Table of Contents

Agronomy notes
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00095
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: December 2007
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00095


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Full Text

IFAS Extension


-oason's Greetings


Volume 31:12

Features ...

Winter grazing management
Hay, forage, and weather
updates for Florida
Qoyboan rust and yield

Wood Control
Wooeed control in over-
seeded pastures
Peoticide updates
.oil testing in the Fall
Crop variety trial information
Wheat planting date
Calendar dates


Doeomber 2007

p. 2

p. 3-4

p. 5

p. 6
p. 7

p. 2
p. 5
p. 6
p. 8
p. 8

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (1FAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity-
Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age,
handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact
your county Cooperative Extension OFfice. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Larry Arrington, Dean.

Winter Grazing Management

When weather outlooks are not looking favorable for this term, as is the case for this season and
beginning of next year prediction of La Nifia conditions for Florida with above average
temperatures and below average rain fall, management of your winter forage resource becomes
not only critical but vital for survival of your grasses and herd size.

What winter grazing refers to is a management of
the grass that provides enough residual forage that
permits quicker growth and better and even
distribution of forage production throughout the
fei season. If your winter grasses are 8 to 10 inches
S u tall turn your cattle just to 'top graze' the top 3 to 4

in eGrazing the top will leave enough loaf for
re-growth at a time when dag-longth is
,'I reduced: in other words "grass grow

Graze your pastures and remove your animals when reaching a 3-in stubble; overgrazing affects
the root system and will put you out of grass very quickly. If worst comes to worst with an early
fiost or prolonged drought, by 'top grazing' through alternating cattle between paddocks, and
feeding hay, you ration whatever grass or forage you have available.

analgingl your winter grazing will not overcome weather and drought situations but will
minimize the effects of adverse weather and other out-of-control factors.

Dr. Yoana Newman
Extension Forage Specialist

Qoil Testing in the Fall

Soil tests should be done to determine the proper rates and kinds of nutrients that are needed for
most economic yields for all crops. Without knowing the status of soil fertility, growers may
either over apply or under apply certain nutrients. As expensive as fertilizer is now, growers
cannot afford to over apply fertilizer that may be leached or run off in high rainfall events. Most
of our row crop soils have been fertilized for a number of years and may have adequate
amounts of phosphorus and may not need more. Soil tests are cheap as compared to applying
nutrients that are not needed for crop production. Growers can often save as much as S30/A by
pulling soil tests and applying proper amounts of fertilizer without a reduction in yield or
quality. Soil tests should be done at about the same time each year and records kept to
determine nutrient needs. This is also a good time to split samples and send them for nematode
analysis if problem areas occur in the field.

Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist
North Florida REC, Quincy
v\ right ufl.edu

Agronomg Notes Par

Hag, Forage, and Weather Updates for Florida
November 26, 2007
Following is an update on hay and forage production as well as weather conditions for Florida. This
update provides a perspective of where we are in pasture and hay production and what regions may
be possible suppliers of hay if dry conditions persist. There is also an update on medium term
climate to keep in mind for strategic and critical decisions such as de-stocking.

North Florida
S-Hay production is 40-50% short compared to last year's
figures. After mid October rains, most counties have not
received a significant amount of additional rain.
Producers got one or two cuttings in areas that should
have produced three or four. Hay is in short supply, and
we need to factor in that the area had a dry spring, too.
Drought Monitor There have been two killing frosts in the region taking
November 20, 2007 care of what little grass production existed from perennial
ttp://drought unl.edu/dm warm-season grasses. Ryegrass and clovers are struggling
for survival under the dry conditions. Winter forages are
almost non-existing and ryegrass planted on the October
rains is barely surviving.

MD A, irp.I.,l Drr, Do1 Cm gh ErlhT mc Hay production is significantly below normal production;
DI oimlgh,-, Moat oe M Diqgh- ELcox n wl producers are counting on heavy dew to keep leaves from
SO, ,aghDm4 S shattering when hailing edible peanut crop residue. Given
the shortage of hay, farmers are relying on this peanut hay
to cope with this drought situation. The area is nearly 20
inches behind in rainfall, having currently accumulated 40
to 45 inches instead of what should have been 55-60 inches of precipitation. Many reports from
farmers and ranchers express not having seen a year this bnd, with many farmers reporting wells
running dry in the last 30-60 days.

Central Florida

Thanks to Jul-Aug rains, most central Florida producers took two or three hay cuttings.
cutting was insignificant due to lack of moisture earlier in the summer. Hay production
about the same as it was last year; but is lower than normal.

