Annual report

Material Information

Annual report
Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
United States -- Agency for International Development
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Farming Systems Support Project.
Creation Date:
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Latin America ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Africa ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Asia ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Issuing Body:
Submitted to the United States Agency for International Development.
General Note:
Description based on: 1983.
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: 1985.
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
70867122 ( OCLC )
2006229373 ( LCCN )

Full Text
Cooperative Agreement No.: Dan-4099-A-00-2083-00 Project No.: 936-4099
Submitted to The United States Agency for International Development
Prepared by
University of Florida in cooperation with
Support Entities of the Farming Systems Support Project
For the period covering
January 1 to December 31, 1986

I. Preface .. ... ....... ........ ....... ....1
II. Introduction. .. ..... ....... ........ ......3
III. Regional Support and Delivery
Asia and the Near East. .. ..... ........ ..... 9
Latin America and the Caribbean .. ...... .........9
Training. ... ....... ........ ......10
Networking. ... ....... ........ .....12
IV. Program Development
Training Units .. ... ....... ........ .....15
Case Studies .. ... ....... ........ ......16
Training of Trainers. .. ..... ........ ......17
Training Delivery
Institutionalization. ... ....... ........18
Florida Short Course. ... ........ .......19
Informal Training and Network Support
Bio Data Service .. ...... ....... ......20
Visitors. ... ........ ....... ......21
Farming Systems Symposium .. .. ........ .....22
FSSP Annual Meeting .. ... ....... ........23
Newsletter .. ...... ....... ..........23
Bibliography .. ..... ........ .........23
Papers. ... ........ ....... .......23
Reports .. ... ....... ........ ......23
OTA .. .. ........ ....... ..........23
V. Maintaining a Domestic Support Base
Project Status .. ....................25
Structured Response frm Support Entities...........27
VI. Appendix
1. FSSP Calendar of Project and Related Program Activities . .. 33 2. visitors to the FSSP .. ...... ....... .......37
3. FSSP Annual Meeting Reports (Minutes of Annual Meeting) ... 43 4. Index of Activity Report Abstracts .. ...... .......53
5. 1985 Farming Systems Support Project Personnel .. ........55
6. FSSP Buy-in Summary. .. ..... ........ .......57

The 1986 Annual Work Plan of the FSSP evolved from efforts to reorient project activity suggested by the project evaluation in mid-1985. Those evaluation recommendations and FSSP actions are spelled out in the 1985 Annual Report. Program activities in 1986 reflect those changes with nearly exclusive emphasis on West Africa and de-emphasis on technical assistance activities. Along with networking, the training development and delivery program activities were focused on West Africa and drew from a worldwide experiential and support base.
Training program development activities achieved worldwide attention through publication and review of two training volumes: I- Diagnosis and II- On-Farm Experimentation. Emphasis on planning for Volume IIIManagement of Research and Extension, as well as complementary units on livestock systems and economic analysis for integration into Volumes I and II has focused further development work in 1987. The technical assistance community at large has taken interest in the training materials also inclusive of the FSSP/Population Council case studies on gender and intra-household issues in FSR/E. Both the process and product of these training material development efforts are considered to be at the cutting edge of agricultural education for adaptive research and technology development. Delivery of the training materials through two three-week courses in French and English respectively for West Africa proved how significant the unfulfilled demand is for training in FSR/E methods.
Networking accomplishments too were significant with the emergence of a viable West African Farming Systems Research Network. Multiple donor and country interests contributed to a second networkshop for more than sixty West African participants with future program and funding support secured beyond the potential FSSP contribution.
The year was one of concern for the future of programs established by FSSP. With both USAID mission and FSSP Support Entity demands for continuance along with IARC and other donor expressions of concern, management of FSSP is challenged to anticipate alternatives for continuation of the US network and support base. Expressed desires for continuance coincide with the initial interest by USAID in developing a ten-year support effort that would ultimately institutionalize the short-term training and support base at regional locations.
USAID/Science and Technology Bureau is to be congratulated on establishing, through the FSSP, several unique and highly credible activities and output streams. A careful assessment of these activities would clarify the value and consequences of continuing selected efforts and discontinuing others. The AID dimension in this assessment should be the next FSSP evaluation.
This report is functional for the calendar year 1986. To address major program achievements over time, a complete project report on activities, processes, results and FSR/E methodological advances will be prepared for release in early 1987.
1986 Annual Report 1

1986 Annual Report 2

Program objectives for FSSP in 1986 included:
1. Synthesis and analysis (state-of-the-art) directed to priority
training materials and support of problem-oriented networking
2. Delivery and support for West Africa training and networking.
3. worldwide program development and networking support
These objectives represented a change in focus by de-emphasizing work in the Latin American and Asian/Near Eastern regions along with de-emphasis on technical assistance support. Now the FSSP prepares for further potential change as funding expires for the First Cooperative Agreement in September 1987. Desires expressed by both clients and support entities of the FSSP suggest that a transition should be accomplished if possible to a sustained network and support program with long term potential.
FSSP Status Summary
As 1986 closes, project uncertainty particularly related to FSSP Core funding suggests that significant change is to come at the close of FY 1987. Any project transition or termination requires that some activities will be reduced in scope or eliminated. Discussions within the extensive FSSP organization are underway considering the future of the FSSP Support Entity network and the programs in training, technical assistance and networking that FSSP supports. Activities that will leave the greatest voids in present programs or affect potential program development are summarized below.
Optimal returns from activities and projects occur with differing time dimensions. Some of FSSP's work has been completed, some has been redirected through internal and external evaluation. Other project activities are only beginning to show their potential, while considerable time and support are needed if they are to mature and produce at an optimum. For some of these activities USAID now stands at a threshold of returns on earlier investments, which can only be realized if a minimum critical mass of support can be sustained. Other donors recognize the situation and will likely contribute where possible.
The FSSP was conceived and operates in an open framework to address support needs, on-demand and with flexibility, while encouraging an institutional context for sustained results. Program activities resulting from this work are prescribed in the Log Frame (prepared on March 15, 1982) but also embody emerging opportunities.
Priority program activities considered in the transition or termination assessments follow:
1986 Annual Report 3

1.Training support base
a. Courses. Short courses as prescribed in the Log Frame have
been developed and delivered for practitioners and managers.
Practitioner course demand has exceeded expectations while manager course demand is emerging but cannot be fulfilled
without sustained support through field use of the
forthcoming materials in Volume III of the training units.
b. Development of training materials. The initial development of
three training volumes (I- Diagnosis, II- on-Farm
Experimentation, and III- management and Administration of R/E
Institutions) is nearly complete. Translation of materials
into French is completed in support of the training effort in
West Africa. Newly revised and translated units will be
forthcoming to strenghthen these state-of-the-art synthesis
and training documents if funding provides for a core unit to manage the process. The MSTAT program has been developed for
statistical and data management training in FSR/E and has been
delivered in numerous countries in French, Spanish and
English. Eight case studies, from Africa (4), Latin America
(2) and Asia (2) are complete and ready for adaptation and use in numerous training situations. Follow-up and revision along
with additions of new material are desired periodically for
best use of the training units and case studies.
c. Training of trainers. The need for qualified, capable
trainers prevails, a need which is especially apparent in West
Africa. The process of training began in the second year of
the project as a method for providing a multiplier to the
national training efforts through both formal training for
trainers activities and with a participant add-on program as a
part of FSSP strategy in its course delivery. This effort is part of a process of institutionalization, viewed by FSSP to be within a second, five-year activity. It builds upon and
follows the training materials development work. The activity
is essential for long-term success in West Africa.
d. Institutionalization of training. West African AID Missions
and attendant national programs both stand to benefit from an institutionalized regional training program. Discussions are
underway with USAID-Cameroon, IDRC-East Africa and Cameroon officials concerning establishment of a continuing education
effort for FSR/E at the University Center Dschang, (UCD)
Cameroon. FSSP was invited by UCD officials to help prepare a
program strategy for this effort.
A viable transition from FSSP to the UCD of training
capability and support will be a process requiring at least two years beyond the current FSSP Cooperative Agreement. A
methodical phase-in process will be essential to ensure that a
viable program emerges to support an expanding West Africa
1986 Annual Report 4

e. National training program development. The demand for
regional training courses will exceed FSSP's scaled-down
capability to respond in 1986-87. This is in spite of the
fact that FSSP no longer subsidizes participants, who are
finding support through their home organizations and through
donors. The Mali regional workshop illustrated this as
applicants exceeded available place by several fold.
New FSR/E projects in Mali, Mauritiania, Niger and Rwanda have all been assistd through FSSP with project design or in
training of field teams. FSSP is helping schedule and will
deliver country-level training along with people prepared
(trainer of trainers program) to co-lead such efforts. Again, this is a second phase FSSP activity that will not be covered
in the future and a one- or two-year gap between support
efforts would create serious limitations to potential success
of bilateral contracts in those countries.
f. worldwide training base. While a training base has potential
for strengthening training in Latin American and Asian farming
systems efforts, this potential lies beyond the reach of the present FSSP Cooperative Agreement or the project's present scope of work. The opportunity, while currently available, will be reduced with time. Even though development of FSSP
training materials has drawn upon worldwide experience,
application is no longer provided on that basis through the
2. Network Support Base
a. Information programs
1). Newsletter. The worldwide French, English and Spanish language newsletters each were produced quarterly with some common messages and some unique messages designed for and drawn from the audiences served. This technical assistance instrument, oriented to multidisciplinary involvements and interdisciplinary results, serves the world's adaptive agricultural research community. The 5,000 recipients depend upon the FSSP Newsletter to convey brief articles on FSR/E methodological advances and to share common FSR/E experiences. The letter is attracting participation by numerous practitioners with recent and emerging FSR/E experience. 2). Publications. Numerous publications resulted from the FSSP to support networking goals. FSSP has used the publication effort to support ongoing programs and budgeted it accordingly. Thus, it is a part of those programs as evidenced by the report series on Livestock and Cropping Systems.
3). Documentation. Collection, cataloging, microfiching, abstracting and distribution activities relative to FSR/E documents continued in 1986. As FSSP anticipates close out support to the activity, the overall research
1986 Annual Report 5

and extension communtiy will have less access to FSR/E literature unless further support is obtained. This will impact future adaptive research and extension endeavors.
b. Symposium. The "Annual Farming Systems Symposium" was held at
Kansas State University. It has become recognized worldwide
and is the preeminant place for international FSR/E
practitioners from all countries to exchange information.
FSSP has contributed significantly of time and funds to the
most recent four meetings of the six held. The 1986 meeting
provided a forum for more than 280 practitioners from more
than 30 countries to exchange FSR/E experience.
c. Regional Networks. Both the WAFSRN and Animal Traction
networks held meetings with FSSP support in 1986. The
opportunity for information and experience exchange coupled with planning for similar future exchanges provided a solid base for future work. Seven donor agencies recognized this
potential as evidenced by their presence, and several indicated interest in supporting future networkshops.
3. Technical Assistance Support Base. Given the de-emphasis on
technical assistance resulting from the mid-term evaluation, and reduced emphasis on Latin America and Asia except for 100 percent buy-ins, technical assistance activity was reduced in 1986 compared to previous years. Assistance with biodata searches and with team orientation continued while complete delivery of design and evaluation assistance with FSR/E projects declined.
FSSP 1986 Outputs
As specified in the 1986 work plan nearly all of the fifteen projected outputs have been or soon will be accomplished as publications are completed. Activities completed include:
1. Two training volumes;
2. Two three-week FSR/E methods courses in French and English for West
African practitioners;
3. The worldwide KSU symposium;
4. Volume III of the bibliography;
5. various publications (newsletters, network papers, case studies,
networkshop proceedings);
6. Purged newsletter mailing list;
7. Published the revised project inventory;
8. Report on pressing technical problems worldwide facing
9. Second WAFSRN conference;
10. Reviewed and tested FSR/E-intrahousehold cases; and
11. Response to on-demand mission requests for FSR/E assistance in
Not completed are:
1. Networkshop in West Africa with universities on improved research
and evaluation training with a farming systems perspective (not approved by AID management);
1986 Annual Report 6

