Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 The Carnivora, or flesh eaters
 The Insectivora, or insect-eat...
 The Rodentia, or gnawers
 The Pachydermata, or thick-skinned...
 The Solidungula, or solid-hoofed...
 The Ruminantia, or ruminating...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Animals and their young
Title: Animals and their young /
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066410/00001
 Material Information
Title: Animals and their young /
Physical Description: 174 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Coultas, Harland, d. 1877
Weir, Harrison, 1824-1906 ( Illustrator )
Nicholson, Francis, 1753-1844 ( Illustrator )
S. W. Partridge & Co. (London, England) ( Publisher )
Watson & Hazell ( Printer )
Dalziel Brothers ( Engraver )
Publisher: S.W. Partridge & Co.,
S.W. Partridge & Co.
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Watson and Hazell
Publication Date: [187-?]
Copyright Date: 1870
Subject: Animal welfare -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1875
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Aylesbury
Statement of Responsibility: by Harland Coultas ; with twenty-four full-page illustrations by Harrison Weir and head-pieces by F. Nicholson, pupil of William Berwick.
General Note: "To the members of the Royal Society for the Preservation of Cruelty to Animals, these pages are affectionately dedicated."
General Note: Frontispiece and t.p. printed in red ruled border; t.p. printed in red and black ink; illustrations engraved by Dalziel.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066410
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - ALF9411
alephbibnum - 002219230
oclc - 71439471

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Half Title
        Half Title
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    List of Illustrations
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    The Carnivora, or flesh eaters
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    The Insectivora, or insect-eaters
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    The Rodentia, or gnawers
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    The Pachydermata, or thick-skinned animals
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    The Solidungula, or solid-hoofed animals
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    The Ruminantia, or ruminating animals
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Back Cover
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
Full Text


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With Twenty-four Fullpage Illustrations by fJarrison Weir, and Head-pieces by
Nicholson, Pupil of William Bewick.


Volumes of Our QDumb Companions" Series

uniform with this. 5s. each.












WATSON AND HAZELL, Printers, London and Aylesbury.


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. v

THE LION. (Felis leo, L.)

tigris, L.)
THE LEOPARD. (felis leofar-
dus, Cuv.) . .

THE JAGUAR. (Felis onca, L.)
domesticus, L.)
familiaris, L.)

THE WOLF. (Cai's lu5us, L.)

THE FOX. (Canis vumles, L.).

Co /en/s.

THE OTTER. (Lutra vul-
gari-, L.) .
(Ursus An me icanus, )
THE BADGER. (AMe/cs vul-
garis, L.) .


THE HEDGEHOG. (_Arinaceus
Euroa'ous, L.)


THE BEAVER. (Castorfiber, L.)
THE GUINEA-PIG. (Cavia co-
baya, L.) .
THE HARE. (Leus timidus, L.)
THE RABBIT. (Lepus cuni-
culus, L.) .

(Elefhas zndicus, L.) .

THE HORSE. (Equus cabal-
lus, L.) .

(Cervus clahhius, L.)
hircus, L.)
aries, L )
(Bos Scoi'cus, L.) .

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A 21er Sir E. Landseer.] JACK IN OFFICE. ([y P1crnssio l oJl Messrs. G av's.









S 57


- 13

- 17



THE class mammalia, to which the attention of our young readers
has been restricted in this book, is one of the most interesting
studies in natural history. For, in the first place, it includes
the most useful animals in the world, which supply us with an
abundance of food, in the form of flesh and milk, and of raw
material for our manufactures, such as bone, ivory, hoof, horns,
hides, skins, hair, wool, and fur; and, in the next place, the
animals themselves, in order that they may be still more useful
to us, have been made to approximate to ourselves in organization


and intelligence. This makes the phenomena of their life still more
interesting, whilst at the same time it enforces their claim to
receive from us kindly and humane treatment.
The anatomical evidence on this point is so clear and unde-
niable that naturalists have placed man at the head of the
mammalia. And, indeed, viewed apart from his spiritual and
immortal nature-that image of God in which he was created-
man is structurally a mammalian animal of the very highest type
of organization, having appetites and affections in common with
the class to which he belongs.
There is a unity of life, a oneness in living nature, which has
yet to be understood and appreciated. This principle .is tacitly
admitted in all our public collections of Natural History, and
we may see there how innumerable are the anatomical ties which
unite us to inferior animals. And how many lessons worthy of
imitation may young people learn from their conduct!. Much
cruelty to them would be prevented if their natural history were
more generally taught both in our public and private schools.
It is easy to satisfy ourselves as to our structural affinity
to the inferior mammalia. If we compare the cranium or skull
of a man with that of a cat or dog, we shall find in each the
same bones, marks on the surface for the attachment of muscles,
and holes or perforations for the passage of nerves and
arteries ; or if we study the bones of the arm, forearm, and hand
of man, we shall find all of them with their appropriate muscles,
nerves, and blood-vessels, not only in the fore-limbs of the cat


and dog, but, with some peculiar modifications, in the wing of
a bird, the twisted arm of the tortoise, and the enormous hand
of the mole. In fact, the sympathy which we have with inferior
animals and the interest which we take in them result entirely
from their proximity to ourselves in organization.
But the most striking feature of all in the mammalia is that
gift of parental affection which they share in common with our-
selves, and which is the highest boon bestowed upon them by
the benevolent Creator. The cold-blooded reptilia, such as
frogs, tortoises, lizards, and snakes, leave their eggs as soon as
they are laid, to be hatched by external circumstances, and
their young are therefore without a mother's care and affection.
The more highly organized birds, however, incubate their
eggs (Lat. inZcubo, I sit upon), and hence maternal affection has
been given them by their all-wise Maker, which induces them
to provide nutriment for their callow brood. No sight can be
prettier than that of an old bird feeding its young. The quiver-
ing eagerness of the nestlings, with their open beaks, and the
impartial care and tenderness of the mother in sharing the food
amongst them are so evident, that the parental affection of
birds for their young is undeniable. But it is especially to the
mammalia, or animals which suckle their young, that the in-
stinct of parental affection has been granted in the highest
The mammalia bring forth their young alive, and their help-
less offspring are thus thrown from the moment of their birth


viii Introduction.

upon the mother's care and solicitude. The Creator has therefore
conferred upon these animals, even the fiercest and most blood-
thirsty species, parental joys and sorrows which they share in
common with ourselves; and this remembrance should induce
us to treat them, as far as we can, with kindness and humanity.
When it becomes absolutely necessary to deprive these crea-
tures of life, it should be done with as little pain as' possible.
Cruelty to them is an abuse of that dominion which God has
given us over them, for which we shall be held accountable, as
it cannot be but offensive in His sight, whose tender mercies
are over all His works."-Ps. cxlv. 9.

-' I,

Engraved by Nicholson, Bewick's pupil.



S i E natural order Carnivora (Lat. caro, carnis,
flesh, and voro, I devour), or flesh-eaters, consists
of animals which, next to the monkeys, are the
- most closely allied to man in organisation. Natur-
'l alists have divided them, according to their mode
of progression, which depends on certain peculia-
rities in the anatomical structure of their feet, into
three leading groups, viz.:-

i. The Digitigrada, or finger-walkers (Lat.
S digitus, a finger, and gradior, I walk), or animals
walking, as we should say, on tip-toe. Examples:
the lion, tiger, leopard, and domestic cat.
2. The Plantigrada, or sole-walkers (Lat. planta, the sole of

The Digitigrada Family.

the foot), or such animals as apply either the whole or the greater
part of the sole of the foot to the ground when walking. Ex-
amples : the bear and badger.
3. The Pinnigrada, or fin-walkers (Lat. finna, a fin, or fea-
ther), having the general form of the body and the structure of
the feet, which are webbed, well adapted for progression through
the water, and also for some slight degree of progression on
land. Example: the walrus.

i. THE DIGITIGRADA. (Fa1M. FelidCe.)
This family includes the most ferocious and bloodthirsty
genera of the order, having an organisation given them which
enables them to overcome and destroy other animals, upon the
flesh of which they feed. The family was named Felidae (Lat.
felis, a cat) by Linnaeus, because not only is our common domes-
tic cat one of its members, but it presents at the same time a
most admirable structural type of the other genera; for, taken
as a whole, the skeleton of a cat is very nearly a miniature re-
presentation of that of the lion, tiger, and leopard, which are all
members of the cat family. These animals all possess a short
rounded head-having the brain and organs of sense well deve-
loped-a body light and muscular, and strong, sharp, recurved
and retractive talons, with which the toes are armed. All three
kinds of teeth are present in both jaws, viz., incisors, canines, and
molars; the latter much compressed, and furnished with sharp,
jagged edges, fitting against one another like a pair of scissors

From ihe Photograpk by the London Stereo. Comp.