South Florida

Although southern Florida is not a traditional hay-production area, this year's hay supp
times that of normal-rainfall years. Dry conditions have worked favorably toward curir
hay. However, moisture will be needed soon. Liipograss, a warm-senson perennial ad
wet conditions, and used by a significant group of ranchers tbr grazing and stockpiling
grown well and tonnage has decrease significantly.


Sbut the first
in this area is

fly is three
ig and making
apted to very
, has not

I Noto Pa!

- -


E If0


southh Florida (Cont...)

South Florida has literally no ground moisture. Winter forages are out of the ques
because of the lack of moisture. There is no water for pasture or animal use. Pres
pests like chinchbugs, spittlebugs and army worms are bringing significant press
rust problems are present in some bermudagrass stands. Pastures are in pitiful cor
Although the situation is not as bad as Georgia or the Carolinas, this year has bee
many producers have seen in Florida.

Winter Weather Outlook
-- lr |17 IT! :__

tion this year
ence of pasture
ire. Additional
n the worst

Cl INino outnern
Oscillation (ENSO)
plays a significant role
in the kind of weather
patterns we have in
Florida during the
winter. Moderate La
Nifia conditions are
currently present in the
tropical Pacific Ocean
and forecast models
indicate that La Nifia
conditions will persist
and perhaps strength
through early 2008.

What does that mean?
La Niiha, typically,

I brings drier and warmer
weather to Florida during the winter and this may further affect soil moisture conditions already
at critical levels in many areas of the state.

The last drought monitor update released on November 20, 2007 indicates severe drought
conditions in parts of Glades, Highlands, Okeechobee and Palm Beach counties and moderate
drought conditions across most of the southwest. For more details check the winter outlook at
blip:_ \www'.aucIimllatc.or.

Dr. Yoana Newman
Extension Forage Specialist

Dr. Clyde Fraisse
Extension Climate Specialist

Agronomy Notoe Pa

C, t -

Shifts in Average Rainfall (in percent change)
La Ninia versus Neutral
November January


*mu r

4 .-11 -ll -21 -in -r s 10 2t1 0 4-0) pr. 'ni riueium-L

Rainfall shlfli. in November and Janualy due to La Nifia conditions. On average
La Nifia brings 30 to 50% less rain llt to Florida in January than during
neutral years. Neutral years happen when neither El Nihio nor La Nila
conditions are present. NVetral years account fbr about half of the years.

araueltcof TO cc im ITm

Soybean Rust and Yiold Reduction

With 3 years of testing fungicides for soybean rust control, we have found that infections as late as
R5 (beans full in pods) can have an impact on lowering yields. We have had as much as 50% yield
loss from early infections. Fungicide applications made several weeks after infection can still
result in increased yields. However, the most yield impact will come from applications made at the
beginning of infection or just at the onset. We know that there is no varietal resistance in currently
used varieties but some resistance has been found in germplasm from other countries that will take
several years to get into adapted varieties.

'1-. 1 Soybean rust did not have a major impact on soybean
yields this year due to the hot. dry weather and the slow
rate of spread until late in the season.
We expect sogbean rust to be
Worse if weather conditions are
Right earlier in the year since it
,.,,,.. is present on kudzu.
SKudzu infection is much higher now than the first year
USDA estimated favorable that it was found. It is expected that soybean acreage
t areas for soybean rust disease will be up in 2008 due to the high price and the ease of
2, development based on
S temperature and moisture growing soybeans in double crops situations either after
temperature and moisture
records over the last 30 ears. small grain or corn. However, for those growers who do
grow soybeans, scouting for both insect and disease
symptoms should be done in July, August and into September. Most soybeans require an
application of insecticide in late August or early September for velvetbcan caterpillar and corn
earworm and could have a fungicide applied at the same time if needed. Infections have been
occurring in August of each year and fungicides may be especially important on later maturing
soybean groups.

Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist
North Florida REC, Quincy

Dr. James J. Marois, Extension Pathologist
North Florida REC, Quincy
jmlarois@u f.edu

Crop Variety Trial Information

Information on corn, cotton, soybean, and other crops may be found on the web at
ww\vw.sw vl. uta.ed L This is a decision that cannot be changed or altered after planting like so
many other management decisions. Deciding on best varieties is a very important decision. There
is often a 30-50% difference between some of the best varieties and the lower yielding varieties.
Quality may vary as well making a difference in the price received for the commodity or animal

Many varieties of crops have resistance to disease, insects, and nematodes. Other varieties are
transgenic with resistance to herbicides that may be applied over the top of the crop. This is one
decision that is worth spending a few hours on for each of the crops being grown. For further
information contact your local county extension office.

Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist
North Florida REC, Quincy
wright(u il.edu

Agronomy Notes

Weed Control in Over-fooded Pastures

Many cattle producers plant temporary grazing areas with ryegrass, wheat, oats, or other small
grain varieties since summer pastures are now dormant. A successful winter pasture can be a
highly productive and somewhat inexpensive way to improve animal performance during the
winter months. However, many winter pastures do not consider weed management as
part of the production strategy and often have rampant infestations of wild radish (aka
wild mustard), geranium, and other winter weeds.

Control of winter weeds is relatively inexpensive and easy if it is
done in a timely manner. Wild radish seeds begin to germinate
when soil temperatures reach 650F. At the time of this writing.
soil temperatures from Brooksville north ranged from 650F. to
61 F. This means that wild radish is actively germinating right

It is important to begin scouting the winter pasture
areas to determine your level of winter wood
infestation and plan your herbicide application timing.

For small wild radish, 1 pint of 2,4-D will provide near 100% control if it is applied
prior to flowering when rosettes are small. Delaying the application until the plants
are fully flowering and large will result in less than 50% control.
Other herbicides such as Banvel and Weedmaster may be used, but
F UNIVERSITY these will also be ineffective on large weeds.

S ETiming the herbicide application relative to the winter pasture
should also be considered. Applications made soon after
Link emergence will cause significant leaf rolling and yellowing.
Applications made too late can cause lodging and additional injury
symptoms. Thaerfore, horbicides should be applied after
UF/IFAS the plants have fully emerged and begun to tiller, but
Entomology and Nomatology
newsletter available in both HTML prior to head formation.
and PDF versions at
http: '/elltnew s. i las. u fl.ed u1. Additionally, application rates of2,4-D, Banvel, or
Weedmaster should not exceed 1 pt/A. But if the weeds
For a listing of our WWW site on appropriately small, 1 pt/A will be more than enough
Insect, Mitest herbicide to provide effective control.
and other topics:
http hei Fsl Plan to start scouting your winter pastures now and planning the
http:, psts.i fas.uI fl.ed Lu herbicide application. Properly timed, the herbicide will provide
excellent weed control and dramatically improve forage yield.
Escambia County
4H Fall Harvest Dagys Dr. Jason Ferrell
photos for viewing at: Extension Weed Specialist
http://k i ngdom. i as.u fl.edu' j fen-elll@'ufl.cdu
i falsnhotos'41 -l fallIharvest '

Agronomy Notes Pa

Pesticide Information Offie Updates

This office never faces a dilemma caused by a lack of program activities and updates always a study manual to be written, an exam
to he revised, a CEU presentation to be made; the list seems routine, even mundane to many, but presents this office with ongoing
opportunities. The year, 2007, a s cspeciilly busy to meet the challenges that were presented. Some of the
updates that we accomplished during the year, we hope, will prove to be useful to faculty, staff, students, and the
citizens that call upon us. The highlights include:

d i Our wobsite http: postedd. i s.u fl.etlu continues to expand with added features.
.. One link %\ within this site is especially for internal use by IFAS faculty, staff, and
- ~--- students.

........A drop-down menu, listed under "IFAS Employee Training," provides access to:
= EPA-approved Worker Protection Standard Training along with a printable
attendance verification form;
SNarrated Articulate presentation walking a person through a FDACS agricultural
compliance inspection; and
SDiscussion of IFAS pesticide policies, and pesticide applicator exam preparation
programs, including General Standards Core, Ag Row Crop, Demonstration and
Research, and Soil Fumigation.

a a Our on-line system offering pesticide applicator CEU
opportunities now has 26 FDACS-approved prograrns.
Each on-line tutorial is approved for 1 CEU at a cost of
$20. Virtually every applicator category has at least one
CEU available, so no applicator should have to come up
SPee short at the end of their certification cycle and be forced to
I "take the test" to meet recertification. There are several
us'.=...Ii routes to access the system: our website, a direct link at
http://pested.ifas.ufl.edu'oi i li inp st icid lcceuS, or the IFAS
Extension Bookstore at Ittp: w' ww. ilbshooks.u il. ed u inircliitl 2..