2. A report on use of rapid rural appraisal; and
3. Report by the evaluation task force and a summary of bilateral
project technical successes.
It is anticipated that these reports will be completed but delayed to near term of the current Cooperative Agreement.
1986 Annual Report 7

1986 Amual Report 8

Asia/Near East
The shift in emphasis from a three region project to one focused on West Africa reduced Latin American/Caribbean and Asian/Near Eastern activity to a complete buy-in basis (a general summary of FSSP buy-ins is provided in Appendix 7). No program activity occured directly in the Asia sphere. The FSSP/Near East and Asia Advisory Committee continues to communicate. A representive from Kohn Kaen University, Thailand served on the Technical Committee and contributed to program recommendations that feed into training unit development, the annual symposium and future FSSP strategies.
In July an FSSP/NEAAC meeting was held at Colorado State to discuss the future role of FSSP and the NEAAC. The NEAAC members generally felt that there was value in maintaining the FSSP presence initiated in Asia and that FSSP could learn much from and contribute to existing networks in the region. Several Support Entity institutions represented on the NEAAC indicated their willingness to do what they can to support FSSP activities with Matching Support Grant funds. This is valuable but does not replace the need for an FSSP Core commitment of interest and resources.
This FSSP Core commitment, based on USAID directions, was not forthcoming, and consequently, if NEAAC is to propose any type of continuing activity in the region it will have to be funded from sources outside of USAID/FSSP. At the present time the Southeast Asian Universities Agroecosystem Network (SUAN) and the Program on Environmental Sciences and Management (PESAM) at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos are interested in exploring the possibility of a jointly sponsored workshop on the application of agro-ecology type research on development programs. One suggestion is that ongoing farming systems projects be identified in Asia as the basis for the development of case examples of how increasing knowledge of the interaction between social and bio-physical systems can influence the priorities and directions of technical assistance and development programs. If there is sufficient support for such an activity among the institutions represented on the NEAAC it may be possible to consider developing an external funding proposal. Any future steps along these lines will also depend on the continuing status of FSSP after September, 1987.
Latin America/Caribbean
Effort in Latin America was confined to completion of the Paraguay
training and technical assistance effort and to a Haiti project evaluation. The Paraguay program, one of FSSP's major successes generally and in Latin America specifically, was initiated early as a training effort that ultimately brought research and extension together for a substantial on-farm research effort. FSSP, through a USAID mission buy-in, then provided in-country technical assistance for two years in establishment of
1986 Annual Report 9

the on-farm research effort. The technology development and testing process was well underway at the time of FSSP departure from the effort.
FSSP also conducted an evaluation of the ADS-il Project in Haiti, with special emphasis on that project's scheme to use the farming systems approach to develop and extend technologies to farmers on the badly-eroded Haitian hillsides. The activity, including core management, was financed entirely through a Haiti mission buy-in. The FSSP also assisted with the Rural Technology Transfer System Project in Ecuador, where the FSSP Latin American coordinator worked for nearly five months in an integrated-pest-management effort on the coast.
Africa Program
The FSSP training strategy is focused on the West and Central Africa region and designed to initiate and implement regional and national practitioner-level short term Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) training in English and French. Though the objectives of the strategy relate to specific FSSP activities in West and Central Africa, they indicate directions for a long-term training program for the region. FSSP coordinates its training activities through networking with other organizations such as the West African Farming Systems Research Network (WAFSRN), the West African Integrated Livestock Systems Network, and the various formal and informal commodity-oriented networking activities of SAFGRAD, ICRISAT, ILCA, and IITA in the region.
A primary objective of the FSSP training program is to provide the
basic foundations for development of indigenous training capacity in FSR/E within national institutions. While the FSSP is not specifically directed toward institutionalizing training capability, it supports bilateral contracts and other entities that work with national programs in Africa establishing integrated research and extension efforts that utilize a farming systems perspective. The FSSP has followed this approach since its inception. Specific emphasis at this time is being given to three areas: 1) developing materials, 2) enhancing the skills of existing trainers or training new trainers, and 3) delivering short courses to West and Central African FSR/E practitioners. The three areas are linked, and many activities benefit more than just one area of development. The first two are discussed under a following section on program development. The third area is the subject of the remainder of this section.
The FSSP has drawn upon the materials and trainer base in the delivery of a number of training activities in the West and Central African region. Because FSSP did not have the luxury to develop the materials and train trainers before needing to embark on the delivery of some training workshops, the latter have served as a type of testing ground for developing an appropriate strategy for a training program. In fact, the delivery of training was often simultaneous with materials development and training of trainers so that the three were mutually supportive.
Initially, the FSSP was engaged in conducting short (4-7 day) workshops aimed at providing an overview or introduction to the basic concepts,
1986 Annual Report 10

philosophy and skills of FSR/E. These were conducted on a regional basis or among a specific target group within a single country. FSSP then focused on diagnostic skills, and followed by the skills associated with the design and analysis of on-farm research. In 1986 with the completion of the first two volumes of the training units and the completion of several of the case studies, the FSSP had a solid base for delivering a three week course at the regional level. The first of these was conducted in the Gambia in April 1986, in English, for participants from the Anglophone countries or English speakers from the French speaking nations. The training workshop was attended by thirty -one participants representing The Gambia and five other African countries: Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ghana, Mauritania and Botswana. Resource persons from The Gambia, Senegal, Nigeria, the Philippines, and Latin American provided firsthand case study examples of farming systems research and extension.
The training materials (Volumes I and II plus the Burkina Faso case study) were then translated into French and used in the second regional course held November 1986 in Mali. The regional course conducted in English and French, focused on building the methodological skills necessary to conduct FSR/E within a national program context. The FSSP has drawn considerably upon the CIMMYT experience in East and Southern Africa in the development of a three-week training course.
The Gambia course followed two previous FSSP sponsored training
activities in the country. The first was a regional orientation workshop and the second was a week-long course focused on the design and analysis of on-farm research. Each of the earlier workshops and the more recent three-week regional course incorporated participants from the various network organizations such as WAFSRN, SAFGRAD, IITA, and the emerging West African Integrated Livestock Cropping Systems Network. An interface with CRSP institutions is expected in the future.
Participation in the second regional course, held in Mali November
3-21, brought together participants from Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Cameroon, Senegal, Rwanda, Burundi and Burkina Faso. The course was divided into three sections: 1) diagnostic skills; 2) design, analysis and evaluation of on-farm experiments and interventions; and 3) issues of implementation and institutionalization of the FSR/E approach. Participants received practical, "hands-on" training in conducting interdisciplinary informal surveys, and learned what kinds of analytical tools to apply in the analysis of on-farm experimental results. Participant small group discussions focused on the linkages between commodity research and area-focused (FSR/E) research, gender analysis and FSR/E, the research-extension linkages, and the policy implications of FSR/E. Resource persons from the University Centre at Dschang, Cameroon, IITA and the SAFGRAD program in Benin, in addition to several Malien researchers, provided additional input to the course. Participants also discussed strategies for FSR/S training at the national level among researchers and extension workers.
The regional training course serves as a complement to the development of national training strategies for which FSSP materials and training support can be requested. Several countries are already making plans to do this in 1987. Two USAID supported projects in Niger are developing a
1986 Annual Report 11

strategy for a training program to complement the regional course. They plan to involve the FSSP. They will target training for extension workers and trainers in the extension training institute, and hope to have their first training course by mid-1987.
The Mauritania program anticipates a number of training efforts
as part of the USAID bilateral contract led by the University of Arizona. The FSSP has provided orientation and training assistance to the University of Arizona on preparing for this activity. Follow-up work will occur in 1987 with the team in the field along with contribution of materials and support for a continual short term training effort.
In Mali, the FSSP has been involved since the inception of the design effort for the present USAID contract led by Auburn University/SECID. Orientation of design team members, implementation team members, and now plans for future training efforts are well underway. These will complement the regional program as well as be specific to national program needs. The participation of ten Maliens in the November regional course provides a good base for future training efforts. Also, the FSSP has provided Mali with an MSTAT training course in statistical methods particularly oriented to farming systems research and extension. Through support from FSSP to Michigan State University, one of the FSSP support entities, the materials for the MSTAT effort were further refined and translated to French, and tested in courses such as this one. Now information on MSTAT and its applications is available on a broad scale basis to West Africa and the rest of the world.
In addition to continuing FSSP training efforts on a regional basis, and support to national programs, the FSSP has fostered a working relationship and collaborated in a number of activities with the major International Agricultural Research Centers (IARCs) in the region. FSSP is currently working with the IARC and other major research network groups in Africa, such as CRSPs, WAFSRN, and SAFGRAD to inform them of training programs and to collaborate with their training efforts. Other donors such as IDRC and World Bank have become familiar with the training approach of the FSSP and are considering possible future collaboration. Private voluntary organizations will also be contacted concerning training information. This approach, followed in 1986, will continue in 1987 as the materials and training experiences are evaluated in direct use.
Two major networking activities took place during FY 1986. Out of the November 1985 networkshop at Egerton College, Kenya, which brought together researchers and practitioners from projects in East, South and West Africa, a need for further networking emerged. In March of 1986, FSSP co-sponsored the West African Farming Systems Research Network (WAFSRN) meeting in Dakar, Senegal. This was the first meeting that brought together all of the member countries of West Africa. Fourteen of the seventeen WAFSRN member nations sent representatives to the meeting which was attended by more than 60 participants under the sponsorship of seven donors. Also, a sub-network meeting on livestock was held to continue plans for the next networkshop on the issue, following the initial networkshop on animal traction held in Togo in March 1985.
1986 Annual Report 12,

Working sessions for the WAFSRN meeting included the following topics:
1. Linkages between FSR and component research;
2. Linkages between research and development activities;
3. Sequencing of field activities and the roles of various
4. Coordination of donor assistance for national FSR activities.
While cautious optimism was the main tone set by the donors at this networkshop, it was repeatedly pointed out that most donors have been seriously affected by recent funding cutbacks or shifting agricultural research priorities. The FSSP will continue to actively cooperate and network with WAFSRN.
The second networking activity in which FSSP played a participatory role took place during September, 1986. The FSSP, in collaboration with IDRC, ILCA, and IITA, sponsored a second regional networkshop on draught animal power entitled, "The Introduction, Intensification and Diversification of the Use of Animal Power in West African Farming Systems: Implications at the Farm Level". The networkshop was held in Freetown, Sierra Leone from September 19-25. It was held under the auspices of the West Africa Integrated Livestock Systems Committee, an associate body of the WAFSRN. The host organization was the Sierra Leone Work Oxen Project. Four major sub-themes were included in paper presentations and small group discussions:
1. Animal power equipment at the farm level;
2. Animal utilization and management at the farm level;
3. Economic implications of animal power at the small farm level and
village level finance; and
4. Social implications of animal power at the farm level.
In summary,FSSP's networking thrust in West Africa is directed to three major goals, spelled out early in the project:
Thrust I Problem area focus (animal systems and other crop and
commodity networks) through the already implemented animal systems network established at the Togo networkshop. Other crop/commodity themes can be identified and linked with regional and international
center interests.
Thrust II Methodological focus (on-farm experimentation) comprises the entire FSR/E community in the region and focuses episodically on
themes of interest to that community. Themes have been identified by
FSSP and WAFSRN and would be jointly sponsored as discrete
networkshops, not necessarily to be on-going with a separate steering
committee, such as was established with animal systems Thrust I.
Thrust III Training/teaching (FSR in the university context) entails the establishment of a network among African universities. Groundwork for such a network was laid at the Egerton Workshop, August 1985, and
would constitute a pan-African diaglogue. Joint support for this would
come principally throught the CIMMYT program.
1986 Annual Report 13