The Lion.

-an arrangement peculiarly well adapted for destroying other
animals, and for cutting through the fibres of their flesh. Their
sight is keen, to enable them to see their prey, and the pupil of
the eye is capable of unusual contraction by day and dilation by
night, and has thus been wonderfully and wisely adapted by the
CREATOR to their usual nocturnal mode of existence. They are
in fact one and all sneaking animals, preferring a covert to an
open attack. This is proved by the under surface of their feet,
which have been furnished with ball-like pads of epidermis, to
enable them to move with noiseless footsteps upon their unsus-
pecting victims. This beautiful mechanism is easily seen and
examined in the foot of the common cat ( Felis domesti'cs, L.).
The most celebrated species of this genus is

THE LION. (Felis Leo, L.)

This magnificent animal is only a gigantic tropical cat, terri-
bly dangerous and cruel, easily distinguished from the other
tropical cats by his tufted tail and the uniform colour of his
skin, which varies from a deep red chestnut brown through a
pale fulvous yellow to grey. The whiskers stand out on each
of the upper lips of the lion's mouth as in the common cat, and
evidently form delicate organs of touch. The tongue of a lion,
and of all other feline animals, the domestic cat included, is
covered with small recurved prickles, pointing backwards to-
wards the throat, and -which, when the lion licks the bones

The Lion.

of his prey, act as a rasp in removing every particle of flesh
from their surface.
The best known species is the African lion, which is distri-
buted over the African continent, and is found in the southern
parts of Asia. It lives principally in dry tracts of country
covered with brushwood. The male is possessed of a mane of
long flowing hairs, which gives him a majestic, noble appearance.
There can be no question about his courage or strength, because
he is clothed in the most formidable natural armour, of which
he is undoubtedly conscious. The bully of the school or the
prize-ring is brave on the same principle. A lion which is
strongest among beasts, and turneth not away for any."
Prov. xxx. 3o; The glory of young men is their strength."
Prov. xx. 29. There are, however, substantial grounds for
doubting the nobility and magnanimity of his disposition. So
far from being magnanimous, the lion is treacherous, springing
with a terrific roar from his covert upon his unsuspecting prey,
generally some herbivorous animal, such as a goat, antelope, or
buffalo, or approaching it at night with noiseless, stealthy foot-
step, until within reach of his fatal spring. The truth is, the lion
is indebted for his alleged good qualities to appearances, which
are proverbially deceitful; his long flowing mane makes him
look noble, but in reality he is as genuine a cat as the tiger,
and quite as crafty, cruel, and bloodthirsty in his disposition.
On fine moonlight nights the lion goes out in search of prey.
Putting his head near the ground, he utters a terrifying roar,



The Lion. 17

the sound of which is conveyed by the earth to the herbivorous
animals asleep upon its surface; starting up alarmed, they fly in
all directions, sometimes running into the very jaws of their
adversary. But it is on dark, stormy nights that the lion is most
active, as the noise made by the conflict of the elements and
the panic produced among his victims render less caution
necessary in approaching them. On such a night, amid the
roaring of the winds, the rolling of thunder, deluges of rain
pouring down from the dark red heavens above, and incessant
flashes of lightning, nothing can be imagined grander or more
terrific than a sudden encounter with a bloodthirsty lion under
such circumstances.
The lioness is much smaller than the lion, and her form is
more slender and graceful. She is devoid of the mane of her
lord and master, and has four or five cubs at a birth, which are
all born blind. The young lions are at first obscurely striped
and spotted. They mew like cats, and are as playful as kittens.
As they get older, the uniform colour is gradually assumed.
The mane appears in the males at the end of ten or twelve
months, and at the age of eighteen months it is very consider-
ably developed, and they begin to roar. Both in nature and
in a state of captivity the lioness is very savage as soon as she
becomes a mother, and the lion himself is then most to be
dreaded, especially if "the young lions do lack, and suffer
hunger" (Ps. xxxiv. Io), as he will then brave almost any risk
for the sake of his lioness and family. By day," says Dr.

The Lion.

Livingstone, there is not, as a rule, the smallest danger of
lions which are not molested attacking man, or even on a clear
moonlight night, excepting at the breeding season." Both lion
and lioness, if a-traveller should be so unfortunate as to pass to
windward of their lair, will then rush forth and attack him with
the utmost ferocity and fearlessness. This does not often
happen, and I only know of two or three instances. In one case
a man passing when the wind blew from him to the animals
was bitten before he could climb a tree, and occasionally a man
on horseback has been caught by the leg under the same cir-
cumstances." At this period, therefore, both are active and
earnest providers for their family.
Our engraving represents a lioness lying sheltered underneath
the dense foliage, cool and comfortable, and surrounded by her
sportive offspring. Affection is most beautifully expressed in
her features as she surveys their gambols. She is now in her.
most amiable mood. These are the happiest moments of her
life, the spots of verdure in the desert waste of her existence.

THE BENGAL TIGER. (Felis Tzgris, L)

A" HE tiger inhabits the Asiatic .continent, and is
especially abundant in Hindostan, where its
ravages are often dreadful. It is about the size
i'l -/ of the lion, but the head is shorter and more
'41/ rounded, the body is slenderer and more elon-
gated, and all the movements of the animal are
pre-eminently graceful. The skin is a bright
-" tawny yellow, shaded into pure white beneath
.. the body, and is beautifully marked on its upper
SL ..-.'- surface and sides, as well as on the head, limbs,
and tail, with dark bands and stripes. The tail
P '^" "of the tiger is elongated, but destitute of a tuft
at its extremity, and the animal, although not so
'.'noble in its appearance as the lion when he steps
"- : forth free and undaunted on his native soil, is
nevertheless far more active and beautiful.
During the heat ofdaythe tiger may generally be found, gorged

20 The Tiger.

with his last meal, asleep under the bushes, but especially be-
neath groups of willows in swampy places, because it is in such
spots that he obtains coolness, shade, and water, or the com-
forts and conveniences of tiger-life. It would be difficult to find
him when he has thus retired for the day, were it not for the as-
sistance afforded by the inhabitants of the jungle-the peacocks
and apes. Thepeacockshave an alarm-note, which is an infallible
indication to an experienced hunter that the tiger is awake and
has commenced his predaceous pursuits. The watchfulness and
alarm given by these birds as soon as the tiger stirs is natural
enough, as the peacocks, which during the day seek the shelter
of the woods from the sun's heat, are constantly becoming the
prey of the young tiger cubs, who, as soon as they separate from
their mother, are in the habit of practising the art of taking
their prey, by creeping towards the peacocks stealthily, like cats,
and then leaping upon them. In like manner the apes, when
they see a panther or a tiger creeping through the bushes, utter
a warning cry, well known to the hunter, and which is under-
stood by all the members of their class. The apes sleep on the
trees during the night, and are not to be caught by the art of
their cunning enemies the tiger and panther; if the hunter in
penetrating the jungle sees an ape upon the ground, he feels
pretty well convinced that there is no tiger in the neighbour-
Whilst he keeps to the forest the tiger is, comparatively
speaking, harmless, feeding chiefly on deer and other inoffensive



The Tiger. 23

herbivora, and rarely encountering man, whom he instinctively
fears and avoids. But in the open country he becomes
dangerous. Pressed by hunger, he carries off cattle before the
herdsman's eyes; but after the tiger has once tasted human blood
his whole nature undergoes a change, and he loses his natural
fear of man. Cattle now pass unheeded, the driver himself is
attacked, and from that time the tiger becomes a man-eater. He
is now a terrible scourge to the native population, who, regard-
ing him with superstitious reverence, and being without adequate
. means of defence, easily become his victims.
In some parts of Hindostan, where the natives live in villages
surrounded by jungle, every feeling of security is driven from
their dwellings by the frequent attacks of the tiger. This beast
of prey has the impudence to come up to their very doors,
slaughter them like cattle, and then carry them off to the
jungle to be devoured. From returns made by the British
Government it is proved that hundreds of natives, and thousands
of useful domestic animals, such as oxen and sheep, are annually
destroyed by tigers. Such an animal cannot be allowed in any
neighbourhood, and accordingly it is hunted and destroyed
whenever it makes its appearance, chiefly by the aid of dogs, and
the assistance afforded by the powerful and sagacious elephant.
The tigress brings forth from three to five cubs at a time, and,
notwithstanding her ferocity arid cruelty, is certainly a most
affectionate mother, braving every danger for her little ones,
and furiously attacking both man and beast in their defence.

.The Tigrer.


