the help of
the students, can get an ample supply of forms from places
of business.
6. Students should be provided with appropriate materials for
planning and keeping a budget.
7. All of the materials which will be needed from time to time,
such as directories, maps, and charts, should be available in
the classroom. A file of reference materials can be developed
for each unit.
8. Telephones borrowed from the telephone company or dummy
telephones make the dramatization of telephone techniques
more realistic.
9. Games may be introduced to develop facility in the use of the
telephone directories.
10. Skills in the finding of various types of information should
be developed through practical assignments.
11. Skills and abilities in the use of the postal services can
best be taught by preparing packages and letters for mailing.
12. Facility in reading timetables and maps should be developed
by practice in planning trips by various means of transportation.
Because the best motivation stems from travel opportunities,
this unit should be placed at a time near a vacation period.
13. The ability to alphabetize accurately and rapidly should be
developed through ample repetitive practice.
14. The importance of analyzing the provisions of an insurance
policy can be taught effectively by having the students analyze
specimen policies and reporting the provisions of each to the
15. The student's background of information, as it pertains to the
unit to be studied, should be determined. By analyzing this
information, teachers may plan instruction to the best advantage
of the class.
16. Exploration in the field of business and understanding of the
fundamentals of business operation, which are basic to more
advanced study of business and vocational training, should be
provided. This may include exploratory and tryout experiences
that, through activities, attempt to discover the aptitudes, in-
terests, and abilities of students to pursue vocational business

17. Improvement of skills in penmanship, vocabulary building, and
mathematics should be the constant aim of class accomplish-
18. Habits of neatness, accuracy, responsibility, and thrift should
be developed throughout the course.
19. An overall picture of a new unit should be presented so that
the current assignment will be more meaningful.
20. Student interest in general business can be increased through the
use of visual aids, such as bulletin board, the collage, film-
strips, and motion pictures.
21. The school library should be used extensively.
22. Cautions in teaching general business
a. Keep in mind the objectives of the course; it is not a train-
ing course to prepare students for jobs.
b. Vary the classwork; the course should not become monot-
c. Avoid technical terms in making explanations.
d. Do not use the workbook as a substitute for planned as-
e. Be sure that every project or activity has learning values.

Evaluation of the student may be used for a variety of purposes.
In order to determine the growth in understanding, knowledge, and
skill, it may be necessary to pretest or inventory the student's level of
understanding. It may be desirable, from time to time, to do diagnostic
testing for remedial purposes. Because of the wide range of subject
matter that must be sampled, objective tests of the short-answer type
may be most suitable. These tests may be obtained from the publishing
companies. They are broad and all-inclusive of the subject matter and
are usually easily scored. It is not recommended, however, that they
be used to the exclusion of all other forms of testing. The testing
program may include short and long essay-type tests, oral and written
reports, charts, and graphs.
Possibly one of the best means of evaluating is the measurement
of the student's class performance. His participation and contribution
in class discussions and individual and committee studies will reveal
his progress.


Office machines is a terminal course designed to give the
student a working knowledge of listing, non-listing, and other
available machines.

Grade Placement: 12
Length of Course: 1 or 2 semester(s)

General Objectives
1. To develop familiarity in the use of office machines

2. To develop desirable work habits required by employers of
office machine operators
3. To develop competency on at least one machine in the one-
semester course and on several machines in the two-semester

Specific Objectives
1. To develop basic arithmetic processes on all three types of
2. To develop speed and accuracy in addition and multiplication
on key-driven calculators
3. To develop sequential operations in business applications on
rotary calculators.

Equipment And Content
The range of offerings in a machines course depends upon the kind
and number of machines available in the office machines laboratory.
For each machine, the manufacturers supply a syllabus of instruction
specific to that machine, with instructional content and directions for
the learner, and a teacher's manual for the teacher. Adaptations
through selection of exercises and time allotment will depend upon the
degree of proficiency desired or practicable in particular situations.
Instruction books may also be secured from publishing houses.
The usual equipment considered as minimum for a machines course
includes the following:
1. Adding-bookkeeping machines (preferably electric) which can
also perform the functions of posting and billing
a. Full keyboard
b. Ten-key
2. Adding-listing machines (preferably electric)
3. Calculating or non-listing machines (preferably electric)
a. Key-driven
b. Rotary
4. Other machines
Some schools may find it desirable to add billing, posting, ad-
dressing, check-writing, switchboard, or other office equipment;
for these, specific course outlines may be obtained from the
manufacturers of the machines.
Course Content
1. Adding-bookkeeping machines-ten-key and full keyboard
a. General operating techniques
b. Addition
c. Subtraction
d. Multiplication
e. Division
f. Posting
g. Billing
h. Application to business problems
2. Adding-listing machines
Same as for adding-bookkeeping machines

3. Calculating or non-listing machines-rotary and key-driven
a. Addition
b. Subtraction
c. Multiplication
d. Division
e. Application to business problems

Suggestions To Teachers
To make the maximum use of laboratory equipment, it is suggested
that this class be organized according to a rotation plan. Each student
is assigned to a definite machine or task for a specified period of time.
At the end of this predetermined period of time, the student moves to
a different machine or activity and is in turn replaced by another
At the beginning of the course, each machine is demonstrated and
its operation and purposes explained by the teacher. Further demon-
stration should be given at the time the need arises. The teacher
serves as office manager, checking on techniques and giving assistance
to students.
In conducting this course, the teacher should:
1. Set up a plan whereby each student can be responsible for
keeping an up-to-date record of the number and types of jobs
completed on each machine to which he is assigned.
2. Urge students to work rapidly from the beginning of their
3. Emphasize efficient arrangement of materials and economy
of motion.
4. Develop an office atmosphere by encouraging cooperation
among students.
5. Encourage students to help other students.
6. Make extensive use of illustrative posture and machine charts
and other visual materials which are available and relate to
units being studied.
7. Invite machine manufacturers' representatives or office man-
agers to demonstrate machines to the group.
8. Take students on field trips so that they may see machines
being operated in banks, utility companies, and other offices.

Problem or production tests with time limits can be used to measure
the student's ability to make efficient use of the machines upon which
he has received training.
Objective tests may be given for the purpose of determining the
student's familiarity with office machine nomenclature, machine parts,
and purposes.
Standards may also be set up after a survey has been made of
on-the-job production rates required by local employers.
The syllabi and teacher's manuals prepared by the machine manu-
facturers give suggested standards of achievements.


Since so many persons in the State of Florida earn their
livelihood by engaging in the distributive occupations, it is
recommended that emphasis be placed on the offerings in
these fields in the curriculum of the secondary schools of
the state.
The background and training of business education teach-
ers will enable them to adapt materials and information
for the teaching of salesmanship, advertising, and merchan-
It is hoped that the following objectives and teaching
suggestions for this area of work will be a means of increasing
the interests in these subjects.


A salesmanship course should serve students who are
planning to be salesmen as well as those students interested
in salesmanship from a consumer's point of view. The psy-
chology of persuasion covered in the course will be of value
to any student.