1986 Amual Report 14

Training Units
A major effort of the FSSP training thrust since mid-1984 has been
focused on the development of several in-depth volumes of training materials which represent the methodological breakdown of the FSR/E process into specific training units. The decision to divide the materials into units came as a result of recommendations from the FSSP Training Task Force and a Training for Trainers Workshop, as well as from practical experience in delivering numerous training short courses. This was followed by the gathering of existing FSR/E materials from around the world from experienced FSR/E practitioners and persons with training expertise. Key IARCs-such as IRRI, CIMMYT, CIAT, CIP, IITA, and ICRISAT became involved in the effort as well as numerous members of both U.S. institutions and national programs in developing countries. Several training unit development workshops were held at the University of Florida, and initial unit drafts were tested in various shortcourses held during 1985.
Early in 1986, final revisions were completed on both volumes. By
mid-1986, the first edition of two volumes of the training units was finished and ready for production and distribution. Each of the volumes is not to be considered as a self-contained course, but rather as an organized collection of units which can be put together by a training team based upon the needs of the target group of trainees. Each unit provides specific learning objectives, key points, definitions of terms, a brief text, suggested training activities and practical exercises, and trainer's notes. Each unit within each volume is complete with separate instructions for trainers, and each includes text material written for trainees, and hands-on training exercises. The two completed volumes, which have been both university- and field-tested, are described below.
volume I, Diagnosis in FSR/E (published in 1986), contains nine units
(212 pages) which introduce trainees to various diagnostic steps in the FSR/E approach. Volume I stresses, but is not limited to, initial diagnosis. Its units also detail ongoing or continuous diagnosis throughout the FSR/E process. Links between social and biological science disciplines are stressed, as are considerations of intra-household and socio-cultural issues. Supplementary materials included in Volume I are (1) "Anatomy of On-Farm Trials: A Case Study From Paraguay" and (2) Bibiliography of Readings in Farming Systems Research and Extension, Volumes 1 and 2.
Volume II, Techniques for Design and Analysis of On-Farm Experimentation (published in 1986), contains six units (367 pages) which detail the farm trial design and analysis process. A statistical analysis unit is included so that trainers do not need to depend on outside materials in this critical area of trial design and analysis. Volume II also contains three documents which support the units: (1) On-Farm Aironomic Trials in Farming Systems Research and Extension, by Peter E. Hildebrand and Federico Poey, (2) "On-Farm Experimentation: A Manual of Suggested Experimental Procedures", by CARDI (the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute) staff,
1986 Annual Report 15

and (3) "Introduction to Economic Analysis of on-Farm Experiments", a draft
workbook by CIMMYT's Economics Program.
Distribution of the training units began in July. The set of FSR/E
Training Units (two volumes and all supplementary materials) were mailed free of charge to institutions and individuals who cooperated in their development and appropriate representatives of national programs and institutions engaged in FSR/E. To date, approximately 120 copies have been distributed worldwide. For those who may wish to purchase the volumes, they are available for $175.00 U.S. prepaid (includes postage and handling). To date, eighteen copies have been ordered from a variety of institutions and individuals throughout the world. The two volumes of FSR/E Training units are mailed out as a complete set only, containing the two volumes and all support documents.
Each volume is sent out in a loose-leaf binder, to allow for ease of
access and use, and to allow each volume to be updated (with trainer's notes, etc.). As each volume of training units is used, users are encouraged to notify FSSP of any adaptations, or new material developed by the users so that this information can be considered for future editions. Comments received are used in the review and revision process.
Translation of both volumes into French was completed in October. These materials were used in the FSSP Regional Workshop held in Mali on November 3-21. The volumes were produced as separate participant and instructor manuals based on feedback recommendations on the English volumes. General distribution of the French versions began in December. The French version is available at the same cost as the English version.
Case Studies
FSSP Training Case Studies
FSSP is engaged in developing case studies which can be used to explore the actual process of FSR/E within an existing national program. one such case study uses survey background data from an area of the Dominican Republic to simulate a sondeo or diagnostic survey. Another uses data from Paraguay to demonstrate the process of designing on-farm trials and explains how to conduct the analysis of the results.
In January, the Dominican Republic case was synthesized and developed from previously administered surveys in the study area. This set of materials was tested in a university class on FSR/E and used during a shortcourse delivered in August at the University of Florida.
Final revisions on the Paraguay case study, prepared and initially used in the summer of 1985, were completed in early 1986. The case study is included in the training unit package, and has been used in a variety of short courses.
1986 Annual Report 16

FSSP/Population Council Case Studies
FSSP has been working jointly with the Population Council, using outside funding from the Ford Foundation, to develop eight training case studies. These follow a format similar to the Harvard Business School case studies in that they present data without analysis; analysis becomes a training activity done in small groups by the trainees. The case studies were selected from nearly eighty proposals. Cases were selected in order to specifically present issues of gender and household analysis in FSR/E. This area was targeted earlier by the FSSP as an area for greater analytical attention. In addition to providing considerable depth in specific FSR/E field activities and problems, these cases will train practitioners of FSR/E to use gender and household concepts and analysis in the diagnosis and prioritization of problems, and in the design and analysis of on-farm research.
Of the eight cases selected two, Zambia and Burkina Faso, were completed in 1986 and tested in various settings. The remaining six cases are nearing completion. The Zambia Central Providence case study, written by Charles Chabala and Roert Nguiru, was used in a variety of ways in a short course in The Gambia, a short course and a University level course at the University of Florida. The Burkina Faso case was developed by Joe Nagy and Herb Ohm, Purdue University and Sibiri Samadogo, IBRAZ, Burkina Faso. Other case studies scheduled for completion in the near future deal with FSR/E activities in the Philippines, Indonesia, the Eastern Caribbean, Colombia, Botswana and Kenya.
In January of 1986, four members of the Advisory Board met with Mary Anderson, an experienced case writer and teacher, to develop the teaching plan for the Zambia case and prepare for its presentation. The first run of the Zambia case study (part 1 only) was at the University of Florida's Conference on Gender Roles and FSR/E in February 1986. Sixty people participated under the leadership of three trainers--Kate Cloud, Hilary Feldstein and Rosalie Norem. Fifty participants completed an evaluation of the case studies. On the whole, the test and evaluation provided both satisfaction with the method and some useful experience and feedback.
The completion of two case studies has taken more time than envisioned in editing and rewriting. An addition to the original grant was requested and approved in July and August of 1986. During the next year, the balance of the cases will be completed and tested before submitting them for publication in July of 1987.
Training of Trainers
A training-for-trainers effort began early in the FSSP with a two-week training workshop held at Iowa State University. Included among the participants were practitioners and graduate students from Africa. These individuals are now in a position to assist with training on a regional basis and participated in 1986 (and previously in various FSSP network activities) to further familiarize themselves with the overall program efforts. FSSP recommends and encourages bilateral contract people within the region, key AID staff and national counterparts, to participate in both country level and regional level training programs. Individuals who do
1986 Annual Report 17

participate in these overall efforts and utilize the materials provided by the FSSP can become a multiplier force for training in the region. FSSP cannot train all of the people that need access to FSR/E methodology. The FSSP is prepared to provide a basis for a training effort and serve as a point for learning and consensus relative to state-of-the-art synthesis and further development of appropriate training materials for trainers.
The overall training of trainers includes not only consideration of the needs for training in methodology but also for pedigogical skills as well as the planning and organizational skills necessary to design and run training workshops and courses that will facilitate learning and synthesis opportunities. FSSP is prepared to offer another training-for-trainers workshop, however, in order to provide in-service training to potential new trainers, FSSP includes non-trainer resource persons in training courses. These persons add their skills and knowledge of content issues to the FSR/E course while learning new training skills from the trainer team. Often persons who wish to become better trainers in FSR/E or who are learning to be trainers are added to a training team composed of individuals who have already conducted similar training activities. This type of "participant add-on" has been a strategy of the FSSP since its inception and has proven effective in expanding the base of skilled practitioners as well as trainers.
The evaluation, documentation and communication of the FSSP training activities has been another way in which trainers have been able to strengthen their own FSR/E training skills. Training activities are usually reported in the FSSP Newletter in addition to activity reports and sometimes in proceedings. Those planning their own training courses have found it useful to review the evaluation reports of FSSP's training courses and workshops. These reports are often made by a skilled individual who is not responsible for actual delivery of the course material. They represent a significant attempt to identify what works, what does not, and why. Being able to identify and understand why certain things do not work in specific situations helps to continually improve the material, the course design, and the trainer skills.
On another level, FSSP has also worked to expand the foundation of
persons knowledgeable about FSR/E within the support entity structure. As early as 1983, FSSP began a series of domestic introductory workshops the were funded primarily by the support entities. These focused on the basic FSR/E concepts and an overview of the methods and stages of the process. U.S. based faculty, international participants studying in the U.S., as well as USAID staff and personnel made up a large part of the workshop participants. These persons then became part of a multiplier effect which has furthered the network of FSR/E practitioners.
Training Delivery
Institutionalization (Cameroon)
Dr. Pascal Fotzo, University Center Dschang, has been consulting with his superiors, Dr. Owona and Djouban, to develop a strategy associated with establishing a training support base for Farming Systems at UCD to service continuing education needs of the country of Cameroon and countries in West
1986 Annual Report 18

Africa. The overall purpose was to prioritize alternative strategies and goals with time dimensions and direction relative to current capability and interest in FSR/E training and support. The overall proposal is important to AID and the FSSP as well as to UCD because of the impending change in funding status for the FSSP. It is not expected that this program would carry the FSSP funding needs, but it is important to consider what parts of the FSSP may be appropriately institutionalized in West Africa and need attention prior to phase down of the project.
The program to emerge must assume a purpose, posture and program status to complement UCD. It should first satisfy training support needs directly and on a continuing education basis for Cameroon in research, extension and training. Questions concerning a support role for West Africa will be appropriate when these needs are met. As a starting point for considering program development, the 1987 FSSP training strategy indicates what some of the opportunities may include. Particular emphasis must be given to linkages with the ongoing IITA Technical Liason Unit activity while considering documentation, library, training materials and trainer training needs.
University of Florida/FSR/E Short Courses
In August 1986, the University of Florida, with support from the FSSP, offered a three-week practitioner training course focused primarily on design and analysis of on-farm trails (Volume II of the training units). Introductory material was covered in various diagnostic techniques (Volume I of the training units) and the course concluded with emphasis on management of researach and extension programs (the Zambia case study was utilized). Participants attended from several countries primarily through bilaterial contract affiliations. There were ten participants in all, two from Honduras and the remainder from Tanzania, Cameroon, Mauritania, Niger and Uganda. The majority of the participants were agronomists.
An administration and management of research and extension course, taught over a five week period in June-July, was offered for graduate credit to University of Florida students. Emphasis was on how to effectively serve a technology innovation process that included a farming systems perspective. Experiential learning techniques were appled to various case and problem situations. Students were from Cameroom, Mali, Zaire, Thailand, Indonesia, India, Dominican Republic, Costa Rica and US representing six disciplines.
Both of the above courses are offered as short courses by the
University of Florida with support from the FSSP through staff and/or materials. Participants can elect (not required) to come to the University of Florida from abroad or another University and register for credit in these courses with transfer of credit back to their home institution. The objective in particular is to broaden training opportunities for third world scientists presently studying in the US. A growing number of support entities offer degree courses to support FSR/E training.
1986 Annual Report 19

