Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Point of view
 Junior high school music
 Senior high school music
 Administration and supervision
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bulletin ; no. N41
Title: Music in Florida high schools
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067137/00001
 Material Information
Title: Music in Florida high schools
Series Title: Its Bulletin
Physical Description: 135 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1949
Subject: School music -- Instruction and study -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Prepared at Florida State University.
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. State Dept. of Education) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067137
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 17933087
lccn - a 53009516

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Front Matter
        Front matter
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Point of view
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Junior high school music
        Page 7
        The general music class
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Choral music experiences
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Instrumental music experiences
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
    Senior high school music
        Page 33
        Choral activities
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
        Instrumental activities
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
        Musicianship classes
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
        Related music activities
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
    Administration and supervision
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text



In Florida 9'igh Schools

Bulletin No. N41
February, 1949




State Superintendent of Instruction


In order to meet the needs of life today, significant changes
are being made in Florida school curricula. One important
change brings experiences in creative arts from the periphery
of extra-curricular activities to their rightful place in the core
curriculum. While we believe in preparing youth to make a
living, we believe also in preparing them to live fully a rich
and abundant life.
Music is a basic need of humanity. Along with its value as
creative expression and enjoyment, it is equally valuable in
developing democratic attitudes and broad social understand-
a committee of Florida music teachers, supervisors, classroom
teachers and administrators at the invitation of Colin English,
former State Superintendent of Public Instruction. It sup-
ports and extends the principle projected in other recent pub-
lications of this Department-that music is a vital, continuous
stream of experience, permeating the life of the child and his
It justifies music experiences in terms of childhood needs
and describes the role of music in the total school program. It
enumerates valid principles in the administration and super-
vision of music.
This guide suggests ways in which experiences may be or-
ganized to assure musical growth and enjoyment. It calls at-
tention to successful ways of work without being dogmatic or
mechanistic and approaches music as creative expression.
This bulletin was planned and written cooperatively by
men and women of the state who have, over a period of years,
recognized their opportunities to enrich the life of the child
through a variety of musical experiences and have done some-
thing about it.
My appreciation to the persons listed on the next page is
accompanied by the hope that this bulletin will contribute
greatly to the improvement of music instruction throughout
Florida schools.

V ~ ""' "


Bulletin Workshop Personnel

Dr. Wiley L. Housewright, Mrs. Marjorie Morrison Moylan,
Professor of Music Education, Former Itinerant Teacher-
Florida State University Trainer in Music,
and State Department of Education
Music Consultant,
State Department of Education

Betty Jean Borin, Miami; Mildred Cawthon, Miami; Harold E.
Chapman, Tallahassee; Herman R. Dean, Marianna; Otto J. Kraus-
haar, Lake Wales; William S. Mathis, Chipley; Marguerite Strat-
ford Porter, Daytona Beach; Grace R. Raub, Daytona Beach;
Annabelle Hoffman Redwine, Leesburg; Carl Roberts, Bushnell;
Letha Madge Royce, Lake Worth; Robert H. Walters, New Port
Richey; Wendell D. Waters, Stuart; Dana F. Wells, Ft. Lauderdale;
Roy V. Wood, Winter Haven; Al. G. Wright, Miami.

From Florida State University, President Doak S. Campbell and
Dean K. O. Kuersteiner who provided facilities and who made avail-
able the service of the Director and other staff members.

From Florida State University, Miss Lois Laverne Schnoor, Mr.
Owen Sellers, Mr. Robert Smith, Mr. Robert Braunagle, Mr. Howard
Doolin of the School of Music Faculty and Miss Sara Krentzman,
Assistant Dean, School of Library Training and Service; .Mr. Max
A. Ziegler, Miss Geraldine Farnsworth.

From the University of Florida, the late Mr. Kenneth Coghill.

From the State Department of Education, Mrs. Dora Sikes
Skipper, Coordinator of Supervisory Program and Mr. A. J. Stevens,
Jr., Field Supervisor, who performed valuable liaison service between
the Director, the State Department of Education and participants;
Dr. Angela M. Broening, Assistant Director of Research, Baltimore
Public Schools.

Mr. Fred McCall, immediate past president of Florida Music
Educators Association, for reviewing the bulletin and making val-
uable suggestions as to the content and organization of the instru-
mental sections.

Mr. James E. Garland, School Architect, State Department of
Education, for assistance in planning diagrams and facilities.
Mr. D. E. Williams and music personnel from Leon County Negro
Schools and Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College who were
consulted as to music problems of Florida Negro Schools.



Part O ne: P point of V iew .......................................... ..................................... 5

Part Two: Junior High School Music ..................................................... 7

I. The General Music Class ............................... ........... 7

II. Choral Music Experiences ................. ...................... 16

III. Instrumental Music Experiences .................. 23

Part Three: Senior High School Music .................................. ........... 33

I. Choral Activities ........................................... ........... 34

II. Instrumental Activities ................................... 61

III. Musicianship Classes .......................... .............. 112

IV. Related MIu.ii Activities ........................................... 118

Part Four: Administration and Supervision ....................................... 127



The justification for any subject to be included in a school
curriculum must stem from an accurate appraisal of the needs
of the child. Trends in educational thought tend to go far
beyond the traditional concept of preparing the child for life,
although this remains to a certain extent in our thinking, and
declares that school is life. The child lives, thinks, creates, is
stimulated by the school environment which surrounds him.
The concepts which he forms during school years become part
of his total being, and it is during his school life that his
horizons are either widened or narrowed. A question which
should be answered by all teachers and administrators is this:
"Am I doing everything within my power to enrich the
child's life, to make him a more worthwhile citizen, to weld
him harmoniously into the social unit, to prepare him to meet
life with an open mind and a ready will, and am I widening
his scope of love for the beautiful things which have been
created by his fellowmen?"
Our modern society sometimes goes a little too far in the
direction of things, and not far enough in the direction of
thoughts and feelings. Men with full stomachs may still have
a deep spiritual hunger for beauty-for radiant, creative living.
We must educate the whole man-his physical, emotional, social,
and aesthetic reactions as well as his reasoning powers. We
must include those emotional stimulations and realizations
which enrich and sensitize his capacity for aesthetic and spirit-
ual response to the needs of modern life.
There are many needs in the life of the child which the
music curriculum can meet. One is self-expression on an emo-
tional plane. It can meet this need only if the program is
geared to all of the students, not just a talented few. The child's
emotions, almost more than any other part of his total equip-
ment, are particularly an individual thing and need an outlet


provided for them. We do not all work or express our emotions
on the same intellectual level. In the music program there are
times when the child transmits his emotional energy in a song,
or a listening activity which he finds directly attuned to his
A child needs a sense of belonging, a feeling of security
in his society, a chance to share in the experiences of others,
an opportunity to measure his social growth, and to experience
success in some activity. A self-created discipline, an oppor-
tunity to merge his talents with others in a common endeavor,
acceptable social behavior patterns, and wholesome recreation
are all found in a good musical organization.
The community which supports a complete curriculum in
music can expect rich rewards in service rendered by the
school. Our measure of success in education must be the pro-
duction of good citizens, who will lead happier, more useful
lives. Science, art and daily experiences stem from the same
root and come to an adjustment in the life of every human
being. Where practical daily experiences are the means by
which man lives, science and art are what he lives for. The
school and community has an obligation to its children to teach
them not only the means by which they may keep alive but also
the skills and appreciations which make life worth living.
Music is a worthwhile leisure time activity, but more than
that, it is an instrument for developing appreciations and skills
which contribute heavily to the fulfillment of human life and
enrichment of human experience. It must be a vital stream of
experience, permeating the life of the individual, from child-
hood through adult life.



The junior high school program consists of UNIFYING
the work of pupils coming from varying backgrounds of musi-
cal experience, GUIDING the child in the use of his changing
voice, and, ADVANCING the musical growth of the child
through exploratory courses in music.
The aims of this program are
1. To provide an outlet for the emotions of adolescents
and thus aid them in adjusting to their environment
2. To teach adolescent boys and girls to use their voices
effectively in singing and speaking
3. To continue a variety of music activities through
instrumental instruction in classes and organizations
4. To give pupils a uWiLrkin,_ knowledge of music and
develop skills which will make their participation in
music organizations a series of related, satisfying
Every child in junior high school should have the oppor-
tunity to participate in the general music class. Ninety min-
utes, or two periods per week, are considered a minimum re-
quirement for this class. It should be scheduled as any other
regular classroom activity and continued throughout the school
year. It is recommended that the class size not exceed the
approved class size in other areas of instruction at this level.
Previous musical experiences and interests of the pupils
must be considered, in planning a course of study for a gen-
eral music class. If the school system has a carefully planned
and executed music program in effect from grades one to



The junior high school program consists of UNIFYING
the work of pupils coming from varying backgrounds of musi-
cal experience, GUIDING the child in the use of his changing
voice, and, ADVANCING the musical growth of the child
through exploratory courses in music.
The aims of this program are
1. To provide an outlet for the emotions of adolescents
and thus aid them in adjusting to their environment
2. To teach adolescent boys and girls to use their voices
effectively in singing and speaking
3. To continue a variety of music activities through
instrumental instruction in classes and organizations
4. To give pupils a uWiLrkin,_ knowledge of music and
develop skills which will make their participation in
music organizations a series of related, satisfying
Every child in junior high school should have the oppor-
tunity to participate in the general music class. Ninety min-
utes, or two periods per week, are considered a minimum re-
quirement for this class. It should be scheduled as any other
regular classroom activity and continued throughout the school
year. It is recommended that the class size not exceed the
approved class size in other areas of instruction at this level.
Previous musical experiences and interests of the pupils
must be considered, in planning a course of study for a gen-
eral music class. If the school system has a carefully planned
and executed music program in effect from grades one to


twelve, the class may be one of continuing musical growth. In
a system where music has only recently become a part of the
curriculum, the class may take the form of many introductory
activities in music. In either case the teacher should endeavor
1. Develop an awareness of and a wholesome, discrimi-
nate response to music

2. Demonstrate the possibilities of vocal and instru-
mental study

3. Guide the pupil in planning for further growth by
participation and study in specialized music fields

Every child in junior high school should have the opportunity to participate
in the general music class.

A recent revision of the Programs of Study in Florida
Secondary Schools states, "Music is projected as a much-to-be-
desired nine-year basic stream ... to be followed by opportuni-
ties for three elective years wherever possible." And again,


"Public school music should be required through grades 7-9
wherever facilities are available."'


Singing is the central activity of the general music class
and special attention should be given to

1. Suitable interpretation
2. Appropriate tone quality
3. Intonation and tonal blend
4. Precision in attacks and releases
5. Correct phrasing
6. Diction
7. Balance of parts
8. Response to directions of the conductor

Voices should be classified as to tone color and range at
one of the early class meetings. Seating arrangements are
made in accordance with the voice classifications.2

1. If all voices are unchanged, as in many seventh grade
classes, the usual arrangement is SSA.3
2. If there are some changing voices, alto-tenors may be
combined with low altos.
3. If there are some changed voices, the arrangement is
usually SAB.
4. If the voices are quite matured, as in many ninth grades,
SATB arrangements are most satisfactory.

In general, independent singers are seated to the rear of
the section or placed strategically so as to aid dependent

1. Florida School Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 3, December, 1948, Programs of Study Florida
Secondary Schools, State Department of Education, Tallahassee, pp. 12 and 16.
See pp. 28-29.
2. Voice classification and seating arrangements are discussed on pages 21, 22 and
3. Abbreviations for voice parts: S-Soprano, 2nd S-Second Soprano, A-Alto, A-T-
Alto-Tenor, Bar-Baritone, T-Tenor. B-Bass.


The daily lesson should be planned to motivate the adoles-
cent's inherent desire for self-expression. A singing period
might include the following:
1. Unison singing
Familiar songs chosen by students, new recrea-
tional songs, and songs from folk and art sources. In-
dividuals should be able to sing these songs acceptably.
Solo and small ensemble singing are enriching experi-
ences for the pupils and add variety to class work.
2. Part singing
Harmony and tone color, whether improvised or
calculated, are two of the greatest resources of music.
In part reading, the student should be made aware of
key, beginning pitches, and rhythmic design. Har-
monic sequences abstracted from the songs are valuable
aids to satisfactory reading and blending. On the first
reading, it is usually best to sing the song through
without interruption, thus giving an idea of the com-
position as a whole. The teacher may then proceed
to work out difficult passages. If it is necessary to drill
on individual parts, endeavor to have at least one other
voice part sing at the same time to preserve harmonic
feeling. In songs with limited ranges, first and second
sopranos may occasionally change parts for experience
in sight reading.
The musically well-prepared student will come to the junior
high school with basic skills in singing, reading, and theory.
In the general music class these should be approached as aids
to greater expressiveness in music, not as impractical, abstract
techniques to be stored away and called forth periodically.
Junior high school boys face, in addition to new difficul-
ties in vocal adjustment, a new problem in the actual use of
the bass clef. Since this clef is but briefly introduced in the
elementary school, it should be thoroughly explained and pupils
given experience in reading it.
Sight singing in the elementary school is often facilitated
by use of syllables, numbers, or pitch-names. In the junior high


school an increase in part-reading experience makes teamwork
and group success more and more important. Success in reading
at this level is often due to understanding and skill in interval
relationships. Sol-fa syllables may continue to be used for drills
on specific problems.
In this more complex music structure, reading by relation-
ship may be simplified by drill on intervals common to voice
parts and on chordal patterns found in the new songs. These
sequences are frequently printed in the junior high school song
books; if not, they may be arranged by teacher and written on
the blackboard. While it is not intended to present this type
of reading as an isolated problem, pre-drill can frequently
facilitate the reading and add to the sense of satisfaction and
achievement of the pupil.