Grade Placement: 11 or 12
Length of Course: 1 semester (Schools offering only full units of work
will find it desirable to combine a semester of salesmanship and a
semester of advertising as one course.)
1. To provide learning experiences which will give the student a
knowledge and understanding of the general principles and
techniques of selling
2. To aid the student in the development of personality traits
desirable in selling activities
3. To provide experiences which would develop a background of
knowledge in the field of distribution
4. To develop the ability to sell to the satisfaction of the proprietor,
the customer, and the salesperson
5. To help the student give intelligent consideration to the possi-
bility of making selling a career
6. To give the student a knowledge of how to use the principles
of selling in applying for a job
7. To impress upon the student the necessity for a thorough
knowledge of the products which he may sell and of the
importance of service in the field of selling

Suggestions To Teachers
1. Reports of shopping experiences of students should provide
much teaching material. The student learns to evaluate the
services received and at the same time learns many of the
techniques involved in selling. Such activities and reports help
to teach the subject from the consumer point of view.
2. The teacher should lead the student to see that success in selling
comes not only from the ability to make a sale but from a
desire to give permanent satisfaction to the buyer.
3. Study the products grown or manufactured in the local area
and the methods of selling them.
4. If possible, secure a cash register and teach fundamental op-
erations of cashiering.
5. Salesman, sales managers and personnel directors should be
secured to present talks and demonstrations to the class. This
calls for careful planning on the part of the instructor, the
student, and the speaker.
6. Sales talks may be given by the students throughout the
semester. Whenever possible, the sales talks should be accom-
panied by demonstrations. These may be evaluated by the
7. Arrange for classroom study ard examination of merchandise.
8. Student participation in selling activities sponsored by the
school gives excellent practice in selling.
9. Part-time jobs in selling are an important supplement to class-
room learning in salesmanship.
Achievement may be measured on the basis of each individual's
contribution to class discussions, oral and written reports, and "sales"
Essay tests are valuable to determine the progress of the student
in organizing his thoughts and in expressing himself clearly.
Objective tests, constructed by the teacher or obtained from the
publisher of the textbook, may be used to measure knowledge of selling

Advertising is one of the tools which the businessman
has developed to aid him in his efforts to solve the problem
of getting his wares into the hands of those for whom they
were produced. It has become a major selling force which
reaches and influences the lives of everyone. Along with
the growing importance of advertising in business has come
also an increasing realization of the importance of acquiring
a better understanding of this selling force as a part of
the preparation for business.

Grade Placement: 11 or 12
Length of Course: 1 semester (Schools offering only full units of work
will find it desirable to combine a semester of advertising and a semester
of salesmanship as one course.)

1. To develop an understanding of the history and growth of
2. To develop an understanding of the prominent part of advertis-
ing in daily activities
3. To develop the mechanics of advertising
4. To develop an understanding of the media through which
advertising is carried on
5. To develop a critical, questioning attitude toward advertising
and the ability to distinguish between sensible and sensational
6. To develop a knowledge of advertising methods and practices
so that the students may be guided to make wise purchases

Suggestions To Teachers
1. Students may examine a collection of advertisements and rate
them good, fair, or poor.
2. Students may list items that they buy which have little or no
advertising and some which are widely advertised.
3. Ask the students to list some products in their homes which
advertising influenced parents or students to purchase.
4. Select three major advertised products and list all the ways
in which each is advertised. Analyze findings and report,
indicating which type of advertising was of most benefit to
the consumer, which was most sensational, which was most
reasonable, whether the material overlapped, and how each type
could be improved.
5. Prepare merchandising charts giving the following for articles
that students will bring to class for analysis: trade name,
material from which it is made, how it is made, uses, durability,
selling points, care and instructions, descriptive words. Write
an ad for each article.
6. Make a list of trade terms, such as Sanforized, Sterling, and
describe what is meant by each.
7. Measure the amount of local newspaper and school paper space
that is given to advertising.
8. Sketch an attractive layout and write copy for some local
9. Present a panel discussion on what is being done at present by
various agencies to improve advertising.
10. Test products to determine whether they "live up" to claims.
11. Develop and assist in conducting an advertising campaign for
some school activity.

12. Conduct a survey of the importance of advertising on student
13. Develop a code of ethics for advertisers.
14. Develop a set of guiding principles for judging the worth of
Evaluation may be made on the basis of oral and written reports
and tests. Development of acceptable advertising projects should receive
major consideration.
Supplementary References
It is suggested that the teacher contact the publishers of business
textbooks in order to secure teaching aids.


A merchandising course is the study of the techniques
used by those making goods and services available to the
The growth of interest in merchandising in the United
States is significant. In earlier years it was felt by many
that the knowledge and skills necessary for successful work
in this area could be readily acquired in the ordinary conduct
of business. A marked change has taken place in recent
years in the attitude of employers, employees, and educators
toward the desirability of providing training in this field.

Grade Placement: 12
Length of Course: 2 semesters
Prerequisite: Salesmanship

1. To provide experiences whereby the student will get an under-
standing of the role of merchandising in the distribution of
goods and services.
2. To introduce the student to some of the types of information
needed in a study of products, it is recommended that those
products commonly used, such as textiles, china, and furniture,
be studied.
3. To provide experiences which would develop a knowledge of
the functions of retailing and the types of organizations through
which they may be performed.
4. To aid the student in the development of those traits, attitudes,
and work habits which are necessary to a successful salesperson.
5. To develop an understanding of the importance of human rela-
tionships and the psychology of handling people.

6. To reveal opportunities that merchandising offers as a vocation
to those who are interested in preparing for this work.
7. To acquaint the student with the legal aspects of merchandising.
8. To develop knowledge and understandings of merchandising
that are needed for work in the merchandising business as an
employee, manager, or owner.

Suggestions To Teachers
1. Include study of the history and trends of merchandising in
the U. S. which will prove effective in helping the student to
understand the scope of merchandising.
2. Prepare or obtain charts of the organization of selected stores.
3. Compare the location of departments in similar stores.
4. Draw a floor layout giving attention to one department as to
location of merchandise, show cases, selling space, receiving
room, and related merchandise.
5. Study shopping districts in your community and areas served.
6. Arrange visits to various types of stores and related repair
7. Distribute various magazines. Assign the students specific
merchandise and ask that they look through the magazines and
list information that would be helpful to them on a buying trip.
8. Collect price tickets and analyze information used for different
classification of merchandise.
9. Prepare a poster in the form of a ladder that shows the different
factors that affect mark-up and the weight and place of each
in the total situation.
10. Invite a local buyer to talk to the class on "getting ready
to go market."
11. Select dominant periods in fashion and assign to the students
for reports. Each report should consist of a description of the
times, ideals, groups in control, characteristics of fashion design
of the period, materials used, and illustrative sketches.
12. Study fashion changes as they are affected by the materials
available to the trade and the price of the materials.
13. Have each student analyze his own coloring and collect samples
of suitable and becoming colors for his use.
14. Encourage students to conduct a survey among their classmates
in order to determine consumer demand for certain brands of

Achievement may be measured on the basis of the individual's
contribution to class discussions. Oral and written reports should be
evaluated on their originality, research, and manner of presentation.
Essay type tests may be used to measure concepts from factual

Objective tests, constructed by the teacher or obtained from the
publisher of the textbook, may be used to measure attainment of factual
Supplementary References
It is suggested that the teacher contact the publishers of business
textbooks in order to secure teaching aids.


The primary purpose of first-year shorthand is to serve
as a basic course for practical work in dictation and tran-
scription. It is essentially vocational in character. Even
though it is basic in purpose, it is comprehensive enough
and intensive enough that if a student is unable to take
the advanced course, he will have acquired some occupational
ability. Shorthand should be offered only to those who have
had, or are enrolled in, typewriting. There is evidence to
indicate that boys and girls who are average or above in
scholarship and who have adequate English skills are likely
to succeed in shorthand. Those below average will probably
have difficulty in this course.

Grade Placement: 11 or 12
Length of Course: 2 semesters

General Objectives
1. To develop shorthand skills and knowledge which may be used
in business situations
2. To develop businesslike habits, attitudes, and interests
3. To develop desirable personality traits

Specific Objectives
1. To read shorthand rapidly and accurately
2. To use efficiently the shorthand notebook and fountain pen
3. To integrate shorthand skill with English knowledge in pro-
ducing work that is neat and accurate
4. To take practiced-material dictation at a speed of 80-120 words
a minute and new-material dictation at a speed of 60-100 words
a minute for 3 to 5 minutes
5. To transcribe on the typewriter new material at the rate of
20-25 words a minute or approximately 1/3 to 1/2 student's
typing speed
6. To develop systematic habits that make the student a com-
petent worker.