Informal Training and Network Support
Bio-Data Service
The FSSP, as an organization made up of 20 U.S. institutions and 5 private consulting firms, encompasses many individuals as Program Associates. At the beginning of the Project, these Program Associates sent their Curriculum Vitae and other professional information to the University of Florida to establish the bio-data base for the FSSP.
The FSSP offices were almost immediately inundated with piles of CV's. Simultaneously, as the word spread that the FSSP had the most comprehensive list of FSR practitioners available, requests for personnel information became commonplace. It rapidly became apparent that a better system of filing and classifying this information needed to be developed and implemented. The Core devised a functional method of entering the required personnel information into the computer.
As the numbers of individuals grew, both Program Associates and
independent professionals wishing to be included in the database, a more sophisticated method of ordering the database was devised. The database presently contains specific information on 565 Program Associates and 233 independents. There are 94 languages and 451 distinct disciplines (divided into 24 major categories) included within the database.
Analysis of FSSP biodata requests shows that well over 80 percent of all requests related directly to USAID activities. (See Table 1). The FSSP biodata files have provided a significant service to bi-lateral contractors, the FSR/E community and to USAID itself by providing access to a knowledgeable and experienced pool of FSR/E practitioners. Additionally, by making names and contacts available, networking within the FSR/E community has been substantially enhanced.
Year Total AID Core Bi-Lateral Consulting NARs Other FSSP Contractors Firms,PVOs IARCs
1983 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
1984 59 14 10 16 15 3 1
1985 53 12 3 13 22 3 0
1986 29 1 2 5 17 2 2*
*US Congress and FAO
1986 Annual Report 20

Visitors Program and Training
FSSP visitors have ranged from U.S. and international graduate students to directors of national programs and ministers of national governments. They have included many university faculty and FSR practitioners from international research centers, bilateral contract and national research programs.
FSSP has endeavored to tailor its program to address individual or
group needs. Visitors' programs have ranged from simple appointment making with university faculty to intensive orientation and training in farming systems methodology and field trips to Florida agri-business concerns, agricultural research centers and to the North Florida FSR/E Project.
Visitors to the FSSP
Visitors Days Countries Person-days* Visits
1983 67 146 17 252 45
1984 140 262 36 539 67
1985 91 114 25 330 38
1986** 82 145 37 352 36
380 667 115 1,473 186
*(This number represents the total number of days spent with the FSSP; one person/one day = one person-day. Large groups and/or longer visits inflate this figure).
**(Confirmed to date; 22 Oct, 86)
The visitor program has been closely affiliated with training. In response to demand from U.S. universities, bi-lateral contractors and national research programs, the FSSP has endeavored to tailor training activities for visitors.
These training experiences can be roughly divided into two distinct classes: informal presentations and meetings which serve the purpose of generally orienting visitors to the concepts and methodology of the FSR/E approach, and intensive short-courses, with structured training activities, which introduce participants to the philosophy, perspective and methodology of FSR/E and prepare them to begin work within an FSR/E framework. The concepts covered and the materials used during these short courses are the same as those used in domestic and overseas training courses.
1986 Annual Report 21

To date, 47 distinct, customized training activities have been carried out by the FSSP. Visitors' length of stay in Gainesville ranged from 1 to 38 days, with an average stay of 3.89 days. Visitors, group size ranged from 1 to 22 persons, with an average of 3 persons. There were 134 individuals who received either formal or informal FSR/E training. Thirty-two separate countries were represented.
Informal Formal Total
Training Training
Year Activity Activity # Persons # Das Countries
1983 5 0 7 20 5
1984 11 1 56 69 9
1985 9 3 23 27 7
1986 16 2 48 59 11
41 6 134 175 32
Farming Systems Symposium
The Sixth Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium was held at Kansas State University in October. The FSSP has provided support to the symposium since 1983. The theme for this year's symposium was, "Farming Systems Research and Extension: Food and Feed". Attendees at the symposium were exposed to papers presented by FSR/E practioners from around the world. Results presented from ongoing FSR/E efforts document the value of the learning/training process and the importance of this activity. Attendance at the 1986 symposium totaled more than 280 from more than thirty countries. More than thirty states of the U.S. were also represented. Proceedings of the 1986 symposium were issued before the close of the symposium.
This was the final year that the Farming Systems symposium will be held at Kansas State University. During the symposium KSU was officially recognized and commended for its contribution to farming systems research and extension. An award was presented by the FSSP acknowledging the work done by KSU for all six symposia.
The University of Arkansas submitted a proposal to the Advisory
Council to host the 1987 Farming Systems Symposium (in cooperation with Winrock International). The proposal was accepted and a date set for the Seventh Annual Farming Systems Symposium. It will be held October 18-21, 1987.
1986 Annual Report 22

FSSP Annual Meeting
The FSSP Annual Meeting was held in conjunction with the KSU Farming Systems Symposium. The Annual Meeting of the FSSP had two purposes. One was to address state-of-the-art issues in four areas as a basis for further development of materials for the FSSP training units. The areas of emphasis were: economic analysis directed toward on-farm experimentation, livestock systems analysis (mixed crop/livestock), management of research and extension systems, and information/communication/extension linkages. The second area of emphasis was on the future of the FSSP network following termination of the present Cooperative Agreement in September 1987. (Minutes of the meeting are provided in Appendix 3.)
Twelve issues of the FSSP Newsletter were published in 1986, four
issues each in English, Spanish and French. Distribution of the newsletter has remained fairly constant for the past 18 months, with a circulation exceeding 5000. The mailing list for the newsletter has been fully computerized and has the capability of identifying recipients by discipline and region. In making the transition to a fully computerized system, the mailing list has been purged of approximately 1000 non-respondents.
Bibliographies continue to be published in English, Spanish and French, and distributed to the entire FSSP Newsletter mailing list. Volume III, a 100-item bibliography of Farming Systems literature, was published in 1986. FSSP also continues to support the effort at Kansas State University to microfiche and compile an extensive Farming Systems bibliography. Their basic document holdings consist of 2500 items plus yearly supplements.
On Networking papers continued to be issued in 1986, with a total of five issues for the year. Sixteen Networking Papers were also released in 1986. However, this series was terminated due to lack of funds.
Network Report #2 on Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems: Research
Methods and Priorities, was released in 1986. It is the second in a series of documents that report on workshops FSSP has promoted to address the issue of livestock in farming systems research.
OTA Report
A team of core FSSP staff were asked by the Office of Technical Assessment to prepare a background paper entitled, "Low-Resource Agriculture in Developing Countries: Implications for Africa". The paper was completed in 1986 by FSSP staff members, S. Poats, D. Galt and L.
1986 Annual Report 23

Walecka with the help of C. Andrew and P. Hildebrand. It is anticipated that the OTA will issue the full report this year.
1986 Annual Report 24

Project Status
Future funding of the FSSP beyond September, 1987, remains uncertain. However, a consensus of support entity representatives at the AUSUDIAP meetings in July, the FSSP Annual Meetings in early October and the NASULGC meetings in November is that FSSP should be continued. As FSR/E and FSSP mature it is becoming more obvious that efforts must focus on technology diffusion, policy linkages and overall R/E management of the on-farm and adaptive research work if FSR/E is to achieve full potential as a solid adaptive complement to commodity and discipline research. Agricultural success is at stake and FSR/E methodology is evolving to assist with both technology development and institutional accomodation for agricultural research and extension.
Reponse to FSSP needs at the Mission level is being assessed through
formal and informal channels. Particularly, interest is high for continued program support in several West African countries where FSSP involvement has been greatest and/or where major bilateral FSR/E projects are under-way. Desires for continued program development and support to Latin America/Caribbean and Asia/Near East efforts remain strong but without budget support.
USAID funding for the FSSP is not certain. Several scenarios and scales of operation have emerged from the meetings as options for continuation. The proces underway builds on the following circumstances and plans:
1. USAID mission response to the 1985 FSSP evaluation cable sent by the
Science and Technology Bureau (S&T) indicated early positive
response to FSSP interventions and a desire for further support from
missions where the project had been most involved.
2. S&T and Africa Bureau responses to FSSP reveal confusion about
the role of FSR/E, changing emphasis to biotechnology research,
serious budget constraints and little consensus about future
emphasis on FSR/E. The project budget has been substantially reduced
and fiscal '86-'87 operations for FSSP presently show a $210,000
3. During April-May 1986, FSSP Advisory Council members encouraged the
Director and Core staff to establish a planning/decision time frame
for considering the continuation of the FSSP, based upon their
assessment that SEs and AID missions want the project to continue.
The time frame included :
a) gathering information, planning and consensus building with
Administrative Coordinators in early July at AUSUDIAP;
b) a two day core and S&T management planning meeting in early
1986 Annual Report 25

c) University of Florida decisions and plans for future leadership
and transition support to FSSP, SE program and project management
contributions at the FSSP Annual Meeting in early October;
d) Administrative Coordinator reactions and consensus concerning
options at the NASULGC meeting in early November;
e) core restructuring of options and presentation by mail to SEs in
late November;
f) SE decisions on degree of participation based on selection from
options in December; and
g) Core and Advisory Council in collaboration with SE development
and presentation of proposals for consideration by USAID and
other funding agencies.
4. Administrative Coordinators, in July, endorsed continuation of the
FSSP. They encouraged consideration of diverse funding options by
various agencies as well as consideration of SE member fees, and suggested an "umbrella type" program that would stimulate one or more SEs to tackle program leadership and funding similar to the
aspirations of the FSSP/NEAAC (Near East & Asia Advisory Committee).
5. During the September planning meeting, FSSP Core staff prepared and
discussed an activity/decision/objective tree for consideration by representatives at the Annual Meetings and to assist with proposal
development. Plans were initiated for new approaches to the S&T and
Africa Bureaus for core financing. Time and financial constraints,
which forced core staff reductions (loss of 2.0 FTEs) coupled with a
need to deliver on an expanded West Africa program in '86 and '87,
were a planning reality, influencing decision processes for
continuation of the FSSP.
6. At the KSU Annual Meeting the transitional IFASiUF commitment to
FSSP after September 1987 was spelled out and included a director, a secretary, and an editor for up to one year. However, every effort
should be made by UF, FSSP and SEs to gain support so that this
fallback position is not called upon.
7. The FSSP Annual Meeting provided numerous expanded options and
further support for continuation of FSSP. The consensus was that
the FSSP must continue, but the level of activity would be
contingent upon funded program options (the meeting minutes are
summarized in an October 20, 1986 memo from Andrew to FSSP Advisory
Council, Technical Committee, Administrative Coordinators and
Program Leaders).
8. Official Support Entity representatives met at the NASULGC meetings,
again confirming the desire for FSSP to continue and committing to a
response to the following questions and program options. They
encouraged more formal bilateral contract linkages with FSSP
including subcontracts for training assistance and ultimately
1986 Annual Report 26

