Editor's note
 Rubber tappers
 Child mortality
 Center news
 Museums and galleries
 News and notes

Title: Latinamericanist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066464/00013
 Material Information
Title: Latinamericanist
Series Title: Latinamericanist.
Alternate Title: University of Florida latinamericanist
Latin americanist
Abbreviated Title: Latinamericanist
Physical Description: v. : ; 28-36 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida -- Center for Latin American Studies
Publisher: Center for Latin American Studies
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: May 1989
Frequency: semiannual[<1992->]
3 no. a year[ former ]
biweekly[ former <, sept. 28, 1964->]
Subject: Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Study and teaching (Higher) -- Periodicals -- Latin America -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 3, 1964)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended between v. 35, no. 1 (fall 1999) and v. 36, no. 1 (spring 2005).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 36, no. 2 (fall 2005).
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issn - 0502-6660

Table of Contents
    Editor's note
        Page 1
    Rubber tappers
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Child mortality
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Center news
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Museums and galleries
        Page 12
    News and notes
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text

Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

a tinamericanis t

Volume 24 Number 2
May 1989
Marialisa Miller, Editor


This issue marks the twenty-fifth year of the Latinamericanist.
It has evolved from an in-house news letter to a publication
distributed worldwideto inform interested individuals and institutions
of the ongoing activities, work and events at the Center for Latin
American Studies(CLAS). Publication began the first year that
CLAS was formed and has grown up alongside it.
The latest development of note at the Center is the major Ford
Foundation Grant awarded to the Tropical Conservation and
Development Program (TCD). The Ford Foundation has awarded
a $ 231,000 grant to the Centerfor Latin American Studies' Tropical
Conservation and Development Program. The grant will strengthen
interdisciplinary research, training, and curriculum development to
address the related problems of biological conservation and the
livelihoods of the rural poor in Latin America.
Support is growing in the international community for such
interdisciplinary work, especially in view of the degradation of
tropical forests throughout the world. But very few institutions have
UF's ability to draw on a.wide range of experienced scholars in the
natural, agricultural and social sciences. Drawing on that resource,
the Center for Latin American Studies created a graduate program
concentration in tropical conservation and development, where
scholars and practitioners can attack the issues of tropical
conservation and development based on Latin American Field
experience. The program will now expand under the Ford grant.
TCD builds on years of campus experience in international
agricultural extension and research, tropical biology, and social
science research on Latin America. Particularly important were the
pioneering efforts of the Amazon Research and Training Program
directed by Marianne Schmink, which developed intra-institutional
linkages at UF and built a strong network throughout Amazonian
Latin America. Likewise, the Program for Studies in Tropical
Conservation has a successful program training natural scientists
working in the neotropics and has helped to strengthen institutions
in the region concerned with biological conservation. The Institute
for Food and Agricultural Sciences International Programs and the
Center for Tropical Agriculture have strong research and extension
presence in Latin America, enriching both the faculty and student
pool for the TCD program, as well as broadening further the
institutional reach of the university.
In other TCD activities, Biology Professor Kent Redford, a
member of the TCD Executive, organized a workshop sponsored by
the US Man and the Biosphere in January. The workshop, 'Traditional
Resource Use in Neotropical Forests," brought scholars from
around the hemisphere to discuss the contribution of traditional
strategies of resource conservation to national and international
agencies. A workshop volume, edited by Redford, Schmink and
Christine Padoch of the New York Botanical Garden, is in preparation.
Next year, the 1990 CLAS annual conference will be organized by

Kent Redford and Political Science Professor and TCD program
Director Steven Sanderson, underthe auspices of the TCD program.
The conference, entitled "Economic Catalysts and Biological
Resources in Latin America," will focus on longitudinal, cross-
disciplinary approaches to resource use in the neotropics.
In addition, the Center for Latin American Studies is pleased to
announce the ALFRED HOWER BOOK PRIZE for the best book
length manuscript on a Brazilian topic as part of an expanded
publications program. The prize has been established in honor of
Alfred Hower, Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages and
Literature and Latin American Studies, in recognition of his
contribution to scholarship on Brazilian Studies and the Portuguese
language. Hower, who taught Portuguese and Brazilian Literature
at the University of Florida for 25 years, is the co-editor with Richard
Preto-Rodas of the annotated Portuguese readers Cr6nicas
Brasllelras and Quarenta Historinhas and Cinco Poemas.
Authors writing on Brazilian topics are encouraged to submit
completed manuscripts in English on any aspect of Brazil. The
manuscript selected for the Prize will be published by the Center
through the University of Florida, while its author will receive a cash
prize of $1,000 to be awarded at a ceremony at the University of
Florida. All manuscripts will be evaluated by a multi-disciplinary
committee. Deadline for receipt of manuscripts is March 15, 1990,
for publication in spring 1991. They should be submitted to: Hower
Prize Committee, Center for Latin American Studies, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.


Rubber Tappers........................................ ...2-7

Child Mortality ..................................................7-10

Center News .................................................. 10-12

Museums & Galleries..................................... 12-13

News & Notes ..................................................13-16



By Connie Campbell

Connie Campbell is completing a Master's degree in Latin American
Studies with a concentration in Tropical Conservation and Development at
the University of Florida. She conducted her field work in the state of Acre
in the Brazilian Amazon during the months of July through September,
1988. This article comes from part of her research with the rubber tappers
in Acre. The Amazon Research and Training Program and the Vining Davis
Program provided financial support for her field work.
The author wishes to dedicate this article to the memory of Chico
Mendes, the former President of the Rubber Tapper's Union in Xapuri, who
skillfully and compassionately led the tappers in defense of the Amazon
rain forest. He was killed by cattle ranchers on December 22, 1988.

I. Introduction

During more than a decade of unionization and mobilization, the
rubber tappers of the municipality of Xapuri in Acre have been fortifying
their grass roots conservation movement by constructing schools, creating
cooperatives and communally demonstrating against clearing of the forest
in which they live.
This article explores the history of the unionization movement and
focuses on the schools which the local communities are building to
strengthen their awareness and capacity to participate in the struggle to
defend the Amazon rain forest.

Map of Brazil with location of State of Acre marked
in black. Source:CEDI, Cuaderno #13.

II. Background on the Unionization Movement in Acre
A. The State of Acre and the Rubber Tappers

The state of Acre lies in the northwestern section of the
Brazilian Amazon, covering 153,000 square kilometers, 88% of
which is in humid forest (IBGE 1981:7,15).
The rubbertappers live in the forest from which they extract the
latex from wild rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) and gather Brazil
nuts (Bertholettia excelsis). The tappers sell the nuts and rubberfor
cash with which they purchase necessary dry goods. In addition to

hunting and fishing, each family has a small agricultural plot for
cultivation of subsistence crops, obviating the need to purchase
many foodstuffs. Since only a small part of the forest is cleared for
agriculture and the rubber trees can be tapped throughout their
adult life, the rubber tappers can live in and work the same tract of
land for many generations.
Even though migration internal to the serinaal or forested
tapping area is fairly common, the tappers' production system is
such that the forest is preserved even when families move to a
different tract. In the present study, families averaged eight members
and had lived on the same tract within the seringal for an average
of 10.2 years. Over 96% of these people were born in Acre's forests
and are descendants of northeasteners who migrated to Acre
during the rubber booms of 1850-1912 or World War II (see Dean
1987; Ross 1978: 215; Weinstein 1983).
Within theforest, the location and density of the 500-600 rubber
trees tapped by each family dictate the site of the family's home,
which may be so far from a neighbor as to impede frequent visiting.
However, the tappers keep a tight network of communication full of
information which spreads quickly throughoutthe serinal (Allegretti

B. The 1970s Intial Ranching and Unionization Response

The rubbertapperstook advantage of this tight communication
network to begin meeting and acting together in the 1970's in
response to cattle ranchers who were clearing forested areas to
establish pastures. Prior to the 1970's, tappers were caught in a
system of aviamento or debt-peonage to rubber barons (see Dean
1987; Weinstein 1983). Since this system was now collapsing due
to road construction and increased mobility of the tappers, the
rubbertappers were gaining independencefromtheirformerpatrons
(Bakx 1987a:48-49). By the time cattle ranchers from southern
Brazil came into Acre in the early 1970's at the invitation of state
Governor Wanderlei Dantas, tappers in southeastern Acre were
autonomous (ibid:49-50) and in a position to organize, at least in a
loose fashion, against the clearing of their lands.
The empate or stand-off was one of the first mobilization
techniques of the 1970's (Bakx 1987b:544). At these non-violent
demonstrations, the goal of which is to stop clearing and evictions
by cattle ranchers, unarmed tappers, sometimes with their wives
and children confront the ranchers' workers who are operating
chainsaws and bulldozers (Schwartzman 1987:9). The tappers
appeal to the class solidarity of the laborers ibidd) and their common
dependence on the preservation of the forest to convince them to
stop clearing. This tactic is still successfully employed by the
tappers today.
In 1975, the Catholic church's publicization of the tappers'
struggle and assistance from CONTAG (the Brazilian Confederation
of Agricultural Workers) stimulated the formation of official union
chapters (Bakx 1987b:544) of the Sindicato dos Trabalhadores
Rurais (Rural Workers' Union) in Xapuri and Brasileia.
After ten years of local unionization, rubber tappers from four
states met in Brasilia in 1985 for the first National Meeting of
Amazonian RubberTappers at which time they created the National
Rubber Tapper's Council. The Council proposed the appropriation
of native rubber tapping areas for the establishment of extractive
reserves to be set up in areas where rubber tappers and other rural
workers were already living and to guarantee extractive rights to
these people as an alternative to state-sponsored colonization
projects (Bakx 1987b:552; CNS 1985:2-3; Lamb 1986:36). There
are now four such reserves in Acre which serve 678 families (IEA
1988). The present study includes the extractive reserve of Sao
Luis do Remanso.