Our DIQ2 Document collection continues to grow with making more informational guides
available. One now feature is our po ticido applicator licon ing 2orio, which
explains the licensing process for each individual category. The collection contains 18 individual
documents. There are several other series within our collect ion, including crop!pest management
profiles, pesticide toxicity profiles, pesticide labeling, and more. To access, visit http://

Our monthly "Chemically Speaking" newsletter has continued without skipping a beat, despite
budget cuts. It is located at Il.p: 'pested.itlIs.tl fl.edu 'nC\'wsltterl.htlill. Please take a moment and let
us know what you think of the newsletter by completing a brief on-line survey at http://
cstel i s. .eil d 1 le'u '1e C' 1 ] ciers iC slettler (1n1n. 111il1.

We know that 2008 will offer more challenges for us, but those are the reasons for making our lives more exciting and productive.
We, at the Pesticide Infonnation Office, wish all to enjoy the holiday season, and to come back for a fresh start in 2008.

Dr. Fred Fishel
Pesticide Coordinator
weedd r@i tas. u fl.edu

Agronomy Notes Ps

l Wheat Planting Date

Due to the recent spike in wheat prices there has been much interest in
planting wheat. However, the freeze this past Easter resulted in little seed
wheat being available for recommended varieties. Many growers have been
calling in with names of older wheat varieties that were never recommended
for Florida.

Only grow varieties recommend for
Florida, south Georgia and Alabama.

Be aware that if old varieties are planted, the yield will be lower and disease
resistance not as good as those currently recommended and fungicides will
have to be used.

Wheat can be planted from mid November to mid December with good
results. Wheat should not be planted later since yields are usually reduced or it will not head
out due to too few chill hours and diseases are much worse on late maturing varieties and
especially on the older varieties where they are no longer resistant to disease. Even at high
prices, it may not be profitable to grow old, unadapted varieties.

Dr. David Wright, Professor
North Florida REC, Quincy

Canar Dat

December 6 Sam 4 pm Poinsettia Sale at UF Greenhouses behind Fifield Hall
By UF's Environmental Horticultural Student Club
IMlp: lion iti,..ull.Ldui pIuLi li J id 'v2( 7.[EdI "

December 6-7 Florida Ag Expo
At UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research Center in Balm.
Registration is free. Details at h[!Up__ 1gc\po. liis. u l.edu.

January 26-31 American Forage and Grassland Council (AFGC)
Louisville, Kentucky

January 29-30 19th Annual Florida Ruminant Nutritional Symposium
at the Best Western Gateway Grand in Gaines, illc, FL

February 3-5 Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists (SAAS)
Dallas, Texas

July 13-17 Caribbean Food Crops Society Meeting
Miami, FL Hosted by U F. FAS

Agronomy Notes Pa!

Order a Lakowatch Calendar today!

To preview more of the calendar
pictures visit web page

http://lakewatch. ifas.ufl.edu/



2008 Florida LAKEWATCH Calendar Order Form

The 2008 Florida LAKEWATCH Calendar is now available. The featured photographs were
all taken by LAKEWATCH volunteers. All donations will go toward the LAKEWATCH
Building Fund. To receive a calendar fill out this form and send the order form along with
your donation (suggested donation is $15 to $20 per calendar) to:
Florida LAKEWATCH Calendar
7922 NW 71st Street
Gainesville, FL 32653

Make CHECK out to: University of Florida Foundation. Inc. -- SHARE
in the MEMO line write: Florida LAKEWATCH Building

Email Address Phone #
Donation Amount _____Number of Calcndar(s)

Number of Calendnr(s) sent Dale Sent ___ Initials_

This form is also available online at: hutp: .lakewltch.il ; uill.Cedu'BuildingCampaign/weboirdeclbrnl.pdf

Agronomy Notoe P

"Agrinoniiv Notes" is prepared by: J.M. Bennett, Chairman and Yoana Newman, Extension Forage
Specialist (ycnew@unedu); J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist (iililrrell wilt,.uil.edul; F.M. Fishel,
Pesticide Coordinator (weeddrt@ifasufl.edu); Clyde Fraisse, Extension Climate Specialist
kclraisse[i utl.edu): James J. Marois, Extension Agronomist imindrisfti'ul.edu). and D.L. Wright, Ex-
tension Agronomist (dllwa i ils ull.edul. Designed by Cynthia H ight. The use of trade names does not
constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not .ignify apIprnal to the exclusion of
similar products.