Bridgman, William C., and Curtiss, Louis Woodson, The
American Singer, Books VII, VIII, and IX, American Book
Company, Atlanta, Georgia, 1947.
Dykema, Pitcher, Stevens, and Vandevere, Sing Out, Seventh
Grade, C. C. Birchard and Company, Boston, Mass., 1946.
Dykema, Pitcher, Stevens, and Vandevere, Let Music Ring,
Eighth Grade, C. C. Birchard and Company, Boston, Mass.,
Farnsworth, Dykema, Armitage, Singing Youth, C. C. Birchard
and Company, Boston, Mass., 1935.
Hood, Marguerite, Gildersleeve, Glenn, and Leavitt, Helen S.,
Sing Along, Ginn and Company, Atlanta, Georgia, 1945, $1.00.
Hood, Marguerite, Gildersleeve, Glenn, and Leavitt, Helen S.,
Song Parade, Ginn and Company, Atlanta, Georgia, 1945, $1.08.
McConathy, Osbourne, Beattie, John W., and Morgan, Russell,
Music Highways and Byways, Silver Burdett Company, New
York, 1933.
McConathy, Osbourne, Beattie, John W., and Morgan, Russell,
Music of Many Lands and Peoples, Silver Burdett Company,
New York, 1932.


Wilson, Harry Robert, Choral Program Series, Silver Burdett
Company, New York. Book I-SA, 1944; Book II-SSA, SSAA,
1945; Book III-TB, TTB, TTBB, 1947; Book IV-SAB, 1947;
Book V-SATB, 1946, Book VI-SATB, 1948.
Wilson, Harry R., and Christy, Van A., The Choral Hour, Hall
and McCreary Company, Chicago, 1941.


The junior high school music program should encourage
discriminate listening as an aid to greater enjoyment and
understanding of .music. Units on subjects of pupil interest,
projects, and studies in correlation with other instructional
fields should be the basis for lesson development.
The planning will depend largely upon the teacher's inge-
nuity and on materials available. The following topics are sug-
gested for boys and girls at this age level:
1. National music
2. Dance forms
3. Literature and its relation to music
4. Impressionism in music and painting
5. Music in American life or Music in the lives of Flor-
ida boys and girls
6. How Music is Made, i.e., how elements of melody,
harmony, rhythm, etc., are used in making music
7. The symphony Orchestra (instruments, their combi-
nations for various tonal effects, how they are played
and how they sound)
8. Song forms
9. Seasonal music (carols, hymns, oratorios, masses, etc.)
10. How Music Changes (What music of various periods
has in common and how it differs)
Information and discussion on current radio concerts, mu-
sical programs in the community, music and motion pictures,
bulletin boards with clippings and pictures, and pupils reports
on current musical events will increase the value of and inter-
est in the general music class.



For the Student:
Barbour, H. B., and Freeman, W. S., A Story of Music, C. C.
Birchard and Company, Boston, Mass., 1937.
Buchanan, Fannie R., How Man Made Music, The Follett Pub-
lishing Company, Chicago, Ill., 1941.
Hartshorn and Leavitt, Prelude $0.60
Program $0.60
At Home and Abroad $0.60
New Horizons $0.60
World of Music Series, Ginn and Company, Atlanta, Ga.
Kinscella, Hazel G., Around the World in Story, University
Publishing Company, Kansas City, Mo., 1939.
Kinscella, Hazel G., History Sings, University Publishing Com-
pany, Kansas City, Mo., 1940.
Kinscella, Hazel G., Music and Romance, R.C.A. Victor Com-
pany, Inc., Camden, N. J., 1930.
Spaeth, Sigmund, Stories Behind the World's Great Music,
Garden City Publishing Company, New York, N. Y., 1940.

For the Teacher:
Baldwin, Lillian, A Listener's Anthology of Music, Volume I,
The Master Builder of Music, Silver Burdett Company, New
York, N. Y., 1948.
Baldwin, Lillian, A Listener's Anthology of Music, Volume II,
The Musician as Poet, Painter and Dramatist, Silver Burdett
and Company, New York, N. Y., 1948.
Barbour, H. B., How to Teach Children to Know Music, C. C.
Birchard and Company, Boston, Mass., 1942.
Film Music Notes, Official Organ of the National Film Coun-
cil, 250 East 43rd Street, New York, N. Y., 1947, $2.00 yr.
Hartshorn and Leavitt, The Pilot, World Music Series, Ginn
and Company, Atlanta, Ga., 1940.
Hartshorn and Leavitt, The Mentor, World Music Series, Ginn
and Company, Atlanta, Ga., .1940.


Junior High School girls folk dancing.


The adolescents' desire for self-expression may be directed
into creative activities. These activities should be encouraged
but not forced. This is a field for experimentation and success-
ful results will be somewhat dependent upon the pupils' back-
ground of musical experiences.


Suggested creative activities appropriate for junior high
school pupils:
1. Use of percussion and melody instruments (percussion
accompaniments for effects, i.e., castanets with Span-
ish songs)
2. Interpretation of music in creative writing (this work
may be done in correlation with English classes)
3. Rhythms, folk-like dances, or new steps in folk dances
4. Creating songs with simple harmonies

The song text should be appropriate to the student's experi-
ence or interest and within his vocabulary range. Original poems
or favorite verses submitted by pupils may be read to the class
for selection. Suggested procedure for pupils directed by

a. Write the poem on the blackboard under a lined staff
b. Underline words or syllables which receive stress
e. Place measure bars before heavily accented syllables
d. Check suitability of rhythm pattern and uniformity
in number of measures in phrases
e. Count phrase patterns, find points of repose, decide
on kind of cadence and if it is effective to repeat or
vary the melodic line of certain phrases
f. Sing melodies for song, one line at a time (the class,
after listening to these melodies suggested by various
members, select preferred tune). Careful guidance by
the teacher is needed at this point so that the best
creative efforts of the class are utilized and developed
into an expressive end product.
g. Sing and then write sol-fa syllables for each phrase
(song should be notated in appropriate key for vocal
h. Write simple harmonic accompaniment (teacher may
may notate harmonies as the children improvise them
and make suggestions for improvement at difficult
i. Sing created song with accompaniment


The junior high school music program can function at an
optimum level only when the proper housing and equipment
are provided. For the general music class, a sound-treated room
large enough to adequately house a normal class is necessary.
The following equipment is essential: piano, with full keyboard,
maintained at 440 pitch, and in tune; record player and record
library; radio; filing facilities for octavo music; bulletin board;
movable tablet armchairs; and blackboards.

The junior high school groups may be classified as Mixed
Chorus, Girls Chorus, Boys Chorus, and Ensembles.
~L .

Chorus Sings oa Christmas.

The Junior High School


Mixed Chorus

The customary voice parts for mixed choruses are SATB
and SAB.

When the vocal resources for performance of SATB music
are available, this combination is recommended in preference
to SAB. The SATB voice parts should be well within the lim-
ited range of adolescent voices. The girls' and boys' voices of
junior high school may be combined in a mixed chorus, un-
changed voices singing soprano and alto and changed boys'
voices singing tenor and bass. It is common' practice to place
boys with unchanged voices adjacent to the other boy singers.
A few of the lowest altos may be asked to assist the tenor occa-
sionally for better balance.

When the older boys are inexperienced in part singing,
SAB music may be used with all the boys with changed voice
singing together. A few choral selections which appeal especi-
ally to junior high school students are available only in SAB
arrangements. Since the baritone part often utilizes a wide
vocal range, each arrangement must be examined carefully to
determine its practically.

In the seventh and eighth grades, boys with unchanged
voices may be used in a mixed group which sings SSA and
SA A-T music. Care should be taken in the selection of music
for these groups since the text of SSA music is not always
acceptable to boys.


SSA and SA music is recommended for junior high school
girls choruses. Music which challenges the best efforts of the
group adds to their enjoyment and encourages musical growth.

SSA arrangements present a large source of literature
appropriate in text and range for the girls of the junior high
school. Although the girl's voice changes with adolescence, the


change is gradual and is usually one of quality rather than
1. Sopranos may attain clear, true, high tones with
2. In selecting second sopranos, either the vocal color
or the range may be a deciding factor though usually
it is the former
3. Altos usually sing within the range indicated on p. 9
(Chart of Approximate Ranges). Their quality is
usually rich but often the voice lacks flexibility of
the soprano. Frequently adolescent girls sing within
the alto range before the dark color of the mature
alto is apparent. Care should be taken not to encour-
age these voices to sing forced low tones
Where the music program is being initiated or where the
singers have less technical knowledge, it may be advisable to
start with unison or two-part songs.

The director of junior high school boys choruses will need
to know how to guide the adolescent boy in the use of his
newly acquired voice. A few parents and vocal teachers main-
tain that the boy's voice be rested until it has changed. The
weakness of this argument is that a boy never rests his voice;
he cheers at athletic games and shouts on the playground.
Actually, there is no time at which guidance is so greatly
needed as at this period of development. With proper han-
dling, the voice change becomes a natural, healthy alteration
which opens new vistas of expressiveness, greater tonal resources
and dynamic possibilities. As the range of a boy's voice may
change several times during the year, the teacher should try
his voice as often as necessary in order to assign him to the
proper voice part.
The vocal insecurity of young boys at this age may be
overcome by careful choice of song material and by making the
most of enterprises which meet with success. The fact that a


group may do splendid work within its own limits often welds
them into an ambitious, growing unit. That their vocal incon-
venience or indisposition is temporary and only a transition
to mature expressiveness may be demonstrated.
Sometimes boys from senior high school will come to the
junior high school boys chorus to help with the bass and tenor
parts. This serves a two-fold purpose in that the attention of
the older boys gives the younger boys a feeling of importance
and gives the older boys a sense of responsibility.
Adolescent boys usually want to be looked upon as young
men, not as children. They like to wear uniforms and appear
in public with other boys, whether in athletics or music groups.
Motivation may be provided by appearance of male choruses
and soloists in the assembly programs, and by appreciation les-
sons centered around choral literature for male voices.
In cooperation with the administration, schedules should be
arranged so that participants in athletics and other school ac-
tivities may also participate in the vocal program.
Types of Boys Choruses

The SATB arrangement is the most satisfactory type ror
Lse by junior high school boys chorus. This is the only arrange-
ment which may make full use of unchanged, changing and
changed voices in combination. A wide range of material is
available for this combination. In selecting SATB music, the
teacher should keep in mind the limited compasses of the voice
parts at this age.
When there are enough boys with changed voices a TTB
or TTBB group should be organized. Some of the types of songs
with junior high school appeal are patriotic songs, virile songs
of adventure, cowboy songs, spirituals, and sea chanteys. Sacred
songs are often favorites, too.
When the number of unchanged voices predominate, SSA
or SA arrangements may be effective.
Usually the best approach to small ensembles with this age
student is to place two or three singers on each voice part.


A Florida Junior High School Boys Choir.

The junior high school choral groups offer opportunity for
large numbers of boys and girls to participate in a school activi-
ty which increases skills and develops poise and self-confidence.
These organizations should be used as performing groups within
the school with limited activities in the community music
Two periods or ninety minutes weekly is a minimum re-
quirement for effective training of the group. Personnel of
these groups consists of students from the seventh, eighth, and
ninth grades. In the case of the ninth grade choral groups,
credit is determined by number of class sessions weekly and out-
side preparation. See Florida School Bulletin, Programs of
Study Florida Secondary Schools, December, 1948, Vol. XI,
No. 3.
Size of participating groups in the Florida District and
State music festivals are specified in the N.S.B.O.V.A. Bulletin,


which may be obtained from the following address: National
School Band, Orchestra and Vocal Association, 64 E. Jackson
Blvd.,- Chicago, Illinois.