III. The Union, Projeto Seringueiro and the Schools
A. Sustaining Traditional Knowledge through Popular

Many of these families have worked the same tract of land for
several generations. The knowledge that these people possess
about the forest and the unique system they have devised of
managing its resources are invaluable. As pressure increases to
clear these areas of forest, either for large ranching enterprises or
for colonization projects, the tappers contend that maintaining their
communities in the serinal ensures the preservation of this
knowledge, their way of life and the forest itself on which they
depend. As pointed out in the World Conservation Strategy, "rural
communities often have profound and detailed knowledge of the
ecosystems and species with which they are in contact and effective
ways of ensuring they are used sustainably" (IUCN-UNEP-WWF
1980: 14).
The rubber tappers are ensuring that this traditional knowledge
is not lost by constructing schools in the seringalwhich are designed
specifically for their needs. With workbooks created especially to
address their way of life, the tappers are gaining literacy and
numeracy skills while empowering themselves as individuals and
as a community to defend their rights to the forest. The schools
which they have constructed serve as a place of self-reflection,
critical dialogue and decision-making, necessary elements in the
creation of a community that must work together against challenges
to their livelihood (Freire 1970: 52).
This is the type of education that Thomas LaBelle has found to
be the most effective; education that addresses social problems by
combining literacy and numeracy training with practical applications
(La Belle 1984: 88). With the development of a literate tapping
community, the unions' members could more easily register to vote,
read local newspapers and union flyers, manage cooperatives and,
most importantly, become a community of people reflecting on their
situation and critically evaluating their options to better their lives.

B. History and Approach of the Projeto Schools

Under the leadership of its former president, Chico Mendes,
the Xapuri chapterof the union has grown to its present membership
of over 2,000 since its founding in 1977 (1). The union, togetherwith
a non-governmental organization, Projeto Seringueiro, has helped
the tappers establish cooperatives, women' groups, health posts
and schools in theseringal. The union strongly encourages everyone
to study and hopes to construct schools within walking distance of
all of its members. Literacy skills are emphasized not necessarily to
increase the well-being of those who might migrate to urban areas,
but rather in part to create and maintain a literate community that
could be better informed about political happenings and could more
easily incorporate new technologies that were to be introduced into
the extractive reserves.
With financial support from Oxfam-UK, initial cooperatives
were set up in Xapuri in 1981 (Oxfam 1976:2). The union assisted
the rubber tappers in constructing the first schools in the seringalto
complement these cooperatives. Adult tappers received literacy
and numeracy instruction from their peers who had been trained by
Projeto Seringueiro staff. Although the initial cooperatives failed
due to hyperinflation (Schwartzman & Allegretti: 16) and poor
management (2), the schools thrived.
From the first school which they built in 1980, the Projeto
Seringueiro now has 19 schools with two more under construction.
The Projeto has expanded its educational efforts by providing
classes for children and is now developing workbooks for its
younger students. Total enrollment at the schools is approximately
600, half of whom are children under the age of 15 (3).

Along with strengthening the cooperative, another of the
Projeto's objectives in establishing these schools was to provide an
education that reinforces the tapping culture and enhances
community values. The tappers and the Projeto hoped to increase
the self-esteem of the tappers and strengthen their culture and their
view of themselves as extractive producers. With enhanced
community awareness, the tappers would participate in political
activities to defend their culture and their land. The tappers could
stem the flow of rural-urban migration from the tapping areas
through cohesive political and economic activities which maintain
and strengthen the community.
For example, the workbook created by the Projeto with
assistance from the Centro Ecum6nico de Documentacdo e
Informacoo in Soo Paulo, is entitled Poronga (A poronga is the lamp
the tappers use when cutting rubber before daybreak). In their first
lesson, the tappers discuss how literacy skills can literally "lighttheir
way" to improved lives by accessing printed information. The
vocabulary and word problems of Poronaa differ greatly from the
urbanized workbooks used in the state schools because they focus
on what the tappers encounter in their daily activities. Vocabulary
words include corte (the cut made in the rubber tree), mate. and
coooerativa. Tappers thereby acquire literacy skills in the context
in which they will be using them. The material also stimulates
discussions about cooperatives, union activities and the role that
individual tappers can play in these organizations (CEDOP and
CEDI 1982; OXFAM 1986).

Collection of wood for school construction in the
extractive reserve of Remanso. Photo by: Connie Campbell

IV. Howthe Schools Affects Life in the Serinal

In this present study, rubber tapping families were interviewed
regarding the impact of the Projeto Seringueiro schools on social
change in the seringal and the conservation movement of the
rubber tappers. Different variables examined include the impact of
the schools on (1) self-reported literacy rates, (2) rural-urban
migration, (3) political participation, (4) natural resource use
[techniques used in cutting rubber and hunting] and, (5) marketing.
The Projeto Seringueiro is at a critical stage since the demand
for schools in the serinaal has far outstripped the financial and
personnel resources of the Projeto. Staff members want to evaluate
the activities of the Projeto thus far before proceeding with the
construction of additional schools, the development of newcurricula
and/or the hiring and training of new monitors (4). The present
author coordinated her research with Projeto staff members and
union leaders to address in part these evaluation needs.

A. Methodology and Description of Study Sites

Interviews with 24 rubber tapping families were conducted
from July through September, 1988. There were four groupings of
the interviews based on location, school history and union activity.
Due to the complexity of factors affecting the five variables under
examination, the presence, absence or type of school cannot be
solely responsible for all variation found during the interviews.
However, the interview sites were chosen in an effort to minimize
other variables under examination. Area one has had a Projeto
Seringueiro school for five years; area two has had a government-
sponsored school for the same amount of time. Areas three and
four have never had any access to schools. See Figure 1 for a more
complete description of the four study areas.
below) TO TOWN (years) (type
in years)
Xapuri 4-6 11 PS 5* Yes None
2 Remanso 2 1** govt 5 No 20 year
3 Remanso 1-4 1** None No 20 year
Alcobras 2-4 0** None No None


Figure 1
Description of Interview Sites
= Residents of two seringais in the municipality of
Xapuri were interviewed.
= Extractive Reserve S&o Luis do Remanso
= A state-subsidized producer of sugar cane alcohol.
Residents in Alcobras territory have only a verbal
agreement with Alcobras that their land will not be cleared.

* PS = Projeto Seringueiro
** These areas are split between the municipalities of Xapuri and Rio
Branco. A few tappers belong to the Rio Branco chapter of the union
which has been collecting dues and canvassing for votes in these areas
for several years but has not served its members in any way. In 1988
representatives of the Xapuri chapter mobilized these communities to
convince the land reform agency to make Remanso an extractive
reserve and not a colonization project.
*** Residents of the extractive reserves can sign renewable contracts
with the land reform agency for 20 years of extractive rights. The area
cannot be cleared or sold, except to another extractive producer
(INCRA 1987).

B. Self-Reported Literacy Rates

Since most of the
tappers have not had
access to formal
schooling, their literacy
and numeracyskillswere rea
assessed in more
pragmatic terms instead 1
of the number of years of 2
school attended. 3
Categories of informants' 4
skills are as follows: (1)
no literacy skills, (2) able
to write their name, (3)
able to read and write a
little (basic Figure
alphabetization) or, (4) Rates
they could confidently

2: Adult Illiteracy

read the newspaper and write a simple letter. Generally, the
informants had no math skills. Only those who reportedly could read
and write (those who gave response #4) indicated that they could
perform simple addition and subtraction.

Figure 2 outlines the illiteracy rates in the four interview areas.
For the study population overall, 55% of the adults (persons over 15
years of age) had no literacy skills whatsoever. By gender, illiteracy
rateswere52%for males and 59%forfemales. Although areas one
and two each have had a school for five years, the government
school only offered adult classes for less than a year because of a
lack of student interest. The Projeto Seringueiro designed its
schools specifically to serve adults, which area one's higher literacy
rate attests to.

C. Rural Urban Migration

Of the 24 families interviewed, only one had ever migrated from
the seringalto live in an urban area. This family had to return to the
tapping areas within the year, with the support of union members
and neighbors, in part because they found it impossible to survive
in the city without literacy skills. Dueto union publicization and word-
of-mouth, thisfamily's plight was well known throughout the serial
and in neighboring areas, serving to discourage other families who
may have considering selling their land and moving to Rio Branco.
Most of the rural-urban migration consists of family members
who temporarily reside in Xapuri or Rio Branco to study and then
usually return tothe serial. Overall, 28% of the families interviewed
had members living in urban areas, almost exclusively to study. In
areas one and two, only one to two members of the population were
studying in urban areas. In area three, the portion of the extractive
reserve with no school facilities, two families were supporting total
of 13 children residing in the urban areas to study. Families in this
area were anxious to start construction of a school with assistance
from the Xapuri union and FUNTAC (FUNTAC is the state agency
charged with managing the extractive reserves). Having children
living in town is very expensive for these families, both in terms of
the financial cost and the loss of labor, as well as the emotional
Although the Projeto Seringueiro school and government school
areas had similar numbers of urban students, the area served by the
government school had a very low participation rate. Only seven
students aged 7-13 attended classes regularly at the government
school while the Projeto Seringueiro schools (serving a population
of roughly the same size) each had an average of 25 adult and child
students. Due to frustration with the teacher's inadequate training
and a meagersupply of books, children and adults in areatwo chose
not to participate in the government school. They did, however,
participate wholeheartedly in the construction of a new school with
assistance from the Xapuri union and FUNTAC. Most community
members planned to attend classes once new teachers and books
were available. The construction of the school served as a rallying
point for this community which had not previously worked together.
At the meetings held to discuss the school and the reserve,
many tappers expressed an interest in joining the Xapuri union,
even though they resided in the municipality of Rio Branco and
should've joined that branch of the union. The schools therefore
serve as a catalyst for community mobilization which, with the
positive presence of the Xapuri union, provided an opportunity for
the tappers to increase their political participation.

D. Political Participation

Union and political party membership was highest in area one,
where the Xapuri chapter of the union has been very strong for over
a decade. Union membership was 80% at the household level. In
areas two, three and four, neither the Rio Branco or the Xapuri
chapter has been active. However, union membership in these
areas was not as low as might be expected. For these three
communities, union membership averaged 50% at the household

racy Rates (%)

Male Female

20 50
75 40
83 80
87 100

The important difference between area one and the otherthree
lies not in union membership but rather in union participation. All of
the union members interviewed in area one attended the municipal
meeting in July and at least one of the meetings held from July-
September in the seringal. Union members in the other three areas
complained that the union is so inactive that regular meetings are
not even held. The Rio Branco union representative only goes into
the seringal to collect dues and drum up support during election
years. One tapper in area two reported that he had been a member
of the Rio Branco union for six years but had stopped paying dues
a year and a half ago because the union was not doing anything to
benefit him or his neighbors. Meetings organized during this study
by the Xapuri union and FUNTAC in the extractive reserve of S&o
Luis do Remanso were well attended, indicatingthatthetappers are
willing to join and work for a union that is working for them.