contracting procedures inclusive of FSSP at the onset of a bilateral
Structured Response from Support Entities
FSSP Support Entities assessed their interests and commitments relative to the future activities of the FSSP, and started to take steps toward future involvement. The options were considered under twelve activities sugggesting several scales of FSSP operation and entry points for SE participation and donor or external funding. Not all SEs would be compelled to enter with the same degree of participation. They are summarized in the following presentation termed Potential FSSP II Activities. SEs and/or donors should be able to share in lower scale benefits while higher involvement would require greater commitment to program and funding development. Some SEs might joing together to assist with development of the program and funding base for one of the potential program packages as well as participate in implementation.
The questions SEs were asked to respond to were:
1. Does the configuration of potential FSSP activities conform with
your perception of needs and potentials and to our combined ability
to respond?
2. Where and how will your SE want to commit to involvement with the
A complete response to these options was not available at the close of 1986.
The presentation of potential program activities is in terms of potential program packages. Both SE commitment/involvement and donor support can be addressed to combinations of activities. As orginally conceived, FSSP would include all 12 activities. The following potential program packages taken from the 12 activities are most evident as additive components of FSSP II:
A. Minimum Networking 1
B. Base for Worldwide Network 1,2,3
C. Regionally Extended Worldwide network 1,2,3,4
D. Minimum US Training Base 9
E. Minimum Training and Network Base 1,9
F. Worldwide Training Development Base 5,6,9
G. Worldwide Formal Training Base 9,10
H. Regionally Extended Worldwide
Formal and Informal Training Base 5,6,7,8,9,10
I. State-of-the-Art Synthesis Base 1,2,3,5
J. Minimum Technical Assistance 11
K. Worldwide Technical Assistance 11,12
L. Total Worldwide Farming Systems Support Program 1 through 12
Donors or other funding sources can be approached to support everything as in 1-12, total programs such as 1-4 or 5-10, or parts of programs such as 5 or single units in 5. The managerial preference is to gain as broad a
1986 Annual Report 27

base as possible in support funding but to make entry points flexible enough to allow participation for special interest or where there is restricted funding.
Unit and core base requirements can be somewhat discrete for each of the activities but an overall core is necessary, or a secured minimum core funding base, because funding will rise and fall from program activities over time. The overall effort cannnot function on stand-by status. Thus, core operations, regardless of location (at SE, FSSP lead entity or a regional site) must have sustained support but can be partially nurtured through activity fees for administration and management.
1986 Annual Report 28

Potential FSSP II Activities
Donor Involvement &
Activity Levels SE Involvement External Funding
1. Informal communication 1. Network membership- 1. Minor funding.
clearing house small fee, provide
information to "ONNETWORKING" type
2. Newsletter & Publication/ Network user fees 2. Proposal to funding
Information Service- if necessary, assist agency for information
Current FSSP Newsletter, with proposal develop- package (editor&support)
Documentation and ment, provide FSR/E to maintain worldwide
publication program state-of-the-art and FS network (5 year term)
program information/
3. Symposia for workshop 3. Participant and 3. Proposal to funding
and experience exchange institutional user fees agency for secretariat
Current FSR/E Symposium along with commitments support to complement
(US) & possible regional to assist in proposal user fees (5 year term)
affiliates through and fund develoment,
region based networks hosting, committee
actions, etc.
4. Regional Networking 4. Commitment to assist 4. Proposal to funding
support and US Network in proposal and fund agency for core support
Organization unit and development, and assist with proposals
and core base required. participation with to various funding
technical and advisory agencies for regional committees, and in secretariat support.
program delivery. (Varied term).
Possible institutional
membership fee in US
network if necessary.
5. Centralized training 5. Commitment to assist 5. Proposals (group of
materials development in proposal and fund units or unit by unit)
and state-of-the-art development, to potential user
symthesis-unit and participation and/or agencies such as donors,
core base required. lead in task forces IARCs, national programs
(varied degrees of for funding core
funding)for training (administrative/manageunit development & ment fees) and developdelivery (testing). ment costs for each unit
(varied term).
1986 Annual Report 29

6. Training of Trainers 6. Commitment to assist 6. Proposals (series of
program and centralized in proposal and fund courses or course by
support network for development, course) to potential user
trainers. Unit and core participation and /or agencies for regional and
base required. lead in development and national support to
delivery of short trainers (varied term).
7. Regional training 7. Commitment by SEs 7. AID mission leadership
programs (W. AF for with bilateral and other donor
example) Unit and contracts to collabor- participation in
core base required. ate in program develop- commiting general support
ment and funding as well through participant fees as delivery through to nourish program core/
fully funded participant development & delivery. fees (including General donor collaboradministrative management ation in achieving fees) integrated regional
training support.
8. National Training 8. Commitment by SEs 8. Action by donor
program support service with bilateral contracts agencies on funding
unit and core base to achievement of needs for national
required. national "training informal training
Programs" with planning programs and support for support interventions to long term ventures on a program and fund drawing on worldwide basis. Commitment by training support all SEs to strengthen intervention as support capability and appropriate. Some to lead and/or core funding required
participate assignments. (5 year term) Assist with proposal and fund development for
core base.
9. Formal U.S. Training 9. Commitment to 9. Prescription by
(BS, MS & PhD) curriculum development donors in funding
in FSR/ E as complement student programs to majors in bio-physics requiring some FSR/E and Soc. Sci. Provide course work. Either assistantships or other added funding or some stimuli to augment reallocation to
participation stimulate balanced
training. (long term).
1986 Annual Report 30

10. Institutionalization 10.Collaborative support 10. Core support by
Regional training and of bilateral contractors donors to a selected
support established and other national region based university
through core transition support projects to to assume functions
unit. participation with the similar to FSSP. Core
selected institutions, support to FSSP necessary SE commitment to in transition. (5 to 10
proposal and fund year term).
11. Limited technical 11. Utilization by Se's 11. Increased sensitivity
assistance support- in orientation/training and commitment to unit
and core base /participant add on strengthening TA
required. services for TA part- human resource base.
ticipation and/or
leadership in program
12. Technical assistance 12. Commitment to sub- 12. Commitment by USAID
support for FSR/ E team contracting from central missions to actual
development and de-ploy- unit to deliver services timing and planning
ment unit and core base to USAID. Commitment to framework (past
required. lean and uncomplicated experience is good).
procurement process. Commitment by USAID
Contributions to devel- Bureaus to core manageopment and maintainance ment fund as well as fee of a bio data service, or mission delivery to sustain core.
1986 Annual Report 31

1986 Amual Report 32

FSSP Calendaar of Project and Related Program Activities
January 1986
8 10 Diagnostic Training Unit Meeting in Washington, D. C.
L. Walecka.
19 -25 Development Agricole Caribe (DAC) Univ. Antilles Guyana
Training Seminar on Recherche-Development and FSR/E S. Poats. 20 24 Bean/Cowpea CRSP Annual Review (E. Lansing, Michigan) P.
23 Board of Regents Review
March 3 Evaluation of two projects OCOA y LAS CUEVAS for the National
Research Project (NARMA)
28 29 Soils Management CRSP External Evaluation Panel Meeting,
Washington P. Hildebrand.
February 1986
4 6 International Conference on Computers in Agricultural Extension
Programs Orlando, FL J. Dean.
7 15 Strategic Planning meeting Farming Systems, IITA Ibadan,
Nigeria P. Hildebrand.
12 15 Planning session for case study trainers to do case study sessions
at Gender issues confrence. Boston. S. Poats, Hilary
Feldstein, Kate Cloud, Rosalie Norem.
17 21 IARC Farming Systems Conference, Hyderabad, India C. Andrew. 26
March 1 Gender Issues in FSR, University of Florida conference,
Gainesville S. Poats, P. Hildebrand, and core.
March 1986
8 10 Orientation of SECID/Mali bilateral contract team J. Dean,
P. Hildebrand, C. Andrew.
10 14 First WAFSRN Network Meeting, Dakar, Senegal S. Poats, D. Galt,
D. Reboussin, K. Buhr.
1986 Annual Report 33

15 17 Follow-up meetings with WAFSRN steering committee S. Poats. 18 Advisory Council Meeting by conference telephone C. Andrew, J.
Kearns, D. Harpstead, N. Raun, J. Caldwell.
18 21 Planning for Animal Systems Networkshop, Freetown, Sierra Leone
S. Poats, Paul Starkey.
19 21 National Research Council Committee on Alternative Farming Systesm
for Commercial Agriculture. NAS, Washington, D.C. P. Hildebrand. 20 ETF Meeting, Washington, D.C. D. Galt.
24 Project Management Meeting, Washington, DC C. Andrew.
April 1986
3 Advisory Council meets in Washington C. Andrew, K. McDermott.
7 25 FSSP Regional FSR/E Training Course Gambia (English). J.
Caldwell, Dan Taylor, Carl Barfield, Federico Poey, Rosalie Norem,
L. Walecka.
13 18 Latin American Communications Network, Cali, Colombia. S. Kearl. 19 25 RTTS, Quito, Ecuador S. Kearl. 20 22 Soils Management CRSP, Annual Review. Atlanta.- P. Hildebrand. 26
May 17 Equador FS activity under RTTS J. Jones, K. Buhr.
May 1986
1 30 Development of OTA report S. Poats, D. Galt, L. Walecka, C.
Andrew, P. Hildebrand.
20 Conference on Information Transfer. North Carolina A & T
University P. Hildebrand.
27 -31 Haiti Evaluation Report and final preparation, John Lichte and Uli
June 1986
6 Oct 10 (3 5 months) FSR/E Consultation by J. Jones with Ecuador RTTS
1986 Annual Report 34

6 D. Galt departs FSSP for assignment with Winrock International
6 12 Project Management Meetings, Washington, DC C. Andrew.
11 13 IPM/FSR Seminar at Purdue S. Poats. 12 13 OTA Workshop on Low Resource Agriculture in Developing Countries:
Implication for Africa. Washington, D.C. P. Hildebrand.
24 -25 Mimi Gaudreau to Gainesville to plan Mali FSR/E training for W&C
Africa. (Cancelled)
25 Advisory Council Meeting by conference telephone C. Andrew, D.
Harpstead, J. Kearns and N. Raun.
July 1986
8 -11 AUSUDIAP Annual Meetings and SE/FSSP meeting, Ft. Collins, CO C.
14 23 Evaluation of Soils Management CRSP Niger, W. Africa P.
20 29 Collaboration on ISNAR FSR Case Studies Project S. Poats. 27 30 AAEA Annual Meetings, Reno P. Hildebrand.
August 1986
6 8 Communications Task Force, Columbia, MO S. Kearl
10 29 Farming Systems Short Course, Gainesville P. Hildebrand, C.
Andrew, J. Dean, L. Walecka, S. Poats.
13 Symposium on Extension Systems. International Horticultural
Congress. Davis, California P. Hildebrand.
17 20 Mimi Gaudreau and John Lichte in Gainesville to plan Mali Regional
Training Course. S. Poats.
20 21 Planning Meetings with SECID Project Management on frame work for
Mali FSR/E Project. Washington, DC C. Andrew, S. Poats.
27 Advisory Council Meeting by conference telephone C. Andrew, J.
Caldwell, D. Harpstead, J. Kearns and N. Raun.
September 1986
2 3 Cedar Key Planning Conference, FSSP Core S. Poats, P.
1986 Annual Report 35