Course Content
In the teaching of shorthand, the content consists basically of
three things: reading, writing, and transcribing shorthand. These are
developed in the order given and integrated with typewriting and
English. Because of the nature of shorthand the content of the course
should follow the plan of procedure in the textbook. The teacher's
manual supplied by the publishers offers many aids to the teacher.

Suggestions To Teachers
A. General
1. Explain to students the first day that shorthand is a system
of phonetic notation.
2. Organize and plan carefully so as to avoid confusion and
to promote good work habits.
3. Give phonetic drills.
4. Present new principles, isolated words, brief forms, phrases,
and sentences, accompanied by chalkboard illustrations.
5. Teach students to read back the chalkboard materials from
time to time during the class period at rapid rates either
in unison or singly.
6. Follow recognition of the student's errors with remedial
B. Homework
1. Students should be taught the most efficient and effective
way to prepare lessons (Gregg Publishing Company has an
excellent film on homework entitled DOING HOMEWORK
2. Homework should include the spelling of shorthand and
reading and writing of meaningful material.
3. The students should be encouraged to use the Student
Transcript (secured from the textbook publisher) in prepa-
ration of their homework.
C. Reading
1. Students should be taught to read for thought rather than
for word calling.
2. The rate of reading shorthand should be approximately
that of the reading of longhand.
D. Writing
1. At whatever point students begin writing, emphasis should
be placed on good writing tools, correct habits, posture, light
touch, and writing-not drawing.
2. Emphasis should be placed on rapid writing for the first
few days; on refinement of writing after speed has become
a habit.
E. Dictation
1. The teacher should dictate in a clear, strong voice, and in
such a manner that the student will understand the words
and the meaning of the material.
2. Whenever dictation other than office style dictation is
given, it should be timed accurately with a stop watch or
other timing device.

3. Short repeated exercises should be used to help build speed
in taking dictation. Preview a short paragraph, dictate it
at a definite rate, and practice first on difficult outlines
and phrases and then on easy ones. Then dictate the
paragraph at higher and higher rates as the skill in it
4. Chalkboard previews of difficult words should be given
before new-material dictation is given.
5. There should be some dictation within the ability of the
entire class. This helps slow students to retain confidence
in their ability to take dictation.
6. A part of each class period should be used to dictate beyond
the ability of any student in the class. This develops speed
challenging the fastest writer.
7. Emphasize that during dictation the learner must always
use shorthand outlines.
8. Some time should be given to office style dictation.
9. Students should be encouraged to criticize their own notes.
10. Constant use should be made of the brief form and phrase
charts in the back of the textbook.
11. For additional dictation while the teacher checks the roll,
dictation records might be used.
12. Help the students to develop a concept of shorthand speed
by teaching them to dictate at timed rates with a timer.
F. Transcription
1. Attention should be given to spelling, punctuation, word
division, and sentence structure.
2. Marginal reminders in the text should be used and under-
stood by students as an aid in transcription.
3. Longhand transcription should be introduced in the first
semester and practiced until skill in typewriting makes
possible machine transcription.
4. Typewriting transcription should be taught during the
second semester and should be especially emphasized during
the last six weeks.
5. Proofreading while the transcription is still in the machine
should be insisted upon from the beginning.
G. Activities outside of Class
1. Encourage students to take notes in shorthand during other
classes, assemblies, club meetings, and from radio and
2. Encourage students to dictate to each other outside of class.
3. Encourage students to familiarize themselves with Today's

Measures of achievement on various bases are provided in the
teacher's manual.
Oral reading may be rated as good, average, or poor, and so indi-
cated if necessary for a grade.
Transcription and sustained dictation should be rated on varying
bases: (a) verbatim with 2-5 per cent allowance for errors, (b) mail-

able copy-all errors corrected but modifications in form and wording
acceptable if the meaning is not affected.
Since homework is an essential part of shorthand, this activity
should be given consideration in the total evaluation of the student's

Suggested Testing Procedures
Every time the learner reads or writes shorthand in class, the
teacher has the opportunity to evaluate the skill the student has ac-
quired; very little formal testing is necessary. When formal testing
is used, the teacher should be very careful not to use a test that will
be harmful to the learner. Such tests as word-list tests (those which
require the learner to construct outlines for isolated words), true-false
tests, completion tests, multiple-choice tests, and other objective tests,
may be good for other subjects but they are often harmful to the short-
hand learner.
The characteristics of good shorthand testing are as follows: (1)
should be short and easy to administer, (2) should be easy to correct
and score, (3) should measure with reasonable accuracy the learner's
symptoms of shorthand learning, (4) should measure development of
learner's shorthand reading and writing skill rather than his ability to
state rules or construct outlines identical with those in textbooks,
(5) should be timed since the time element is crucial in testing and
grading shorthand learners.
The most effective type of formal test to be given depends on how
far the class has progressed. The first type of test to be given to
beginners should be one in which the learner transcribes a shorthand
plate in the textbook. This may be varied by having the student
transcribe from current or previous homework assignments or from
duplicated material. Another type of formal test which can be given
early in the course is the brief-form test. When students begin tran-
scribing from their notes, testing should be based on mailable transcrip-
tions, first of familiar material and later of new material. (For
complete chapters on testing, see the publisher's manuals.)

1. Graded Transcribing Test in Shorthand Simplified, Gregg
2. Complete Theory Test (Business Teacher)
3. Monthly Speed Tests (Business Teacher)
4. Gregg Award (0. G. A.) Tests


Second-year shorthand is vocational in purpose. The
emphasis throughout the course should be toward improving
transcribing power.

Grade Placement: 12
Length of Course: 2 semesters
Prerequisite: First-year shorthand

General Objectives
1. To develop further stenographic skill in shorthand, typewriting,
and the mechanics of English in the production of transcripts
acceptable to business
2. To develop in the student a sense of satisfaction in achieving
work well done
3. To develop further businesslike habits, attitudes, and interests

Specific Objectives

1. To review and strengthen the student's knowledge of shorthand
2. To build shorthand writing speed
3. To build transcription skill
4. To develop further the student's ability to apply the mechanics
of the English language in business
5. To develop the ability to take practiced material at a speed
of 100-140 words a minute and new dictation at a speed of
90-120 words a minute for 5 minutes, to be transcribed as usable
6. To develop the ability to transcribe accurately from shorthand
notes at a rate approaching the typewriting production rate
of the student
7. To develop the ability to take dictation and transcribe for
sustained periods of time
8. To teach the student to use the regular dictionary, shorthand
dictionary, secretary's handbook, and other reference material
9. To develop the student's skill in performing all operations
involved in producing an acceptable transcript, such as making
carbon copies, addressing envelopes, proofreading, and making
acceptable corrections
10. To develop the student's ability to adjust to an office situation
through the acquisition of good traits of office behavior
11. To increase the student's business vocabulary
12. To broaden the student's knowledge and appreciation of busi-
ness procedures and practices, so as to add to his efficiency
as a business worker and to his possibilities for future growth
13. To teach students to organize materials
14. To develop in the student the desire to give a day's work
for a day's pay

Suggestions To Teachers

1. Encourage students to read all shorthand plates before copying
them and to re-read them as they copy.
2. Leave previews, phrase drills, and theory drills on the chalk-
board, returning to them for rapid recall before the end of
the period.