Teacher uses Freire method to teach vocabulary in seringueiro school.
Photo by Connie Campbell.

Only in area one did those interviewed hold political party
membership, exclusively with the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT),
the Workers' Party. The union provides assistance to tappers
experiencing difficulties in voter registration, either because of
illiteracy or documentation problems, but does not pressure its
members to join any particular party. However unionization has
greatly increased the strength of political candidates sympatheticto
the tappers' movement since most rubbertappers tend to follow the
union's lead in supporting a political party. Meetings at the Projeto
schools and discussions during class provide forum for candidates
and union leaders to interact with the rubber tappers and for the
tappers themselves to learn about their role in the political process.
In the elections held in the fall of 1988 in Xapuri, the union
strongly supported the PT candidate for prefeito (mayor). He lost by
only 219 votes. A rubber tapper and union leader gained one of two
seats for vereador (town council), won by PT candidates. Not only
are the tappers putting candidates loyal to their cause in office, but
their voting strength is sending a message to other political parties
who visibly modified their campaigns during this election to try and
win the support of the rubber tappers.

E. Use of Natural Resources : Rubber Tapping and Hunting

Along with strengthening their political representation to support
their conservation movement, the rubber tappers are promoting
their production system as a sustainable alternative to ranching and
colonist farming. The Projeto Seringueiro schools have not been
active thus far in teaching their students specific techniques in
management of the forest, however, that is one of their goals (5).
Cutting rubber, hunting and cultivating seedlings of rubber and

Brazil nut trees are some of the topics which both FUNTAC and the
Projeto plan to address in their new curriculum both within the
extractive reserves and in other tapping areas.
All the tappers surveyed in this study learned to cut rubber from
their parents or neighbors. However, many of the tappers are not
practicing the supposedly sustainable extraction techniques which
the union promotes. With assistance from FUNTAC technicians,
visual examination of trees along the rubber trails in all four
interview areas revealed poor cutting techniques and a high rate of
disease due to cutting too deeply into the tree.
In area three, one tree had obviously been severely cut to
maximize latex extraction several months earlier. More recent cuts
were made in the traditional, non-predatory fashion which allows for
full recovery of the cut. One tapper indicated that his neighbors had
severely tapped theirtrees when it was rumored that Remanso was
to be made into a colonization project and that some families would
have to relocate. Once their land tenure was secure with extractive
reserve rights, the tappers were confident in returning to the non-
predatory techniques, as exemplified by the changes in managing
this one tree.
Although this case may be attributed solely to insecurity over
land tenure, there is still a recognized need to standardize the
cutting technique and schedule of the tappers if their production
system is indeed to be proven sustainable. Many families do not
have enough rubber trails to support their sons and their future
generations. Therefore, both the quality of rubber production (to
gain increased income) and the quantity (possibly through
densification of existing rubber trails) must be increased. The
schools provide an ideal setting for the extension education and
discussion necessaryto introducethese new or modifiedtechniques
in rubber production.
Discussion is also essential regarding hunting techniques.
With few exceptions, most of the tappers interviewed indicated that
the quantity of game in their vicinity had decreased significantly in
the past several years due to increased human activity. Only in area
one did tappers have any suggestions as to how to preserve the
forest so that game levels might be maintained, indicating that the
union and the schools have stimulated discussion and critical
thinking on this issue. These suggestions included banning the use
of hunting dogs, regulating the killing of female game and outlawing
hunting for the purpose of selling the meat in town. Rubber tappers
in the other three areas were aware of the increasing difficulty in
finding game but indicated that they did not know how they and their
neighbors could address this problem, even when they identified
their neighbors as the source of the difficulty. The communication
skills and community cohesiveness stimulated by the union and the
Projeto schools are essential in resolving such disputes.

F. Marketing

As mentioned earlier, the initial attempts by the Xapuri union
and Oxfam to form cooperatives did not succeed, however the
union's second attempt proved fruitful in June of 1988. At this time,
30 members created a cooperative with no external assistance. As
of July, the three of the ten households surveyed in area one which
had cooperative members received approximately 16% more per
kilo for their rubber than their neighbors. Even those tappers in area
one who were not cooperative members received a higher price
from their traders who were forced to raise prices the day the coop
was established. The cooperative members received 251 cruzados/
kilo for their rubber while, with three exceptions, tappers in areas
two, three and four received only 200 cruzados/kilo.
Although the correlation is not exclusive, the literacy and
numeracy skill of the tappers roughly corresponds to the price
received for their product. The more literate tappers lived in area
one and also had the highest average price of the four communities

interviewed. This is due to the strong presence of the union and the
Projeto Seringueiro schools in their community which not only
provide numeracy training in the form of word problems about
transactions with rubber traders but also provide the environment
necessary to create and sustain cooperative efforts (6).

G. Conclusions

The goals of the union and the Projeto Seringueiro education
have been met on several fronts. Although the very first schools
were created to support cooperative which did not prove successful,
the schools themselves have proven to be the strongest stimulus in
mobilizing the rubber tapping community. The results of interviews
conducted in areas with a Projeto Seringueiro school, a government
school and no educational facilities indicate that the community
members served by the Projeto schools participate more actively
both in union and political party activities. The schools also serve to
maintain the community in the serinal by providing facilities which
would otherwise have to be sought in the urban areas. By helping
to sustain the community via strengthened political and economic
opportunities, the Projeto Seringueiro schools are reinforcing the
tapping culture and enhancing community values.

V. The Future of the Rubber Tappers in Acre

With the creation of the first extractive reserves and the
establishment of a successful cooperative in the summer of 1988,
the rubbertappers andtheir union have achieved significant victories.
However, Chico Mendes, the former president of the Xapuri union
acknowledged that these were only the first steps that the rubber
tappers must take to ensure their survival and the preservation of
the Amazon rain forest. This observation came after over a decade
of mobilization and three months before Mendes was killed at his
home by cattle ranchers, the latest victim in an ever-increasingly
violent conflict over land.
The time it took to mobilize this community is a luxury that
rubber tappers in other parts of the state cannot afford in light of
rapidly encroaching development in the form of cattle ranching,
colonization projects and timber extraction, all of which are certain
to intensify as highway BR-364 is paved to Cruzeiro do Sul, making
Acre accessible to the export trade routes of the Pacific.
Although the schools are a key factor in mobilizing such
communities, the resources of the Projeto Seringueiro are too
limited to address the needs of all the rubber tappers in Xapuri, let
alone in other parts of the state where the union would like to
establish extractive reserves. Working togetherwith FUNTAC in the
four existing reserves, the Projeto and the union has been able to
set the wheels of mobilization and consciousness raising in motion.
However, the residents of these areas and tappers in other parts of
the state have not had the opportunity or the need to learn to work
together. Community cohesion is essential in projects such as
school construction and cooperative formation, yet people who
have not yet begunto even discuss such issues with their neighbors
will find it difficult to hurry through the process of community
If the goal of the union and the tappers in the northwestern part
of Acre is in fact to mobilize their communities in a fashion similar
to those of Xapuri, a modified set of tactics will have to rapidly be
implemented.The community conservation movement of thetappers
in Xapuri has thus far proven to be successful in achieving land
reform a stronger political voice and international support, however
success has come at a high price both in terms of time and human
life, prices that other communities should not and cannot afford to

1. Field interview in Xapuri with Chico Mendes, former president
of the union in Xapuri.
2. Field interviews with Chico Mendes andGomercindo Rodrigues.
Rodrigues is an agronomist assisting in the management of the
3. Field interview in Xapuri with Gilson Pescador, the Xapuri
coordinator of the Projeto Seringueiro.
4. Field interviews with Pescador and Arnobio Marques. Marquis
works for the Centro dos Trabalhadores da Amazonia (CTA) in
Rio Branco. The CTA oversees the Projeto Seringueiro.
5. Field interview with Gilson Pescador.
6. Field interview with Gomercindo Rodrigues.


Allegretti, Mary Helena.
1979 Os Serinaueiros: Estudo de Caso em um Serinaal Nativo do
Are. Mss: University of Brasilia.

1987 "Reservas Extrativistas: Uma Proposta de Desenvolvimento
da Floresta Amaz6nica". manuscript. Curitiba, Parani:
Institute de Estudos Amaz6nicos.

Bakx, Keith.
1987a O Capital e o Campo: Transformacdo Rural no Estado do Acre
Durante o Pos-Guerra. Caderno de CEAS. No. 109. Maio/
Junho. Salvador, Bahia: Centro de Estudos e AcAo Social.

1987b Planning Agrarian Reform: Amazonian Settlement Projects,
1970-1986. Development and Change. Vol. 18. pp 533-555.
London: Sage.

1982 Poronga. Centro de Documentacao e Pesquisa da Amazonia
(Rio Branco) and Centro Ecum6nico de Documentac&o e
Informacao (SAo Paulo).

CNS (Conselho Nacional de Seringueiros).
1985 "Resoluc6es: Primer Encontro Nacional de Seringueiros da
Amazonia; 11-17 de outubro de 1985". Brasilia.

Dean Warren.
1987 Brazil and the Struaale for Rubber: A Study in Environmental
History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Freire, Paulo.
1970 Pedaaoav of the Oooressed. New York: Seabury Press.

IBGE (Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica).
1981. Sinoose Estatistica da Reaiao Norte. Rio de Janeiro.

IEA (Instituto de Estudos Amaz6nicos).
1988 "Areas Oficialmente Destinadas Para Projetos de
Assentamento Extrativista (PAE). mimeograph. Curitiba.

INCRA (Instituto Nacional de ColonizacAo e Reforma Agraria).
1987 "Portaria P/No. 627, de 30 dejulho de 1987". Brasilia: Ministerio
da Reforma e do Desenvolvimento Agrario.

1980 World Conservation Strateav: Livino Resource Conservation
for Sustainable Development. Gland, S w i t z e r I a n d:
International Union for the Conservation of Nature.

LaBelle, Thomas J.
1984 Liberation, Development, and Rural Nonformal Education.
Anthropoloav & Education Quarterly. Vol 15. no. 1:80-93.

Lamb, Robert P.
1986 Rubber Tappers Mobilise. IUCN Bulletin. Vol 17. No. 1-3.
Gland, Switzerland: International Union for the
Conservation of Nature.