Hildebrand, S. Kearl, J. Dean, L. Walecka, K. McDermott, C.
Andrew, R. Castro, D. Osburn, H. Popenoe.
11 Advisory Council Meeting by conference telephone C. Andrew, J.
Caldwell, D. Harpstead, J. Kearns and N. Raun.
19 25 2nd West African Integrated Livestock Systems Networkshop: "The
Introduction, Intensification and Diversification of the Use of
Animal Power in West African Farming Systems: Implications at
Farm Level", Freetown, Sierra Leone. S. Poats, P. Starkey.
26 30 Training consultation with APS Project/Labalt-Anderson USAID in
Namey, Niger S. Poats.
October 1986
1 Advisory Council Meeting by conference telephone C. Andrew, J.
Caldwell, d. Harpstead, J. Kearns and N. Raun.
1 4 ISNAR case writers and advisers workshop, The Hague, Netherlands.
- S. Poats.
6 8 KSU FSR/E Symposium, Manhattan, KS
8 10 FSSP Business Mtg., Manhattan, KS D. Awker.
27 28 Project Management, Washington, DC C. Andrew. 29 Telephone meeting with John Bayles, AID Cameroon concerning FSR/E
programs in Cameroon and the NCRE/IITA contract C. Andrew.
November 1986
3 21 Three week French FSR/E Training course in Mali, S. Poats, J.
Lichte, M. Gaudreau.
9 12 NASULGC meeting and SE/FSSP Planning Meeting, Phoenix, AR C.
---------------------------------------December 1986
1 15 W. Africa Training in Cameroon, UCD C. Andrew.
8 11 Working Session on Economic Analysis Training Unit L. Walecka,
Dan Taylor, Henk Knipscheer, Al Hagan, P. Hildebrand, Peter
Wotoweic (open to Core)
1986 Annual Report 36

January, 1986
7-10 Mr. Maurice Peiris-Tavarayan; Hubert H. Humphrey
FellIow, American University. Project Director, World
Bank Kurunegala Project, Sri Lanka. Orientation to FSR/E and the FSSP. Meet with various UF faculty and
P. Hildebrand. J. Dean
10 Dr. Dave Sammons and Dr. Bob Hill (University of
Ma-ryland), Mr. Kwesi Ahwol-Gana), Mrs. Mary Ruby
Beltran (Philippines), Mr. Megnath BoodRna
(Mauritius), Mr. Paul Ib-~ka (Nigeria), Mr. Lemore
Jones (Jamaica, Mr. Jen-Sen Lim (Taiwani, Mr.
Anan dan Narayanan-Malaysia), Mr. Ale Ndiaye
(Senegal): Hubert H. Humphrey Fello-ws an --advisors
from the University of Maryland. Orientation to
FSR/E and FSSP J. Dean. Meet with S. Poats. Meet
with Dr. Hunt Davis; Director, Center for African
Studies and interested faculty and staff.
15 Dr. Grace Goodell; Harvard Institute of Development
S-tud-es. General discussions about FSR/E and
Intra-household issues. FSSP Core.
22-24 Dr. Aaron Zazueta; Meals for Millions; Freedom from
Hunger Foundation. Meet with C 0 Andrew, P.E.
Hildebrand and J. Dean. Orientation to FSR/E and
FSSP. Review TMS Training Materials.
30-31 Dr. Ron Pollock ; ADO USAID/INDIA, Dr. Verma, Dr.
MIsra and Dr. Mehrotra; Deans of 3 Indian
AgriculturalUniveristies. Travel to N. Fla. FSR/E
Project; meet with J. Rich and M. Swisher. Visit
on-farm trials. Meet with IFAS Deans, various
Departmental Chairmen, Dr. E.T. York, Dr. J. Koran; Assoc. Dean for International Studies and Programs
and Ms. Pat Rambo. J. Dean.
February, 1986
5 Dr. Ed Farris; Director of International Agricultural
Programs,C-emson University. Discussions concerning organization of FSSP within the University.-C.Andrew.
1986 Annual Report 37

February, 1986 (cont'd)
5 Mr. Al Theisen and Mr. Victor Labat; SALUT, Inc. and
LEa atAssociates, Inc. Discuss FSSP collaboration
with training in Niger, through a forthcoming
bilateral contract. Also, interview with Gonzalo
Romero for position with Niger Project. C. Andrew,
S. Poats and P. Hildebrand.
20 Dr. John Holik; University of Missouri-Columbia.
Oien-tation to FSR/E and FSSP. Discussions with
J. Dean.
Mar 7 Mr. Patricio Espinosa; Hubert H. Humphrey Fellow,
ionell University and Nat'l. Chief of Planning and
Agricultural Economics; INIAP, Ecuador. Work with P
E Hildebrand in FSR/E Course, attend "Gender Issues
in FSR" Conference, meet with FSSP Core and other UF
24 Dr. Don Esslinger; University of Missouri-Columbia,
(Prog-am Leader for UMC/FSSP) Attend "Gender Issues in FSR" Conference, meet with FSSP Core and other UF
March, 1986
2-7 Mr. Yonke; Minister of Agriculture, Cameroon and
Dr. Rene Owona; Director General, University
Centre-Dschang, Cameroon. Visit UF, meet with
various administrators, faculty, staff and
Cameroonian students. Travel to Tallahassee to meet
with the Commissioner of Agriculture and various dignitaries. Travel to Lake Alfred and EPCOT.
K. Tefertiller, H. Popenoe, C. Eno, J. Dean, D.
Baldwin, S. Pasley.
8-10 Mali/SECID Team Pre-Departure Briefing C.A.F.S. and
J. Dean, C.T drew, P. Hildebrand.
April, 1986
22-24 Mr. Adama Sy; Director of Agriculture, Government of
Mauritania. (USAID/CID/Mauritania FSR Project).
Visit FSSP and UF personnel. Discussions about FSR/E and the University of Florida. Through Mike Norvelle,
University of Arizona. J. Dean
1986 Annual Report 38

April, 1986 (cont'd)
28-29 The Honorable Utula Samana; Premier of Morobe
Province, Mr. Victo--apadado; Director of the
International Insttute of Subsistence Eco-Farming,
Mr. Joshua Hagai; Member of the Morobe Provincial Parllami~iniE, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. "To
study the University of Florida tropical agriculture program". Discussions of the Land Grant University concept, FSR/E approach to agricultural development,
meet with UF faculty and staff. J. Dean, M. Cruz
May, 1986
4-7 Ms. Zodwa Mamba, Mr. Edgar Nxumalo, Mr. Rogers
Ma-tsebua; Ministry of Agriculture, SwazI- ani,
through Penn. State University. "Introduction to Farming Systems Research/Extension" Short Course.
- J. Dean
15 Dr. Jefferey White; Plant Physiologist with CIAT,
Columbia. Me4-t weih S. Poats.
15- Mr. Andres Aristides; Head: Staff Training and
June 6 Program Evaluation, Department of Agriculture,
Nicosia, Cyprus. Hubert H. Humphrey Fellow at
Cornell University. M. Cruz, J. Dean
26- Dr. John Lichte and Dr. Uli Locher; FSSP/USAID/Haiti
June 1 Project Evaluation Team. Write final evaluation
June, 1986
3-14 Mr. Patricio Espinosa; Hubert H. Humphrey Fellow,
Cornell Universlty an Nat'l. Chief of Planning and Agricultural Economics; INIAP, Ecuador. Collaborate
with P.E. Hildebrand on paper detailing
institutionalization of FSR/E within INIAP, meet with
WSU Extension personnel, visit Live Oak AREC.- J.
Dean, P.E. Hildebrand.
5-9 Mr. Mamadou Diarra; Director of CNRADA (Nat'l.
I-n-stitute of Research and Rural Development),
Mauritania. Univ. of Arizona/USAID/Mauritiania Project. Meet with S. Poats, C. Andrew and UF personnel, travel to EPCOT. J. Dean, through
Bilingual, Ink. (Louise Emenhiser).
1986 Annual Report 39

June, 1986 (cont'd)
9-13 Christopher Feise, Martha Goodlett, Louise Parker
Hovde, Curtis J. Moultonand Sharon colman;
wasington State Cooperative Extension Service, King
County Washington. Orientation to FSR/E, visit N.
Fla. FSR/E Project. Meetings with UF faculty, staff,
and Extension personnel. Give seminar "King County,
Washington Extension and FSR/E" J. Dean, E.C.
French, and other UF personnel.
15-17 Dr. David Miller; USAID/Kinsasha, Zaire and Ms. Musu
CI-emens; USDA/OICD. Meet with P. E. Hildebra-n, C.
O. Andrew, Dean Jack Fry, Zairois graduate students
and other UF faculty. Discuss possibility of Zairois
students doing graduate research in Zaire.
30- Mr. Hamath N'Gaide; Deputy Director, CNRADA (Nat'l.
July 3 In't-ue of Research and Rural Development),
Mauritiania. Univ. of Arizona/USAID/Mauritania.
Meet with FSSP and UF personnel. J. Dean
July, 1986
7-8 Ms. Pat Miller: Meet with H. Popenoe, Dr. W. Cripe;
Asst. Dean, College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Joe
Conrad; Professor, Dept. of Animal Science, Dr. S.
Poats; FSSP. J. Dean
16 USAID Training Course Group (12 ea. names unknown):
Soll-FScience ocus; coordinated by Auinr University.
Local coordination by Mr. Bill Easterwood; PhD
candidate, Soil Science. Discuss FSR/E and FSSP;
show TMS 201. J. Dean
21-24 Mr. Bakajika Mota: Project Director; National FSR/E
Project and Dr. Shabani Salumu: Director; Council of
Scientific Research; Ministry of Agriculture;
Government of Zaire. Meet with C.O. Andrew, J. Dean, H. Davis and Dean Zachariah. Discuss FSR/E, FSSP and
coordinate Zairois graduate students' research in
Zaire. J. Dean
August, 1986
1 Darrell Watts; COP, Dryland Project; Morocco. To
discuss project implementation and FSSP TA and
6 Dr. Pat Barnes-McCounel; discussions concerning Women
in AgrHcultural Development, FSR/E. FSSP and The
Bean Cowpea CRSP C. Andrew.
1986 Annual Report 40