3. Alternate writing and reading drills to avoid fatigue.
4. Have practically all dictation material in the form of letters.
5. Increase the proportion of time given to transcription through-
out the year.
6. Give a considerable amount of office-style dictation.
7. Have students read aloud in class only a small part of the
material dictated for speed building.
8. Adopt procedures toward making the classroom work com-
parable to office situations, gradually developing in the students
the ability to work without specific directions and supervision.
9. Conduct transcription work in a business-like manner and
require quality and standards comparable to actual business
10. Encourage students to develop habits of neatness and order-
liness in their work.
11. Place emphasis throughout the course on the improvement of
transcribing power.
12. Use recognition of growth in transcribing power as one means
of giving a feeling of confidence and achievement.
13. Allow sufficient time and give sufficient directions for proof-
reading to establish the habit of careful proofreading.
14. Give practice in transcribing "cold" notes.
15. Give repetitive practice in transcription activities to build
facility and speed.
16. Instruct students specifically on the use of reference material,
handling stationery, adjusting the machine, and making correc-
tions with a minimum of motion and time.
17. Require students to date all dictation.
18. Encourage students to form the habit of indicating the end
of each letter in the shorthand notebook for easy reference and
learn to estimate the length of the letter to be transcribed.
19. Standardize and use habitually a device for indicating that a
portion of shorthand notes in the notebook has been transcribed.
20. Plan to use when advantageous dictation records and tape
21. Use bulletin board displays extensively in the teaching of
secretarial competencies.
22. Make available typewriters or the typewriting room for tran-
scription purposes.

For mailability production, the student's transcribed letters should
conform to the following requirements: (a) convey the meaning of the
dictator, (b) contain no uncorrected typographical errors, (c) conform
to the principles of good English, (d) be neat, and (e) be arranged


First-year typewriting should be available to all students
in the high school. Adaptations in the selection of materials
will provide typewriting exercises to take care of the varied
needs of the students.

Grade Placement: 10, 11, or 12
Length of Course: 2 semesters

General Objective
To develop the ability to do typewriting for personal and vocational

Specific Objectives
1. To master the keyboard
2. To develop correct typewriting techniques
3. To teach proper use of operative parts of the typewriter
4. To encourage correct care of equipment
5. To stress importance of following directions
6. To achieve optimum speed and accuracy
7. To use materials efficiently
8. To understand common business terms
9. To emphasize proper work attitudes and habits
10. To establish a foundation for ability to do production work
11. To become familiar with office practice and procedure
12. To strive toward goals as set forth in state-adopted textbook
and teacher's manual.
The objectives listed above are not intended to be all inclusive.
Job analyses of typists' duties in any given community may indicate
the need for adding or modifying particular objectives.

Suggestions To Teachers
1. The teacher should organize the classroom work so that type-
writing instruction and practice can be started without delay.
2. The teacher demonstrates the correct techniques at the demon-
stration typewriter, students imitate in unison, and then students
practice individually while the teacher observes. This cycle-
demonstration, unison drill, practice, and observation-is re-
peated at intervals until the desired techniques are established.
Students practice individually while the teacher observes.
3., Typewriting instructions should begin with emphasis on correct
rapid stroking. No attention should be directed toward errors
until the skill pattern in stroking is established.
4. Typewriting skill is developed by alternate emphasis upon speed
and controlled typewriting throughout the course. The student
should be guided in the selection of the goal to be achieved
through his practice.

5. Students should keep a record of the attainment of their goals
for the sense of accomplishment it gives and for competition
against their own records.
6. Students should form the habit of regular care of the machine
and should put materials away in an orderly fashion with
minimum loss of time.
7. Those students who demonstrate ability and desire to achieve
a higher level of typewriting for vocational use should be en-
couraged to continue in second-year typewriting or office
8. Since students usually take typewriting because they have
chosen it as an elective, they are enthusiastic about it; the
alert teacher will preserve this enthusiasm.
9. The introduction of the numbers and symbols should be delayed
until most students have good control of the rest of the keyboard.
10. It is very seldom that a person must typewrite at his maximum
speed for a long period of time without interruption. This
should be taken into consideration in determining length of
timed writings.
11. The effectiveness of typewriting instruction can be increased
by proper use of audio-visual aids.
12. From time to time, students may be permitted to typewrite
material for personal use.
13. Teachers should make effective use of demonstration and
explanation in order to give students more time for practice.
14. The teacher should move about the classroom, observing at all
times, and give instruction when needed.
15. No unsupervised typewriting practice should be allowed until
correct habits are formed.
16. Correct erasing techniques should be taught in first-year type-
writing. This should not be delayed later than the first six
weeks of the second semester.
17. Students should be typewriting correct mailable copy during
the latter part of the first year.
18. It is the responsibility of the typewriting teacher to determine
the suitability of the equipment to the needs of his students
in order that techniques may be developed adequately. If the
tables are too high or too low, some adjustment may be made
without purchasing new equipment.
19. The teacher may spot check papers; however, papers which
are turned in should be proofread by students.
20. Each unit should be developed thoroughly to serve as a back-
ground for succeeding units.
21. The teacher and student should develop goals for each student
in speed and accuracy.
22. Most effective learning comes from varied stimuli, such as
hearing, seeing, and the sense of touch. Thus, visible letters
are an aid to learning key locations.

In order to arrive at a grade for the course, student rating on
each of the factors mentioned in the specific objectives must be com-
bined. Grades given during the course should reflect the varying
amount of emphasis on the specific objectives. For example, the first
six weeks' grade should give major consideration to typewriting tech-
Several criteria should be used in evaluation. These should include
speed and accuracy, daily or weekly work, and tests. The evaluation
of each student's achievement should be based on his own progress.
In those schools giving separate citizenship grades, emphasis on
work habits and attitude objectives will be reflected in that grade and
minimized in the subject grade.
The evaluation of typewriting performance in any class should
reflect the learning situation.

See Chapter 7, Physical Layout and Equipment.


Second-year typewriting is vocational in purpose. In
some schools enrollment will be selective, limited to those
students who may be expected to attain vocational standards
at the end of the course. Other schools may find such se-
lection impractical or unwise. In that case, the skill goals
will have to be modified accordingly.

Grade Placement: 11 or 12
Length of Course: 2 semesters
Prerequisite: First-year typewriting

General Objective
To develop a high degree of typewriting skill in office-type pro-

Specific Objectives
1. To improve basic typewriting skills
2. To provide remedial instruction in business applications of
typewriting skills
3. To introduce advanced business applications of typewriting skills
4. To develop a high level of performance of business applications
with a minimum of direction and supervision. Some suggested
goals are:
Business letters 55 net words per minute
Envelopes 150 per hour (Ten-minute
Tabulated Reports 35 net words per minute timings)
Straight Copy 65 net words per minute

These are goals for the teacher in directing work toward ac-
complishment and should not be interpreted as either minimum
or maximum. The teacher must adjust goals to meet the class
situation. Individual goals should be set for assignments in
which several varied typewriting jobs are included.
5. To develop spirit of craftsmanship
6. To develop those types of attitudes which would be partial
justification for promotion on the job

Suggestions To Teachers
1. Tests should be given at the beginning of the course to deter-
mine present ability.
2. On the basis of the results of these tests, remedial instruction
should be given.
3. Introduce as initial learning those business applications not
covered in first-year typewriting.
4. Test students on new learning to determine whether further
remedial teaching is necessary.
5. When proficiency is gained in typewriting each of the business
applications covered in this course, assignments will be given
in larger blocks than previously.
6. Timing of performance will be for progressively longer periods.
7. When evaluation of performance is in terms of office standards,
ability to follow directions is of prime importance. Develop-
ment of self-reliance in this respect precludes the teacher's
constant concern to prevent mistakes.
8. A student's work should not be accepted until it is satisfactory
as measured by office standards. Acceptance of unsatisfactory
work with a lowered grade does not accomplish the objectives
of the course.
9. In the later stages of the course, assignments of work should
be composed of widely varying tasks rather than a multiple
number of similar jobs.