"Projeto Seringueiro-Literacy and Cooperative Training for
Rubber Tappers; Xapuri, Acre". Oxfam Report on Project BRZ
326M and others. Oxford.

Ross, Eric B.
1978 The Evolution of the Amazonian Peasantry. Journal of Latin
American Studies. Vol. 10. Part 2: 193- 218.

SEPLAN (Secretaria de Planejamento e CoordenacAo-Estado do
1986 Anuario Estatistico do Acre: 1983-1986. Volume XXII.
Rio Branco: SEPLAN.

Schwartzman, Stephan.
1987 Extractive Production in the Amazon and the Rubber Tappers'
Movement. Paper presented to "Forests, Habitats and
Resources: A Conference in World Environmental History".
Durham, North Carolina: Duke University.

Schwartzman, Stephan and Mary Helena Allegretti.
Extractive Reserves: A Sustainable Development Alternative
for Amazonia. Report to World Wildlife Fund-US; Project US-
478. Washington, DC.

Weinstein, Barbara.
1983 The Amazon Rubber Boom: 1850-1912.
Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

by Diane Soles

Diane Soles received her B.A. in History from Grinell College, Grinnell,
Iowa in 1984. She is currently a MALAS Candidate at the University of
Florida with a concentration in Anthropology. This summer she will be an
intern with the Ford Foundation in Mexico City, focusing on Women's
Issues and Poverty. The following article was prepared for the Population


Women throughout the Third World are joining the labor force
in record numbers. In Brazil the proportion of economically active
women increased more than 450% between 1960 and 1985
[Fundag&o Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, 1987: 72-
76]. Forfamilies, as well asgovernment officials and social scientists
this trend raises many issues. On the macro-level, what are the
factors that compel or attract women to join the laborforce and how
are they related to overall development? On the micro-level, what
role does women's labor force participation play in household
survival strategies and what changes within family dynamics result
from women's additional role as wage earners?
As these questions suggest, in order to fully grasp the causes
and consequences of thistrend, analysis musttake into consideration
the largersocio-economic processes, and changes onthe household
level. This approach is especially relevant to Brazil, where the
government's commitment to repay its enormous external debt has
led to implementation of the International Monetary Fund's structural
adjustment package which places the burden of debt repayment
disproportionately on the poor and working classes. Included in this
package are reductions in government spending on social services,
such as health and transportation, and labor austerity in the form of
reduced real wages. The reduction of both direct and indirect wages
has had strong impact on the country's poor majority. In particular,
for poor working mothers, who are forced to take low-paying jobs
and given no social support for their reproductive role, the burden
of adjustment is even greater [Hellinger, Douglas and Diane
Soles,1987:6; Safa, 1987:2].
Women's increased labor force participation will have an effect
on their reproductive role. In Brazil, many women are expected to
carry out primary responsibility not only for childbearing, but also for
childrearing. When women also engage in any wage-earning
activities we can expect this additional role to have an impact on
fertility and child mortality. It is for this reason that women's labor
force participation is worthy of demographic study.
The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that child
mortality is higher among women who participate in the labor force
compared to those who do not. The next section provides a review
of theoretical literature on both fertility and mortality issues that form
the framework for this study.

Proximate Determinants of Fertility and Mortality

Demographers John Bongaarts and Jane Menken [1983] were
keenly aware of the need to relate socio-economic and cultural
factors to fertility and of the theoretical difficulties of this task. They
constructed a model of direct and indirect determinants that affect
fertility. In their model, socio-economic factors such as level of
education and laborforce participation do not affect fertility directly,
but rather through five proximate determinants : the duration of
postpartum infecundability; the waiting time to conception;
intrauterine mortality; onset of permanent sterility; and exposure to
intercourse [1983:40-42].
In the case of mortality Lincoln Chen has constructed a model
of proximate determinants which parallels Bongaart's paradigm.
According to Chen there are foursets of direct factors through which
other indirect factors, such as the mother's work activities, affect
mortality. "Parental" factors include maternal age and parity, birth
intervals, and maternal nutritional status. "Nutritional"and "Infection"
factors are present both during and after pregnancy. They include
breastfeeding, food intake, diarrhea, respiratory infections and
other variables. Like "Parental"factors, they may affect birth weight.
Among "Childcare" factors, which come into play after birth,
availability and use of health services, and quality of childcare are
critical. These variables, along with "Nutritional" and "Infection"
factors, affect growth, development and illness (both in severity and
outcome), which in turn determine the child's survival. Figure 1
provides a graphic illustration of Chen's model.

M.len.l 'ge & partly.n
Birth intervals
Meanlal nutritional slaus
1*- 1 11* Partly*=

Qu. .liy of hildc...r
Avalability and use of health services MORTALITY
Source: Chen, 1983: 2066.
Chen's model of factors influencing child mortality.

In an extensive review of the literature, Guy Standing [1983]
summarized the fertility consequences of women's participation in
the labor force. Based on this overview, Standing presents ten
propositions. Of particular interest here is the last one, which has

implications for both fertility and child mortality rates. Standing
hypothesizes an inverse relationship between work and fertility for
poor women who combine childbearing and wage labor based on
his observation that work, pregnancy, and lactation all require
additional calories. For those women who cannot increase their
calorie intake, the combination of work and childbearing results in
a calorie deficit. Third World women who enter the labor force are
consequently more likely to experience secondary sterility and
failure to carry the infant to term [1983:537].
While Standing focuses on fertility, his proposition is also
relevant to child mortality. By applying Chen's model to Standing's
proposition we can conceptualize how women's labor force
participation may affect child mortality. The mother's work activities
may operate through "Parental" factors, such as mother's overall
nutrition, as well as her diet during pregnancy which fall under
"Nutritional"factors. The absence of maternity leave may necessitate
reduced period of breastfeeding and lastly, the mother's limited time
and energy is related to the "Childcare Factors" use of health
services and quality of childcare, for example. Figure 2 shows how
women's labor force participation may operate through these sets
of proximate determinants to affect child mortality.


severityy and outcome)

Souality of childcare
Avlability and use of health services MORTALITY

--- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- - --- - -- - -
Sullrce: Chen, 1983: 206.
Modification of Chen's model to include female employment.

In order to isolate the effects of women's work on child
mortality, we must control for other factors that influence child
deaths.Wood and Webster (1988) have shown that among numerous
determinants education has the greatest impact on child mortality.
Three testable hypotheses arisefrom these considerations: (1)
mortality will be higher among children born to women who are
employed compared to women who are not; (2) child mortality will
be inversely related to the mothers' educational attainment; and
lastly, and most important, (3) controlling for mothers' educational
attainment, the child mortality rates of employed mothers will be
higher than those of women who are not in the labor force.

The Brass technique uses the total number of children ever
born and total number of surviving children to calculate the rate of
child mortality. This information is then corrected for the age-
specificfertility pattern for each particular population. The adjustment
is necessary in order to account for two facts: 1) exposure to the risk
of dying varies with the child's age; and 2) the younger the average
age at the onset of childbearing, the older the average age of
children born to a woman at age x.
The proportion of total children surviving to mothers in different
age groups (20-24, 25-29 and 30-34 years old) is multiplied by a
correction factor to calculate the probability of death by the exact
ages of 2, 3 and 5. Using the model life table, the three survival
possibilities can be converted into a single measure-the average
number of years of life expected at birth. The Brass technique is
summarized in the following equations:
q(x)- d(w) where:
C = total children ever born to women 15-19
total children ever born to women 20-24
d(w) = the proportion of dead among children ever born to
women in age groups w (w = age groups 15-19, 20-24, 25-
29, 30-34).
q(x) = risk of death before age x

Estimates for q(1), derived from information on children born
and surviving to women ages 15-19, are the least accurate of thexq0
values, and in general have been discarded. Here we have used the
estimates for women ages 20-24, q(2); 25-29, q(3); and 30-34, q(5)
[Wood and Webster, 1988: 14-15].


Based on data for metropolitan Brazil taken from the 1980
Census, Table 1 presents the total number of women included in
this sample. The sample is broken down by three variables: 1) age
groups, which correspond to those used for the mortality estimates;
2) educational attainment; and 3) labor force participation, which
refers to women who have been employed during the past twelve
months and worked full time. More than one third of the female
respondents are members of the labor force, with the greatest
number of working women between ages 20 and 24.


Total Female Labor Force Participation by Age Group and Educational Level,
Metropolitan Brazil, 1980 (in milhons)


20 -24

Yer- of formal


Labor Force Partcipalion
3) % (4) %

283 29.5 675 705
620 36.1 1098 63.9
4203 42.5 5678 57.5

25-29 0 264 24.7 806 753
1-3 510 27.8 1327 72.2
4-6 2616 34.6 4935 65.4
30-34 0 310 26.8 846 73.2
1-3 506 302 1168 698
4-6 1682 28.7 4176 71.3

(5) %

958 1000
1718 100.0
9881 1000
1070 1000
1837 1000
7551 100.0
1156 100.0
1674 100.
5858 100.0


TOTAL 10994 34.7 20709 65.3 31703 100.0

Source: rl ------------------- Cn-----. 198
Source: Brazil Census, 1980

Without access to vital registration statistics it is not possible to
calculate mortality rates directly. In Brazil, moreover, vital registry
data is not consistently accurate. Fortunately William Brass [1968;
in Shryock and Siegel, 1975: 892-830] developed an indirect,
retrospective technique for calculating mortality rates based on
census or survey data. This method, allows cross classification of
mortality with socio-economic factors such as women's labor force
participation and educational levels [Wood and Webster, 1988:

Education and Mortality

As mentioned earlier increased education among females may
operate through a variety of proximate determinants to increase a
child's chances of survival. Indeed in this study's findings there is a
strong relationship between increased education and higher life
expectancy rates. Table 2 presents life expectancy rates by mother's
education and labor force participation.


Average Years of Child's Life Expected at Birth by
Mother's Education and Labor Force Particiation

Probability of Death Before Age 2 for Children Born to Women Ages 20-24
by Mother's Education and Labor Force Participation
(per 100 births)

Labor Force Participation
(2) (3)

49.97 57.65
57 03 63.40
62 40 68.33


-7 68
-5 85

Years of Formal

56.47 63 13 -6 66


Labor Force Participation
(2) (3)

205 149 56
124 93 31
116 82 34
148 108 40
-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Source: Brazil Census, 1980

The data supports all three hypothesis: (1), (2) and (3). Life
expectancy is an average of 6.6 years higherfor children of women
who are out of the labor force compared to those who are employed.
There is a direct relationship between the mother's education level
and life expectancy rates. Between the lowest and highest
educational levels, the life expectancy rates rise 12.43 years for
those women who are employed and 10.63 years for those who are
not. Despite this dramatic increase, education did not eliminate the
impact of labor force participation.