Voice Classification

Voices should be classified at the outset of the school year
and as frequently thereafter as the need arises. While some
voice ranges change gradually from soprano through alto,
and alto-tenor, it is not an uncommon occurrence for a boy's
voice to change from soprano to baritone. The teacher's desire
for a balanced chorus is secondary to the individual welfare
of the pupil.

A Florida Junior High School Chorus Sings for the State Parent-Teachers
Association Convention. (Photo by Royal Studio, Lake Worth, Florida.)


Audition Procedures

The following audition procedures are suggested:
1. Establish rapport with students
2. Have several students sing together
3. Sing arpeggios and sustained tones throughout the
4. Data on each trial should be recorded for the purpose
of making assignments and seating plans
5. Note the following: pitch sensitivity, tone quality,
blend, range, sight reading ability

Chart of Approximate Ranges

J -e- -_f _

Seating Arrangement
The chief consideration in all seating arrangements should
be the complete blending of parts. For example, a voice of
bright quality placed next to one of darker quality will effect
a better choral blend. Singers who are confident and experi-
enced in sight reading should be placed at the back with those
less confident in front of them.

Suggested Plan for Seating Junior High School



Other seating plans may be found on page 37 (Suggested
Seating Arrangements for the High School Chorus).



For the Teacher:
Beattie, McConathy, and Morgan, Music in the Junior High
School, Silver Burdett and Company, New York, N. Y., 1930.
Cain, Noble, Choral Music and Its Practice, Witmark and
Sons, New York, N. Y., 1938.
Coward, Henry, Choral Technique and Interpretation, The H.
W. Gray Company, Inc., New York, N. Y.
Earhart, Will, Choral Techniques, Witmark and Sons, New
York, N. Y., 1937.
Finn, Father William J., The Art of the Choral Conductor,
C. C. Birchard and Company, Boston, Mass., 1936.
Gehrkens, K. W., Music in the Junior High School, C: C.
Birchard and Company, Boston, Mass., 1936.
Johnson, Claude Ellsworth, The Training of Boys' Voices,
Oliver Ditson Company, Philadelphia, Penn., 1935.
Mursell, James L., Music in American Schools, Silver Burdett
Company, New York, N. Y., 1943, $2.00.
Pitts, Lilla Belle, Music Integration in the Junior High School,
C. C. Birchard and Company, Boston, Mass., 1938.
Rorke, Genevieve A., Choral Teaching at the Junior High
School Level, Hall and McCreary Company, Chicago, Illinois,
Ross, William A., Sing High, Sing Low, University Publishing
Company, New York, N. Y., 1948.
Music Educators National Conference Year Book, 1939-1940.
Articles on teaching at the junior high school level may be
found in this yearbook.

A great number of our Florida secondary schools are
organized as combination junior-senior high schools (8-4 or
6-6). Since it is the customary procedure in these schools
to include students from all grades in the band and orchestra,


the junior high school director is urged to read the section
on high school instrumental music in this bulletin. The high
school section treats instrumental problems more fully and
includes music lists, seating charts, and bibliography. This
section deals with problems peculiar to grades seven, eight,
and nine.
No junior high school music program may be considered
adequate if it fails to offer experiences in the instrumental
area. Ideally, exploratory and elementary instrumental in-
struction begins in the lower grades. The instrumental student
experiences no "awkward age" at the junior high school. He
has passed the discouraging beginning stages, spurred by the
novelty of playing an instrument for the first time, and has
acquired enough skill to evoke sensually pleasing tones. Now
he reads a simple score. Now he improvises a tune of his own.
Now, to the discomfort of his neighbors, he imitates the style
of a dance band idol. These are manifestations of his new-
found manipulatory facility, his growth in music skills, his
understanding of the possibilities of his instrument. He views
them with pride, just as he does other adolescent accomplish-
ments, such as learning to dive. They are particularly satisfy-
ing in that growth is marked and continuous. Each year he is
able to play a more complex score than the year before; each
year his musical experience is more satisfying. Thus the child
is prepared for a wide variety of rich experiences in instru-
mental music. He is on the threshold of great accomplishment
and ready to explore new fields through instruction in the
instrumental class, ensembles, orchestra, and band.

Even when the student has had no opportunity for instru-
mental instruction in the early grades, he often responds to
class lessons in the junior high school. In these cases, progress
is rapid due to greater maturity and wider musical experience
at this age.

The following suggestions are made relative to the organ-
ization of instrumental classes:
1. It is recommended that classes meet daily. When this
is not possible, two periods per week is considered


minimum instruction time. A short daily period is
recommended rather than a longer period at less
frequent intervals.
2. Class sizes in excess of fifteen become increasingly
difficult to teach efficiently due to the necessity for
individual help.
3. Beginning classes'may be more efficiently taught if
they are grouped homogeneously as to instrument or
choir. However, good results can be obtained from
heterogeneous groups by an experienced teacher.
4. Scheduling should receive careful consideration. A
discussion with the school administrator will solve
most of the problems. Cooperation and good will be-
tween the administration and the classroom teacher
is essential to the success of the instrumental pro-
5. Emphasis in beginning classes should be placed on
the following band and orchestra instruments: violin,
violoncello, flute, Bb clarinet, alto saxophone, cornet,
trombone, snare drum.
Pupils may transfer to related instruments as
soon as they demonstrate sufficient ability and in-
terest to do so. Changing from a basic to a related
instrument is not difficult, nor is any time usually
lost in the transition. Choice of the instrument ought
to be more that of the pupil than that of the director.
6. Simple pitch and rhythm tests may be used in place
of the more formal music aptitude and achievement
tests for beginning classes. These simple tests serve
to interest the student and give him confidence in
his ability to play rather than to determine his act-
ual aptitude.
7. There should be no charge for instrumental class
lessons, since they are a regular part of the school
NOTE: A list of instrumental class methods and supplementary teaching mate-
rials will be found in the high school section starting on page 61.


A Junior High School Instrument Class.


1. Class Piano

It has been demonstrated that piano can be taught success-
fully in classes for at least two years. The ideal time to begin
these lessons is in elementary school or junior high school.
Classes should be kept small four to eight and grouped
homogeneously as to achievement level. Silent practice key-
boards may be used if an instrument for every two students is
not available. This class requires the services of a teacher with
special training in class piano teaching techniques. It is not
recommended that class piano be offered unless the services
of a trained specialist are available.

2. String classes

Beginners are usually started on violin or violoncello.
Half or three-quarter size instruments should be used with


small children. Viola and string bass classes may be added as
the student need arises.

3. Brass classes
Beginners are usually started on cornet or trombone.
(Cio;. in trumpet, baritone, French horn, and bass may be
added to meet the demand of students transferring from the
basic cornet and trombone classes.

4. Woodwind classes
Beginners are usually started on Bb clarinet, flute, or
alto saxophone. Classes in bassoon, oboe, and deep reeds may
be added to meet the needs of students transferring from the
basic woodwind instruments.

5. Percussion classes
Beginners are usually started on the snare drum. Since
most drummers are expected to be familiar with all of the
instruments in the percussion section the grouping is kept
homogeneous throughout, the class progressing from one in-
strument to the next according to a plan: snare drum, bass
drum, bells, xylophone, tympani, and sound effects.


Band and orchestra participation should be considered
the culminating activities of the junior high school instru-
mental program.
A balanced instrumentation of the organization is not as
important at this level as is the opportunity for as many
students to participate.
The band and orchestra provide the student with a vital
and meaningful musical experience at the moment and sustain
an interest in music that the student will carry with him into
later school years and after-school life.


These organizations are recognized as socializing elements
in the school which will contribute much toward making the stu-
dent feel greater security in his school community and thus tend
to reduce the behavior problems common at the junior high
school level.
Junior high school instrumental organizations should be
given opportunities to make public appearances, however, the
director must accept the responsibility of preventing exploi-
Participation in district and state competition festivals is
usually a valuable experience. The ratings given at these
festivals are non-competitive, since the groups are graded
against a standard and not against each other. The adjudicators
at these festivals are experienced music educators who under-
stand thoroughly the limitations and problems of the junior
high groups. Their comments and criticisms serve as a source
of motivation for individual and group improvement.

A junior high school band on parade.


A junior high school orchestra rehearses.


A director initiating an instrumental program should first
survey the local situation to discover

1. What has been done previously
2. Present equipment available
3. Number of students in school who can play instruments
4. Number of students in school who are interested in
learning to play
5. Kind and amount of instructional materials needed
6. Availability of classroom space

Following completion of the local survey the director may
hold a series of conferences with prospective students and their
parents. These conferences, together with the survey, will pro-
vide the information that will indicate a tentative schedule.
The cooperation of the principal and other teachers is required


if an effective schedule is to evolve. The director should work
toward this end by being cooperative himself.

It is desirable that the band and orchestra be scheduled
daily and within the regular school day. Rehearsals may be
held during the activity period or a period-rotation plan may
be used. Scheduling is usually arranged by one or a combina-
tion of the following methods:

1. By grade level (usually possible only in large schools)
2. By proficiency level (proficient students in one organi-
zation and less proficient students in another)
3. By school (one band and one orchestra for each school)


Certain basic instruments should be owned by every school
which has an instrumental program functioning. These instru-
ments, added to those used in instrumental classes will provide
a well-balanced instrumentation for junior high school groups.

Band Orchestra
2 Flutes 4 violins
1 alto saxophone 4 violas
1 tenor saxophone 2 cellos
2 single horns 2 string basses
*2 baritone horns
2 trombones
*2 sousaphones
1 bass drum
1 pair cymbals
25 music stands
*Band only.
These basic needs may be purchased over a period of sev-
eral years.


Music should be selected with the following points in mind:

1. Technical limits of the players
2. Interest to the junior high school student
3. Diversity of type and mood
4. Clearness of print
5. Durability of the paper and binding
Detailed information in regard to the use of other instruc-
tional materials may be found in the high school section of this

It is recommended that the purchase of uniforms not be
considered until instructional aid materials such as music and
instruments have been obtained. Uniforms should be durable
but not unduly expensive nor elaborate. Selection of the style
of uniform should be based upon the following considerations:
1. Rapid growth of the junior high student
2. Physical comfort of the child
3. Outdoor activities are not as extensive at this level
as in the high school


The equipment and instructional aid materials used in
band and orchestra represent a considerable investment of
public funds. This investment must be protected by a well
planned program of maintenance and replacement.

After the basic equipment needs have been met, it is
recommended that an annual expenditure equal to approxi-
mately ten percent of the total value of school-owned band


and orchestra equipment be made. These funds may be used
1. Repair of school-owned instruments
2. Replacement of school-owned instruments beyond
economical repair
3. Purchase of new music
4. Repair of music in library
5. Repair and replacement of uniforms


Band and orchestra officers will function well in junior
high school but they will require considerably more super-
vision than those in high school groups.

Election of officers by the group is recommended, though
students who are to have heavy duties and responsibilities
(music librarian, uniform quartermaster, etc.) may be ap-
pointed by the director. The organization of officers may be
patterned after the plan recommended in the high school
instrumental section of this bulletin.



1. To aid in the development of group responsibility and
individual leadership
2. To afford students the opportunity to study the best
choral literature and to present it in an artistic manner

1115 Ago

Picture of Florida State Festival Concert, 1947, All State Chorus.



1. To aid in the development of group responsibility and
individual leadership
2. To afford students the opportunity to study the best
choral literature and to present it in an artistic manner

1115 Ago

Picture of Florida State Festival Concert, 1947, All State Chorus.