The evaluation in the early part of second-year typewriting will
be similar to the later stages of first-year typewriting but will become
progressively more like the evaluation used in rating employees in
actual office jobs.
Evaluation of performance will be in terms of usability of material
as interpreted in an office instead of those classroom standards adapted
to measurement of initial learning.
In those schools where second-year typewriting enrollment is se-
lective, office production standards should be weighed heavily in evalua-
tion. In those schools where enrollments are less selective, it may not
be justifiable to adhere completely to these standards.


Vocational And Adult Education

BUSINESS EDUCATION in the general high school has
two basic objectives vocational and general. (See
Introduction, Chapter 1.) Since the student personnel are
teen-age youth who have not completed high school, the
school feels an over-all educational responsibility.
In some areas of the state, business education is found also
in extension of the local public schools providing education for
those who have legally dropped out of the regular school system
and for post-graduates. These extensions are not part of the
system of higher education and may not be counted for
credit toward a baccalaureate or higher degree unless offered
as part of a junior college program. Administration of this
type of post-high school education has been divided into
vocational education, designed primarily to develop occupa-
tional competency, and adult education, designed primarily
to further personal development other than vocation. In-
structors, facilities, and curricula may be interchanged (under
certain conditions) among the general high schools, the vo-
cational program, and the adult program. However, because
of the administrative division, it is advisable to distinguish
among them. The term vocational program hereafter refers
to business education which is subject to the regulations of
the Florida State Board for Vocational Education. The term
adult program refers to that business education which is
subject to regulations for adult education established by the
Florida State Board of Education. This terminology is not
intended to imply that business education in the general high
school cannot or does not attain vocational objectives; the
distinction is in the manner and under what auspices (units)
it is operated.

It is impossible to give complete details in this guide
about the administration of the general high school adult
and vocational programs because it is so complex. For
additional information, interested teachers may write to the
State Director of Vocational and Adult Education, Tallahassee,

Vocational Program
Business education in the vocational program and the
adult program is frequently found in vocational and technical
schools. The only business education in the vocational pro-
gram permissible in the general high schools (administrative-
ly, not physically) is the cooperative business education pro-
gram. (See Chapter 6, Work Experience Programs.) The
interrelationships between business education for vocational
objectives in the general high school and business education
in the vocational program are outlined here.

Major Similarities
1. The types of positions in the field of business for which
the general high school and the vocational program
are training are essentially the same.
2. Both groups accept the vocational objectives as listed
in the basic objectives of this bulletin.

Major Dissimilarities
1. While business education in the general high school
has dual objectives general and vocation the pri-
mary aim of the vocational program is the attainment
of vocational objectives.
2. The vocational program deals with continuation
trainees, cooperative trainees, and adults.
3. Under the vocational program more intensive training
is likely to be offered than in a general high school,
and the training consumes a greater period of time.
4. There is opportunity for more specialized and acceler-
ated training in the vocational program.

5. The vocational program has a more flexible provision
for students to begin and complete training at different
periods during the year and for providing courses
for varying lengths of time.
6. Individual differences due to age, background, and
outlook are much greater in the vocational program
than in the general high school.

Areas Of Cooperation
1. The general high school can familiarize students with
opportunities in the vocational program.
2. The program in the general high school and the vo-
cational program should be correlated in such a manner
that a student proceeding from the general high school
to the vocational program would have a minimum of
3. The general high school can make available students'
records, including appraisal and comments by teachers,
to the vocational program.
4. There should be mutual visitation of teachers in the
two programs.
5. Equipment and materials of each program should be
made available to the other.
6. Studies in occupational trends should be made jointly
and the results shared by teachers in both programs.
7. Appreciations and understandings are developed
through joint meetings of the vocational and general
high school faculties.

Teacher Qualifications
Teachers must hold a valid certificate in the field in
which they are assigned to teach in accordance with the
regulations of the State Board of Vocational Education. The
vocational teacher qualifications, although basically similar
to the general certification requirements, necessitate work
experience as well as training in vocational education.

Three Plans For Vocational Business Education

Business education offered under the Florida Vocational
Plan follows three definite patterns: (1) the Cooperative
Business Education Program for the in-school student; (2)
the Day Business Education Program for adults who have
legally left the full-time school and who can attend part-time
in the day school; and (3) the Evening Business Education
Program for the adult who needs pre-employment or up-
grading training.

Plan 1
The in-school program, known as the Cooperative Busi-
ness Education Program, is available to high school seniors.
During the senior year the student is placed in an actual
cooperative employment situation in a business office in the
community. Four hours daily are spent in school and a
minimum of four hours daily is spent on the job. The school
time is divided into two hours of academic subjects, one
hour of generally related training and one hour of specifically
related instruction pertinent to the job performance require-
ments. Correlation of school-job activities is effected through
the business education teacher-coordinator.

Plan 2
The Day Business Education Program in the day school
is made available to adults and drop-outs who are 16 years
of age or over, who have entered employment, and who wish
to continue their education on a part-time schedule. Under
this plan the student establishes his own class schedule to
fit into his employment schedule. Instructional areas include
manipulative and academic subjects in the business education
curriculum which will increase the civic and vocational com-
petence of the student. High school credit may be earned
by the employed student on the same basis of attendance
and accomplishment as exists in the regular in-school pro-
gram, if the student is an undergraduate. Unemployed
persons 16 years of age or older may be enrolled in the
part-time day program; but in order to encourage students

to remain in the general high school, no high school credit
should be granted.
Plan 3
In the Evening Business Education Program adults 16
years of age or older may be enrolled for pre-employment
training in basic skills and technical training or for up-
grading in skills and technical knowledge that will increase
the productiveness of the worker. The evening program is a
non-credit program.
Adult Program
The business education subjects offered in the general
adult program are designed for personal development and
enrichment of the adult student. The teacher of these
classes will find himself in an environment which is both
challenging and rewarding. If he is to be really effective
in his work, he will be ever mindful of these things:
1. Attendance in adult education is purely voluntary.
2. There is usually a great variation among students
with respect to age, experience, and cultural back-
3. The time required to attain specific levels of ac-
complishment will also vary widely, and allowance
must be made for this through a flexible plan of en-
rollment and progression of students.
4. Adults are usually impatient as learners. They par-
ticularly dislike "busy-work." Short units of work,
where progress can be seen more readily, will hold
their interest better.
5. The teacher should permit the group to share in the
planning of the course in order to provide for dif-
ferences in interests, abilities, and needs of the group.
6. There is wide freedom of choice in the selection and
use of textbooks and other materials.
7. Grades are not nearly so important as a motivating
factor for the adult as for the high school student.
The recognition of needs and a feeling of accom-
plishment are the primary factors in adult motivation.

8. The teacher-student relationship in adult classes is
not founded upon differences in age as it is in the
secondary school. The implications for this in dealing
with adult students are:
a. Adults should not be treated as children.
b. Restrictive rules and regulations should be avoided.
c. Emphasis should be on what they are learning
rather than on what they do not know.
9. The teacher who has a varied background may more
effectively utilize the experiences of the class mem-
bers to the maximum benefits of the group.
10. The quality of the adult education program vitally
affects the success or failure of community relation-
11. The following physiological changes because of normal
aging must be given consideration by the teacher:
a. Steady decline in vision and hearing
b. Slower reaction time
c. Fixed pattern of habits
These factors do not prevent the adult from learning;
they make it necessary, however, to adjust teaching
techniques and procedures. Some examples of ways
in which to adapt methods to aging adults are (1)
write clearly and large on chalkboard; (2) speak
clearly and distinctly and repeat important points;
and (3) provide time for understanding.