September, 1986
1 Dr. Christopher L. Delgado, IFPRI, visit to FSSP to
discusss Farming Systems Research and Agricultural
1-5 Mr. Cesar A. Vismara; Chief of Regional Extension,
Bacarce Region, Argentina. Meet with UF
administration, faculty and staff regarding FSR/E and
its institutionalization within the research and
extension structure of Argentina (Edgardo Moscardi).
2-3 Dr. Don Osborne and Dr. Roberto Castro; USADI/S&T,
Outgoing and Incoming FSSP Project Manager. Attended
Cedar Key FSSP Planning Session.
13-17 In. Luis Rosero; RTTS Project, Ecuador. Visit UF
and FSSP.
17-19 Madame Aissatou Yaou; Minister of Women's Affairs and
Mrs. Theresa TehiDirector of Research Programs,
Ministry of Women's Affairs: Government of Cameroon.
Visit UF. Meet with faculty and staff. Hosted by the
Home Economics Program and Women in Agriculture
Group. J. Dean
18-19 Dr. Michael Collinson; CIMMYT, East Africa. Will
V-sit UF and FSSP.
October, 1986
12-14 Mr. Hamady Lam; Director, Mr. Harouna N'Dongo; Chief
oDivisonriof Animal Husbandary, and Mr. Mohammed
Habib Bal; Chief of Division of Enviro-mental Studies
Ecle NKtionale de Formation et de Vulgarisation
Agricoles (Nat'l. School of Agricultural Extension),
Kaedi, Mauritania. Visit UF to establish with eye
towards possible short course collaboration. J.
29 Dr. Dennis Ignastas; Maryland-Eastern Shore to
dTscuss UF/cameroon project evaluation and FSR/E C.
November, 1986
3 Mr. Dato Kahalil; Head, Agricultural Economics Unit
of-MInstry of Agriculture, Government of Malaysia.
Meet with faculty of FRED. Orientation to FSR/E.
- J. Dean.
1986 Annual Report 41

6 Ms. Inez Perroso; Farming Systems Specialist,
o-miEi n Republic, to discuss training progress.
24-26 Mr. Nestor Migasso; Ministry of Agriculture,
Government of Argentina. Meet with FSSP and UF
faculty regarding FSR/E. (Edgardo Moscardi) J. Dean
and P. Hildebrand.
1986 Annual Report 42

TO: FSSP Advisory Council, Technical Committee, Administrative
Coordinators, & Program Leaders
FROM: Chris 0. Andrew
RE: Minutes of Annual Meeting Advisory Council (pp 1), Business Meeting
(pp 2-3), Administrative Coordinators (pp 3-6), and Advisory Council
(pp 6-9).
A. Advisory Council Meeting (October 8, 1986)
1. Attendees: Drs. Jean Kearns, Dale Harpstead, Ned Raun, Chris Andrew
(with Ken Tefertiller, Vice President Agricultural Affairs, IFAS/UF
and Roberto Castro FSSP Project Manager, USAID/S&T, Washington,
D. C.).
2. Discussions with Dr. Tefertiller included concerns for an approach
to stimulating AID financing for the FSSP. Alternatives for core
support include the S&T and the Africa Bureaus but funding
constraints limit in particular the S&T Bureau's ability to fund the
project. The desire to continue the project is strong among AID
missions but less so in AID Washington. Strategies for making AID
Washington more aware of mission needs and FSSP/SE capability
relative to FSR/E were discussed.
3. Dr. Castro's concern focused on the possibility of obtaining funding
to the FSSP authorization limit of an additional two million
dollars. The Advisory Council believes that the probability of
garnering this funding through the S&T budget is not likely with
present constraints placed on the appropriation and obligation
process in Congress and AID. The Council suggests that meetings
with Dr. Duane Acker followed by a meeting with Dr. Nyle Brady is
essential to ascertain the S&T position relative to obligating
funding for use by the FSSP. Similarly, the Council suggests
meetings at the K. Sherper and C. Martin level to establish Africa
Bureau knowledge of West African Mission interest in the FSSP.
B. FSSP Business Meeting (October 10, 1986).
1. Tom Sutherland. The FSSP went on record in support of the Kansas
State University FSR/E Symposium with an unequivocal request for
immediate US government action on the release of Dr. Tom Sutherland, Colorado State University, who is a hostage in Lebanon. An overall letter is being drafted for the record by Dr. Jim Oxley for use as
appropriate by individuals with their state legislative delegations
in support of this important cause. Dr. Sutherland is a colleague
who has contributed significantly to improved agricultural
education, research and extension.
1986 Annual Report 43

2. Technical Committee membership. Appointees to the Technical
Committee are on hold until all input is available relative to
forward planning and until desires of representatives at the
KSU-FSR/'E Symposium and FSSP Annual meeting are specified. A recommendation will be considered by the Advisory Council at its
forthcoming meeting.
3. Advisory Council membership. The three-year rotation for Council
membership dictates that Dr. Dale Harpstead will complete his term
with the Advisory Council in December. Dale was thanked for his
significant contributions to the Council. Dr. Jim Meiman was
recognized as the first Advisory Council Chair and for his
contribution to the FSSP. Dr. Ned Raun will become Council Chair in
January as Dr. Jean Kearns enters her third and final year of
membership. Dr. Delane Welsch, Director of International
Agricultural Programs, University of Minnesota and an active
contributor to the FSSP through Minnesota as a support entity, was
recommended for Council membership to replace Dr. Dale Harpstead.
This recommendation was unanimously affirmed by SE representatives.
Dr. Welsch will assume his position in January of 1987.
4. Location of the FSR/E Symposium. Dr. Tom Westing, University of
Arkansas, presented a proposal and invitation to host the FSRk/E Symposium October 18 through 21, 1987. The FSSP annual network
meetings will follow this session. The proposal recommends that
four committees be established within the network and in
collaboration with the FSSP to support continuation of the
symposium. They are: a Program Committee to interface with the FSSP
Technical Committee; a Host Committee; a Funding Committee; and a
Steering Committee to interface with the FSSP Advisory Council. A Proceeding Publication Committee was recommended as a sub-committee
of the Program Committee. Kansas State University graciously
volunteered to provide files and consultation relative to relocation
of the symposium to Arkansas. It was agreed that the symposium would be held in Arkansas in 1987 with deliberations relative to
further positioning of the symposium on a rotation basis at other
universities and or international locations. The proposal
recommended that the rotation be on a two or three year basis so
that hosting institutions might take advantage of the experience to
further strengthen the program. An interface within a rotation
between a US hosting institution and an international hosting
institution was considered but tabled for further discussion by the
overall Steering Committee and the FSSP Advisory Council. KSU was
commended for establishing the Symposium and leading it successfully
through significant growth for six years. FSSP presented a plaque
to KSU recognizing this important service to FSR/E and US assistance
5. Announcements.
a) Promotional materials for the FSSP training program are
available, including a flyer on training units and a flyer on the
training program.
1986 Annual Report 44

b) A forthcoming FSSP project report will feature major articles on
events and activities of the FSSP from inception to present with
a format very similar to the newsletter including process,
product, use and content relative to FSSP operations and FSR/E
c) The NEAAC group is actively considering a proposal for the FSSP
in the future.
d) The forthcoming NASULGC meeting with International Programs
Directors will be part of the continuing process of refinements in programs for the FSSP beyond 1987 and will be announced when
e) Advice is sought relative to future program and management
activities of the FSSP from program associates, program leaders and others in the FSSP network. Recommendations should be made
to Dr. Jean Kearns, Chair of the Advisory Council and/or Dr. John
Caldwell, Chair of the Technical Committee.
f) Summary commitments to the FSSP: Dr. Ken Tefertiller announced
in the opening session that the University of Florida is prepared
to support an FSSP transition either to a new network or a
rational phaseout. This support is not to exceed one year of commitments including a director, a secretary and the editor, with limited support funds. The intent of Dr. Tefertiller is
that activities through 1987 would make this support unnecessary
but, should some transitional continuity be necessary, the
University of Florida is committed to assistance, assuming strong
interest and collaboration by Support Entities. He also
indicated that the University of Florida is willing to relax the
lead entity concept as appropriate to further involve the support
entity community in decision processes.
6. Consensus. General consensus by other speakers at the opening
session was directed to continuation of the FSSP as a support
structure for training activities and networking and that a core
operation is necessary to centrally provide overall leadership and guidance to program development and delivery. Summary reports will
be available from that session.
C. Meeting of Advisory Council and SE Administrative Coordinators (October 10, 1986).
1. Attendees included: University of Arkansas, Washington State
University, University of Kentucky, University of Hawaii, University
of Southern Illinois, Kansas State University, Michigan State University, Colorado State University, University of Florida, University of Arizona, Virginia State University, and Winrock
International (Other SEs participating in the FSSP Annual Meetings
but not in attendance at this meeting included: Iowa State
University, AGRIDEC, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Cornell
University, University of Missouri and Research Triangle Institute.
SEs not represented at the FSSP Annual Meeting included: Lincoln
1986 Annual Report 45

University, University of minnesota, University of Illinois,
Development Alternatives Inc., Penn State University, and North
Carolina State University).
2. The University of Florida FSSP core was asked to prescribe an
overall program and plan of action based upon SE input and consensus
to date. This statement should include continuation of the SE
network and emphasis on training programs and concerns for regional
specification. The discussion involved delineation of regional focus such that SEs could decide whether to continue and how to
continue with the FSSP. Sufficient information for SE discussions
at home is needed so input can be available for the November NZASULGC
meeting with FSSP/SE administrative representatives. Questions to
be answered are: What are the expected results in the future of the
FSSP? What types of involvements might emerge for SEs? Responses to these questions will be necessary to obtain renewed commitments.
It was suggested that the commitment by SEs should not necessarily be based upon dollar volume but upon access to the various benefits
from the FSSP such as interinstitutional collaboration, training
materials, network contacts and communication relative to experience
in methodology and management.
3. Concerns relative to funding were discussed and it was recommended
that the overall financial support base be considered as broader
than USAID. Several institutions indicated commitment in helping develop proposals and stimulate funding support. The question of
whether the support entities would be called upon to supplement the 1987 budget to cover the shortfall of two hundred and ten thousand
dollars ($210,000.00) was answered in the negative. It has been
suggested by some institutions that in the future an institutional
membership fee might be considered to help supplement core.
4. Bilateral contract support linkages with the FSSP were encouraged as
a source for establishing long-term collaborative support.
Administrative management and development fees for services rendered
by FSSP to bilateral contracts, shared with core funding could be
dedicated to core training and other support needs. The decreasing
nature of Title XII funding support establishes the need for funding
mechanisms where broad based (multi-institutional) backstop is
essential to bilateral technical assistance and training programs in
areas as pervasive as FSR/E. Programming to include support from
the FSSP network to a bilateral contract could be spelled out in the
initial scope of work with a timeframe sufficient to benefit the
national program and bilateral contractors' FSR/E efforts.
Bilateral contractors could thereby call upon a broader community of interest and support for development of training materials and their
delivery in a national training program. This advanced planning
would also help stabilize the FSSP as a sustained support service.
5. The FSSP Director was encouraged to contact non-FSSP member
universities for consideration of involvement after 1987 under new
program guidelines. Several other major institutions working in
farming systems research and extension might desire to participate
with the program. Future emphasis may look to those institutions
1986 Annual Report 46