3. To develop facility in sight-reading, musical interpretation,
conducting, and group singing for practical uses
4. To develop poise, self-confidence, and stage presence
through the many opportunities for public performance
5. To develop the talent of the musically gifted child and to
provide vocational training opportunities for future
6. To develop pitch sensitivity, good tone quality, correct
pronunciation, and the other elements of good choral
7. To develop sound vocal production which will result in
both good choral singing and effective speech habits
8. To train choral musicians for the community

1. General Chorus (Mixed)
The school which is introducing choral music into the
curriculum or which is limited in personnel or time allotment
for choral activities should schedule a general chorus; then,
as the program develops, allow the group to become the training
group which will feed into the more selective organizations.
2. Girls and Boys Choruses
Many choral works are written specifically for, or appeal
to, either boys or girls groups. Though the mixed chorus is
usually the most important organization, students should be
given opportunity to participate in other activities and to
become acquainted with the body of literature designed for
their own group.
A. Girls Chorus
High school girls are frequently the first group to
manifest interest in choral singing. Other organiza-
tions should be formed, but if resources are not suf-
ficient to organize a mixed chorus or a male chorus, a


The High School Chorus Awaits a Downbeat.

girls chorus is a good starting point. The girls chorus
should be elective and open to all registrants. In a
large school it may be necessary to subdivide and
have beginning and advanced sections.
Standard voice arrangements, such as S.S.A., and
S.S.A.A., are recommended for high school girls
B. Boys Chorus
After the general chorus has been organized, it is
usually possible to divide the group and form a boys
chorus using the mixed chorus boys as a nucleus. Boys
with unchanged voices may be used as alto-tenors in
the boys group, but more frequently as a soprano or


alto in the mixed chorus. In a school where the re-
sources will permit, a boys chorus should be organized
independently of the mixed chorus. The customary
choral arrangement for high school boys chorus is
T.T.B.B. Because all boys voices do not change until
this age, they .have now for the first time the experience
of singing the body of literature which is their
The boys chorus should be elective and open to all
registrants. Again, in large schools it may be necessary
to divide the group into beginning and advanced
In schools where boys or girls choruses are subsidiary
organizations of the mixed chorus, it may be necessary to
work out an alternate schedule. The following is a suggested
weekly schedule:
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Mixed Girls Mixed Boys Mixed

3. Advanced Chorus
This class is also elective, but membership is restricted to
those who qualify by audition and personal interview with thle
director. This procedure is often necessary to achieve a desir-
able balance of parts. The advanced group is organized
specifically for students who meet musical and citizenship
requirements. But on no account should private study be made
a condition for membership.
Members should have a basic knowledge of sight-reading,
tone blending, dynamic markings, and simple rhythmic figures
in common metrical schemes.
Members of the advanced group should be carefully
screened as to personality traits. The esprit de corps of the
ensemble can be no better than the give and take or the
cooperative spirit of the group. Since this is the organization
which will most frequently represent the school in public


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performance, it is well to set standards which will insure
harmonious working relations with other classroom teachers
and the administration. In several Florida schools, permission
slips for school-duty absences are used. The following form
has been used successfully.

At least three days before each absence, this blank is to be
signed by each classroom teacher and approved by the music
................................ .......................... has conferred with m e concerning
(Student's name)
his class absence on.................................................................... and has (either)
made up the work in advance (or) has made satisfactory
arrangements about make-up work.
Period Teacher Period Teacher
1 ............................................. ..................... 4 ....................................................................
2 ..................................... ......... .................... 5 ................
3 ........................ ........................... ....... 6
H om eroom T teacher ................................................... .......................
A p p rov ed ............................................................................................................


1. Enrollment
The following are recommended by the National School
Band, Orchestra, and Vocal Associations as membership
limits for performing organizations:
A. Mixed Chorus: minimum, 25 students; maximum,
100 students
B. Girls Chorus: minimum, 20 students; maximum, 50
C. Boys Chorus: minimum, 20 students; maximum, 40


No teacher who is concerned with the musical development
in the school will allow these limitations to determine the
exact number of students who will participate.
2. Balance of Parts
Although every director has the ideal balance in mind,
the real determining factor should be to give as many
students as possible the opportunity to sing good music.
Probably the best balance is obtained by having the pro-
portion of boys and girls equal, or three girls to two boys.
3. Accompanists
Insofar as possible, high school students should serve as
accompanists. The high school choral group is a valuable
training ground for student pianists and their training
with a choral group often causes them to make valuable
contributions to community life.
If no student meets performance standards, it may be
necessary to use a professional accompanist, for an in-
adequate accompanist is a severe handicap to a singing
group. It is advisable to have an accompanist and an
apprentice for each choral organization. The accompanist
should sight-read with accuracy and expression, and
should respond readily to changes in tempi, dynamics,
and spirit of the music.

4. Officers and Constitution
It is advisable that the members of the group assume much
of the responsibility for the physical set-up, choice of
music, courtesies to guests, social functions, public per-
formances, and so forth. This may be accomplished through
a group of officers which constitutes a council.
Perhaps at first it is best to elect some of these officers
and appoint others until a strong sense of responsibility
and discrimination has been developed. The following is
a suggested list of officers:
a. President or chairman
b. Vice-president or vice-chairman


*c. Librarian and assistants
d. Publicity chairman or advertising manager
e. Secretary or historian or both
*f. Student conductor
*g. Treasurer or business manager
*h. Ward room manager or quartermaster (A system-
atic method of assigning uniforms and responsibility
for them should be evolved to fit the local situation)

Upon organization of the council, they, guided by the
director, may write the constitution in accord with the
local school regulations. Briefly, it may well include these
a. Name and purpose, or aims, of the organization
b. Officers and duties
c. Regulations as to rehearsals, performance, and
d. Awards
5. Voice Auditions and Classification
The choral director should audition all voices to determine:
a. Blend (as to voice timbre and weight)
b. Tone production
c. Pitch sensitivity
d. Sight-reading ability
e. Tessitura (indicates the best range of the singing
f. Speaking voice
g. Personality traits
Recommended procedures for auditions include:
a. Interview prospective members to determine quality
of candidate's speaking voice and clues as to his
personality traits
b. Sing scales and arpeggios to check on tessitura and
timbre (use timbre as a guide for student placement
within the sections rather than range)

*Suggested appointments by director.


c. Find limits of comfortable range
d. Match tones, or check pitch accuracy
e. Read at sight a few phrases from an unfamiliar
choral composition
Average ranges of high school choral arrangements are:

Extremes beyond which it is inadvisable to venture unless
the group is highly trained and has more than average
background in singing experience:
0 b.._o b,

6. Publicity
Valuable media of publicity include the following:
a. School paper
b. City publications
c. Posters
d. Hand-bills
e. Auditorium notices or advertising skits (previews)
f. Bulletin announcements
g. Radio or television announcements or skits
h. Sound truck
The following are methods by which these media have been
used successfully in schools:
a. Student public relations officer working through the
chief of the school public relations
b. The director handling publicity directly through
normal school channels
e. Parents organizations and other civic groups (mak-
ing announcements in club meetings)
d. Using a group photographer and showing photograph


e. Scheduling music education talks or regular listening
f. Stimulating development of special music columns in
local publications

Use the local, state, and national publications to keep the
public informed as to activities of the music program. The
director of music should regularly contribute stories to the
press, and should have an organized plan for periodic press
In all news releases it is customary to include the names
of the school, principal, music supervisor, as well as that of
the director. The publicity value of pictures cannot be over-
emphasized. Music bulletin boards with current photographic
records of group activities are especially good. Newspapers
and periodicals will be more receptive to stories accompanied
by glossy prints that will make good cuts. Learn to discrimi-
nate between "news" and "advertising," or personal publicity.
Unless the newspaper requests complete stories, all news
items should be submitted in brief, note form.
Publicity should have as its purposes:
a. To inform the parents as to the activities and progress
of students in music
b. To stimulate student interest in the music program
c. To inform the community of the role of music in
7. Space
a. Practice rooms should be on an upper floor or in an
isolated area
b. Rehearsal rooms should be in or adjacent to audi-
c. Rehearsal rooms should be sound treated to make them
acoustically correct and to minimize disturbance to the
rest of the school
*d. Permanent risers should be provided to adequately
seat the largest potential choral group
*Information concerning risers, permanent and portable, may be secured from
The Payson Company, Hebron. Nebraska.


e. There should be adequate space for the director's
office, music library, and uniform storage
1. An office for choral director which insures privacy
is highly valuable in establishing rapport between
director and students. It should contain
(a.) Desk and chair
(b.) Chairs for interviewees
(c.) Card file for music library
(d.) Intercommunication system or telephone
(e.) Shelf space for professional library
2. Storage space for uniforms, costumes, and music
(a.) Dust-proof and insect-proof
(b.) Ease of issue facilitated by an issue window or
(c.) Metal file cabinets for library
(1.) Letter size for octavo music
(2.) Legal size for mimeograph forms and sheet
(d.) Filing envelopes to protect music'

Practice rooms and the rehearsal hall should be well
ventilated and well lighted. Diffused light from overhead is
preferable. The recommended space allotment per student is
250 cubic feet. (This means 25 square feet per student, plus
adequate space for aisles, piano, and podium, and other furni-
ture, and an additional 20% of the entire volume for reverbe-
ration space)*
(1.) The ceiling should be a minimum of 14' from the floor
(2.) Choral chairs should be adjusable as to height, have
a firm back-rest, and be movable.
(3.) Suggested specifications for the permanent risers
(a.) 8" rise
(b.) 3' deep to allow for seating
I Filing envelopes may be obtained from the following companies:
Educational Music Bureau Gamble Hinged Music Company
30 East Adams Street 218 South Wabash Avenue
Chicago, Illinois Chicago 6, Illinois
Southern Music Company
San Antonio, Texas
A room 50'x30' with a 40' ceiling is considered ideal for a 100-voice chorus.


(c.) Semi-circular construction
(d.) Approximately 20 singers per tier (five tiers for a
100 chorus)
8. Standard Choral equipment includes;
(a.) Piano
(1.) Full-sized keyboard
(2.) Maintain 440 pitch for a reasonable length of time
(3.) Tuned minimum of two or three times yearly (an-
nual maintenance per piano in Florida is approxi-
mately $30.00 per year)
(4.) Mounted on a dolly with wheels large enough to
be easily moved'
(b.) Pitchpipe: chromatic, about $3.00
(c.) Metronome: electric (about $15.0), or spring (about
(d.) Director's podium, stand, and stool
(1.) The podium may be built by the school carpenter
shop or woodworking class. (Dimensions, approxi-
mately 12" high, 54" square)
(2.) The Director's stand should be easily adjustable
and should not detract from stage appearances
(3.) A laboratory-type stool is suggested

Uniforms are generally considered an important part of
the choral equipment. The following criteria should be con-
sidered in their selection:
1. Practicality and durability
2. Eye appeal
3. Suitability for your stage
4. Ease of packing for trips
5. Fast, standard colors
While robes are doubtlessly the most universally used for
mixed chorus, music chosen for the boys and girls groups often
make their use inappropriate. For the beginning groups whose

1 These dollies may be obtained from:
The Colson Company The Bassett Caster Company
Elyria, Ohio Evansville, Indiana


financial resources are not large, some simple plan for uni-
formity of dress, such as the following is suggested:
1. Boys
a. White or dark trousers
b. White dress shirts
c. Ties in school colors
2. Girls
a. Plain white cottons or
b. Dark skirts, white blouses with a sash or ribbon
the color of the boys' ties
Pride in the uniform and stress on the way it is to be
worn and cared for fosters group morale. Definite regulations
regarding appearance in uniform should be included in the
constitution, stressing the following points:
1. Uniformity of length
2. Freshly cleaned and pressed
3. Absence of non-conforming jewelry, flowers, or
4. In good repair as to fasteners, collars, cuffs, etc.

If the investment in the choral program is to be protected
and the continuing nature of it secured, an adequate program
of maintenance should be initiated. Using the permanent prop-
erty (i.e., uniforms, piano, director's equipment and office
fir iture, octavo music, books, stage properties, costumes, etc.)
as basis for total property evaluation, a maintenance fund
df :5 % f -this total should prove adequate. This is not a fund
for buying new music or equipment, but is to repair and replace
lost music, repair and clean uniforms, tune and repair piano,
Additional -Instructional Aids
Audio-visuar aids of value to the choral program are
1. Radio, record player, and recorder
a. Moderately priced instruments may be obtained
through your local dealer


b. A collection of commercial recordings of major
choral works and best of choral organizations is
recommended for the study of
(1.) Blend
(2.) Styles
(3.) Pronunciation
(4.) Interpreation
(5.) Expressive reading of the text
(6.) Ensemble
c. It is educationally valuable for students to compare
their current work with recorded performances of
the same and preceding choruses
d. Tape or wire recordings are fine aids to current
study. The group should also be able to make a
permanent record of the best of their achievements
for future reference
2. Each rehearsal room should be equipped with ample
blackboard space and a staff liner
3. The bulletin board can be valuable aid in calling at-
tention to:
a. Current music news items
b. Programs
c. Brochures
d. Letters of interest to chorus members
e. Pictures
f. Announcements
4. A mirror may be an important aid in that it shows a
student his own physical errors in producing a tone
5. Instrument companies and publishers issue many charts
on musical terminology posture, and dynamic markings
which are valuable teaching aids
6. The director of materials of instruction in your own
school or county can be of inestimable aid in helping
you to find all the materials in films that are available
for your use, and which would correlate with your
current activities. The school librarian may perform
this function. The Educational Film Index is a valu-
able resource in making selections. For sources of


films, see The Audio-Visual Way, Bulletin 22B, Florida
State Department of Education.