Request For A Class
If there are inquiries as to how arrangements can be made
for offering a subject, reference should be made to the local
head of adult education or the county superintendent of public

Teacher Qualifications
A certified business teacher is eligible to teach courses
in adult business education. Teachers for adult education
classes are selected in the same manner that other teachers
for the county are selected.


Work Experience Programs

R EGARDLESS OF THE SIZE of the community, most
schools should be able to organize a program that will
provide business experience for students. Work programs
are needed to make learning lasting and meaningful. The
business student should have the opportunity to experience
situations similar to those which he will later encounter on
the job. A student may acquire skills in the classroom,
which, of course, are essential, but the lack of "know-how"
and understanding of office and business decorum will often
keep him from being a success. Since it is difficult to
simulate business conditions in the classroom, other school
facilities and businesses in the community should be utilized
as potential and realistic laboratories.
The success of a work program depends upon adequate
administration and supervision. The performance of the
student on the job must be carefully analyzed and supervised
to assure educational benefit and development. The teacher
must confer with the student's work supervisor to evaluate
the work of the trainee on the job. Conferences with the
trainee and supervisor will prove helpful in acquiring in-
formation concerning methods and changes that should be
brought to the attention of the other members of the instruc-
tional staff.
A work program is by no means a substitute for class-
room experiences, but it is an integral part of the educational
experience of students preparing to take their places in the
business activities of the community.
Business education students may obtain purposeful ex-
periences through informal as well as formal work programs.

Formal Work Experience
Work experience has been defined as a practical activity
in the production or distribution of goods or services carried
on under normal working conditions in business to further
occupational competence.
The general meaning of this definition is quite different
from most other definitions found in the professional litera-
ture of business and vocational education. It rules out the
artificially contrived and mock situations which are commonly
observed in schools. The term "normal working conditions"
implies that formal work experience has the following char-
1. Work experience must be conducted on employer-
employee relationship and not on a teacher-student
2. The teacher selects prospective employment situations
which he feels will provide an adequate work experi-
3. The student is under the direction of the employer
during his working hours.
4. The student should have regular opportunities to dis-
cuss with the teacher and with the other students
in the work experience program the problems which
arise on the job.
5. Work experience should provide a variety of experi-
6. Work experience should be in a type of job which
would be considered an initial position but which also
provides opportunities for advancement.
7. The student should meet certain standards of pro-
ficiency prior to the beginning of work experience.
8. Students should receive remuneration commensurate
with prevailing wages of beginning employees.
9. Work experience should extend over a substantial
length of time, usually a minimum of from 80 to 120

Work experience is available in the following three forms
under the cooperative education program:
Cooperative Business Education Training is a program
insuring genuine vocational office training in which the last
phase is cooperative work experience. The classroom training
preceding work experience is designed as a rigid program
within the school; however, the provisions are such as to
permit flexibility in adapting the program in the various
communities to meet the special problems of the area. See
Section III of the State Plan (February, 1959).
The Distributive Cooperative Training Program functions
in much the same manner as the other cooperative programs.
This type of work experience is confined to the distributive
field. Distributive occupations are those occupations followed
by workers engaged in merchandising activities, including
direct contact with buyers and sellers, when distributing to
consumers, retailers, jobbers, wholesalers, and others, the
products of farm and industry; or when managing, operating
or conducting a commercial or personal service business.
Under this program the student is placed in a distributive
occupation in his junior and senior year of high school.
The Diversified Cooperative Training Program is a plan
for preparing high school juniors and seniors of employable
age for a variety of occupations in the community. Some
students in business education, whose education does not
fit them for work experience in office occupations or in
distributive occupations, may more appropriately get work
experience through Diversified Cooperative Training. For
example, a student following a business foundations sequence
might be placed in a radio repair shop using his technical
radio skill, but in anticipation of some day owning and
operating his own radio shop.
The in-school phase of the DCT program is divided into
four hours of study, two hours of which are devoted to re-
quired high school subjects; the other two hours are used
for study related to his occupation under direct supervision
of the coordinator. A minimum of four hours a day must
be spent on the job in a series of work experiences planned

by the coordinator in cooperation with the employer.
Complete information regarding cooperative education in
Florida is included in Department of Education Bulletin
74H-2, Florida Handbook for Cooperative Training Programs,
August, 1958.

Informal Work Experience
Schools often have informal work experience programs
which provide valuable experiences because they make pos-
sible learning situations that cannot be provided equally well
in the classroom. Many plans for providing experiences in
offices and stores would not in all ways meet the specifications
of a formal work experience program. However, an informal
program may offer excellent opportunities for experience in
working. This type of program may be set up as a unit of
work in a particular subject and may be used to determine
a part of the grade earned in that subject.
Out-of-School-A plan of cooperation between business-
men and business teachers may provide work for students for
a day, a week, after school hours, on weekends, during va-
cations, or for comparatively short periods of time. Students
may also obtain work without any cooperation from the
school which may be valuable working experience but which
would not be considered a formal work program.
In-School Opportunities may be provided within the
school for experiences in stenographic, clerical, and sales work.
Students may be assigned to teachers, the school office,
cafeteria, bookstore, or library to give service in the area
in which the students are being prepared.


Physical Layout And Equipment

the business education department should be planned
to conform to the instructional objectives of the business
education program, the size of the school, and the enrollment
in business subjects with thought toward future expansion.
More effective instruction and practice is possible through
good room layout and adequate physical equipment.
In planning new business education facilities, it is sug-
gested that local and state school architects work closely with
local and state business education consultants in order to
develop plans that will adequately house the type of business
education program needed. The following guides are designed
to give practical help in planning and equipping departments.

Room Size
Rooms for shorthand and the general business subjects
should accommodate a maximum of 35 students, allowing
25 to 30 square feet of floor space per student. Special rooms,
such as bookkeeping, typewriting, office practice laboratory,
and rooms requiring the installation of mechanical devices,
counters, or display cases, will vary in size according to
the equipment. Bookkeeping and typewriting rooms should
accommodate a maximum of 30 students; the office practice
laboratory should accommodate a maximum of 25 students.
Each of these rooms should allow 35 to 40 square feet of
floor space per student. Doors should be located at the front
and rear of the rooms leading into the corridor.

Business educators generally suggest a minimum of 40

foot-candles of high-quality lighting, evenly distributed
throughout the room. The main reason for this is that the
nature of classwork in most business subjects requires rapid
reading of materials, during which close attention must be
given to details. Glare and reflected light should be minimized
as much as possible.

Electrical Outlets
Ample electrical outlets from floor and wall should be
provided. Individual outlets are recommended for each work
station where an electrically-run machine is to be used. In
buildings already built, plug molding, which has outlets at
4-inch intervals, may be used.