Female Labor Force Participation and Child Mortality

The persistent gap in mortality rates between women in and out
of the labor force raises many questions and calls for further
investigation. For example, when, in relation to the onset of
childbearing did the woman first enterthe laborforce? This question
is critically important when keeping in mind Chen's model of
proximate determinants. "Parental Factors" as well as the pregnancy
factor subsets of both "Nutritional" and "Infection Factors" operate
before, during, and after pregnancy. "Childcare Factors" and the
subset child factors, however, only begin to operate after birth. In
addition at different ages child is exposed to different risks of dying
[Chen, 1983:206 208]. For these reasons, the point at which a
mother enters the labor force and the length of time she remains
employed, become critical questions.
The data presented in Table 2 contains average life expectancy
rates forthe children of women ages 20-34. This level of aggregation
was useful for indicating the persistence of a mortality gap between
women in and out of the labor force, even within categories of
mother's education. However, the retrospective nature of the Brass
technique used to derive Table 2 presents the following problem.
The questions employed for the Brass technique cover events that
may have occurred at any time from 2.09 to 5.14 years before the
census date. Unfortunately, the census information about
employment history only covers the last twelve months. The resulting
difference in periods of reference may obscure our understanding
of howthe independent variable affects child mortality since different
proximate determinants operate at different times in the child's
By shortening the length of time covered by the retrospective
mortality measure this bias can be minimized, but not eliminated.
Restricting the findings to the 2q0 value, the number of years
covered is approximately 2-3, as compared with 2-5 for the 2 3
and 5q0 values. Based on this reasoning, I have constructed table
3. This table includes the probability of dying before the exact age
of two forchildren born to mothers between 20-24 years of age. The
retrospective period covered by the Brass technique for this age
group is 2.09 3.23 years. By reducing the gap in the period of
reference, as well as the period of exposure to the risk of dying, we
are able to reduce, but not eliminate, the problem associated with
Table 2.

The findings in Table 3 also support all three hypotheses.
Higher educational levels coincide with lower probability of death
while differences between women in and out of the labor force
continue. The consistent appearance of a mortality gap indicates
that labor force participation may indeed have an effect on child
It is important to note that these findings do not preclude
positive effects of female labor force participation on child mortality.
Using Chen's model,wecan arguethat additional income, generated
by the mother's entry into the labor force, could provide better
quality and greater options for childcare and health services. The
child mortality estimates documented here, however, indicate that
the negative impact of female laborforce participation outweigh the
positive affects.


The implications of these findings are many and controversial.
One cannot accurately interpret them without two additional types
of information: first, contextual analysis of the socio-economic
processes that create the conditions in which demographic
phenomena occur; and, second, ethnographic data about the
specific nature of the relationship between women's labor force
participation and child mortality.
With these needs in mind, investigation focusing on the
differential impact of various types of women's paid employment on
child mortality becomes crucial. Such a study would prove useful on
various levels. It would serve to highlight the specific aspects of
women's paid work activities most closely related to child mortality.
Moreover, the study would begin to address the issue of class,
which is of primary importance given the skewed distribution of
wealth and resources in Brazil and throughout the Third World.
The type of paid employment women may obtain is conditioned
by overall development policies. Currency devaluations, wage
freezes, reductions in social services and export oriented growth
are all examples of structural adjustment policies that help shape
women's employment needs and opportunities. By examining the
impact of employment generated by development policies we may
also begin to clarify the relationship between these policies and
child mortality. These findings, in turn, could produce very concrete
and valuable policy recommendations.


Bongaarts, John and Jane Menken
1983 "The Supply of children: a critical essay." Pp. 27-60 in R. Bulatao
and R. Lee (eds.), Determinants of Fertility in Develooina
Countries. New York: Academic Press.

Chen, Lincoln
1983 "Child Survival: levels, trends and determinants." Pp. 199-232 in
R. Bulatao and R. Lee (eds.), Determinants of Fertility in
Developing Countries. New York: Academic Press.

Years of Formal



Source: Brazil Census,1980
Model Ufe Tables, South


Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica
1987 "Estatisticas historical do Brasil: series economics.
demograficas e socials de 1550 a 1985. Vol. 3. Rio de Janeiro:

Hellinger, Douglas and Diane Soles
1987 "The Debt Crisis: Where Does the Responsibility Lie ?" p.6-
77in Food Monitor. New York: World Hunger Year. November.

Safa, Helen
1987 "Women and Industrialization in the Caribbean", Gainesville:
University of Florida.

Shyrock, Henry S. and Jacob Siegel
1975 "Estimates of mortality from retrospective reports on death." Pp.
829-830 in The Methods and Materials of Demograohy.
Washington: US Government Printing Office.

Standing, Guy
1983 "Women's work activity and fertility." Pp.517-546 in R. Bulatao
and R. Lee (eds.), Determinants of Fertility in Develooina
Countries. New York: Academic Press.

Wood, Charles and Peggy Webster
1988 "Racial inequality and child mortality in Brazil." Paper presented
at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America
(PAA). New Orleans, April 21-23.


CLAS appoints New Assistant Director

After year long search, the Center for Latin American Studies
has chosen a new Assistant Director, Ms. Deborah Pacini Hernandez.
Ms. Pacini Hernandez is an ethnomusicologist who will receive her
Ph.D. in Anthropology from Cornell University this Spring. She
received her B.A. Cum Laude from the University of Wisconsin-
Madison in Communication Arts in 1972 and an M.A. in Anthropology
from Cornell University in 1985. Ms. Pacini is the founder and
president of the Cornell Research Group on the Environment in
Latin America, the founder and treasurer of the Cornell
Ethnomusicology Association and has coordinated two major
conferences at Cornell University. The first was entitled "The Coca
Leaf and its Derivatives:Biology, Society and Policy" in April, 1985
and the second was "Race and Class in Latin American Popular
Music" held in April of the current year.
Pacini has received the Fulbright-Hayes Doctoral Dissertation
Research Grant to complete research in the Dominican Republic on
Social Identity and Class in the Bachata. She has also received
fellowships from the Inter-American Foundation in 1983 to carry out
research in Columbia, as well as numerous fellowships and grants
from Cornell University, University of Wisconsin -Madison, and the
National Hispanic Scholarship Fund.
As the assistant Director she will be responsible for grant
writing, administration of the Center, undergraduate advising and
the Center's colloquium series and cultural events. She will also
teach one course a year. Ms. Pacini assumes her duties as of July
1, 1989.

University Students from Argentina attend "United States
Studies" Seminar at University of Florida

A group of 15 university students and young professionals from
Argentina attended a one-week seminar organized by the Center
for Latin American Studies, from February 26-March 4. Their
sponsor was the Fundaci6n Universitaria del Rio de la Plata, a
private, non-profit institution which seeks to further the political,
social and economic knowledge of potential community leaders in
Every year since 1970, the fundaci6n has sponsored seminars
in the U.S. in which hundreds of university students and recent
graduates from all over Argentina have taken part. Participants are
chosen in a national competition of more than 900 students and
young professionals, based on their performance in universities,
political parties and cultural organizations. The Fundaci6n is non-
partisan and selects students from all Argentinean political parties.
This year's program took the group to the University of Denver
in Colorado, and to the American University in Washington, D.C.,
before coming to Gainesville. Upon arrival in Gainesville, the group

was initiated into U.S. student life by SALAS, the Student Association
for Latin American Studies, who held a potluck in their honor. They
also met the Cicerones, a student group providing campus tours;
SALSA, the Spanish-American Law Students Association; and
MBA students studying international business.
The highlight of the program was attending the Gainesville City
Commission meeting, where Mayor-Commissioner David Coffey
proclaimed "Argentina Day" in Gainesville and presented the
proclamation to the group. Former Mayor Jean Chalmers briefed
participants beforehand on local and state government. Other
aspects of the U.S. were explored in lectures by George E. Pozzetta,
History (Ethnic and Cultural Pluralism inthe U.S.), David A. Denslow,
JR., Economics (Economic Outlook for the U.S.), Clemens
L.Hallman, Instruction and Curriculum (U.S. Educational Policies),
and Terry L. McCoy, Latin American Studies/Political Science (The
U.S. and Latin America:Prospects for the 1990s).
For faculty and students of Latin American Studies, however,
the program's highlight was a panel discussion on the upcoming
elections in Argentina, led by the group's leader, Dr. Sebastian
Mocorrea, a lawyer and political scientist who works for Clarin. a
leading newspaper in Argentina.

38th Annual Center Conference on Development
Alternatives for the Caribbean

On March 31, 1989 CLAS and PACCA (Policy Alternatives for
the Caribbean and Central America) co-sponsored the 38th Annual
Conference on Alternative Development Strategies for the
Caribbean. Open panel discussions were held on Alternative
Development Strategies and Implications for U.S. Policy.
Commentators in attendance included Peggy Antrobus, Carmen
Diana Deere, Edwin Melendez, Richard Newfarmer, Emilio Pantojas,
Peter Phillips, Marcia Rivera, Alex Stepick, Clive Thomas and
Bernardo Vega. This core group, funded by the MacArthurand Ford
Foundations, form part of PACCA's Taskforce on the Caribbean.
The document presented at the conference, entitled Alternative
Visions of Development in the Caribbean, will be published under
the same title. It assesses the current state of Caribbean development
and economies, the consequences and responses to the social and
economic deterioration, the Caribbean Basin Initiative and its
predecessors. The final portion outlines alternative development
strategies and new approaches thatthe U.S. mighttake to encourage
and support such strategies.
Panelists proposed that increased self-determination,
participation, self-reliance, equity, sustainability and regional
initiatives should beguiding principles in theformulation of alternative
development approaches. Specific recommendations include more
attention to the provision of basic needs and social services,
diversification of trade, production integration across the region,
and promotion of labor intensive industries using local and regional
raw materials. Recommendations for U.S. policy include

encouragement of local initiatives in the Caribbean, debt relief/
forgiveness for the poorest nations of the region, cancellation of
bilateral debt without conditionality, restoration of sugar quotas to
pre-Caribbean Basin Initiative levels, and decreased military activity
in the area. Panelists discussed how implementation of these
recommendations would encourage growth with equity, contribute
to regional recovery and the common security of the hemisphere.