Captain Williamson, of the British army, stationed in an Indian
district, relates a story which proves that the maternal feeling is
very strong in the tigress. The natives found four tiger cubs,
and, in the absence of the tigress, brought two of them away
for Captain Williamson. The captain put them into a stable,
where they made a loud noise for several nights. At last the
bereaved tigress found the place where the little prisoners were
confined, and replied to their cries with furious howlings. The
cubs were therefore let loose, as the mother, infuriated by her
loss, would certainly have torn down the stable to get at them,
and it was impossible to keep them without shooting her, which
Captain Williamson was indisposed to do under the circumstances.
In the morning it was found that she had carried them off.
The tiger is easily tamed when taken young, but its temper
is not at all reliable. The famous Charles James Fox had a
young tigerwhich followed him about like a dog. He had brought
it up from infancy on bread and milk. One day, when reading,
the tiger licked his hand, which was hanging over the chair,
scraping away the skin. This led him to look at his pet, when
he saw to his horror its eyes glaring, its whole nature changed,
and its natural ferocity and cruelty aroused at the first taste of
blood. Without taking away his hand from the tiger's mouth,
notwithstanding the increase of pain and of the flowing blood, he
led it with gentle words into the adjoining room, over the man-
telpiece of which was a loaded pistol, which he seized, levelled
at the tiger's head, and fired, shooting the animal through the

The Tiger. 25

brain, which instantly fell dead at his feet-the only way to
save his own life.
We have a better account to give of a tiger cub which was
brought from China in an East Indiaman. On board, it was
as harmless and playful as a kitten. The sailors made a great
pet of it, and it frequently slept with them in their hammocks.
This cub was given to thieving, like the cat, frequently
stealing the sailors' meat. One day it stole a piece of beef from
the carpenter, and was flogged severely for the theft, which it
took without retaliation. This animal was placed in the mena-
gerie of the Tower of London, where it remained many years,
and never showed any ferocity. It was called Harry," and
answered to this name like a dog.

THE LEOPARD. (Felis Leopardus,- Cuv.)

: HIS animal is much smaller than the tiger, being
about four feet in length, exclusive of the tail,
which is about two feet and a half long. It is
quite as beautiful in appearance as the tiger, for
"-'.t. its skin, which is of a bright tawny hue, is most
-_- elegantly marked with circular black spots. This
tawny, or foundation colour, becomes paler on the
sides, and passes gradually into the pure white
of the belly, and other under parts of the body.
The leopard is a very graceful and active
animal, and as it possesses unusual flexibility of
body, it is able to swim, bound, climb trees, or
crawl like a snake along the ground with equal
facility. It is found in all the tropical parts of
the old world, being indigenous in Africa, India, Ceylon,
Sumatra, and the other islands of the Indian Archipelago.


The Leo/ard. 29

These animals inhabit the deepest recesses of the forest. When
pursued they bound away, usually taking refuge in trees until the
hunters come up, when they are easily shot. They spring from
the trees upon their prey, for which they have long watched
from .their place of concealment amongst the foliage, and dis-
play so much activity upon their branches, that monkeys and
other arboreal animals upon which they feed have no more
chance of escaping capture than the deer which they follow upon
the ground.
The leopard never voluntarily attacks man, avoiding his pre-
sence, excepting when wounded by him, or hard pressed by the
hunters. This animal is the only formidable representative of
the Felidae in Ceylon. Major Skinner, who resided there for
more than fifty years, in a letter to Sir Emerson Tennent,
describes an encounter which he had with a leopard, as follows :
On the occasion of one of my visits to Adam's Peak, in the
prosecution of some military reconnaisances, I fixed on a pretty
little meadow, or open green spot, in the midst of an extensive
forest, in the southern portion of the Peak range, as a favourable
spot for operations. Descending from the cone of the Peak
through the vast wilderness of trees at its base, I reached it by
a good game track, of which there were several. It was in the
afternoon, just after one of those tropical sun-showers which
decorate every branch and blade with pendent brilliant, and the
meadow was covered with game, either driven to the open space
by the drippings of the leaves, or tempted by the freshness of the

30 77he Leopard.

pasture. There were several pairs of elk and other varieties of
game feeding peacefully, and in a profusion not to be found in
any place frequented by man. They were so unaccustomed to
danger that it was some time before they took alarm at the
noises which it was necessary to make in establishing our
bivouac for the night.
The following morning, anxious to gain a height in time
to avail myself of the clear atmosphere of sunrise for my ob-
servations, I started off by myself through the jungle, leaving
orders for my men, with my surveying instruments, to follow my
track by the notches which I cut in the bark of the trees. Avail-
ing myself of a fine game track which pointed in the direction
which I wished to pursue, I left the open plain and penetrated
the forest. I had gone about half a mile when I was startled
by a slight rustling in the nilloo (a species belonging to the
Acanthus family) to my right, and the next moment by the
spring of a magnificent leopard, which in a bound, full eight
feet in height, over the lower brushwood, lighted at my feet,
within eighteen inches of the spot whereon I stood, and lay in
a crouching position, his fiery, gleaming eyes fixed upon me.
The predicament was not a pleasant one: I had no weapon of
defence, and with one spring or blow of his paw the beast could
have annihilated me. To move I knew would only encourage
his attack. Recollecting the power of man's eye over the in-
ferior animals, I gazed at the leopard as intently as the agitation
of the moment allowed me to do for some seconds, when to my

The Leopard. 31

inexpressible joy the beast turned and bounded down the straight
open path before me. This scene occurred just at that period
of the morning when the grazing animals retire from the open
meadow to the cool shade of the forest." The leopard this time
appears to have made a slight mistake. His spring was calcu-
lated for his usual prey, a quadruped and not a biped, and
was so well measured that it would have landed him'upon the
neck of a deer, elk, or buffalo ; as it was, one pace more would
have cost Major Skinner his life. A bear would not have let
off his victim so easily.
The cubs of the leopard are graceful pretty little creatures,
with short pointed tails ; they are coloured like the mother, the
spots being smaller, and of a fainter hue. They are born blind,
and whilst in that condition are both helpless and inactive ; but
as soon as they have opened their eyes and can see around them,
they seem to be filled to overflowing with happiness, produced
by the novelty of their sensations, and are as playful as kittens
with each other, their mother testifying her pleasure at their
advent and affection for them in the usual manner, by purring
over them, which she does with a noise corresponding to her
magnitude, and at the same time carefully licking their
beautiful coats. However ferocious and cruel the natural
disposition of the leopard is to other animals, it is certain that
she is a tender and affectionate mother.
The leopard is often mentioned in the Bible, proving that in
ancient times it was not uncommon in Palestine, from which

The Leopard.

country it has now disappeared. The Scriptures allude to its
lying in wait for prey, Jer. v. 6, A leopard shall watch over
their cities; Hosea xiii. 7, As a leopard by the way will I
observe them." The swiftness of the leopard is referred to,
Habakkuk i. 8, "Their horses also are swifter than the leopards;"
and its spots are mentioned, Jer. xiii. 23, Can the Ethiopian
change his skin, or the leopard his spots ? "
Among the lower animals very few live to old age. It is only
to man that this is permitted, because he possesses that higher
intelligence which enables him to make provision whilst young
and strong for the feebleness and helplessness of the closing
scenes of his pilgrimage." Inferior animals have not been
thus intellectually endowed. They are therefore, in a state of
nature, usually removed whilst active and in health. Butchers
are therefore placed on every side. The felidae, or cat tribe,
were undoubtedly created to feed on the herbivorous or graz-
ing animals, effect their removal in early life, and restrain
their multiplication within proper bounds. The structure of
their claws and teeth show at a glance their appointed food
and their destructive propensities. But the natural instincts
of these animals for rapine and slaughter are no longer re-
quired when man takes possession of the country; he finds the
herbivorous animals useful to him, and takes them under his
protection, waging against their natural enemies a war of

THE JAGUAR. (Felis Onca, -L.)

,i lHIS animal is a native of the hotter parts of
South America, especially of Paraguay and the
Brazils, where it is abundant. The jaguar may
S, be regarded as the tiger or panther of America,
j 4" and is the fiercest and most formidable quadruped
-, in the New World. Like the leopard he climbs
trees well, and can swim with ease across rivers,
in the neighbourhood of which he is found. His
strength is so great that he is said to carry off a
/ horse or a bullock without any difficulty, and he
preys not only on the larger domestic quadrupeds and on wild
animals, such as the buffalo and the deer, but on birds, fish,
tortoises, and the eggs of the turtle. He never attacks man if
unmolested, unless hard pressed with hunger.
The skin of the jaguar is beautifully covered with deep



34 The jaguar.

chocolate brown spots upon a rich yellowish ground. These
spots are somewhat circular in outline. The top-of the back is
marked with stripes of the same colour; the breast and belly
are whitish, and the tail nearly as long as the body. The jaguar
is about the size of the common wolf, but when well fed
grows much larger. The following additional particulars
respecting the life and habits of the American jaguar are from
the pen of Humboldt, being extracts from his journals written
on the spot:-
In a bivouac near the junction of the Cassiquaire with the
Orinoco we had the misfortune of losing a large dog, to which
we were much attached, as the most faithful and affectionate
companion of our wanderings. Being still uncertain whether
he had actually been killed by the jaguars, a faint hope of re-
covering him induced us to spend another night at the spot
where he was lost. We heard the cries of the jaguar-probably
the very individual who had devoured him-quite near us, and
as the clouded sky made astronomical observations impossible,
we passed the greater part of the night in listening to the ac-
counts given by the natives of the jaguars or tigers of the
country. One of them told us that these animals were some-
times led, through their rapacity and love of wandering, to lose
themselves in such impenetrable parts of the forest, that they
could no longer hunt along the ground, and therefore lived
instead in the trees, where they were the terror of the monkeys
and their families."