Room Combinations
Schools employing one business teacher may have a two-
room business department-one room to be used for type-
writing and the other room to be used for bookkeeping,
shorthand, and/or general business subjects. If only one
room is available, desks or tables should afford sufficient
working surface for students in the bookkeeping, typewriting,
or shorthand classes.
Two- or three-teacher departments might use the above
suggested arrangement and add an office practice laboratory.
Larger schools may add typewriting, shorthand, and general
purpose rooms as conditions require.
Where both bookkeeping and office practice are taught,
these rooms should connect so that the bookkeeping students
will have access to the office machines. The shorthand
rooms should be next to the typewriting rooms to facilitate
passage of shorthand students to these rooms in order to
transcribe their notes.
Built-In Equipment
1. Built-in cabinets should be provided for storing teach-
ing materials and supplies.
2. Chalkboard should be provided as follows:
(a) Typewriting rooms-not less than 15 lineal feet
42" high

(b) Bookkeeping and general purpose rooms-not less
than 24 lineal feet 42" high
(c) Office practice laboratory-not less than 15 lineal
feet 42" high
3. A bulletin board of not less than 20 lineal feet 42"
high should be provided in each room.
4. A tack board made of a narrow strip of cork should
be placed at the top of the chalkboard.
5. Bookcases and magazine racks for reference materials
should be provided.
6. A lavatory is desirable for the office practice labora-
tory. (In a small school the lavatory should be in
the typewriting room.)
7. Paper towel and soap dispensers are needed near
the lavatory.
8. A counter-height storage section, which can be aug-
mented by a closet unit or by access to a small storage
room, is needed in the office practice laboratory.
9. Provision should be made for the showing of films
and film strips.
10. In the bookkeeping room there should be built-in
wall cabinets with individual drawers (tote boxes)
for students' materials.
11. Wall clock with sweep second hand.

Recommended Specialized Equipment
Typewriting Rooms
1. Individual typewriting tables 36" x 20" or larger,
adjustable to heights of 28" to 32" (Space should be
provided for students' books.)
2. Adjustable chairs for the typewriter operator, pref-
erably of the posture-chair design
3. Typewriters of various makes, both pica and elite-
at least 2 long-carriage typewriters, at least 1 electric
typewriter, and a battery of manual typewriters
(Covered keys are not recommended.)

4. A typewriter demonstration stand, adjustable for
height, and equipped with rollers or swivel attach-
ment for side view
5. One 4-drawer metal filing cabinet equipped with
alphabetic guides and folders
6. Copy holders-one for each typing station
7. Teacher's desk and chair
8. Dictionaries, stapling machines, paper cutters, letter
trays for incoming and outgoing papers, type-cleaning
brushes and typewriter cleaning brushes, an accurate
interval timer or timing device, stop watch, and type-
writer covers
9. Pencil sharpener
10. Adequate waste baskets

Office Practice Laboratory

An adequately equipped practice laboratory is an essential
part of any business education department proposing to train
students for job competency in specialized office occupations.
The equipment should be representative of that found in
offices of the area served by the school, but with due con-
sideration for the normal population mobility.

The following is a list of the equipment that is desirable:

Battery of typewriters
various makes-pica and elite
one electric
one long-carriage typewriter
Stencil type duplicating machine
Fluid process duplicating machine
Collating rack
Illuminated drawing board
(Scope), styli, and lettering
Voice-writing equipment (may be
Rotary calculators-electric and
Full-keyboard adding machines
Ten-key adding machines
Cash register
Numbering machine

Postal guides
Telephone directory
Tables for machines
Posture chairs
Teacher's desk and chair
Four-drawer metal filing cabinet
equipped with alphabetic guides
Filing sets
Telephone, real or dummy
Three-way full-length mirror
Multiple punch
PBX switchboard
Paper cutter
Postal scales
Sealing device
Interval timer and stop watch
Stapler and staple remover
Paper trays

Check-writing machine
Pencil sharpener
Waste baskets
Reference books
Unabridged dictionary
Regular dictionaries
City directory

World Almanac
Secretary's handbooks
Shipping guides
Railroad guides
Built-in equipment (See p. 81.)

Office Machines Room
Where office machines instruction is for the purpose of
familiarization, as great a variety of machines will be needed
as when the purpose is that of building a specialized skill
as a machine operator. However, schools training machine
operators will need more machines of each type in order to
lengthen the period of time during which a student operates
any one machine.
If the scope of training of the business education depart-
ment can be expanded to include a course in office machines,
the following furniture and batteries of machines should be

Key-driven calculators
Rotary calculators
Adding-listing machines-full-key
and ten-key

Bookkeeping Room
Individual desks 2' x 3' or tables
3' x 6' which will accommodate
two students (Standard class-
room desks are unsatisfactory.)
Straight chairs with book rack

General Purpose Rooms
Single table, 20" x 36" top 30" high,
or classroom desks
Straight chairs to match tables 17"
and 18" high
Tables for audio-visual aids
Bookshelf for current supplemen-
tary materials
Teacher's desk and chair
Unabridged dictionary
Several regular dictionaries
Display counters

Adding-bookkeeping machines -
full-key and ten-key
Tables and chairs
Four-drawer metal filing cabinet
equipped with alphabetic guides
and folders

Four-drawer metal filing cabinet
equipped with alphabetic guides
and folders
One adding machine should be
available for each ten students
Teacher's desk and chair
Wall charts

Four-drawer metal filing cabinet
equipped with alphabetic guides
and folders
Display windows
Display stand, racks, and forms
Display mannequins
Pricing scales and linear counter
Three-way full-length mirror
Drawing boards
Lettering guides

It may not be possible to secure all of the above equipment
because of lack of school funds. However, the teacher
should not overlook the possibility of using available equip-
ment to the fullest extent and improvising.

Faculty And Counseling Offices

Vocational office training has as its terminal objective
the placement of trainees on a full-time, wage-earning basis.
Effective training and placement depend very largely upon
student counseling, guidance, testing, and compiling and
analyzing vocational test scores. Placement involves inter-
viewing the student, interviewing prospective employers,
making referrals, and compiling and filing follow-up records.
A counseling office is necessary if these activities are to be
carried out in an efficient and business-like manner. In
addition, a department faculty office is needed as a place for
the filing of departmental records and for teacher conferences.
The following equipment is needed:
One or more teachers' desks and Wall chalkboard
chairs Telephone
Chairs for conferences Four-drawer metal filing cabinet
Bookshelves equipped with alphabetic guides
One table and folders

Replacement Of Equipment

It is recommended that a systematic plan be adopted
for the replacement of equipment in the business education
department. Equipment should be traded before excessive
repair bills are incurred and before the equipment becomes
Experience indicates that typewriters may serve econom-
ically for five or six years. It is recommended that 1/, or 1/,
of the typewriters be replaced each year. Other types of
office machines will serve for from ten to twenty years.
The obsolescence factor, however, makes acceptance of the
first figure desirable. Therefore, it is recommended that
1/10 of all the business equipment (other than typewriters)
used for training purposes be replaced each year.

Bulletin Boards

The alert teacher will use the bulletin board for motiva-
tion through arousing curiosity, enlivening interest, and im-
parting useful information. Correctly used, the bulletin board
is a good supplementary teaching and learning device. Ef-
fective bulletin board displays may be developed by the teacher,
by student committees, or cooperatively by students and

Basic Principles
1. Purposefulness
2. Accuracy and timeliness
3. Orderliness
4. Appropriateness

1. Motivation
2. Introduction and depiction of a unit of work
3. Summarization of a unit of work
4. Interest to the students
5. Provision for individual differences
6. Alertness to changing business trends
7. More attractive room

General Suggestions
1. Place a summarizing caption at the top of the exhibit.
2. Enliven the display with color.
3. Show materials without crowding.
4. Place bulletin boards in a central location where they
are easily visible.
5. Encourage every student to contribute to bulletin
board displays and give full recognition.

6. Emphasize the positive approach to learning in dis-
7. Keep a simple layout suggestive of ideas to be im-
proved on from year to year as interest and needs
8. Change background colors frequently.
9. Observe these art principles in the preparation of
a. Use color to advantage.
b. Place small items toward the top.
c. Be consistent in the use of form. (Block letters
with square displays.)
10. Use hall bulletin boards to attract students other than
business students thereby creating interest in the
business department.