Student Association for Latin American Studies (SALAS)

SALAS held its Second Conference on Latin America and the
Caribbean on February 27-28, 1989 at the University of Florida.
Twenty four students from a wide range of departments participated
in the university-wide conference and presented papers in a variety
of fields : Micro and Macro Agricultural Strategies, Women's Role,
Demographic Studies, Aymara Studies, Wildlife and Conservation,
Archeology, Agroforestry and Community and Political Movements.
The diversity of topics reflects the multidisciplinary nature of the
student population pursuing advanced degrees at the University of
Florida. The conference was planned and organized exclusively by
students. CLAS and SALAS co-sponsored the conference. Due to
the positive response and the numerous requests for copies of
papers presented, SALAS is seeking to raise funds for publication
of the proceedings. SALAS is interested in expanding the conference
statewide; interested individuals from Florida universities may
direct inquiries to SALAS, 319 Grinter Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL, 32611.

Two delegations visited Acre in February and March of 1989 to
work out plans for training activities to be carried out in the summer
of 1989. Kent Redford, Douglas-Daly, Gustavo Fonseca of the
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were in Rio Branco from
February 25 -March 1. Marianne Schmink and Susan Poats visited
Rio Branco from March 1 7 and then spent several days in Brasilia
with MAncio Cordeiro of UFAC. Dr. Poats is serving as a consultant
for the Acre project, assisting with the designs of training classes
and fund-raising strategies. Cleusa Rancy has also been contracted
to assist in translation, student advisement, and development of a
collection of readings materials on Acre.
Following the murder of Acre's rubber tapper leader, Chico
Mendes, in December, 1988, the UF Acre Group promoted a series
of educational activities. A tree was planted in his memory on the UF
campus, and a contribution was made to the newly founded Chico
Mendes Foundation.

Argentine students attend American Culture Seminar at
UF. Photo by Linda Miller.

,it -'

Aurolyn Lukyx presents talk on bilinguism and gender in the Aymara
Community while Gary Schaeff, moderator, looks on. Photo by Buddy

Amazon Research and Training Program (ARTP)

From October 16-23, 1988, the ARTP hosted a delegation of
six persons from Acre, Brazil as part of a collaborative research and
training program between University of Florida and the Federal
University of Acre (UFAC). The visitors included Mancio Cordeiro,
Vicente Cerqueira, Mauro Aldrique, Jo&o Aramis Cordeiro (all of
UFAC), Arnobio Marques Junior of the Centro de Trabahalhdores
da Amazonia, and Leonidas Dantas de Assis of the Brazilian
Extension Agency, EMATER, Douglas Daly of the New York
Botanical Garden, MAncio Ayers of the Museu Paraense Emilio
Goldei, and Virgilio Viana, of the State University of S&o Paulo at
Piracicaba, also participated in the meetings. The primary objective
of the meetings was to discuss details of a proposal for a two-year
program of research and training to be carried out in Acre. The
proposal is now under consideration for funding by the Ford
Foundation in Brazil, and other donors.

Colloquium Series

As one of the highlights of the colloquium series the Center and
the Department of Romarce Languages and Literature presented
Mexico's celebrated writer, Elena Poniatowska. Under the
coordination of Andres Avellaneda, the program featured a talk by
the author and performance on March 2nd and a public symposium
with the author and nationally recognized scholars on March 3rd.
The talk and performance entitled "Women Who Write" was co-
sponsored bythe city of Gainesville. Ms. Poniatowska's talkfocused
on the important female contributors to the Latin American literature
"boom" who are now receiving their well-deserved and overdue
recognition. She also spoke of herown work as journalist and artist
who has published over thirty-five books including poetry, plays,
short stories and novels. Dr. Avellaneda presided overthe evening
as Master of Ceremonies and readings of the author's works were
given by Jennifer Pritchett, Kerry Oliver-Smith. Gilberto de Paz
performed at a reception given in her honor.
A public symposium was held in the Rare Books Room of the
Library West on March 3rd. Panelist included Marta Morello-Frosch
(University of California at Santa Cruz), Martha Paley-Francescato
(Georgetown University), Andres Avellaneda and Elizabeth Lowe
McCoy (University of Florida). In addition, the Center for Latin
American Studies sponsored the following series of lectures and
presentations during the Spring semester.
Co-sponsors included the Tropical Conservation and
Development Program, the Departments of History, Religion,
Romance Languages and literature, Entomology, Nematology,
English, Economics, IFAS International Programs, Campus

Ministries Cooperative, First Presbytarian Church of Gainesville,
St. Augustine Presbytery, the Program in Linguistics, the Graduate
School, the Center for Latin American Studies, the Office of
International Programs, the City of Gainesville, and the Florida
Endowment for the Humanities.

Dr. William Bale6, Director of Ethnobiology Unit, Museu Goldei,
Belem, Brazil, "Indians and Indigenous Knowledge in Amazonia".
January 24, 1989.

Dr. Barry Carr, Senior Lecturer and Director of the Institute of Latin
American Studies at La Troube University, Melbourne, Australia,
"The Future of the Left in Mexico following the 1988 Elections".
January 31, 1989.

Rev. Dr. Richard Shaull, Henry Lee Winters Professorof Ecunemics
Emeritus, Princeton Theological Seminary, Liberation Theology,
PopularMovements andSocial Upheavalin Latin America. February
1, 1989.

Rev. Dr. Richard Shaull, Henry Lee Winters Professorof Ecunemics
Emeritus, Princeton Theological Seminary, "Rich Nation in a Poor
World : Biblical Perspective on U.S. Foreign Policy". February 2,

Dr. Jeffrey Bentley, Professor at the Panamerican School of
Agriculture, Zamorano, Honduras, "Writing aProfessionalDictionary
of Rural Honduran Spanish : The Importance of the Legitimacy of
Peasant Dialects". February 4, 1989.

Dr. Jeffrey Bentley and Dr. Keith Andrews, Professors at the
Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano, Honduras, "Pests
Peasants andPublications:Anthropologicaland EntomologicalViews
of Integrated Pest Management Program for Resource-Scarce
Honduran Farmers". February 15, 1989.

Dr. J. Antonio Camacho, Professor of Anthropology, University of
Costa Rica, "Regional Social Science in Latin America". February

Dr. David Lessard, Visiting Professorof History, Catholic University,
"The Mexican Bracero Experience :An InterdisciplinaryPerspective".
February 17, 1989.

Ms. Deborah Pacini, Ph.D. Candidate, Cornell University, "Music of
Marginality: Social Identity and Class in the Dominican Republic'.
February 20, 1989.

Dr. Joel Horowitz, Lecturer at University of Massachusetts and
Bentley College, "Industrialists and the Rise of Per6n : Some
Implications for the Conceptualization of Populism". February 27,

Dr. Sebastian Mocorrea, Lawyer/Political Scientist and Professorof
Political Science at University of Buenos Aires and writer for Ciain,
"Presidential Elections in Argentina". March 1, 1989.

Dr. Claus ClOver, Associate Professor of Comparative Literature,
Indiana University, "Slo Paulo Concrete : City as Poem". March

Dr. Roland Greene, Associate Professor of English, Harvard
University, "The Material Poem". March 3, 1989.

Elena Poniatowska, Mexican writer and journalist, "Women Who
Write : A Talk and Performance". March 2 & 3, 1989.

Dr. Edmar Bacha, Professor of Economics, Catholic University of
Rio de Janeiro, "The Latin American Debt Crisis : External and
Domestic Factors" & "The Tres Cruzados:Stabilization andAusterity
in Brazil'. March 13 & 15, 1989.

Flavio Varani, internationally acclaimed pianist, "A Program of
French and Brazilian Music". April 17, 1989.

Cultural Events

Film Series

The film series focused on a broad range of topics this spring,
showing films about indigenous peoples, immigrants to political
activity of Latin American Women. Films shown included:

Magic & Catholicism
Kayapo of Gorotaire
The Feast
Haiti Bitter Cane
Maya in Exile
Blood of the Condor
La Operaci6n
Kiss of the Spider Women
Plantation Boy
Simplemente Jenny
Double Day
Andean Women
Women's Construction Collective
Portrait of Theresa

February 8, 1989
February 8, 1989
February 22, 1989
February 22, 1989
March 1, 1989
March 1, 1989
March 8, 1989
March 8, 1989
March 29, 1989
April, 1989
April 5, 1989
April 5, 1989
April 12, 1989
April 12, 1989
April 19, 1989

Museums & Galleries
Grinter Galleries

From March 2-April 6, 1989, Grinter Galleries exhibited a
collection of verbo-graphic art of the 1950s through the 1980s from
the Brazilian vanguard, as well as two video displays. The exhibit,
entitled "Brazilian Concrete and Visual Poetry from the Ruth and
Marvin Sackner Archives", occurred in conjunction with colloquia
co-sponsored by The Center for Latin American Studies, the
Department of English and the Department of Romance Languages
and Literature. Professor Claus ClOver of Indiana University gave a
multi-media presentation and lecture regarding the visual aspects
of Brazil's Major metropolitan urban center, with references to the
literature, art, architecture and music of Sao Paulo. The other
highlight of the exhibit was the world premiere of The Material
Poem:An Interview with Auausto de Camoos, video interview with
one of the founders of the Brazilian Noigandres group. The video
was presented by Dr. Ronald Greene of Havard University. Co-
curators of the exhibit were Dr. Charles Perrone, Department of
Romance Languages and Literature, and Dr. Craig Saper,
Department of English.
Concurrently, Gainesville Centerof Modern Art held an exhibit,
"Concrete and Visual Poetry:lmages and Languages", from March
3-April 23, 1989. The exhibited multi-media works were chosen in
a competition sponsored by the Center of Modern Art.
The Florida Museum of Natural History has been conducting
archeological research in Haiti under the direction of Dr. Kathleen
Deagan. The site of En Bas Saline was a large Taino Indian village
in which La Navidad, Columbus' first settlement is believed to be
located. Analysis is currently underway on the 1988 field season's
work. Data from the excavations conducted at En Bas Saline are
beginning to reveal glimpse of Taino traditions, as well as the flora
and fauna, which existed at thetime of contract and several hundred
years before. Additionally, information from a controlled surface

collection should provide insights into spatial patterning at the site.
The archeological research which has been conducted at this very
important site overthe past five years will provide information on the
native environment and the people who inhabited it on the eve of
their destruction.
The Florida Museum of Natural History and the Centerfor Early
Contact Period Studies have recently entered into an agreement
with the National Park's system of the Dominican Republic to begin

a joint archeological research program at la Isabela. La Isabela,
founded by Columbus in 1493 and located on the north coast of the
Dominican Republicwas the first successful European colony inthe
New World. The first field season began in March of 1989. The field
work focuses on determining the physical boundaries and
archeological integrity of the site through a program of topographic
mapping and sub-surface testing.