The greatest emotional and aesthetic satisfaction to be
derived from choral work is a shared one. First, the group
enjoys the shared experience of singing together and then,
when they are ready for performance, they feel the real thrill
of sharing their achievement with an audience. A group with
no opportunity for performance can easily become satisfied
with a succession of mediocre rehearsals. Educators must avoid
the danger of exploiting either individual students or groups,
but there is an important place for them in the community if
opportunities for appearance are chosen in view of their educa-
tional value. Appearances should be channeled through the
administrative offices so as to avoid taking music students
out of school often enough to work a hardship on other class-
room teachers or on students themselves. Performances con-
sidered valuable to students and their community may be
classified as follows:
1. School programs
a. Assemblies
b. Musical plays, comedies, and operettas
c. Concerts
d. Special day and seasonal programs
e. Graduation
(1.) Commencement
(2.) Baccalaureate
f. Banquets and social functions for which incidental
music is furnished
g. Classroom programs (especially those which in-
tegrate music with other phases of the school
h. Homeroom programs
i. School broadcasts
j. Athletic events
(1.) Combined with band for field pageants
(2.) Provide the nucleus for pep song sessions
2. Community programs


a. Civic clubs
b. Charity programs and benefits
c. Church programs
(1.) Y.M.C.A.
(2.) Y.W.C.A.
(3.) Interdenominational services
d. Dedications
e. P.T.A.
f. Professional organizations
3. Inter-community programs
a. City, county, and state festivals
b. All-state chorus
c: District and state contests
d. Exchange programs between schools or com-

High School Chorus Sings at Interdenominational Service.

, a


Though many rehearsal techniques and procedures will be
worked out by the director of music to meet needs of the local
school, there are a number of accepted practices which should
be observed.

1. Tempo
It is necessary that music students become acquainted
with the common tempo markings as they are en-
countered. It is also necessary that the director not
take liberties with indicated or traditional tempi.
Usually there is a best tempo at which a composition
must be taken. Choice of any other often results in
2. Meter
The director should give his students a feeling of
security through clear indications of the beat and all
attacks and releases.
Metrical problems are not usually studied as exercises,
but are dealt with as they occur in the music being
sung. Small inaccuracies can distort the song and its
3. Phrasing
Upon the director lies the responsibility of the
students' concept of phrasing. The finest voices are
ineffectual in ensembles where phrasing is poor. The
following are generally accepted principles of good
a. Natural phrasing by word-meaning of text
b. Special phrasing for special effects at climaxes
e. Scattered or scotched breathing* to achieve legato
(1.) Humming passages
(2.) For long, repetitious phrases
(3.) For solo accompaniments

*These terms refer to the practice of having chorus members breathe within
the musical phrase as individuals, rather than as a unit at the end of phrases.


d. Phrasing is sometimes dictated by the vocal line
rather than the words
e. Wherever feasible, the director should use the
phrasing indicated on the score
4. Intonation
Good intonation means singing on pitch. A few factors
which contribute to good intonation are:
a. Careful ear training which results in skill in hearing
all other parts and tuning with them
b. Good posture
c. Proper breath control
d. Lack of mental and physical tension
e. Ranges within the compass of the voices to be used
f. Pure vowels and well-articulated consonants
g. Confidence in the director
h. Security in the student's own preparedness to do
the work
i. Good physical conditions for the rehearsal and the
j. Each student alert and responsive
5. Attack
Attacks are assuredly the responsibility of the director.
When his techniques become familiar to students,
there should be no trouble if the director is definite.
In the beginning chorus, it may be necessary to give a
preparatory measure to set the tempo, particularly in
selections with difficult metrical patterns. Essentials
of a unified attack are
a. Preparedness of the chorister
b. Complete attention to the director
c. Accurate observation of .tempo from the moment of
initial attack
6. Release
A poor release often ruins a fine performance. The
only reasons for a poor release are carelessness on the
part of the director or inattention of the chorister.


7. Pronunciation
The greatest problems in pronunciation are usually due
to the lack of homogenity of vowel sounds or careless
omission of final consonants. These problems are ac-
centuated by the colloquialisms of various geographical
a. Enunciation
To secure beautiful tone quality, uniformity of
vowel production must be obtained. Composite vowel
sounds, the diphthong and the triphthong, should
receive special attention.
b. Articulation
Clear articulation is largely a matter of understand-
ing between the chorus and its conductor. If the
director insists upon clear articulation, few specific
drills on consonants will be necessary.
8. Breathing
a. Careful attention should be paid at all times to
insure proper breathing habits
b. Constant attention to posture, i.e., high chest, head
erect, feet on floor, shoulders relaxed, and, if seated,
back away from chair, and buttocks firmly against
chair back. This should become a customary position
because students know it is an element of good
singing. It should never become an issue for dis-
agreement. A military, rigid posture blocks creative
c. Good muscular control and mental imagery to insure
beautiful tone
9. Ensemble ("togetherness")
A proper balance may be achieved through careful
selection of voices. A good blend is the result of:
a. Uniform consonant and vowel production
b. Uniform observation of dynamic markings
c. Balanced tone production
d. Proper placing of voices within the sections, and
correct placing of the sections


10. Dynamics
Dynamics are relative and dependent upon the mood
of the selection. Any director who does not make the
most of the dramatic contrasts resulting from the
observation of dynamics is neglecting an important
element of good performance. This can compensate, in
a large measure, for vocal inadequacies. In much choral
literature, other than contemporary, dynamic changes
have become traditional and are not indicated on the
score. If the music is neither traditional nor contem-
porary, interpretation is left largely to the imagination
and ingenuity of the director.

A Small Vocal Ensemble Rehearses.


A Mixed Quartet Warms Up.


The traditional vocal ensembles are
1. Boys quartet
2. Girls trio
3. Girls sextet
4. Mixed quartet


5. Mixed octet
6. Madrigal singers (see below)
7. Girls quartet
These are four to approximately sixteen singers, depending
upon the arrangement of the material to be sung. It is
customary to have no duplication of voices on a single part
when small ensembles sing at contest-festivals, though on other
occasions it is the usual practice. In placing individuals within
the ensemble, blend should be the first consideration; however,
ensembles usually stand in the following order, left to right:
1. Boys quartet-T1, T2, Bl, B2
2. Girls trio-Sl, S2, A
3. Girls quartet-S1, S2, Al, A2
4. Girls sextet-S1, S2, S3, Al, A2, A3
5. Mixed quartet-T, S, A, B
6. Mixed octet-T1, T2, S2, S1, Al, A2, B1, B2, or
B2, Bl, S1, S2, A2, Al, T1, T2
7. Madrigal Singers
The madrigal group will be arranged similar to the
above, dependent upon the voices used. Often girls sit
about a table and the boys stand behind them. In
small groups, all may sit or stand, but positions
assumed are informal. Music is usually opened on the
table and costuming may add authenticity to the period
songs. There is no formal conducting, though one singer
usually has the responsibility for giving pitch and
attack. Madrigal singing represents one of the most
interesting and valuable experiences in the choral field.
Fine solo voices are not necessarily suitable for small
ensembles. Voices should be chosen to complement each other
and to achieve uniformity of blend of the ensemble. The
following points should be of first consideration in the ensemble
1. Refer to page 40 (Voice Audition and Classification)
2. It is especially important in a small ensemble for each
individual to have complete independence in carrying
his own part


3. Refer to Rehearsal Techniques and Procedures, page
50 (Intonation)
4. Personality is of more importance in determining the
success of small ensembles than in the large groups. To
succeed, the group must be able to work harmoniously
and with recognition of and respect for the ability of
each member. They must be willing to merge their
individual personalities into a musical unit.
5. Refer to pages 40 and 41 (Ranges)
Small Ensemble Materials
These points should be noted in the selection of music:
1. No divisi parts
2. No massive effects nor excessive dynamic levels
3. Vocal line within the ability of the singers
4. Appeal of the text to the types of audiences for which
the group will sing
Music publishing companies usually have choral con-
sultants. If the director is unacquainted with suitable materials,
and cannot find sufficient help from the listings on pages
60 and 61, he may write to one of these consultants for
assistance in obtaining suitable materials.

One of the most valuable functions of the small ensemble
is the performance at civic clubs. Thus, public relations between
the school and community organizations are furthered without
taking too many students from class room work. Ensemble
singing involves a fine spirit of give and take between students
and develops sectional leaders for larger groups, both in school
and in community life.
Listed below are a few of the many opportunities of
performance for small ensembles:
1. Civic clubs
2. Radio broadcasts
3. School programs
4. Church and community functions
5. Contests and festivals


Voice classes should be scheduled during the school hours
as a part of the regular school curriculum. Because this type
of instruction requires careful attention to the individual,
classes should usually not exceed an enrollment of 20 students.
Voice classes may be alternated with physical education,
thus meeting two or three times a week with some outside
preparation. If a class meets daily, with outside preparation,
it should receive a full credit. A class which meets daily with
no outside preparation will receive the credit of a minor.
Not more than two years of this .type work are recom-
mended. At the conclusion of this time, students may enroll
for private study.
Voice classes should be elective and open to all registrants.
The teacher may group students according to ability and past
experience as determined by auditions and interviews. Since
this is a class giving much opportunity for individual work,
if scheduling difficulties arise, grouping should be of secondary

Objectives of the voice class are
1. To develop a keen sense of ensemble by means of
Voice blending, pitch, balance, and tonal beauty
2. To develop proficiency in breath control
3. To develop homogenous vowel production
4. To interpret dynamics intelligently
5. To develop a legato style in singing
6. To develop facility in intonation
7. To increase the range of the voice
8. To develop diaphragmatic control
9. To encourage correct speech habits
10. To offer an opportunity for self-expression
11. To develop individual aptitude



1. Cain, Noble, Choral Music and its Practice. New York:
M. Witmark and Sons, 1942.
2. Christy, Van A., Glee Club and Chorus. New York: G.
Schirmer, Inc., 1940.
3. Dykema, Peter W., and Gherkens, Carl W., High School
Music. Boston: C. C. Birchard Company, 1935.
4. Earhart, Will, Choral Technics. New York: M. Witmark
and Sons, 1937.
5. Farnsworth, Charles H., Singing Youth. Boston: C. C.
Birchard Company, 1935.
6. Finn, William J., The Art of the Choral Conductor.
Boston: C. C. Birchard Company, 1939.
7. Krone, Max T., The Chorus and its Conductor. Chicago:
Neil A. Kjos Company, 1945.
8. Morgan, Hazel N., Music Education Source Book. Chicago:
Music Educators National Conference, 1947, $3.50.
9. Smith, Melville, and Gherkens, Carl W., Fundamentals of
-Musicianship, Volumes I and II. New York: M. Witmark
and Sons, 1934.
10. Ward, Arthur E., Music Education for High Schools.
New York: American Book Company, 1941.
11. Wilson, Harry R., Music in the High School. New York:
Silver Burdett Company, 1941.

Voice Production

1. Bachner, Louis, Dynamic Singing. New York: J. Fischer,
2. Brown, Ralph M., The Singing Voice. New York: The
Macmillan Company, 1945, $2.50.
3. Fillebrown, Thomas, Resonance in Singing and Speaking.
Philadelphia: Oliver Ditson, 1911.
4. Lehmann, Lotti, More than Singing. New York: Boosey
and Hawkes, Inc., 1945, $2.50.


5. Rogers, Clara Kathleen, Your Voice and You. Philadel-
phia: Oliver Ditson, 1925.
6. Stanley, Douglas, and Maxfield, J. P., The Voice, Its
Production and Reproduction. New York: Ditman Pub-
lishing Corporation, 1933.
7. Westermann, Kenneth N., The Emergent Voice. Box 62,
Ann Arbor, Michigan: K. N. Westermann, 1947.
8. Westermann, Kenneth N., Modern Phonetization, Volume
I. Adrian, Michigan: K. N. Westermann, 1936.

1. Moore, Gerald, The Unashamed Accompanist. New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1944, $1.50.

Class Voice
1. Clippinger, D. A., Clippinger Class-Method of Voice Cul-
ture. Philadelphia: Oliver Ditson Company, 1933, $1.25.
2. Glenn, Mabelle, and Spouse, Alfred, Art Songs for School
and Studio, First and Second Year. Philadelphia: Oliver
Ditson Company, 1930.
3. La Forge, Frank, and Earhart, Will, Pathways of Song,
Volumes I, II, III, and IV. New York: M. Witmark and
4. Liebling, Estelle, and Pierce, Ann E., Class Lessons in
Singing. New York: Silver Burdett and Company, 1937.
5. Pitts, Carol, Pitts Voice Class Method, Volumes I and II.
Chicago: Neil A. Kjos Music Company, 1936.
6. Ross, William Earnest, Sing High, Sing Low, Records and
Pictures. Bloomington, Indiana: Brown and Ross Pub-
lishers, 1948.
7. Shaw, Warren W., and Lindsay, George, Educational
Vocal Technique in Song and Speech for Classes and
Individuals, Volumes I and II. Philadelphia: Theodore
Presser Company, 1936.
8. Taylor, Bernard W., Group Voice (A Systematic Course
in Singing for Use in Group Construction). New York:
G. Schirmer, Inc., 1936.