Suggested Supplies
1. Colored construction and duplicating paper for picture
backgrounds and cut-out letters
2. Poster paper, wrapping paper, crepe paper
3. Colored yarn, ribbon, serpentine, confetti, and glitter
4. Magazine pictures, leaflets, bulletins, maps, charts,
5. Letter guides, glue, thumb tacks, straight pins, colored
and clear cellophane tape; ink, crayons, paints,
brushes, scissors, colored chalk
Local business firms are good sources from which to
obtain free materials. Ideas for bulletin boards may be
found in business education publications. In addition, many
materials can be secured from sources which are listed in
the Chapter 8, Sources of Materials, pages 88-98.


Sources Of Materials

search of materials with which to supplement daily lesson
plans. They have an excellent opportunity to supplement
textbooks with a wide variety of up-to-date resource ma-
terials which may serve to introduce topics, to arouse en-
thusiasms, to stimulate thought, to supplement explanations,
to provoke discussion, or to review and summarize topics.
Business education teachers should be familiar with the
sources of materials and have these materials easily accessible
so that they can be used to the best advantage for the en-
richment of the business education program. Use of resource
materials will yield desirable results if correlated with an
over-all instructional plan.
In business education classes there are many opportunities
to make use of aids to instruction such as:
1. Books 9. Work samples
2. Bulletin board displays 10. Pictures
3. Exhibits 11. Newspapers, magazines,
4. Chalkboards and advertisements
5. Recordings 12. Specially published
6. Films and filmstrips materials
7. Slides 13. Pupil-constructed
8. Charts and diagrams materials
Some of the most valuable materials for instructional
purposes are materials prepared for purposes other than
classroom use. Teachers will find a collection of such ma-
terials as valuable, in many cases, as those publications
prepared primarily for classroom use. Students should par-
ticipate in the collection, organization, classification, and filing
of materials.

The collection of business forms and materials provides
an excellent learning experience for the students. This should
be accomplished through careful planning and under the
direction of the teacher. The students should prepare a
letter to be sent out on school stationery, signed by a school
official, informing the businessmen in the community of
the plans for this project, request their cooperation, and
state that the student will contact them by telephone to
request an appointment to call for specimen forms.
This experience provides for student participation and
training in such things as selecting business concerns to be
contacted for sample forms, using the classified section of
the telephone directory, using the city directory, writing
letters, addressing envelopes, handling quantity mailing, ap-
plying telephone techniques in requesting appointments, and
interviewing businessmen.
Some of these specimen forms, as well as other materials
which are collected, should be placed in the library. Some
of them should be retained in the classroom. All materials
which are retained in the classroom should be classified.
Some will require mounting for maximum effectiveness in
instruction, for display at the proper time on the bulletin
boards, for posters, for scrapbooks (loose-leaf books should
be used) for filing so that they will be readily accessible and
easily adaptable to the various instructional situations.
Teachers should permit the students to do everything
that will provide purposeful and appropriate learning ex-
periences. Rather than putting materials away and waiting
until he has the opportunity to organize them, the teacher
should use the materials to provide a real learning experience
for the students.
The availability of supplementary materials is limited only
by the lack of alertness of teachers and students in recog-
nizing usable materials.

Materials Center
Library Materials
The teaching of business subjects can be enriched through

the use of the library. Students should use library materials
to secure information and ideas in the business program
and to explore and discover new interests.
Rarely is there a business subject wherein the students'
attention should be focused on a single source. A textbook
rightly serves as a central guide for instructional materials,
and, if properly used, it gives continuity and organization
to supplementary materials.
The student will profit considerably through the use of
library reference materials, especially in subjects such as
advertising, retailing, merchandising, salesmanship, general
business, business law, world economic geography, consumer
economics, business English, and office practice. Certain
units dealing with the skill subjects also can be enriched
through the use of the library.
The business teachers should take the responsibility of
making their library needs known early enough that they
can share in the funds provided in the school budget for
library purposes. The business teacher should also work
with the librarian in the selection of books and materials.
The magazines and references listed below are mentioned
to suggest the types likely to be most useful as supplementary
materials for the business students.

Nation's Business
Business Week
Today's Secretary
Practical English
U. S. News and World Report
Printer's Ink
Dunn's Review
Office Executive
Office Management and Equipment
Changing Times

General References
Secretary handbooks
Unabridged dictionaries
Books of synonyms

Special References
Telephone Directories
City Directories
World Almanacs
Commercial Atlases
Dictionary of Occupational Titles

Audio-Visual Materials

Students learn more and remember longer when the pur-

poses of learning are clear. The more realistic an experience,
the greater the contribution it makes to learning. Audio-
visual materials are very effective because of their apparent
realism. Audio-visual aids are media through which subject
matter can be effectively presented and demonstrated to
students. Films and filmstrips provide many worthwhile
experiences for the students. The teacher should select with
care materials of this type and preview each film so that
the students can be thoroughly briefed on the materials they
are about to see. The showing of the film should be followed
by discussion, and obscure points should be clarified. A
check-up quiz or a student report on his findings helps the
teacher discover how effective the film has been. Care should
be taken to select only those films which portray the correct
idea. Many films may be designed primarily for advertising
purposes and may contain distortions, neglecting wider values
and considerations.
Timing is an important factor in the effective use of
audio-visual aids. Many values are lost if the aids are not
used at exactly the right time. In order to correlate films
with units of work at the proper time, teachers need to
order film for the new school year in early summer. Certain
audio-visual aids are more suitable for one stage of learning
than for another, and improper timing might cause con-
siderable loss in their effectiveness.
Not all emphasis should be placed on films and filmstrips.
Many other audio-visual aids are equally important. Among
these are:
1. Chalkboards-There is rarely a class period when the
chalkboard is not used to present diagrams, rough outlines,
drill work, and other materials pertaining to the daily lesson.
Because of the nature of some business subjects, specially
prepared types of chalkboards can be used to great advantage.
For example, in the shorthand class, a chalkboard with
permanent ruled lines would certainly make the presentation
of shorthand outlines more effective. As valuable as the
chalkboard is, its contribution can be made even greater
through carefully planned teacher presentations and student

2. Bulletin Boards-Use of bulletin board displays offers
the teacher additional opportunities to present information.
Bulletin boards may reflect, by their content and arrangement,
information on the work done in business education. Dis-
plays to be effective must be attractive to the eye. When
there is a general theme, every piece of material exhibited
should be related to the general theme. (See section on
Bulletin Boards, pages 86-87.)
3. Exhibits-A well-planned educational exhibit serves to
present information convincingly, attract attention to and de-
velop interest in a topic, provide opportunity for training, and
recognize student achievement. A worthwhile exhibit re-
quires systematic planning and effective organization.
4. Records and Recordings-The business teacher can
make excellent use of recordings without incurring any sizable
additional expense. Recordings are used effectively in the
shorthand and typewriting rooms. Recording devices may
also be used for samples of the student's speech, telephone
conversations, interviewer-applicant conversations, and letter
5. Charts, Diagrams, Work Samples, and Pictures-
Charts, diagrams and pictures of various types are available
for almost every business subject. The alert teacher and
student will readily recognize appropriate materials and be
able to employ methods of effective use in the classroom.
The teacher may also build a file of high-quality student
work so that he has worthy samples available for posting.
Many local businesses will usually cooperate with teachers
by providing display materials. They can supply useful ma-
terials, such as forms, sample letters, statements, printed
releases, and organizational charts.
6. Opaque and Overhead Projectors-Some of the diffi-
culties which may arise in the attempt to adapt various
materials to instructional purposes may be overcome by
the use of an opaque projector. This type of projector can
accommodate almost all materials of various sizes up to
8" x 10". It will project on the screen the image of a book
illustration, a picture, a form, or whatever flat object may

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