which are heavily involved with major FSR/E projects in the third
world. Several non FSSP entities are in this category and are
already significant users of FSSP services.
6. Terms of reference for a new scope under the FSSP might include
several scales of activity such as:
Scale 1- minimum level of management/coordination with a body that
would receive and distribute network information.
Scale 2- A networking body similar to a consortium involving various
network support activities (symposium, in-house newsletter, in-house briefing/training) support activities and possible
membership fees.
Scale 3- Some intermediate activity including parts of a full
program such as the present FSSP but "activity" focused with direct involvement by SE institutions on carefully
defined networking, training and similar technical
assistance activities.
scale 4- A full fledged program similar to present FSSP operations
wih broad based development and delivery alternatives on a
worldwide basis and seeking funding to maintain such a
Each of the scale alternatives should be considered relative to a
regional specification of interest, program interest and degree of
interest relative to resource commitments.
7. Discussion stimulated by Herb Massey included several suggestions:
a) A modified funding base with various donors, USAID bureaus and
missions is essential.
b) Collective buy-ins by bilateral contractors on a regional
basis might provide for training program development and
regional delivery with specific bilateral buy-ins for national
program development.
c) utilization of the FSSP umbrella for regionally focused
"organizations" of support entities, such as the present
NEAAC, is encouraged as a means to strengthen delivery and
response capability.
d) The reconstituted FSSP should allow for expansion and
contraction such that changes in regional and topical
orientations would not preclude reintroduction of discontinued
programs as need and funding would dictate.
e) Financing of a "new" FSSP network should be done on a
diversified component basis, integrated through a central core
1986 Ainnual Report 47

f) In all program planning cases the core should look at what is
essential for a basic unit or minimum critical mass and rank these activities accordingly. Within networking for example
ranking considerations might include the symposium, the
newsletter, the documentation program, the regional base
networks, etc.
D. Advisory Council meeting (October 10, 1986).
1. Attendees: Jean Kearns, Dale Harpstead, Ned Raun, John Caldwell, Ken
McDermott, and Chris Andrew.
2. Recommendations concerning negotiations and discussions with AID
a) In discussing mission buy-ins, emphasize that people cannot
stand-by in preparation for rapid response without a core support base. mission buy-ins are essential but can only be effective if
there is a nucleus of management and well developed plans to
provide for immediate turnaround.
b) Introduce the concept of ongoing program support such that
program development can also accompany program delivery.
c) Consider building into mission buy-ins a surcharge for
administration to help with part of the core operating costs and
to supplement either bureau or other donor core support. This
could be done on a direct cost basis associated with delivery of
specific activities to the mission and directly related to the
scope of the mission program.
3. SE consensus at present is clear: a combination of funding is
needed for the FSSP both within AID and with a broader based donor
4. An FSSP organization is important in supporting and stimulating
networking as a way for non-US scientists to link with US and other
scientists for further strengthening agricultural research and
extension programs. Training is an essential complement to this
5. Relative to institutional linkages with the FSSP lead entity,
University of Florida, the following consensus points were stated:
a) Consortium groupings are essential but depend heavily upon a
strong lead institution concept. The suggestion that the lead
nature of the program be relaxed is not one with which the
Advisory Council feels at ease. It believes that a strong but
collaborative lead entity concept is essential.
b) Relative to funding, the lead institution in collaboration with
SEs should approach the Foundations and governmental donor
sources to strengthen the core of the FSSP. It is assumed that
activity funding for items such as the newsletter, the symposium,
1986 Annual Report 48

the documentation program and specific delivery activities will
be forthcoming but that the core must be nurtured directly.
c) Program activity funding should be sought at present to maintain
priority activities and to institutionalize this funding over a
period of time appropriate to the specific activity needs and
6. The importance of core funding cannot be overstated and the concept
of an administrative fee cannot be the sole source for core funding.
The administrative fee concept can spread funds some but
underwriting continuity with direct core support is essential to
program stability.
7. The Technical Committee report was made by Dr. John Caldwell based
upon various deliberations at Kansas State University by the
Committee and drawing from major technical input provided by the Symposium and workgroup, sessions within the FSSP annual meeting.
Specific recommendations include:
a) Membership of the Technical Committee was set for 1986-87
inclusive of an extension of Dr. John Caldwell's appointment for one year to Chair the committee. John has served his three year
term but continuity is important and several members have dropped
from the committee due to international assignments. His
leadership is considered essential and John agreed to continue in
this responsibility. Dr. Don voth, University of Arkansas, was
recommended to replace Dr. Neal Flora on the committee as a
social scientist and because he will chair the 1987 symposium at the University of Arkansas. Dr. Rick Bernsten an agricultural
economist, will be asked to join the committee to fill the
positon vacated by Dr. Sam Johnson. Also continuing with the
committee will be Dr. Jim Oxley in the livestock systems area and
Dr. David Thurston, a biological scientist.
b) It is recommended that the Technical Committee interact
with the University of Arkansas program committee for development
of the 1987 FSR/E Symposium, a pattern set by Kansas State
c) with reference to the FSR/E symposium becoming a basis for a
professional society, the Technical Committee raises several questions. Their feeing at present is that a journal is not
needed because outlets are improving for publication of
interdisciplinary work such as that found in FSR/E. It is
recommended, however, that a home to support ongoing secretariat
needs of the symposium is essential. FSSP meets many of those
functions and needs at present but consideration should be given
to alternatives such as a semi-professional society, an
affiliation with other general societies such as SID or a professional society. Also, affiliation with a network or
networks should be considered. Probably the optimum would be
some type of organization between a network and a formal society.
A suggestion was made that the FSSP should be maintained in its
1986 Annual Report 49

acronym but reworded as the Farming Systems Society of
8. Africa Strategy considerations led to the following recommendations
by the Advisory Council:
a) Encourage Dr. Roberto Castro to obtain approval through the
S&T Bureau, with collaboration from the African Bureau, for a cable directed to the West Africa AID Missions most directly
involved with FSSP and/or FSR/E project. This cable might say
that USAID/S&T is considering major changes in funding and
support of the FSSP and desires to learn if there is any need for FSSP support at the mission level. This official channel is recommended by S. K. Reddy, USAID Mali, who believes that
several West Africa Missions and SAFGRAD definately desire
FSSP services on a continuing basis.
b) Upon receipt of the response from the Missions Dr. Roberto
Castro can then ascertain what the possibility is of obtaining
the two million dollars remaining in the FSSP authorization.
c) The overall strategy within S&T is to discuss programming with
Dr. Duane Acker at a meeting including Dr. Hugh Popenoe and Dr. Chris Andrew and possibly Dr. Jean Kearns at the time of
the BIFAD meetings in October. From there Dr. Acker, if in
support of the effort and if he believes it appropriate, could
lead a delegation to visit Nyle Brady. Given that there is
not much chance that S&T has the money, then a strategy must
be developed that will include Africa Bureau input into the
opportunity for further support to selected West Africa
missions such as Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Burkina Faso, Togo
and Cameroon. The cable from the Washington office must
include an overall proposition for the Missions, background of
the program and a request for response.
d) Dr. Andrew was encouraged to consider calling several key
actors in the IARC community and in some of the AID Missions
in West Africa relative to overall interest in continuation of
the program.
9. The meeting was adjourned with a recommendation that the FSSP
Administrative Coordinators meet to discuss progress toward the
future of the Support Entity Network on Tuesday afternoon, November
11 or Wednesday, November 12 immediately following the NASULGC meetings. Dr. Andrew will determine if this will be possible.
E. SUMMARY. The KSU Annual Meetings adjourned with enthusiasm for
continuing the process spelled out by the FSSP for arriving at
decisions concerning future viability of the overall SE network and its
future potential. Encouragement was given to approach organizations
such as World Bank, IDRC, the foundations as well as the several
bureaus in USAID and the AID Missions themselves. Above all, the KSU
Symposium and the FSSP Annual Meetings, with combined representation
and reports from 280 people from over thirty countries and over thirty
1986 Annual Report 50

states, are testimony that the FSR/E approach,to technology development
and utilization, is alive and well.
1986 Annual Report 51

1986 Annual Report 52

Index of Activity Reports for FY 1986
First Quarter
Hildebrand/Nigeria/02/07 to 02/16/86
Andrew/India/02/13 to 02/22/86
Poats and Galt/Senegal/03/01 to 03/19/86
(Tony, Fotzo, Unamma, Olunuga, Fakambia, Adjahossou,
Kwami, Aithnard, Apetofia, Swadogo, Firmin)
Reboussin/Senegal/03/12 to 04/08/86
Second Quarter
Walecka/The Gambia/04/07 to 04/21/86
Jones/Haiti/04/20 to 04/26/86
(Gaudreau, Broekhuuse, Lichte, Locker)
Third Quarter
Starkey/Sierra Leone/07/11 to 07/18/86
Gaudreau, Lichte/Bamako/08/09 to 08/16/86
Poats, Lichte, Andrew/Wash, D.C.-SECID/08/20 to 08/22/86
Poats and Starkey/Sierra Leone/09/14 to 09/26/86
Oxley/Sierra Leone/09/19 to 09/25/86
Fourth Quarter
Jones/Ecuador/06/06 to 10/10/86
1986 Annual Report 53

1986 Amual Report 54

1986 Farming Systems Project Personnel
Advisory Council Technical Committee
Jean Kearns, Chair John Caldwell, Chair
Dale Harpstead Cornelia Flora
Ned Raun Jim Oxley
Jim Thursten
Core Administration Pascal Fotzo, Cameroon/Africa
Chris Andrew, Director Patricio Espinosa, Ecuador/LA &
Judy Meline, Senior Secretary Caribbean
Margarita Rodriguez, Secretary Dr. Terd C., Thailand/NE &
(resigned July 1986) Asia
Lana Bayles, Secretary
Kenna Huey, Secretary Senior Council in Residence
(half time) Peter Hildebrand
Core Management
Susan Poats, Associate Director USAID/S & T Management
Dan Galt, Associate Director Don Osburn, Project Manager
(resigned June 1986) Roberto Castro, Project Manager
Jim Jones, Associate Director
(quarter time)
Ken McDermott, Associate Director
(quarter time)
Steve Kearl, Editor
(half time)
James Dean, Assistant to Director
(half time)
Lisette Walecka, Assistant to Director
1986 Annual Report 55

1986 Annual Report 56

FSSP Buy-In Summary
Country Activity Description $ Amount
Honduras Workshops and evaluation 43,284.00
Dominican Republic Workshop planning 2,214.00
Guatemala (ROCAP) Review/Evaluation CATIE 46,431.00
Paraguay Technical Assistance and 87,454.58
In-Service Training
Jamaica Workshop 12,000.00
Jordan Technical Assistance-Design 94,299.00
Kenya Technical Assistance for NARS 10,744.00
CARDI Technical Assistence-Design 10,525.00
1986 Annual Report 57

Since much of FSSP's buy-in support cannot be effectively measured
based on dollar volume, a complete accounting is not possible. Many of the buy-ins are handled directly by the missions making money available to participants to work with FSSP. This type of buy-in is more significant than that of Table A because, 1) it helps begin institutionalizing the activities in the region, and 2) it makes for more efficient administraiton and management when the mission can give direct payments to participants/consultants without transferring funds through AID Washington or the FSSP.
Country Activity Description Match
Togo Networkshop Paid for 10 participants
@$800=about $8,000
Gambia Workshop Paid for 30 Gambians
(travel, room, lodging
and all logistics)
Upper Volta/Togo Exchange Networking One person two weeks or
Africa Egerton Workshop Co-sponsored, AID and
CIMMYT helped
FSSP sponsored 8 or 25
Rwanda/Burundi Not buy-in (consultation)
$ 6,000 UF without salary
(15 out of about 30)
Zambia/Malawi 10 of 20 participants
3 Course leaders
Sierra Leone $ 5,000 ILCA
$10,000 IDRC
11-12 participants of 60
Buy-in for about 50
Mali $52,000 buy-in indirect
for participant fees
Translation of Report $ 500 on top of other
1986 Annual Report 58