9. Tkach, Peter, Vocal Technique, A Fundamental Course in
Voice and Sight-Singing. Chicago: Neil A. Kjos Music
Company, 1948. Teacher's Manual, $1.00, Student's Book,
10. Wilson, Harry Robert, The Solo Singer, A Method of
Teaching Singing in the St~ d io and Classrooms, (Songs,
Vocalises, and Interpretative Suggestions), Book I, M'31,-lin
Low, Book II, Low. New York: Carl Fischer, Inc., 1941,
Sight Reading
1. Montani, Nicola, Essentials in Sighti-Siiiiiig. Volumes I
and II. Boston: C. C. Birchard Company, 1931.
2. Tkach, Peter, Vocal Technic, A Fundamental Course in
Voice and Si;qht-Siinig. Chicago: Neil A. Kjos Music
Company, 1948. Teaching Manual, $1.00, Student's Book,
3. Vandre, Carl W., Sight-Reading Fun, 5 Volumes 2821' N.
Ninth Street, Milwaukee: Handy-Folio MuL-ici Company,
S. A., 1940; S. A. T. B., 1940; S. A. B., 1941; T. T. B. B.,
1942, $.50.
4. Vincent, John, More Music for Sight-Reading. New York:
Mills Music Company, Inc., 1943, $.60.
5. Vincent, John, Mfui.' for Sight-Reading. New York: Mills
Music Company, Inc., 1943, $.60.

Cumulative Lists and Miscellany
1. Christy, Van A., Glee Club and Chorus. New York: G.
Schirmer, Inc., 1940, $3.00.
2. Current Manual of the National School Band, Orchestra,
and Vocal Associations.
3. 1946-1947 Supplement to the National School Band, Or-
chestra, and Vocal Association, $.50,
(The latter two publications are available from:
National School Band, Orchestra, and Vocal Association
64 East Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois.)


4. 1947-1948 and 1948-1949 cumulative vocal lists of the
Florida Vocal Associations, available from
A. Current secretary, Florida Vocal Association
B. Current president, Florida Music Educators Asso-
5. NYSSMA Manual, 1947. High School Building, Hornell,
New York: New York State School Music Association,
Executive Secretary, $1.50.
6. Choral catalogues of many reputable publishers have choral
literature graded and evaluated. "On approval" copies of
specified types or subjects will be selected by their con-
sultants and mailed to the director for his consideration.

What a Din ... But then .....


The principal purpose of instrumental music in the high
school is not simply to produce expert bands and orchestras
but rather to bring music into the lives of boys and girls
through playing instruments together. Awareness of the
potentalities of instrumental music may have been aroused in
the grade school. Captivating experiences in producing melodies
may have come in the junior high school.: The meaning and
significance of instrumental skills are advanced in the senior
high school so that many new music insights are revealed-
insights as to texture and forn which may not have been dis-
cernable in any other musical setting.
Experiences in instrumental music, then, have a special
contribution to make to the child's development. Indeed, par-
ticipation in each phase of the program (the marching band,
the concert band, the orchestra, the ensemble, and instrumental
class) offers unique opportunities, each differing from the
A few objectives of the. instrumental, program are listed
1. To develop efficiency, initiative, fellowship, scholar-
ship, and musicianship
2. To develop the mental and physical health of boys
and girls
3. To build good moral and ethical concepts
4. To foster good citizenship and group morale by par-
ticipating in school and community activities
5. To provide an emotional outlet and a worthwhile
leisure time activity
6. To promote understanding and appreciation of music
by actually playing it
7. To develop a sense of responsibility for the care of
public property
8. To provide instrumental music opportunity for all
children and at the same time to discover and develop
students with exceptional music aptitude or interest


A Florida High School Orchestra in Concert

Organizing the High School Instrumental Program
Each high school band or orchestra should be developed
to meet the needs of its own local school and community.
Procedures and activities should be planned to bring this
about and, also, to afford leadership in musical experience and
In order to acquaint himself with his own situation, the
director should make a survey to determine:
1. Previous instrumental activity in the school and
2. Existing resources
a. Space for instruction
b. Instructional materials (instruments, stands,
uniforms, music, etc.)
c. Time allotment for instruction in the school


d. Number of students who play instruments
e. Number of students who want to play instruments
f. Opportunities for private instruction

After determining the resources and needs of his school,
the school principal and music director are ready to set up a
schedule of instruction. Schedules are a local problem and
must be worked out in terms of local needs and desiderata.
The following are samples now operating in Florida schools.

Small School: Combination Elementary, Junior High, Senior

1 Exploratory Class Class Exploratory Class
Instruments Lessons Lessons Instruments Lessons
2 Class Class Class Class Class
Lessons Lessons Lessons Lessons Lessons
3 Beginner's Beginner's Beginner's Beginner's Beginner's
Class Class Class Class Class
4 Small Small Small Small Small
Ensemble Ensemble Ensemble Ensemble Ensemble
5 Elementary Elementary Elementary Elementary Elementary
School School School School School
6 Band* BaBan dand Band Band

Many directors prefer to schedule band the last period in the day so that occasional rehearsals for special
drills or concerts may be continued after school hours if necessary.


Small School: Combination Junior High and Senior High

1 Senior Senior Senior Senior Senior
Band Band Band Band Band
2 Senior High Senior High Senior High Senior High Senior High
Instrument Instrument Instrument Instrument Instrument
Class Class Class Class Class
3 Junior Junior Junior Junior Junior
Band Band Band Band Band
4 Conference o r Special Rehearsals
5 Instrument Instrument Instrument Instrument Instrument
Class Class Class Class Class
6 Beginner's Beginner's Beginner's Beginner's Beginner's
Class Class Class Class Class

Medium Size School: Combination Jr.-Sr. High, seven period

1 Section Section Section Section Section
Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice
2 Concert Concert Concert Concert Concert
Band Band Band Band Band
3 Orchestra Orchestra Orchestra Orchestra Orchestra
or Strings or Strings or Strings or Strings or Strings
4 Second Second Second Second Second
Band Band Band Band Band
5 Beginner's Beginner's Beginner's Beginner's Beginner's
Band Class Band Class Band Class Band Class Band Class
6 Beginner's Beginner's Beginner's Beginner's Beginner's
String Class String Class String Class String Class String Class
7 Section Section Section Section Section
Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice


Large High School: Two teachers, 250 students or more in in-
strumental music.

Teacher #1

1 Band I Band I Band I Band I Band I
2 Horns Trombones Cornets Basses Baritones
3 Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate
Strings Strings Strings Strings Strings
4 Flutes Saxophones Clarinets Double Deep
Reeds Reeds
5 Band II Band II Band II Band II Band II
6 Conference a nd Special Re hearsals

Teacher $2

1 Theory Theory Theory Theory Theory
2 Elementary Elementary Elementary Elementary Elementary
Strings Strings Strings Strings Strings
3 ............ Conference ............ Conference ...........
4 Orchestra Orchestra Orchestra Orchestra Orchestra
5 Advanced Advanced Advanced Advanced Advanced
Strings Strings Strings Strings Strings
6 Music Music Music Music Music
Appreciation Appreciation Appreciation Appreciation Appreciation



Although the traditional instrumentation pattern is an
aim for advanced school bands and orchestras, it is frequently
impossible to attain. It is probably not as essential to achieve
this as it is to allow as many pupils as possible to enjoy the
benefits of participation. Instrumentation can be flexible
enough to afford all boys and girls a place in the band or
Suggested instrumentation for high school bands of various
sizes is listed:

Approximate size of Band... 20 40 60 80 100

Flutes................ 1 3 4 5 8
Piccolos*............. ...... (1) (2) (2) (3)
Oboes ....................... 1 2 2 2
English Horns*................ .. ........ (1) (1)
Bassoons...................... 1 2 2 3
Contrabassoon*...... ....... ........ ............... (1)
Bb Clarinets ........... 5 12 16 20 24
Alto Clarinets................. ........ 2 3 4
Bass Clarinets......... ...... ......... 2 3 4
Alto Saxophones....... 1 2 2 4 4
Tenor Saxophones............... 1 1 2 2
Baritone Saxophones ........... 1 1 1 1
Bass Saxophone.......... ............. ........ 1 1
Cornets.............. 5 6 6 8 12
Trumpets........................... 2 2 4
Fluegel Horns* ........... .............. .............. (2)
French Horns........... 2 4 5 6 8
Trombones........... 2 3 6 6 8
Bass Trombones* f.... ........... .. .... ... ....... (2)
Baritones............. 1 2 2 2 3
Basses (Brass)......... 1 2 4 6 6
Basses (String)........ ........ ..... ........ 1 2
Drums............... 2 2 3 4 4
Tympani............. ........ 1 1 1 1
Harpf ............... ....... ........ ....... 1 1

Doubled by another player.
t When called for in score.


orchestra. The problem of balance may be solved by alternating
personnel or by other schemes which the director may devise.

Suggested instrumentation for high school orchestras of
various sizes:

Size of Orchestra.......... 20 40 60 80 100

Flute ............... 1 2 2 3 3
Piccolo* t............. ................ (1) (1) (1)
Oboe ................. 1 1 2 3 3
English Horn* t...... ...... ........ ........ (1) (1)
Clarinet............... 2 2 4 4 4
Bass Clarinet f .............................. 1 1
Bassoon............... 1 1 2 2 3
Contrabassoon*t ...... ............. ....... ....... (1)
French Horns......... 2 2 4 4 5
Trumpets............. 2 2 3 3 3
Trombone............. 1 2 2 2 2
Bass Trombone......... ...... ............... 1 1
Tubat ............. ....... ... .... ........ 1 1
Harpt. ......... ...... ... .. ........ ........ 1 1
Percussion............ 2 2 2 3 3
Violin I............... 4 8 12 16 18
Violin II.............. 4 6 10 14 18
Viola ................. 1 4 6 10 12
Cello ................. 2 4 6 8 10
String Bass............ 1 2 4 6 8
Piano................. 1 1 1 1 1

Instruments usually doubled by other members of the family.
t When called for in score.
t Rehearsal only.


The Horns Come Through

It is the director's responsibility to keep the school admin-
istration advised as to the out-of-school invitations for ap-
pearances and in every case to secure the approval of the
administration before the engagement is accepted. Perform-
ances which cause students to miss classes should be accepted
infrequently and only after careful conference with the school
administration. School music units should not attempt to
compete with professional music groups. They should not
appear under commercial sponsorship, nor otherwise impinge
upon the professional musician's livelihood. The code of ethics
worked out locally between school directors and the musicians
union should conform to that of the national organizations
of both groups.
An outline of appearances that are recommended as being
of value to the student, the community, and the school follows:
1. School programs
a. Concerts in assemblies
b. Incidental music for assemblies
c. School pep rallies
d. Commencement and class day programs
e. School operetta accompaniment
f. Half-time entertainments at football games and other
athletic events
g. Special event and seasonal programs


h. School radio programs
i. Assist home room and classroom programs
2. Community programs
a. Community concerts
b. Navy Day, Memorial Day and other patriotic and
seasonal ceremonies
e. Parent-Teacher programs
d. City and county teachers meetings
e. Civic parades
f. City and county music festivals
g. City and county combined bands and orchestras
3. Inter-Community programs
a. State clinic programs
b. F.E.A. programs
c. District and state competition-festival events
d. Exchange invitational concerts with other schools and
e. All-state clinic bands and orchestras

School bands and orchestras should receive their financial
support from school tax sources. However, when it is necessary
to augment school allotments with funds raised by parent or
civic groups, care should be exercised by the principal and
director to assure that the activities of these groups pertain-
ing to the school conform with school policies. This type of
financial support should be considered as a temporary measure
until such time as the school can adequately finance the pro-
The school band and orchestra are excellent vehicles for
the propogation and practice of democratic ideals. Student gov-
ernment is an important factor in the development of any
school organization. Most bands and orchestras have a stu-
dent-officer system of self-government.
Besides providing citizenship training, a group of well
selected and efficient student officers will relieve the director


of many time-consuming administrative details. Freedom from
these details will give him more time to devote to instruction
of the student.

To be eligible for office students should show:
1. Average or better scholastic attainment
2. Ability to follow and give instructions
3. Ability to get along with and command respect of fel-
low students

Librarians at Work Processing Music.