F.'~ ~



The jaguar. 37

The jaguars pass the day in caverns and prowl about the
settlements at night. A large jaguar had for three years roamed
among the neighboring mountains. He had constantly escaped
the pursuits of the boldest hunters, and had carried off horses
and mules, but, having plenty of food, had not attacked men.
At another time Humboldt thus writes about this animal:-
Whilst picking up some spangles of mica agglomerated
together in the sand, I discovered the recent footsteps of a
jaguar. The animal had evidently gone towards the forest, and
turning my eyes on that side, I saw him lying under the thick
foliage of a silk cotton tree, at about eighty paces distant. I
was extremely alarmed, but sufficiently master of myself and
my movements to follow the advice given me by the Indians, as
to conduct, in such circumstances. I therefore walked on
without running, avoiding moving my arms and looking back,
although naturally enough, as the distance increased, anxious to
know whether I was pursued, and to accelerate my speed. The
jaguar remained motionless, his attention, happily for me, ap-
parently fixed on a herd of capybaras which was crossing the
river. These enormous cats, with spotted robes, are so well fed
in countries abounding with capybaras, peccaries, and deer, that
they rarely attack man."
According to Humboldt, the jaguars occasionally entered
the village of Atures, and carried off the swine of the poor Indians.
One day two Indian children, a little boy and girl between eight
and nine years of age, were seated on the grass not far from

38 The Yaguar.

their home, when a jaguar approached them from the woods in
the neighbourhood, very playfully bounding around them, some-
times hiding himself in the long grass, then springing forward,
his head hung down, and his back bent in the manner of our cats.
Both children were at first unconscious of their danger, and the
little boy only became sensible of it when the jaguar, with one
of his paws, gave him some blows on the head. These blows, at
first slight, became ruder and ruder; the claws of the jaguar
wounded the child, and the blood flowed freely. The little girl
now took up the branch of a tree and struck the animal, which
immediately fled from her, without offering the least show of
resistance. The cries of the children brought the Indians to
their rescue.
"The little boy,'" says Humboldt, "was brought to me, and
he appeared lively and intelligent. The claw of the jaguar had
torn away the skin from the lower part of the forehead, and
there was a second scar at the top of the head. This was a
singular fit of playfulness in an animal which almost invariably
manifests its ferocity of disposition in a state of nature. If we
admit that, being sure of its prey, it played with these children
as a cat does with a bird, how shall we explain its patience and
flight when attacked by the girl ? If the jaguar were not pressed
with hunger, why did it approach the children at all ? There is
something mysterious in the affections and hatred of animals.
We have known lions kill three or four dogs that were put into
their dens, and instantly caress a fifth, which, less timid, took

7/ic _7aguar,

the king of animals by the mane. These are instincts of which
we know not the secret."
In common with all the feline family, the female jaguar, not-
withstanding her ferocity, is a most affectionate mother to her
young, generally only two or three in number, whom she nurses
with the greatest tenderness and care. When fifteen days old
they follow their mother, and are about the size of a common
house cat, mewing and snarling like one when irritated. They
are naturally untamable. Those who have reared them from
infancy, and have so far familiarized them as to be able to
fondle and play with them, have had cause to repent doing so,
for their own death, or that of some other person, has always
been the result. Happily for mankind it has been wisely
ordered that none of the felidae should be very prolific.


THE COMMON CAT. (Fclis Domesticus, L.)

'-. 1 LL the animals now employed in the service of
,. man, because useful to him, as the cat, dog, and
horse, or bred in captivity to supply him with
/ food, as the sheep, goat, and our different varieties
Sf domestic cattle, must have originally de-
.1, .. scended from some wild breed. Some of these
I'l ,. I I animals have been so long in man's service as
hardly to afford ground for anything more than
the vaguest conjecture as to the country from
whence the original wild stock was obtained.
These remarks are applicable to the common
house cat. There is not the slightest ground for
the belief that it is descended from the common European
wild cat (Felis cactus for domestic cats which have become
wild in the woods, never revert to this form, nor do they

The Common Cat.

show the slightest organic change which tends in this di-
rection. The cat was domesticated by the ancient Egyptians,
for it has been found preserved in the mummy state, and a wild
species has been found in Nubia, which closely resembles this
ancient Egyptian house cat. A few naturalists think that all
our cats may have been derived from this species; but the wild
cat of Nubia (Felis manziculata), presents several characteristics
of importance in which it differs from our common English
house cat, so that the majority of our naturalists still regard
this question, as to the original wild stock from which it is
descended, as undecided.
The varieties of the domestic cat are almost endless; the
most noted are the tortoise-shell or Spanish cat, the Chartreux
cat, which is bluish, the Persian cat, which is slate-coloured,
and has very long fur, especially on the neck and tail, and the
Angora cat, which has long hair of silvery whiteness and silky
texture. Of all the above varieties the Persian and Angora
cats are the most valued.
Notwithstanding all the prejudice which has been created
against the cat by the well-known cruelty and treachery of the
feline family, no one can deny that this animal when well
educated has traits of character so good as to deserve a corner
by our fireside, and also a warm place in our affections. A
well-educated house cat is a necessary part of its furniture, and
the house may be regarded as incompletely furnished without
one. Such a cat is cleanly in its person and habits, very


The Common Cal.

gentle and patient with little children, allowing itself even
to be roughly handled by them without any display of temper,
or making the slightest attempt to hurt them with its talons.
We recollect seeing a beautiful little boy, between three and
four years of age, tottering beneath the weight of a fine large
pussy which he was carrying on his shoulder, his two little fat
hands placed upon its back; and, as we looked, we could not help
admiring this now gentle and confiding creature, the lineal de-
scendant of a breed which is naturally fierce, treacherous,
and cruel, and wondering at the effects of good domestic
Of all feline animals the domestic cat is the most prolific ; this
arises from the abundance of food which it receives, and the
comfortable shelter and protection afforded. These animals
usually give birth to from four to six young ones at one time,
all born blind, in which condition they remain for about nine
days, when they open their eyes. That the cat is a most affec-
tionate mother, all who have noticed her conduct towards her
offspring must admit. As soon as they are born she testifies
her pleasure at their advent by uttering that peculiar soft, vi-
brating noise called purring." She lays herself down in the
most convenient position for suckling, and whilst they are thus
engaged licks each of them in turn, so that their fur is kept
thoroughly clean, and every part of them in a pure and healthy
state. When the kittens have opened their eyes, and are suffi-
ciently grown up to gambol around her, she gives them her tail




The Common Cat. 45

as a plaything, inciting them to their sports by its movements.
Our engraving represents her as looking down upon her sportive
offspring with all the fond admiration of a mother, whilst three
of her kittens are looking up to her, and a fourth one is gazing
upon some object on the floor in a crouching attitude, as if
preparing to spring upon it with tiger-like ferocity.
Under such circumstances it is really cruel to deprive her of
all the kittens. Some regard ought to be shown to her condition
and maternal feelings, and one or two of them ought to be
allowed to remain, for which a comfortable home can afterwards
easily be found. The others not intended to be kept should be
immediately destroyed. As the female cat has two or three
litters in a year, the destruction of some of the kittens becomes
an absolute necessity.
The character of our domestic cat has been much vilified and
maligned. Some writers, as Buffon and his imitators, have
denounced the cat as an incorrigible thief, a dangerous play-
mate, an unreliable friend : as cruel, sly, and without any dis-
criminating attachment. Now without holding this animal up
as a parallel case with the dog in the excellence of its disposi-
tion, it is certainly capable of manifesting the greatest amount
of affection for its owner. That its habits are both quiet, cleanly,
and affectionate, all who have treated their cat kindly must
acknowledge. And as for intelligence, they are by no means
so devoid of that as is usually supposed, but will do almost
anything if their owners take the trouble to teach them.