Florida Endowment for the Humanities awards funding to
AMERICAS '92 Teacher Training Institute and Cultural

The Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida,
and the Latin American and Caribbean Center, Florida International
University were awarded a $10,000 grant from the Florida
Endowment for the Humanities (FEH) to co-sponsor Florida
Encounters:The Experience of Latin American Women, a teacher
training institute for elementary-school teachers. The institute will
bring a Florida dimension to the ongoing program of both centers,
AMERICAS '92, a Columbus Quincentennial program to improve
education about Latin America in U.S. schools.
The goal of the teacher's training institute is to foster
understanding and appreciation of Florida's Hispanic heritage and
long-standing linksto Latin America, through the following objectives:
1) Introduce teachers to concepts essential for understanding Latin
America's contributions to Florida's multicultural heritage. 2) Focus
on contemporary Florida women who exemplify Latin American
cultural contributions. 3) Guide teachers in developing classroom
lessons using artistic expressions as a window on society and
culture. 4) Design a set of follow-up activities that maximizes the
impact of the institute as part of the AMERICAS '92 Columbus
Quincentennial program.
AMERICAS '92 is a collaborative effort of the federally funded
centers for Latin American Studies in partnership with public schools,
foundations, educational organizations, the private sector and the
Latin American diplomatic community. Organized by the Center for
Latin American Studies of University of Florida and initiated under a
grant from American Express, it is governed by a national steering

committee. AMERICAS '92 promotes inter-American understanding
within the context of the 500th anniversary of the European discovery
of the Americas.
Twenty teachers will be selected from Florida schools by the
co-sponsoring centers. They will spend the week of June 25-30 in
Gainesville, and will receive 30 inservice credits from the Department
of Education.
Forfurther information and application forms, contact Dr. Linda
Miller, 319 Grinter Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. 32611.
FEH is also funding CLAS's "Culture and the Arts in Latin
America". A part of the Center's effort to promote public awareness
and understanding of Latin America, the program is designed to
reach the community through special events, radio programming
and public discussion. Kerry Oliver-Smith is the Project Director.
The first event, co-sponsored by the Florida Museum of Natural
History, featured a spirited and compelling performance by the
outstanding GRUPO AYMARA. The Grupo Aymara performed the
ancient ritual and contemporary folk music of the Bolivian Andes.
The six members of the group played a variety of wind, percussion,
and string instruments to accompany ancestral and populardances
performed in splendid costumes. Commentary on the ritual origins
of Andean music was provided by Dale Olsen, ethnomusicologist
and Director of the World Music Program at FloridaState University.
The event drew an enthusiastic audience of over 800 people.
The another component of the project, entitled "Encounters
with Latin American Music"is a radio program created in collaboration
with WUFT-FM and is produced by Charles Perrone. Eight programs
were presented throughout April and May and covered such topics
as Latin American Classical Guitar, Bossa Nova in the U.S., the
Brazilian Wave, Music of the Andes, Chile, Argentina, and the
Brazilian Northeast.



Jose Alvarez, Professor of Agronomy, spent three weeks (January
22-February 11) in Guatemala as a member of cross-cutting
evaluation team to evaluate U.S. AID programs in the Guatemalan
highlands forthe past thirty years and was assigned to evaluate the
areas related to information systems.

Emilio Bejel, Professor of Romance Languages and Literature,
has just co-authored a book with Ramiro Fernandez of Wake
Forest University entitled La subversi6n de la Semlotica. Analisis
structural de textos hispanicos (Gaithersburg, MD: Ediciones
Hispamerica, 1988). The book deals with the evolution of semiotics
from Saussure to the present and studies the subversionss" against
semiotics by "deconstructuralism" and "neomarxism". The book
also presents semiotical applications to Hispanic literary works.

Allan Burns, Associate Professor of Anthropology, continues his
research with the Guatemalan Maya refugees in South Florida. This
Spring, Burns and Jeronimo Campesco, a Maya leader in West
Palm Beach, Florida, presented a paper at the meeting of the
Society of Applied Anthropology entitled CORN-MAYA:
Collaboration between Anthropologists and the Mayan refugee

community in Florida."Thetwo documentaries Burns produced with
Alan Saperstein of WUFTV, "Maya in Exile" and "Maya Fiesta"
were also shown at that conference. Burns received aDSR graduate
assistant award sothat Jullan Arturo (anthropology) could continue
fieldwork on migration and work in Indiantown this Spring. Burns
received commendation from the refugee community last October
for his work over the last few years in research and advocacy for
Maya refugees. This summer, Burns will lead the fifth group of U.F.
students to the Yucatan in Mexico for a six week course in Spanish
and the Social Sciences of the Yucatan. The program is a
collaborative effort between U.F. and theUniversidad Aut6noma de

David Bushnell, Professor of History, presented a lecture at a U.S.
Constitution Symposium held at St. Louis University, on "The
Constitution in Latin American Perspective:lmitation and Questioning
of the U.S. model." He also participated as a discussant in a
symposium at the Library of Congress marking the centennialof the
death of Sarmiento.

Kathleen Deagan, Curator of the Florida Museum of Natural
History, is coordinating and editing a group of papers containing the
results from a decade of historical archeological research at Puerto
Real, Haiti. Puerto Real (1503-1578) was one of the original
Spanish settlements established by Governor Nicholas Ovando

around 1502. The multidisciplinary research at Puerto Real
represents the longest and most systematic excavation of any
Spanish colonial site in the Caribbean. A history of Puerto Real, its
architecture, the role of Africans and Indians as seen through
ceramic evidence are all subjectsto be included in this volume. It will
be a primary source for historians and archeologists concerned with
the early history of European colonization in the New World.

David Geggus, Associate Professor of History, delivered papers in
Guadeloupe in.March on the Saint Domingue Slave Revolt and in
Washington in April on coffee and sugar cultivation in Saint
Domingue. He also published "The Haitian Revolution" in F. Knight,
P. Liss, eds. The Modern Caribbean; "Sex, Ratio, Age, and Ethnicity
in the Atlantic Slave Trade" in The Journal of African History: 'The
Composition of the French Caribbean Slave Trade," in P. Boucher,
ed. French Colonial Historical Society Proceedings; "The Causation
of Slave Rebellions: An Overview" in Indian Historical Review.
Geggus has been awarded a National Humanities Center Fellowship
for the next academic year to work on the Saint Domingue slave
revolt and the French Revolutionary period in the Caribbean.

Art Hansen, Associate Professor of Anthropology, recently spent
several months on sabbatical at the Refugee Studies Program at
Oxford University, England. He spent a month in Zambia setting up
research on Angolan refugees in Zambia. Hansen will conduct
research from May-December, 1989 with Portuguese-speaking

J.W. Hardy, Curator in Ornithology and Biacoustics, and co-author,
Roberto Straneck of Cordoba, Argentina, published an article
entitled The Silky-tailed Nightjar and other neotropical
Caprimulgids:unravelling some mysteries" in the February,1989
issue of Condor. Hardy and co-authors have just published cassette
recordings entitled "The Voices of Wrens" and "Voices of the New
World Nightbirds". The first cassette presents the vocalizations of
74 of 77 species of this largely neotropical family (the sounds of the
three others are not known at time of publication). The second is a
revised edition of the 1980 phonodisc and presents the sounds of
most of the owls and nightjars (again largely neotropical). Both
cassettes include detailed annotations on localities and critical
discussions of systematics and ecology. Dr. Hardy has also
published a two cassette package entitled The Songs of Mexican
Birds" by the Florida Museum Field associates Ben and Lula
Coffey, on which the sounds of 245 species native to Mexico are

Clyde Kiker, Professor of Food & Resource Economics, supervised
two M.S. thesis focusing on Jamaica by food and resource
economics students. Jorge Wong-Valle's study is entitled "
Economic Growth in Jamaica: Energy's Importance in the Foreign
Exchange Earning Sectors" and Michael Thomsen's study is
entitled The Rediscovery of Charcoal:A Tobit Analysis of the
Demand for Charcoal in Jamaican Households". Thomsen's thesis
was selected as the outstanding thesis for 1988 in the Food and
Resource Economics Department and is being forwarded to a
national competition. Thomsen is now pursuing a Ph.D. at the
University of Wisconsin andWong-Valle isworking atthe International
Food Policy Research Institute in Washington, D.C. Kiker is
continuing studies on Jamaican agriculture, forestry and energy

Elizabeth Lowe, Executive Director of the Florida-Brazil Institute
and Adjunct Faculty of Romance Languages, is having hertranslation
of Aqua Viva(The Stream of Life) by Clarice Lispector published in
April, 1989 by the University of Minnesota Press, with an introduction
by Helene Cixous.

Terry L. McCoy, Director of the Centerfor Latin American Studies,
was appointed to a two-year term on the Florida Commission on
International Education by Commissionerof Education Betty Castor.
McCoy also serves as a member of the Advisory Board forthe newly
established State Hemispheric Policy Studies Center.

Susan Milbrath, Assistant Curator of Florida Museum of Natural
History, published a chapter entitled "Birth Images in Mixteca-
Puebla Art" in The Role of Gender in Precolombian Art and
Architecture ed. by Virginia E. Miller. She also had an article entitled
"Astronomical Images and Orientations inthe Architecture of Chichen
Itza" in the Proceedings from the International Congress of
Americanists, Amsterdam, the Netherlands,1988.

Linda Miller, Director of Outreach and Special Programs, gave
talks on teaching about Latin America to Dade County high school
teachers, Valencia Community College faculty, and university
students in social studies classes at UF and UNF. She organized
and chaired a session on the Columbus Quincentennial at the
National Council for Social Studies 68th Annual meeting, and gave
an all-day workshop on Brazil for a Marion County high school
Social Studies Teachers. She was awarded a grant from the Florida
Endowment for the Humanities for a teacher training summer

Charles A. Perrone, Assistant Professor of Romance Languages,
published Masters of the Contemoorarv Brazilian Sona:MPB 1965-
1985 (University of Texas Press,1989); "Dissonance and Dissent:
The Musical Dramatics of Chico Buarque", Latin American Theatre
Review, 22:2 (1989); "Brazil Projects", Latin American Music Review
9:2 (Winter,1989). Perrone presented the following papers "Song
Text as Poetry:Practice and Problems- the case of Brazil" at the
Lyrica Session of MLA in December,1988; "Decades of
Transfer:Bossa Nova (1960s) and Brazilian Wave (1980s) in North
American Popular Movement" at the meeting of the International
Association for the Study of Popular Music at Yale University in
September, 1988. He also spoke to a Fulbright Orientation Seminar
on Brazil at University of Florida. Dr. Perrone served as co-curator
with Craig Saper, Professor of English, for the exhibition entitled
"Brazilian Concrete and Visual Poetry from the Ruth and Marvin
Sackner Archive" at Grinter Galleries. He is the producer/co-host of
"Encounters", a radio program examining the European, African,
and indigenous aspects of Latin American Popular Music. The
program will air in mid-1989 and is funded by Florida Endowment for
the Humanities as part of the Culture and Arts of Latin American
program run by Kerry Oliver-Smith.

Kent Redford, Assistant Professor of Latin American Studies,
along with Marianne Schmink and Christine Padoch, convened
a workshop on "Traditional Resource Use in Neotropical Forests".
The workshop was funded by U.S. Man and the Biosphere. Redford
is traveling to Brazil in February to give a talk at the Brazilian
Conference on Biodiversity.

Helen I. Safa, Professor of Anthropology and Latin American
Studies, organized the 38th Annual Conference of the Center on
Alternative Development Strategies for the Caribbean. She also
headed the Search Committee for the new Assistant Director of the
Center for Latin American Studies. She participated in two major
conferences on women, one at the State University of New York at
Albany in March, and another at Rutgers University in April. During
1989-90 she will be on sabbatical and has been offered fellowship
at the Kellog Institute of the University of Notre Dame during the
Spring semester. She also gave an address on Women and the
Debt Crisis in Latin America in Gainesville on March 8,1989 in honor
of International Women's Day which was co-sponsored by the

Gainesville Commission on the Status of Women and the United
Nations Association.

Steven E. Sanderson, Associate Professor of Political Science,
assumed the position of Director of the Tropical Conservation and
Development Program in the Center. Sanderson is also the Chair
of the Latin American Studies Association Finance Committee,
charged with the raising of funds for Latin American scholarly
participation in the LASA '89 conference in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
He prepared a paper entitled "Florida's Trade with Latin
America:lssues and Strategies for Hemispheric Development,"
commissioned bythe state's Hemispheric Policies Centerfordelivery
in Miami, in December,1988. With Gamaliel Perruci, he prepared
a paper entitled "The Political Economy of Brazil's Presidential
Succession:The resuscitation of Traditional Populism in a post-
Populist Era," for presentation at the annual conference of the
Southern Political Science Association in Atlanta, in November,
1988. The same two authors currently are working on a paper,
"National Strategies for Trade and Development in Latin America".
Sanderson presented "The Agrarian Question and Natural Resource
Politics in Latin America", at Duke University in January, 1989. He
is completing work on a book for Stanford University Press, entitled
The Politics of Trade in Latin American Development. With Debra
Rose, he is writing a paper" External Pressures and Natural
Resource Exploitation in Tropical Latin America."

Marianne Schmink, Associate Professorof Latin American Studies,
participated in the U.S. Man and the Biosphere-sponsored
conference on Tropical Forest Conversion to Pasture in Latin
America in Oaxaca, Mexico, 4-7 October, 1988. She travelled to
Barbados, Trinidad and St. Lucia as a consultant to U.S. AID
Regional Office for the Caribbean, to advise on incorporation of
gender consideration into research and extension programs. Also,
Schmink co-organized a U.S. Man and the Biosphere-sponsored
workshop on "Traditional Resource Use in Neotropical Forests" and
presented a paper entitled "Institutional Strategies to Foster and
Improve Traditional Resource Use." She has been awarded a
Fulbright-Hayes Faculty Research Grant to support her research
entitled "Demographic and Economic Change in Urban Amazonia:
A Longitudinal Study of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil." She will spend fall
semester, 1989, carrying out the research in collaboration with
faculty and students of the Federal University of Acre.

Amelia Simpson, Lecturerin the Department of Romance Language
and Literature, published an article entitled "From Private to Public
Eye:Detective Fiction in Cuba", in Studies in Latin American Popular
Culture, Vol. 8,1989. Her translation of an excerpt from "Fala Baixo,
senao eu grito" by Leilah Asuncdo was published in Lonaman
Anthology of World Literature by Women 1875-1975, eds. Marian
Arkin and Barbara Shollar.

James Simpson, Professor of Food Resource and Economics, is
working in Bolivia on a consulting contract with the Inter-American
Development Bank. He is doing a marketing study on pork

Glaucio Ary Dillon Soares, gave a lecture entitled "Latin American
Social Theory" at Universidade Federal da Bahia and Universidade
Federal do CearA in June, 1988. He also spoke on "The Future of
Democracy in Latin America" at John Hopkins University on October
4, 1988 as well as a lecture on "A Censura durante O Regime
Autoritario (Censorship during the Authoritarian Regime)" at the XII
ReuniAo Anual da ANPOCS, in Aguas de Sao Pedro, Sao Paulo,
Brazil. Shares was a commentator and participant in the Group on
Electoral Studies at the same meeting of of ANPOCS in October,
1988. Dr. Shares' book co-authored by Nelson do Valle Silva, A

Tentacao Autoritari5, has been accepted for publication by Dados
while his article "A Censura num Regime Autoritarfo" has been
accepted by Revista de Ci6ncias Socials. Also under invitation, Dr.
Shares arranged collaborative agreements with Universidade do
Estado do Rio de Janeiro, IDESP, Universidade de Sao Paulo and
Universidade Estadual de Campinhs. He is organizing conference
on Federalism, in collaboration with the Universidade Federal de
Santa Catarina, to be held possibly in 1990. Shares is also completing
an article, "Pesquisa Rica no Pais Pobre?" and a research note on
"The Accuracy of Data on Political Violence in Latin America."

L. Van Crowder, Assistant Professor of Agronomy, published an
article entitled "Agents, Vendors, and Farmers: Agricultural
Technology Transfer in Ecuador" in Agricultural Administration and
Extension,Vol. 30.

David Webb, Curator at the Florida Museum and Professor of
Zoology, is co-chairing a symposium on the Great American Biotic
Interchange with Rosendo Pascual, Professor of Geology at the
Facultad de Ciencias, Mar del Plata, Argentina. Their symposium
will be featured at the International Thesiological Congress in
Rome, August, 1989. Other participants from the Florida Museum
are John Elsenberg, Gary Morgan, and Alceu Rancy.

E. Michael Whittington, Curatorof GrinterGalleries, was appointed
curator in December, 1989. Whittington is an M.A. candidate in Art
History at the University of Florida, specializing in non-Western Art.
His research interests include portraiture in precolumbian Peruvian
ceramics and the narrative aspects of Haida agillate carvings of the
Pacific Northwest Coast.

Elizabeth S. Wing, Curator at Florida Museum of Natural Sciences,
joined a team of archeologists in Barbados during December,1988
as part of a research program to study the prehistoric exploitation
of nature, introduced plants, and animalsthroughoutthe Caribbean.
The team from the University of London directed by Dr. Peter
Drewitt included a geomorphologist, palynologist, paleobotanist,
zooarcheologist, and archeologists to study excavated sites and
plan for future excavations.

Charles Woods, Curatorof Mammals at Florida Museumof Natural
History, reports that the biosphere reserve in the mountains of
SouthWest Haiti is now underway. This 16,386 ha region is known
as the Macaya Biosphere Reserve, with the Central Core Zone
being the Parc National Pic Macaya. The University of Florida is
responsible for all aspects of planning and conducting research in
the reserve.


Lynette Benson, Master's Candidate in Latin American Studies,
received a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship from
the National Research Council funding three years of graduate
study in Anthropology.

Gay Biery-Hamilton, Graduate Student in Anthropology, iscurrently
conducting research about the factors that led to the successfully
negotiated Water Rights Compact Among the Seminole Tribe of
Florida, the State of Florida, and the South Florida Water
Management District, in 1987. This research isfunded by a contract
with South Florida Water Management District through the
Department of Environmental Engineering. She also plans to return
to the Brazilian Amazon for dissertation research, entitled Social
Change in the Fishing Industry of a Brazilian Amazon Community.

Cynthia J. Lagueux, Master's Candidate in Latin American Studies,
will have a chapter entitled "Economic Analysis of Sea Turtle Eggs
in a Coastal Community on the Pacific Coast of Honduras" in
Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation (ed. by J.G. Robinson
and K.H. Redford, University of Chicago Press). She presented this
paper at the SALAS Student Conference on Latin America, at the
9th Annual Workshop on Sea Turtle Conservation and Biology. She
has also been invited to speak at the VI Semana Cientifica,
Universidad Nacional Auton6ma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa,D.C.

Kerri Nolan, Ph.D. candidate in College of Education, will carry out
a needs assessment of indigenous Nicaraguan women's educational
needs in the North Atlantic Coastal region of Nicaragua.

Diane Soles, MALAS Candidate, was hired by the Ford Foundation
to work as a summer intern in Mexico City, Mexico. She will focus
on Poverty and Women's Issues in Central America and Mexico.
Soles was a member of the organizing committee for the SALAS
Student Conference, and is currently the president of SALAS.


Lt. Col. Treston Pino, MALAS-1978, is deputy national security
advisor to Vice President Quayle.

Virginia Sanch6z, B.A. Certificate in Latin American Studies, is
Corporate Communications Manager for International
Communications at Eastern Airlines.

Gregory Moreland, MALAS-Political Science-1985, worked for
Citizens Action Coalition and is currently teaching Spanish at
Indiana State University.


We are very interested in hearing from you. Please send information
about your careers, education, research, publications, and
participation in conferences to: the Latinamericanist, Center for
Latin American Studies, 319 Grinter Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.

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