A typical student-government organization for band:
1. Band Captain
a. Elected by bandmembers
b. Represents the band on Student Council
c. Is in charge of band in absence of director
d. Acts as chairman of band council of officers
e. Serves in a liaison capacity between students and
director and with visiting groups
2. First Lieutenant
a. Elected by bandmembers
b. Assumes duties of captain in his absence
c. Charged with care of school instruments
d. May be assigned special duties by the director
3. Second Lieutenant(s), usually more than one
a. Elected by bandmembers or appointed by the director
b. Assumes duties of captain in the absence of both the
captain and the first lieutenant


c. Keeps attendance records
d. Becomes secretary of band, treasurer of band, or
e. Is in charge of uniforms with the quartermaster as
his assistant
f. May be assigned special duties by the director

4. Drum Major(s)
a. Appointed by the director or elected by the students
b. Is responsible for the activities of the band at pa-
rades and other marching appearances and works
under the direct supervision of the bandmaster

5. Music Librarian(s)
a. Appointed by the director or elected by the band-
b. Processes new music
c. Maintains music in good order and repair
d. Prepares folios for rehearsal and concert
e. Checks music in and out to individuals
f. Maintains index file of music
g. Keeps director informed as to music replacement
h. Maintains band bulletin board and scrapbook
6. Quartermaster
a. Appointed by director or elected by students
b. Issues and receives uniforms and maintians record
of their condition
c. Keeps director informed as to uniform replacement
d. Supervises certain band equipment while traveling
7. Student Conductor
a. Appointed by director or elected by students
b. Conducts band in the director's absence or upon
his instruction
A typical student-government organization for orchestra:
1. Orchestra chairman


2. First vice-chairman
3. Secretary-treasurer
4. Librarian
5. Quartermaster
6. Student Conductor
(The duties of these officers are similar to those listed
under band.)
7. Concertmaster (first choir violinist)
a. Appointed by the director
b. Assists with tuning
b. Helps establish uniformity of bowing
d. Checks string instruments for bow tension, bridge
alignment, stringing, and similar details
The Band and Orchestra Councils
The officers of each organization constitute a council or
staff. This council meets at regular intervals with the direc-
tor to:
1. Plan public appearances and solve problems related
2. Plan social activities
3. Discuss student problems
4. Devise student award system and assist in its admin-

Feeder orchestras and bands are recommended in schools
where enrollment is large enough to warrant them inasmuch
as the music program is conceived in terms of serving all stu-
dents, rather than only the most gifted ones.
The following factors enter into determining placement
of students in either elementary or advanced instrumental
1. Musicanship
2. Work habits
3. Scholastic attainment


4. Personal adjustment
5. Balance and instrumentation of organization
6. Quality of student's instrument
7. Age and grade level of student
8. Parental attitude toward proposed activities

A well directed program of public relations -will be of
value to the student, the school, and the community. This pro.
gram keeps the community informed as to activities of the
The music director and school administrator should con-
sider every public appearance a public-relations activity. In
planning public appearances it is well to keep in mind the
musical needs of the community. Some media of public rela-
tions include: Printed matter (school publications, newspa-
pers, magazines, souvenir programs) and public appearances
(concerts, athletic entertainments, radio presentations, civic
club appearances, assembly programs).





Within the past decade music has risen to such an im-
portant place in the curriculum of the average high school that
it can no longer be considered as an extra-curricular activity.
Adequate physical facilities which make for efficient music
training should be planned for approximately 75% of the entire
enrollment. The minimum size is controlled by the size of the
largest school music organization, whereas the attached rooms
such as the practice rooms and the music storage rooms are con-
trolled by the number of students actually taking music edu-
cation during the six period day.

The minimum facilities for actual band practice in the
smallest high school should include a band room of approxi-


FLO0 3 2 S 4 L

1. Al >L H.--.M APr L^-.T


mately the size of a standard classroom, a small office, an in-
strument storage room, a small work room and a practice room.
As the size of the school is increased, the only suggested changes
are the addition of more practice rooms and the corresponding
increase in the size of the office and other rooms. A standard
practice room should be approximately 6' x 8'. It is desirable
that the walls and the ceiling have acoustical treatment and
that there be a felt lining between the practice rooms to further
deaden the sound transmission. For every three of the small
size practice rooms there should be one practice room approxi-
mately 10' x 12' for the size of small ensembles. The practice
rooms may open directly into the main band room or they may
be accessible from a short hallway. It is more desirable that
the office be near the work room and the storage area than to



be easily accessible from the hallway or entrance door. The
band master must keep records and catalogues on instruments
and music in order to keep the organization abreast with the
new developments. To do this he must have adequate file
cabinets and a desk where he can concentrate on administra-
tive duties. He should have very close control and supervision
over the work room which normally is a small corner between
the office and the instrument storage room. The work room
will be of untold value in training proper care and in perform-
ing minor repair to instruments. The savings in money which
results from accomplishing these minor repairs under the
direction of the band master, instead of sending the instruments
to a commercial repair shop, will very soon pay for the addi-
tional cost of this room. The only equipment which should be


I *IC# WAntS TLi2 _CIBC=-
&u~ -rt rII. At.4(1Yw t.
0 2 4 S 0~LE~~U~

built into the repair room is a sink with a counter top work
space on each end and a rack on the opposite wall for the
storage of broken instruments or instruments in the process of

It is highly desirable that the instrument storage room be
in the line of natural traffic from the hallway into the main
band room and that it be so arranged that the students may
file into this storage room, pick up their own instruments as
they pass the racks rather than having to go into the room and
come out the same door carrying an instrument. Every bit
of the time which can be eliminated from the amounts neces-
sary to transpose the students from the hall to their seats in
the band is worthwhile. Different size and type of shelving




should be placed in the storage room after the instruments
have been checked for size and the shelves made to fit the
instruments. It is highly desirable that all of one type of
instrument be placed together in the rack.


0_ 21 4 mS

5TAN=-AYA.? 2.2' WID E

Storage for uniforms should take the form of a space to
hang the uniforms properly and a small shelf should be provid-
ed for the storage of hats. Storage for any other special attire
should be so planned that the uniform may be carefully
preserved. This storage space should be so catalogued that a
complete uniform may be assigned to the student and the
inventory of uniforms checked merely by seeing that every
garment is in place. Shallow closets with sliding doors have
proved most satisfactory. If the door contains glass it is pos-
sible to check the entire inventory of uniforms without open-


ing the closets. Uniforms are a very expensive item, the cost
of which can easily be dissipated by improper storage. The
cost of this storage space will be saved very quickly by the
saving in uniforms.
A minimum band room is approximately the size of a
classroom. This size is adequate for a school enrollment of
about 250 students. The size of this room can be increased so
that it will adequately take care of the needs of approximately
a 400 pupil school merely by extending the wall as shown in
the sketch. The main difficulty in using a classroom is the 12'
ceiling height. Every effort should be made to raise the ceiling
in a band room to a minimum of 14'. A much preferred height
is approximately 18'. This is to allow for an adequate
acoustical period. In planning a new building, the band
facilities should definitely be developed as a separate building,
or at least the recommended heights should be used rather
than attempting to use a classroom. If the band room ceiling
is increased to approximately 20', it is possible to get two
stories of practice rooms on the back side of the bandroom.
The natural shape of a band room is that of a half circle, and
this is the shape that the steps should take. The outside corners
of the room may then be used for the storage of the larger
instruments, provided definite racks are made for their storage.
The most desirable light is from the rear of the players, there-
fore high windows should be placed in the wall behind the
band. Likewise artificial light should be placed so that the
illumination will be from the rear of the pupils. This requires
that all of the fixtures be near the outside wall. The podium
should be in the front of the room and should be from 6' to 8'
in diameter. All rises should be approximately 8". The first
step should be 4' wide, and the next two steps should be 5'
wide each, and all additional steps should be 6' wide. If a
room is definitely built for a band room, these steps may be
built in as a permanent floor. But if they are to be constructed
of wood on top of a floor, it would cost very little extra to
make them portable. If they are portable, they may be used
by the band for concerts in other places.


Reverberation and reinforcement of sound are two prob-
lems which should be studied carefully by acoustical engineers
before a music rehearsal room is constructed. Reverberation
time of any room may be determined by means of electro-
acoustical equipment designed for that purpose. A description
of this apparatus may be found in "Applied Acoustics," Olson
and Massa. Reverberation control may be computed on a scien-
tific basis so that there is no longer any reason why poor
acoustical conditions should be present in new construction.
There has recently been developed a band room which is
so arranged that sliding doors may be placed in the front wing.
With this arrangement it is possible to construct an amphi-
theater in front of the band room, thus securing a very fine
assembly place for the school and municipality with very little
additional cost to the school board.
All of the music facilities should be located in the same
area as there is some coordination and cooperation between the
choral group and the band.
If the high school is of such size that the band must
practice each hour in order to provide adequate band training
for the school, then it is necessary to build a separate choral
room. The choral room can take the form of a small auditorium
having the number of seats required to take care of the largest
choral group which would practice at one period, or it can
take the form of a stage, having steps in a semi-circle similar
to the band room. If the auditorium type choral room is used,
the seats should be movable, and 48" should be allowed for
each row. If the stage type room is used, the steps should
each be 48" to allow for a row of folding chairs with room in
front to walk, or in case chairs are not used, two rows of
singers could stand on each step. There must be adequate space
at the front of the choral room for the director and the piano.

The choral director's office should be large enough not
only for a desk and a file, but for a small piano to be used in
auditions and for small group rehearsals. It is likewise desirable
to have a small library with file cabinets for storage of choral
music. A closet type storage room for gowns, completes the


normal requirements for a choral room. It is very desirable
that this gown storage be easily accessible. Storage doors off
the main hallway have proved very satisfactory.
Where possible every consideration should be given to
making a separate building for the music department. The
noise factor which is inherent in the proper use of music
facilities is very distracting in classroom areas. If a separate
building is constructed it may be removed from the main
building to such an extent that it is not disturbing to the
regular activities in the main building. Further, the music
department may be made more individual and more important
by constructing a building which has character in keeping with
its use. A light playful type structure is very superior in its
suggestion of musical atmosphere to the ponderous buttressed
wall of the traditional type red brick school building.
Factors to be considered when designing rooms for instru-
mental instruction are:
A. General
1. Convenient location
2. Adequate sound treatment
B. Space and equipment
1. Large rehearsal room for band and orchestra
a. 25 square feet per student, 250 cubic feet per student
with a 14 foot ceiling from the floor plus 20% of
the total volume for reverberation space
b. Suitable risers: 8 inch rise, 4 to 6 foot deep plat-
forms, four platforms
c. Sufficient folding chairs for the largest group
d. Band room stands: non-folding, heavy base, metal
e. Blackboard, 60 square feet
f. Bulletin board, 40 square feet
2. Director's office
a. Desk and chairs
b. Letter files
c. Typewriter
d. Telephone or intercommunication device


3. Music library
a. Work tables
b. Sorting racks
c. Legal and letter size filing cabinets for music
d. Cabinet for storage of materials
e. Card index file (3 x 5)
f. Door and window locks
4. Ward room
a. Sufficient size to accommodate shelves and cabinets
to hold uniforms
b. Cabinets designed with rods for uniform hangers
c. Room or cabinets to be dust and vermin proof
d. Door and window locks
5. Instrument storage rooms
a. Equipped with shelves, cabinets, and wall brackets
b. Door and window locks
c. May be used also for practice rooms
6. Practice rooms
a. A number of small rooms for individual practice
b. Larger room with piano for ensemble practice
c. Blackboard and bulletin board in each

,| B lf
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-.-** *-^*a^


A New Florida School Music Building


Although it is desirable that as many students as possible
own their instruments, there are certain instruments that the
school should own in order to maintain a nucleus of the funda-
mental band and orchestra instrumentation.
Two lists are given below. The first is a list of basic instru-
ments which should be obtained first. A planned purchase
program extending over a period of three or more years is a
practical method for obtaining these basic needs. The second
list is expanded to include additional instruments to be obtained
after the basic needs are met.

Basic List
Alto Clarinet
Bass Clarinet
Baritone Saxophone
Single French Horns
BB' Sousaphones
Bass Drum and Cymbals
Snare Drums (Field)
Pair Tympani
String Basses

Expanded List
2 Piccolos
2 Oboes (1)
1 English Horn
2 Bassoons (1)
2 Bass Clarinets (1)
*2 Alto Clarinets (1)
*1 Baritone Saxophone (1)
4 French Horns (3)
*3 Baritones (2)
1 Bass Trombone
$1 BB> Tuba
*6 BB' Sousaphones (2)
1 Bass Drum and
Cymbals (1)
*4 Snare Drums
(Field) (2)
1 Pair Tympani (1)
#8 Violas (3)
$6 Cellos (3)
$4 String Basses (2)
1 Set Glockenspiel

Numbers in parenthesis indicate instruments on basic list.
* Band only.
.Orchestra only.