46 The Angora Cat.

THE ANGORA CAT. (Felis Angora.)
Angora is a town of Natolia in Asiatic Turkey, remarkable
for its exports of a breed of goats and cats whose hair is as soft
as silk. These are kept in this country as drawing-room pets,
and are said to be milder and gentler in their tempers than
the common house cat. Their hair, which is of a brownish-white
colour, as they are well-kept and fed, assumes all the glossy,
silken beauty of a healthy state. We have not heard much in
praise of their utility.


THE DOMESTIC DOG. (Canis Familiaris, L.)

(Fam. Canidce.)

HE domestic dog typically represents the family
S'/Canidae (Lat. canis, a dog). The dog seems to
have been domesticated at a very early epoch.
,_ The Egyptians held it in especial honour, and
When one of them belonging to a family died, it
,i was embalmed and buried with the usual sign's of
"". mourning like any other member of the family,
the Egyptians shaving their heads and abstaining
I from food under such circumstances. From some
S.'- pictures on Egyptian monuments, dating back
fifteen or sixteen centuries before the Christian era,
we learn that the ancient Egyptians kept a variety of domesti-
cated dogs, some of which were admitted into the parlour, and
valued even as at the present day for their especial ugliness.

48 The Domestic Dog.

Dogs also appear to have been employed as assistants in the
field in patriarchal times, when riches consisted chiefly in
flocks and herds. This is proved by Job xxx. i-" But now they
that are younger than I have me in derision, whose fathers I would
have disdained to have set with the dogs of my flock."
The varieties of the dog may be accounted for in some mea-
sure by its extensive geographical diffusion, the species being
scattered over the earth's surface from the equator to the 7oth
parallel of latitude within the arctic circle-an extent of habita-
tion only exceeded by that of man, and far beyond that of any
other quadruped. Nevertheless, a great many of the varieties
are doubtless the result of culture and education. It is indeed
wonderful that dogs differing so widely in their appearance and
disposition as the mastiff and the greyhound, the spaniel and
the bulldog, the foxhound, bloodhound, and bull-terrier, should
all have had a common origin Yet zoologists have not a doubt
upon the subject, well-knowing the capabilities of the dog for
being educated, and how soon he can adapt himself to a change
in his circumstances and mode of life. These varieties of the dog
are only preserved so long as they are matched in breeding
with forms of the same kind, and gradually disappear in the
course of a few generations, when dogs escape from domestic
influences, become wild again, and breed promiscuously.
Some naturalists consider the dog to be only an educated
variety of the common wolf (Canis lupus, L.). At first, it seems
very improbable that a creature so docile and affectionate as the

The Domestic Dog. 49

dog should be descended from such a wild and savage animal;
yet, when this question is considered from a natural history point
of view, this idea appears by no means so unreasonable. The
skeleton of the wolf and dog are the same, and domesticated
dogs introduced from Europe into foreign countries, as the
dingo in Australia, approach very closely to wolves both in
appearance and habit. Besides, the generally received opinion
that the wolf is intractable is certainly without foundation;
for it has been proved that the young of the wolf, brought up
under kindly domestic influences and discipline, are capable of
becoming, as they grow older, both obedient and affectionate.
If we had sufficiency of space many instances might be given
of the affection, courage, generous disposition, and other esti-
mable qualities of the dog. The following authentic stories,
not generally known, may, however, be given:
The sheep dog (Canis domestics, L.). This animal assists the
shepherd in taking care of the sheep, and will punish any dog
molesting them. Sir W. Jardine witnessed the punishment of
a dog belonging to a tailor. "He had bitten a sheep in the rear
of the flock, unseen by the shepherd, but it was seen by the
shepherd's dog, who seized the delinquent by the ear, dragged
him into a puddle, and kept on dabbling him in the mud with
exemplary gravity, until the animal yelled again. He then
dropped the dog whom he had thus covered with filth, and
followed the flock."
The same animal shows great sorrow if his master is at all

The Domestic Dog.

unwell. The overseer of a large sheep farm near Comrie,
Perthshire, was so ill as to be confined to his bed. His two
favourite dogs refused to eat, until he called his pets by game,
and pointed to their food. They then took just sufficient to
sustain life. Once a day they would glide into the sick room
and step stealthily to the bedside of their master, place their
fore-paws on the bed-clothes, and then gaze together on his
pallid features, and afterwards droopingly withdraw from the
The Newfoundland dog (Canis Terrac Novce). One of these
noble dogs on board the "Bellona," during the battle of Copen-
hagen, kept the deck, barking furiously at the enemy, and
running backward and forward so bravely, that he became a
greater favourite than ever with the men. When the ship was
paid off, after the peace of Amiens, the sailors installed Victor,"
the brave fighting dog, chairman of their meeting, fed him
with roast beef and plum-pudding, and made out the bill in
"Victor's "-name.
A gentleman named Phillips, on a visit to Portsmouth, ven-
tured too far out to sea, and was in danger of drowning. His
two daughters, seeing his peril, entreated aid of some boat-
men, who, seeing their alarm, took advantage and charged an
enormous sum. In the midst of their discussion a Newfound-
land dog suddenly appeared, dashed into the water, seizing the
drowning man, and brought him safely ashore. Mr. Phillips in
gratitude bought him from his owner, a butcher, on the spot

I~ 7



N t-L

The Domestic Dog. 53

for five guineas. Every year, on the 4th of October, Mr. P.
celebrated his deliverance with his family, when the place of
honour was assigned at the table to the dog, with a good ration
of beef-steaks !
The truth is that the Creator, who has given to man his
reasoning faculties, has endowed certain animals with instincts
which render them useful to man, especially the dog, which has
been made to approach man more closely in organization, that it
may be more valuable to him. Whilst every other animal dreads
and avoids him as an enemy, the dog regards him as a com-
panion, and follows him as a friend. It is not so much on account
of our training the dog and making choice of him in preference
to other animals, but because the dog feels a natural desire to be
useful to man, and therefore a spontaneous impulse to attach
himself to him. In every country therefore the dog has asso-
ciated himself with man. It is therefore not man's training,
but a grand and beneficent law of nature which governs his
conduct; nor can the humane and feeling mind avoid the belief
that kindness to animals from which we derive such faithful,
continuous, and valuable aid is part of our moral duty.
* The female of the dog has usually from five to twelve puppies
at a birth, which continue blind from nine days to a fortnight.
Their faculties begin to develop about the end of two months,
when they are very playful and mischievous, and require training,
being very susceptible of a good education. A judicious admix-
ture of gentleness and severity should be used towards them.

54 The Domestic Dog.

They should be taught to be silent and lie down when they are
bidden, to refrain from leaping upon the knees of visitors, and not
to sit greedily staring at them at meal times, watching them
attentively, and occasionally whining whilst they are eating.
Dogs are very tractable and obedient when they understand, and
care should be taken to teach them good manners whilst they
are young, which they certainly do not possess naturally, for
their impertinence as puppies has passed into a proverb. If a dog
is troublesome to visitors, he is not so much to blame as those
who have had him in training. He should have been disciplined
and taught to behave properly, the same as any other member
of the family.

THE WOLF. (Canis Lupus, L.)

^ j', ?HIS animal, once indigenous to this country,
but now exterminated, still lingers in the forests
of northern and southern Europe, and is particu-
larly abundant in Russia, North America, and
S."the northern parts of Asia, especially in mountain
and forest districts where the population is scanty.
S' The general aspect of the wolf is well known.
It is about the size of a large dog, but leaner and
more gaunt in appearance. The carnivorous teeth
are proportionably larger and stronger, and the
incisors are in general more irregular and pro-
Sjecting than in the domestic race. The eyes of
S\ the wolf have a peculiar obliquity which gives it
--) anything but an agreeable expression of coun-
tenance; the pupils are round as in the dog,
but the forehead is broader and lower. The character of this
animal corresponds to the sinister expression of his physiog-
nomy and his skulking irresolute gait, being marked by mingled

The Wolf.

ferocity, cunning, and cowardice. The wolf is habitually cau-
tious and suspicious, so that he is not easily taken in traps.
When pursued, he rushes along with great velocity, and when
brought to bay defends himself with the greatest determination,
his strength being very great, especially in the muscles of the
head, neck, and shoulders. However bad a character he bears
in a wild state, the wolf is nevertheless capable of being domes-
ticated, as we have already shown,.and in this respect he has
the advantage of the fox.
The wolf is extremely destructive to domestic animals in the
districts where he abounds. He very seldom, however, attacks
man, excepting when pressed by hunger, and associated with
others of his kind. During summer, wolves generally confine
themselves to their native forests and mountains; but in winter,
impelled by hunger, they visit those parts of the country of
which man has taken possession, and, indulging their natural
instincts for rapine and slaughter, attack his peaceful ruminants,
the cow, sheep, goat, and everykindof domesticpoultry-animals
which man has taken under his protection because useful to him,
and which it is therefore his especial interest to defend against
the attacks of their natural enemies ; and then begins the war
of extermination.
Wolves usually commence their movements before dusk,
and seldom protract them beyond daybreak. They hunt in
packs, tisually in single file, and follow each other's track so
closely that it is impossible to distinguish their numbers, making


The WoT/f 59

night hideous with their fearful howlings. Many dreadful tales
are recorded in which men, women, and children have become
their prey. With these, however, we will not trouble our
The cubs of the wolf are born with their eyes shut. The
female has from eight to twelve young ones at a birth, and in
this respect exactly resembles the dog. She teaches her whelps
to bear pain patiently, biting, maltreating, and dragging them
by the tail until they are silent under suffering. After their
eyes are opened they are attended to with the greatest care,
and as well fed as circumstances will permit; partridges, moor-
fowls, moles, and rats being brought to the den, which is
generally a cave in the rocks, a hole under the roots, or a hollow
in the stem of some large old tree, the patriarch of the forest,
and the growth of many centuries. When the young wolves
are old enough, they are taken out by their mother two or three
times a day to the nearest water, that they may drink, and
finally both parents take them out and teach them to hunt.
Our engraving represents a female wolf giving such a lesson to
her family: the whole of them have left the den and are clearly
out on the hunt, the night being very favourable for their pur-
pose, as the full moon is rising in the east into the cloudless
heavens, and giving forth her light most abundantly.
Several distinct species of wolf are found in different parts of
the globe, but no difference has been detected in their voices
or howlings in either hemisphere. The French wolves are

6o The Wolf

generally browner and somewhat smaller than those of Germany,
whilst those of Russia are larger and have a considerable quan-
tity of long, coarse hair on the cheeks, throat, and neck. The
Swedish and Norwegian wolves are very similar to those of
Russia, but are lighter in colour, and in winter totally white.
The Alpine wolves are a brownish grey, and smaller than the
French, and those of Italy and to the eastward towards Turkey
are fulvous. The Spanish wolf is about the size of the common
wolf, but stronger in the limbs and shoulders. It is black, vary-
ing, however, into the dark brown variety of the Pyrenean
mountains, where it is especially abundant. There are several
varieties of wolf in North America, which burrow in the ground
like foxes, their burrows having also similar outlets of escape
to those made by their cunning relative. The Esquimaux wolf-
trap is made of strong slabs of ice, the ice door being supported
at an angle by a line to which a flesh bait is attached, and the
slightest pull at which causes the door to fall and traps the
wolf, when he is speared where he lies, and is killed.


THE FOX. (Canis Vulfes, L.)

HE common fox inhabits most parts of Europe, the
-' 2 north of Asia, and is also a native of Great Britain.
I \\ Like the wolf, this animal would long ago have
"'i ^ been exterminated from this country but for the
protection afforded by sportsmen. The fox is
\ ", easily distinguished by his broad head, erect ears,
j:," "7 long sharp nose, obliquely seated eyes, and bushy
tail. His general colour is a yellow brown, which
_i shades off into a darker or lighter hue in different
', parts of the body. He is solitary and nocturnal
,' in his habits, lying concealed during the day in his
burrow, which he either excavates for himself or takes by force
from some other burrowing animal, such as a badger or rabbit;
in either case, it is always so constructed as to afford him the

The Fox.

greatest security as well as some outlet for escape when hard
pressed by the -hunters.
The fox is proverbial for the cunning and ingenuity which he
displays both in obtaining food and eluding pursuit. His ap-
pearance is indeed truly indicative of his character, and is not
this time deceptive, like that of the lion ; for the common pro-
verb which adopts the fox as an emblem of slyness and cunning
is certainly far happier than that in which the lion figures as the
emblem of courage and magnanimity. Hares, rabbits, pheasants,
and partridges are his favourite food, and he is well known for
the sad havoc which he makes among the poultry of the farmer,
for which his appetite is insatiable. When poultry and game
are not to be had he will make a meal of field-mice, frogs, in-
sects, and worms ; and should he reside near the coast, he will
resort to the beach to feed upon shell-fish, and even resort
to the ludicrouis and ingenious practice of putting his tail into
the water to catch crabs.
Foxes have been formed by Zoologists into a distinct group
amongst the Canidac, or dogs, on the ground that the pupil of
their eye is vertical, whilst in the dog it is circular. Such an
eye indicates that the animal is nocturnal in its habits, and
incapable of bearing the full blaze of day. It is to protect him-
self from the light that the fox remains in his burrow during
the day-time. The iris then is contracted around the pupil, so
that the form of the latter appears like the section of a double
convex lens. The light is thus prevented from entering the


The Fox.

pupil; therefore the sight of the animal when forced abroad by the
hunters during the day-time must necessarily be very imperfect.
It is probable that his crouching attitude, suspicious manner,
and apparent cunning when hunted out into the sunlight may
be owing to the fact that he is half-blind under such circum-
stances. The fox therefore usually prowls about at night for
his prey, because he can see better, and the more readily con-
ceal his stealthy approaches from his usually sleeping victims.
The female fox breeds in April, producing from five to eight
cubs at a birth, she having previously prepared for herself and
them a warm comfortable nest of dry leaves, moss, and hay at
the bottom of her burrow. Her maternal solicitude is now very
powerfully excited, and nothing can exceed her courage and
boldness in defending her offspring. A female fox has been
known to carry her cub in her mouth during a severe chase of
nearly an hour, and then only to drop it from the utter impossi-
bility of breathing any longer and retaining her hold. Some-
times a fox will employ artifice in concealing her cubs from her
enemies. A terrier dog once scented a fox to the bottom of a
tree up the stem of which he attempted to clamber, but could
not succeed; at last the whipper-in ascended it, lifting the dog
upward before him, and there in a hole, twenty feet from the
ground, was the fox, with four cubs, which had been littered
there for security, and this hiding-place the fox must have
gained by the assistance of the roughness of the bark and the
boughs alone.

The Fox.

The cubs of the fox are very playful, and spend a great deal
of time in endeavouring to catch their own tails. If taken young,
it is next to impossible to tame them, either by severity or kind-
ness. They are ever suspicious, incapable either of gratitude
or affection even to those who supply them with food, and repel
the advances of strangers with a severe and dangerous bite.
An old fox cannot be tamed; he is ever pining for liberty, tries
every means to escape, and if he cannot succeed becomes de-
jected, spiritless, refuses his food, and dies. The fox is about
eighteen months or two years old before he arrives at maturity,
and if undisturbed will live fourteen years. His voice is a kind
of stifled yelp or bark. His skin, which is, covered with a warm,
soft fur, much used for muffs and linings, is the only part of
him of any value, and this will not pay for his depredations in
the poultry yard.
The powerful scent which proceeds from the fox is poured
forth by some glands situated near the root of the tail. It is by
this scent that the dogs are guided in their pursuit of the flying
animal, and the fox himself is fully aware of it: hence the num-
berless artifices to which he resorts to break the line of scent,
turn aside the dogs from his track, and so escape: such as crossing
a stream of water, running over ground scented with odoriferous
herbs, and many other cunning devices well known to the hunter.
The fox is, in fact, now only preserved for hunting pur-
poses, and his swiftness, powers of endurance, together with
the many artifices to which he resorts to escape capture when

The Fox.

hunted, are indeed something marvellous. A fox has been
known to run before the hounds fifty miles at a stretch, and
is sometimes more than a match for both dogs and men.
Never for one moment does he lose either his courage or his
self-possession, and when at last he is fairly baffled and brought
to bay .by the infuriated hounds, he always dies bravely defend-
ing his life, which has been made by this fashionable but cruel
sport, for hours, one prolonged and bitter agony. As the fox
cannot be domesticated, he will doubtless ultimately become,
like the wolf, extinct in these islands, when the age shall have
become more enlightened and humane.

THE OTTER. (Lutra Vulgaris, L)
(Fam. lustelidce, or Weasels.)

v'P ^HIS is an aquatic animal-as is indicated by the
-Iwebbing of its toes-about three feet and a half
in total length, and of a dark brown colour. It
lives in holes on the margin of rivers, generally
under large stones or fragments of rock, its food
consisting entirely of fish, of which it destroys
great quantities.
The otter was formerly very abundant in the
United Kingdom, but is becoming now every year
Scarcer. It is still found in Ireland, and in the
\ Hebrides or Western Islands of Scotland.
The organisation of the otter is most admirably
adapted to its aquatic habits, so that it is quite as much at home
in the water as the fish which are the objects of its chase,
swimming at any depth, and diving in any direction with equal


The Otter.

gracefulness and velocity of movement. Its body is elongated,
flexible, and somewhat flattened; its tail, which serves as a sort
of rudder in the water, tapering and somewhat compressed. Its
limbs are short and stout, but very muscular, and its feet, which
consist of five toes each, are webbed so as to be available as pad-
dles or oars. The eyes of the otter are large and prominent, its
ears short, its lips provided with strong whiskers, and its skin is
protected by a compact covering of two kinds of fur, consisting
of an under-vest of close, short, waterproof wool, and an outer-
vest of long, coarse, glossy hairs. Thus amply has the otter
been provided with every organic facility necessary for the
capture of its finny prey.
That the otter is an accomplished catcher of fish is most true.
No one who has seen the otters fed in the Zoological Gardens,
Regent's Park, who has witnessed their plunge into the water,
and with what graceful elegance, vigour, and indomitable perse-
verance they follow their prey through every turn and maze till
they effect its capture, can have any doubt on such a subject.
Eight or ten fish usually serve an otter for a meal; but it is
well known that, in a state of nature, this animal slaughters more
fish than he devours; and it is therefore not at all to be won-
dered at that every effort should be made to rid the pond or the
river of such a destructive creature.
But the otter, if taken young, is quite capable of being do-
mesticated, and may be taught to catch fish for its master. The
following account of some tame otters in India, given by Bishop

The Oiler.

Heber, is interesting, and is an extract from his journal:-
" We passed," says this deservedly esteemed prelate, to my
surprise, a row of no less than nine or ten large and beautiful
otters (Lutra nair, Cuv.), tethered with straw collars and long
strings to bamboo stakes, on the banks of the Matta Colly.
Some were swimming about at the full extent of their strings,
or lying half in and half out of the water; others were rolling
themselves in the sun on the sandy bank, uttering a shrill whist-
ling noise, as if in play. I was told that most of the fishermen
in this neighbourhood kept one or more of these animals, who
were almost as tame as dogs, and of great use in fishing; some-
times driving the shoals into the nets, sometimes bringing out
the larger fish with their teeth. I was much pleased and in-
terested with the sight. It has always been a fancy of mine that
the poor creatures whom we waste and persecute to death, for
no cause but the gratification of our cruelty, might by reasonable
treatment be. made the sources of abundant amusement and
advantage to us."
The English otter is just as capable of being tamed as that
of India, and Bishop Heber's fancy has therefore proved to
be something more than mere imagination. Many cases of this
are on record, both in England and Scotland, so that the fact is
undisputed. Otters have been taught to drive trout and other
fish into nets, to catch salmon, and bring them to their masters
uninjured, and instead of being hunted out and destroyed as a
nuisance to the fish preserves, their lives have been spared

The Otter.

like that of other useful animals. Let it be remembered that
the otter is now becoming scarce, and as the breed can be edu-
cated, it is much better to do this than to exterminate the few
that are left, merely for the sake of sport, or the gratification of
our cruelty."
The following course of training has been recommended for
the taming of otters :-" They should be procured as young as
possible, and be first fed with small fish and water. Then bread
and milk is to be alternated with the fish, the former being in-
creased- and the latter diminished, till they are brought to live
wholly on bread and milk. Next they are taught to fetch and
carry as dogs are trained, a leather fish stuffed with wool being
employed as the thing to be fetched.; they are afterwards exer-
cised with a dead fish, and chastised if they attempt to tear it.
Finally they are sent into the water after living fish."*
The female otter produces four or five young at a birth, in
May or June, in a burrow under a hollow bank, which opens
near the water's edge, and on a bed of rushes, flags, and leaves,
or such other abundant material as the bank affords. Here the
young otters are reared, a most careful attention being paid to
their daily wants and their education by their most affectionate
mother. When first born the young otters are about the size of
a full-grown rat, In about a month's time they are able to eat
fish and follow their mother, into.the water, which they do at
first like a dog, with their head above the water. She now takes

* Maunder's "Treasury of Natural History," revised by Dr. T. Spencer Cobbold, F.L.S., F.R.S.

74 The Otter.

them daily to the edge of the water, where they are almost in-
variably found by those looking for them, but not easily cap-
tured so long as they are under the protection of the dam; for
she teaches them to plunge into the water in a moment on the
approach of enemies, and to escape from their pursuers by
hiding themselves among the rushes or water weeds and grasses
that fringe the margin of the stream. This is done by daily
lessons in the art of diving, and in about three weeks' time they
are able, like their mother, to take a header from the shore,
and their oltter's education is completed!



,(/? HIS division includes the family of the Ursidce,
or bears-animals remarkable for their great
Strength, ponderous body, and peculiar plantigrade
S-gait (Lat. plant, the sole of the foot, and gradior,
"-, ,I walk), and which inhabit the wooded and moun-
( tainous districts of the arctic, temperate, and sub-
> ..temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.
The walk of the bear is awkward and shuffling
in its nature, as he is plantigrade, and brings not
S only the toes, but the whole of the under surface
of his foot in contact with the ground at every
Step he takes. It is impossible, therefore, that
"'-'. \ .. such an animal should have the graceful, elastic
I .- carriage, or the powers of flight with which the
: digitigrade carnivora are endowed. This planti-
grade construction of their hind feet enables these

The Bear.

animals to sit up on their haunches, and use their fore-paws,
either for holding food between them or for defending them-
selves when attacked. Thus the bear stands up when assailed,
and hugs his adversary with an iron grasp while he tears him
with his teeth. That an upright bear stands firmly the following
anecdote will show. Mr. Lloyd, speaking of a bear domesticated
in Wermeland, Germany, says:-
I heard of one so tame that his master, when on a journey,
made him stand at the back of his sledge; but the fellow kept
so good a balance that it was next to impossible to upset him.
When the vehicle went on one side Bruin threw his weight
the other way, and vice versa. One day, however, his master
thought to amuse himself by driving over the very worst ground
he could find, with the intention, if possible, of throwing the
bear off his equilibrium, by which, at last, the animal was so
irritated that he fetched his master, who was before him, a
tremendous thwack on his shoulders with his paw. This
frightened the man so much that he caused the poor brute to
be killed almost immediately."

THE AMERICAN BLACK BEAR; (Ursus Americanus.)

This species lives in hollow trees, caves, or holes excavated
in the ground, and is still found in all the mountains and im-
mense inland forests of North America, where the country is yet
unsettled, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from Carolina to

The Bear.

the lake districts in British Canada. The black bear is smaller
than the other American bears, the total length of an adult
seldom exceeding five feet. It is rather a timid animal, never
attacking man excepting when irritated or wounded by him, or
in defence of its offspring. Its feet are all armed with five
powerful, strongly-curved, non-retractile claws, which are there-
fore more adapted for digging and climbing than for tearing
prey. It is in fact an expert climber, and will ascend trees
to get at the nests of birds, or in search of honey, of which it
is very fond. Washington Irving, in his "Tour on the Prairies,"
introduces one of the rangers, who thus graphically expresses
his opinion of the American black bear :-
The bear is the knowingest creature for finding out a bee-
tree in the world. They'll gnaw for days together.at the trunk,
till they make a hole big enough to get in their paws, and then
they'll haul out honey, bees, and all."
The bears in the Zoological Gardens can easily be induced
to climb the pole placed in their compartment by the offer of a
cake or bun, and the action of their paws and hind feet in
making the ascent and descent can then be carefully studied.
Of all the carnivora, bears are the most omnivorous in their
diet; some of them, as the present species, living almost entirely
on vegetable food, principally roots and berries, and devour-
ing sparingly worms and insects, young birds and eggs, and
some of the smaller mammalia when they come in their way.
The great white Polar bear, however, is from circumstances

The Bear.

carnivorous. Living in the regions of eternal ice and snow,
where there are no vegetable substances suitable as, food, it feeds
chiefly upon dead whales and fish, and occasionally upon living
seals, which it captures by watching for them at their air-holes,
and seizing them the moment they come up there from under
the ice to breathe.
During winter the black bear usually retires to its home in the
old hollow-tree, or the cleft of the rock, where it lives, without
food, on the fat which it has accumulated during warm weather, in
a comparatively torpid state, until the approach of the ensuing
spring. This store of summer fat is especially necessary to the
female bear, as she requires it not only for her own support, but
to enable her to give sustenance to her cubs, from one to five in
number, to which she usually gives birth at this season. Hence
the artist has represented that number in the engraving. These
cubs, when born, are at first not larger than the puppies of a
mastiff, but they remain with their dam until nearly equal to
herself in size.
The female bear is a most affectionate mother, and many stories
are related showing her care and love for her young, and her sor-
row and mournful cries when any evil befalls them. On one occa-
sion a black bear with her two cubs was pursued, across the ice
by some armed sailors. At first she urged her cubs to increased
speed, but finding her pursuers gaining upon them, she carried,
pushed, and pitched them alternately forward, until she effected
their escape. The cubs were sagacious, enough to place them-


T Al


The Bear.

selves across her path to receive her impulse, and when thrown
forward, as soon as the effect of it ceased, they ran on till she
overtook them, when they again carefully adjusted themselves
for a second throw.
We doubt not that some of our readers may have seen the
account of a Polar bear and her two cubs which approached a
ship locked in the ice, attracted by the scent of some blubber
which was burning on the ice. They ran eagerly to the fire, and
drew forth some of it from the flames which was unconsumed.
To lure them to their own destruction, several large pieces of
blubber still left on the ice were thrown towards them by the
crew, which the old bear fetched away singly, laying each piece
before the cubs, dividing what she brought fairly between them,
and reserving only a small portion for herself. As she was fetching
away the last piece the crew took aim at the cubs and shot them
both dead, at the same time badly wounding their mother in her
retreat, so that she could just crawl with the blubber to the
place where they lay, which she divided and placed in front of
them as before. But they did not eat, and their distressed
mother now laid her paws first upon one then on the other, and
tried to raise them up, making at the same time the most pitiable
moans. Finding she could not stir them, she went off to some
distance, then looked back and moaned ; but this not enticing
them, she returned, and, smelling round them, began to lick their
wounds. She then left them a second time, and having crawled
a few paces, looked again behind, and stood for some time

The Bear.

moaning. But still her cubs did not rise and follow her; she
therefore returned to them again, and with signs of indescribable
fondness went round pawing them in succession. Discovering
at last that all her efforts were unavailing-that they were now
motionless and cold-she raised her head and growled furiously
at their murderers. A volley of musket-balls was now discharged,
which closed this painful, mournful scene, for she now fell
between her cubs, and died, licking their wounds.
The skin of the Polar bear, when dressed with the hair on, forms
beautiful mats for a hall, or for the bottom of a carriage ; it also
makes a very warm sack bed, and is used as such in some parts
of Greenland. The flesh, well-cleared of the fat, is well -flavoured
and savoury, especially the muscular part of the ham. Dr.
Scoresby says, I once treated my surgeon with a dinner of
bear's ham, and he did not know for above a month afterwards
but that it was beef-steak." Nevertheless, all this by no means
justifies the wanton destruction of such affectionate animals.
Natural history certainly does not teach cruelty towards inferior
creatures; but rather, as is very well known to naturalists them-
selves, kindles in its votaries an enlightened generosity, which
ensures their escape from all unnecessary suffering.

THE BADGER. (Meles Vulgaris, L.)

HIS animal is still found in some parts of
I England and Scotland, and throughout the
.- ^ northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America,
although it is nowhere very abundant. It is about
S\'" the size of a fox. It has very short legs, and plan-
tigrade feet furnished with powerful claws, with
which it constructs a deep and commodious bur-
;. row in the most sequestered portions of the woods.
The body is broad and flat, the head long and
(.k .'7-\pointed, the eyes small, the neck short and thick,
'. the tail short, and the hide remarkably thick and
.' tough. The upper parts of the body are covered
with long, coarse, rusty grey hair, the hue of which
-, is white on the face; along each side of the
'. head, including the eyes and ears, runs a long
pyramidal band of black hair.

The Badger.

The badger is an omnivorous animal, living on roots, fruits,
insects, frogs, and the eggs of birds, such as partridges, which
build their nests upon the ground. Like the bear, it is very
fond of honey, and is in the habit of plundering the nests of
the wild bee of their store of'honey, and also devouring their
larve. It can do this with perfect impunity, without any
fear of being stung by the enraged insects, as it is impossible
for their stings to penetrate its tough skin.
The habits of the badger are nocturnal, inoffensive, and
slothful. It chooses as a site for its burrow the most obscure
and gloomy places in the forest. The burrow itself is gene-
rally excavated in a thicket on the side of a hill; it is a long,
winding hole, capable of admitting the animal, and terminating
in a circular apartment, well lined with dry grass and hay.
Here the badger sleeps during the day, only moving out
at night for the purpose of procuring food. Sleeping all day
long, rolled up in its bed of warm hay, appears to agree with
it singularly well, as it is always fat.
Although harmless, quiet, and inoffensive, the badger, when
attacked by dogs, defends itself with great resolution, and
seldom dies unrevenged of its enemies. Its skin is so thick
that it resists the impression made by the teeth, and so loose
that when a dog has got hold of it the animal is able to
turn round easily and severely bite his assailant. Badger-
baiting was formerly a very favourite amusement with the
country people; the excitement being greatly increased by




R w:" ',.i

K W- '



- -~-~-


The Badger.

the difficulty which the dogs encountered in the attempt to
seize the hard, leathery, very movable coat of the badger.
The poor badger was put into a large tub or barrel, which was
laid on its side, and thus as the dogs were compelled to attack
the animal in front, it may be imagined that they suffered
severely. Happily such barbarous sports are now no longer
permitted to be practised in this country.
The female badger usually brings forth from three to five
young ones at a birth, which she suckles for five or six weeks,
and then teaches to shift for themselves. Young badgers are
easily tamed, and show great attachment to man, evincing much
docility and playfulness; but no treatment, however kind or
harsh, can change the character of the adult badger.
The American badger (Meles Labradorica), is rather smaller
than the European species, its fore-claws being longer and
stronger, and the black bands on its face narrower. This badger
is a very timid animal, taking, when pursued, to the very nearest
loose or sandy soil, through which it makes its way with the
rapidity of a mole, and is soon out of danger. It never stirs
from its hole when the snow is upon the ground, passing the
winter in a state of semi-torpidity.
The Indian badger (Meles collaris), called by the Hindoos
Bhalloo-soor," or bear-pig, is about the size of the common
European species, but stands higher upon its legs. It has the
body and limbs of a bear, with the snout, eyes, and tail of a hog.
It grunts when irritated like a hog, and if still more tormented,

88 The Badger.

stands up on its hind-feet like a bear, and tries to strike the
offender with its arms and claws as well as bite with its teeth.
In Europe badgers are hunted with dogs, and in America they
are caught, in early spring, by pouring water into their holes whilst
the ground is frozen. The skin, when dressed with the hair on, is
impervious to the rain, and consequently makes an excellent
covering for travelling trunks, and the hairs or bristles are made
into brushes for painters. The flesh is reckoned a delicacy in
France, Italy, and China.
The brown bear, once an inhabitant of Britain, has become
extinct many years ago, and the badger, which is becoming
every year more scarce, will probably soon share the same fate.
The remains of two other species of bear have been found fossil
in England, along with those of a kind of badger declared to be
identical with the existing species. There are, therefore, grounds
for attributing to the badger a very high degree of antiquity,
and for believing it to be, in the words of Professor Owen,
" the oldest species of mammalia now living on the face of the




HE animals of this order live principally on
S"i 'i'insects, worms, and small mollusca, as the shrews,
simoles, and hedgehogs. Their teeth are all raised
into conical and pointed summits, by which they
S are especially adapted to divide and crush the
hard skins of insects, their chief food. In general
h om'on they lead a nocturnal and subterranean life, and
in cold cliritates pass the winter in a torpid state.
Their legs are short and their feet plantigrade.
r "s-" The order is naturally divided into those with
Simple fore-legs, as the hedgehog, and those in
which the fore-legs are peculiarly fitted for digging, as the mole.

THE HEDGEHOG. (Erinacius Europceus. L.)
The common hedgehog is found in most parts of Europe and

go90 The Hedge/zog.

Asia, and is also indigenous to Great Britain. It is often seen
in warm weather on the borders of woods and copses, in hedges
or dry ditches, searching for insects and worms, and is one of
the most harmless creatures in existence, although everywhere
most cruelly used, for every country lad with his dog, if he
should see a hedgehog, will assuredly worry and kill the poor
unoffending animal. We have frequently met with the bodies
of these valuable, insect-devouring animals dead on the road-
side, with every indication of such a death. And yet the hedge-
hog is one of the very best friends which the farmer has upon
his grounds, as he is all the time ploughing up the soil, with
his elongated pointed muzzle, about the roots of the crops, and
devouring the worms which injure them as well as the insects
which attack their foliage. It is therefore all wrong to kill
hedgehogs. Most certainly these animals should be permitted
to live, when they spend life so usefully. No farmer's servant
should be allowed to hurt them, as they hardly eat anything
but what is injurious to both farm and garden, and are very
active, harmless, and industrious little animals.
The hedgehog when fully grown is about nine inches and
a half in length. The upper part of the body is covered with
sharp, strong, movable spines, instead of hair, about an inch
long, and it is endowed with the power of rolling itself up into
a ball by means of appropriate muscles, so as to present
nothing but spines on all sides to the attacks of its enemies.
The tail of the hedgehog is short, and its muzzle elongated


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