Typical Instrument Specifications
Flute, metal (sterling silver or plated); low pitch; key of C;
closed G$ key.
Piccolo, metal (sterling silver or plated); closed G# key; low
pitch; key of DP for band; key of C for orchestra.
Oboe, wood only; low pitch; conservatory system.
English Horn (Cor Anglais) ; wood only; key of F; low pitch;
conservatory system.
Bassoon, wood only; Heckel System; low pitch.
BP Clarinet, wood, composition or metal; Boehm system; low
El Clarinet, wood only' low pitch; Boehm system.
Alto Clarinet, wood only; low pitch; key of EP; Boehm system.
Bass Clarinet, wood only; low pitch; key of BP; Boehm system.
Soprano Saxophone, low pitch; key of BP; straight.
C Melody Saxophone, low pitch; Brass; lacquered or silver
Alto Saxophone, Brass, lacquered or silver plated; low pitch;
key of EP.
Tenor Saxophone, brass, lacquered or silver plated; key of BP;
low pitch.
Baritone Saxophone, brass, lacquered or silver plated; key of
E'; low pitch.
Bass Saxophone, brass, lacquered or silver plated; key of B';
low pitch.
Cornet, medium bore; brass, lacquered or silver plated; key
of BP; low pitch.
Trumpet, medium bore; brass, lacquered or silver plated; key
of BP; low pitch.
French horn, brass, lacquered (silver plate not recommended);
low pitch, single horn in key of F, with EP slide; double horn
in key of F and BP (four valves).
Trombone, B' tenor, brass, lacquered or silver plated; low
pitch; medium bore.
Bass Trombone (F), brass, lacquered or silver plated; low
pitch; thumb valve (rotary or piston type).
Baritone, brass, lacquered or silver plated; key of BP 3 valves;
low pitch; Bell front or upright.


Sousaphone, brass, lacquered or silver plated; key of BBP
(recommended), E' optional; low pitch.
Tuba, brass, lacquered or silver plated; key of BP (recom-
mended), EP optional; low pitch; recording or upright model.
Snare Drum, concert model, separate tension heads; snare
adjustment; head diameter 14" to 15"; shell depth 12"
Bass Drum, concert model, separate tension heads; diameter
28" to 36"; width 14" to 18"; shell wood.
Bass Drum, marching model, separate tension heads; diameter
24" to 28"; width 10" to 14"; shell, wood.
Cymbals, pair, brass; 14"-16" diameter.; medium weight.
Lyrabells (Bell Lyra), chromatic, 25 bars.
Orchestra Bells (Glockenspiel) 21/2 octaves G-C, chrome-plated
bars, 11/4x5/is in case; 21/2 octaves G-C, nickel-plated bars,
1"x/4"1 in case.
Chimes, tubular (Cathedral Chimes) 11/2" or 2" diameter
tubes; 18 tubes.
Timpani, (Kettledrums) pair, with offset chromatic mounting;
pedal tuning; large drum 28" diameter; small drum 25"
Violin, wood; full size (high school or junior high); /4 size
(junior high or lower); 1/ size (elementary school).
Viola, 7/8 or /4 size; wood.
Cello, smaller sizes optional for lower grades; wood; machine
tuning heads (worm gear) optional.
String Bass (Bass Viol), wood or aluminum; four strings;
3/4 size for high school; smaller size for lower grades; machine
tuning heads (worm gear) a necessity.
It is recommended that appropriate cases be purchased
for all of the above instruments.


A band or orchestra which makes public appearances,
should be provided with uniforms. The following factors should
be considered when purchasing uniforms:
1. Durability
a. Standard colors


b. Fast dye
c. Grade and weight of materials
2. Attractiveness and good taste
3. Quality of accessories
4. Workmanship
5. Style and color of uniforms worn by neighboring

Note: When purchasing an initial set of uniforms where there
are a large number of young, small students, consideration
should be given to the fact that there may not be a continued
need for small uniforms.

Materials of Instruction

A music library should be accumulated for the band and
orchestra. This music should be purchased by the school. The
basic library should be selected to provide a variety of types
of music. This will enable the director to prepare varied
programs and at the same time enable the student to experience
a wide sampling of musical literature. The music library should
grow each year and should include the best current releases
as well as standard works.
Music should be protected from dampness, vermin, and
mutilation. It is usually stored in envelopes prepared especially
for this purpose then filed in cabinets.'
Music may be filed in the following manner:
Quickstep size 5 x 64 inches Letter file cabinet
Octavo size 63/4 x 101/4 inches Letter file cabinet
Folio size 9 x 113/4 inches Legal file cabinet

The following types of music are suggested:
1. Band: Overtures, selections (operatic, musical
comedy), suites, novelties, symphonic transcriptions,
marches, dance forms, solos with band accompani-

1. Music filing envelopes may be purchased from the following companies: Education
Music Bureau, 30 East Adams, Chicago, Ill.; Gamble Hinged Music Co., 218 South
Wabash Ave., Chicago, Ill.; Southern Music Co., San Antonio, Texas


2. Orchestra: Overtures, symphonies, symphonic poems,
novelties, suites, marches, dance forms, solos with
orchestra accompaniments.
3. Ensemble music: Quartets, trios, etc.
4. Instrumental solos with piano or instrumental ac-
5. Instrumental instruction books.
6. Dance band music.

Three types of method books are available:
1. Band methods, Orchestra methods. To be used by
the entire group in full rehearsal.
2. Instrumental class methods. Designed for use by
sections of like instruments.
3. Specific method book for individual instruments.
Designed for individual study.

The state adopted text, "Victor Method of Instrumental
Class Instruction", John F. Victor, Victor Publishing Co.,
Dallas, Texas, may be used in all of the above situations. It is
published for all instruments of the band and orchestra and
comes in eight volumes for each instrument, graded in order
of difficulty.

The following audio-visual materials are desirable:
1. Blackboard (50 square feet). For illustrating rhyth-
mic patterns, examples of notation, marching band
formations, seating formations, and other practical
2. Bulletin board (50 square feet). For posting an-
nouncements of scheduled concerts, rehearsals, school
announcements, personnel lists, clippings, cartoons,
posters of interest, etc.
3. Wall charts. Fingering charts, scale and chord
charts, posture charts, and drum rudiments charts.'

1. These and other printed charts may be obtained at little or no cost from the fol-
lowing instrument manufacturers and others: Pan American Band Instrument
Co., Elkhart, Indiana; C. G. Conn Ltd., Elkhart, Indiana; Leedy Drum Co., Elhkart,
Indiana; W. F. L. Drum Co., Chicago, Ill.; Ludwig and Ludwig, Chicago, Ill. The
director may also prepare special charts as required.


4. Mirror, large, full length is most practical. Valuable
for checking playing position, embouchure, bowing,
and other details that cannot be observed otherwise.
5. Combination radio-phonograph and recordings. Play-
ing records of professional performances is valuable
for demonstrating interpretation, tone quality, dyna-
mic effects, and balance.
6. Recording equipment: disc, wire, tape. These items
are usually a part of the school-at-large equipment
and may be used by arrangement with the person
in charge.
7. Motion pictures, 16mm. A number of excellent films
are available for purchase, rental, or loan. It is
suggested that the instructor consult the Educational
Film Index in the school library for music listings.
8. Standard pitch sources
a. Tuning bars (BJ-A)
b. Lektro Tuner: continuous tone production, tun-
able to A-435 to 445; switches BP to A instantly;
two tone qualities, oboe or flute.
9. Stroboconn visual tuner. Tunes visually to one one-
hundredth of a semitone throughout the range of the
piano keyboard.

Students Using a Standard Pitch Source



Maintenance of Equipment
School band and orchestra equipment represents a valu-
able investment. It is subject to hard usage and must be
repaired and replaced periodically. A planned program of
maintenance is essential to real economy.
It is recommended that provisions be made for an annual
maintenance fund of approximately ten percent of the total
evaluation of all instrumental, uniform, and miscellaneous
This maintenance fund may be used as follows:
1. Repair of school owned instruments
2. Replacement of instruments beyond economic repair
3. Repair of music and replacement of lost parts
4. Expansion of the music library
5. Purchasing of additional instruments
6. Replacement of uniforms and accessories

The successful instrumental director is a mentor, counselor,
and friend to his students. Band and orchestra activities offer
the director many opportunities for guidance of students.

Student Load
If the instrumental director's student load exceeds ninety
pupils per day, it is recommended that he teach classes in no
other subject area. This is commensurate with other school
areas (See Florida School Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 3, December,
1946, p. 40). Many schools do not assign home rooms to the
band or orchestra director. If the student load exceeds one
hundred and eighty pupils, it is recommended that an addi-
tonal teacher be assigned. This teacher may instruct instru-
mental classes, direct sectional rehearsals, and may 'assume
responsibility for either all band or all orchestra activity.
In a small school or where there may not be enough
students in band and orchestra classes to meet the minimum
student load of ninety pupil hours per day. the instrumental


teacher may teach in more than one school, or may teach in
another subject area.
The proportion of school bands to school orchestras in
Florida in 1948 was roughly twelve to one. This situation has
resulted from the great opportunity for outdoor activity in
this state. However, there are numerous school functions where
the orchestra can be used more effectively.
Wherever a music specialist is successfully engaged mi
band instruction it is also possible to establish an orchestra.
The formation of an orchestra requires only the addition of
string instruments to some of the wind and percussion instru-
ments of the band. In this manner any school that maintains
a band can also produce an orchestra by the formation of
string classes.
An orchestra is essential to every well balanced music
program. Students will gain rich musical experience through
playing and hearing orchestral music. The band is not an
adequate substitute for an orchestra, since the purposes of the
two organizations are not the same, their tone color is not
identical, nor is their literature identical.


It is beyond the scope of this bulletin to go into the details
of methods of instruction in instrumental music. A study of
the needs of the student, the school, and the community will
indicate what method or combination of methods to use.
Freshness of approach is one of the primary criteria of a
rehearsal method. Students seldom look forward to lessons and
rehearsals that follow a rigid procedure day after day. Every
rehearsal, every new composition should present a new and
challenging learning experience.
A careful examination of State adopted instructional
materials, together with study of the following r.-.ii-lln refer-
ences may be of value to the instrumental director.


Seating formations for band and orchestra are determined
by the following factors:
1. Size and shape of rehearsal room
2. 'Size and shape of stage or concert area
3. Instrumentation and size of organization
4. Balance and blend
5. Acoustic qualities of the area used for rehearsal and
Wherever possible the seating should be spaced so that
the director may move among the players without disturbing
them. With this arrangement, parts may be heard and music
checked while the rehearsal is in progress.
Suggested seating charts for band and orchestra are illus-
trated below. The director should adapt these to meet his local




The marching band is an important phase of the instru-
mental program in that it develops muscular and mental
coordination. It acts as a strong public relations outlet for the
school because it is seen and heard-by a large number of people.
In addition, it gives the student a strong feeling of pride in
his school and community.
Time allotted to marching band activities will vary with
the needs and demands of the school. The marching band
should be provided with sufficient time for drilling to allow
it to reach an acceptable standard of performance. It is sug-
gested that from ninety to one hundred and twenty minutes a
week be allowed for this activity. Drill time may be arranged
in one of the following ways:
1. Alternate band drill with study hall two or more
times per week
2. Use activity period
3. Use band period
4. Rehearse after school
The marching band is above all a musical organization.
Much thought and care should be given to the selection and


preparation of its music. Inasmuch as it is a school organiza-
tion, public appearances should always conform to standards
of good taste.

A Marching Band Ready for Action.

The marching formation depends on the following factors:

. 1. Size of band
2. Instrumentation
3. Nature of activity
4. Type of maneuver

Two suggested formations are illustrated below.





6 5 4 3 2 1

Trom- Trom- Trom- Trom- Trom- Trom-
bone bone bone bone bone bone
Bass Horn Horn Horn Horn Bass
Bass fHorn Baritone Baritone /Horn Bass

Snare Snare Snare *Bell *Cym- Bass
Drum Drum Drum Lyra bals Drum

Solo First Third Third First Solo
Cornet Cornet Cornet Cornet Cornet Cornet

Solo Second Bass Alto Second Solo
Cornet Cornet Clarinet Clarinet Cornet Comet
First Alto Alto Tenor Baritone First
Clarinet Saxophone Saxophone Saxophone Saxophone Clarinet
Fiist Second Third Third Second First
Clarinet Clarinet Clarinet Clarinet Clarinet Clarinet
Second Second Third Third Second Second
Clarinet Clairnet Clarinet Clarinet Clarinet Clarinet
Piccolo Flute Third Third Flute Piccolo
Clarinet Clarinet

t These positions may be filled with an additional Baritone and an E-flat Bass or with brass instruments
other than slide trombones.

Rank A









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Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs