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Suwannee Valley farming

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Title:
Suwannee Valley farming
Distinctive title:
Perennial peanut a high quality, low cost forage
Creator:
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Live Oak, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
Live Oak Fla
Publisher:
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

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General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 2, no. 6 (Nov. 1985); title from caption.
Funding:
Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life

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Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do not reflect current scientific knowledge or recommendations. These texts represent the historic publishing record of the Institute for Food and Agricultural Sciences and should be used only to trace the historic work of the Institute and its staff. Current WAS research may be found on the Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS)
site maintained by the Florida Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University of Florida








INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE

IS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE







0uWannee x Valley farming


Vol. 2 SPECIAL EDITION Nov.
No. 6 1985
PERENNIAL PEANUT: A HIGH QUALITY, LOW COST FORAGE

M. E. Swisher, Multi-County Agent E. C. French, Agronomist
Live Oak Agricultural Research and Education Center Rt. 2, Box 2181, Live Oak, FL 32060 (904) 362-1725)


Perennial peanut is a warm season forage legume. It is related to
the "eating" peanut, but does not form a nut. The plant comes from the Amazon River Basin in South America. This far north, it produces forage
during the warm season from March through November and dies back and goes dormant during the winter months. Perennial peanut cannot be grown very
far north of the Georgia state line.

Will It Make. Money?

We think so. Perennial peanut compares well with alfalfa in terms of quality, and the same people who buy alfalfa hay can use peanut hay. Major markets are dairies and horse farms.

Alfalfa sells for an average of $190 per ton in Florida. Undercutting alfalfa, we can sell peanut hay for $100 to $150 per ton. Table 1 (Page 2). shows the cost per acre for producing peanut hay. Table 2 (Page 2) shows the potentiat net pto6it pe' aoCAe at various yields and selling prices for the hay. Moderate yields of 4 tons of hay per acre show a potential profit of
$105 to $305 pel acwe, depending on selling price.

What's Good about PAten-Lat Peanut?

It's a peAennia. Unlike alfalfa, you only need to plant it once. One of our peanut fields at the ve Oak AREC is 10 years old and still
going strong.





The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity - Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING







Page 2


TabZe. I
OW.mated Cott o Podui.ng One Ace. of PeAennt Peanut Hay


item


Cash Expenses
Phosphate
Potash
Lime
Tractor and Machinery
Twine (Small Bales)
Pickup Truck
Labor
Land Rent
Interest on Cash Expeness Total Cash Expenses Fixed Costs:
Tractor and Machinery
Pickup Truck
Establishment (Prorated OVer 10 Years) Total Fixed Costs TOTAL COSTS


1At 13% Interest


Tahte 2
potenthOat o Lt PeA Ace jot Petenniat Peanut HaY at
.Vaou. VietLi and Setting pi ne


Potential Profit PeA Aate Cost/Ton linPrce
Yield To Produce $100/Ton $120/Ton $150/Ton

3 $97.86 $ 6.42 $ 66.42 $156,42
4 73.40 106.40 186.40 306.40
5 58.72 206.40 306.40 456.40


Cost/Acre


$ 20.80 18.00 6.67 35.00
13.00 7*20
54.00 20.00 22.71
197.38


45.00
9.*00
42.,20
96.20 $293.58








Page 3


Once etabtL6hed, it'4 vety dtoght toZtetant. Like "eating" peanuts, perennial peanut grows well on sands and does poorly on heavier soils. It
puts down a deep taproot and established stands rarely suffer from lack of water, even during long dry spells.

PetenniaZ peanut does X
not need nitAogen 6eAtilizen.
Being a legume, this plant '
makes its own nitrogen, Nitrogen fertilizer costs can
run up to $75 per acre for
bermuda fields. This cost is " eliminated with perennial
peanut.

The quality o6 peanut hay i hig. on samples of hay from Taylor County, crude protein ran 16.18%. Normal ranges are from 15 to 18%. Total digestible nutrients on those samples ran 60.13%.This compares well to alfalfa and far exceeds the quality commonly found for grass.,
hay -- without applying nitrogen. Livestock love it.

To date, petennial peanut ha not .ujeaed any economic Zou4e4 6toe am pe4t6 o dcde eh. It will be very surprising if insects, in particular, ignore perennial peanut forever. Nonetheless, in 20 years of experimental work. no pests or diseases have appeared that represent economically significant levels.

What's the Catch?

Be pepaxed to gh.t weed&! Perennial peanut is slow to produce, above,-ground growth during itg first growing season. This slow early growth is the major problem with establishment and you ma&t be ptepaed to mw and/o& appZg hetbide d g~g that gu~t 4wmmeA. Perennial peanut is a hardy plant. We've seen it survive even when "planted and forgotten." But you need good management during establishment if you want to get a full stand within 18 months of planting.

SuAviving that 6i4t May dAy season can be tough. We plant perennial peanut in the winter. It begins to emerge in April -- and it usually turns dry in May. This reduces stands in -most years, and in the spring of 1985 resulted in failure of some newly planted stands. This is a risk that must be kept in mind. Vowt bes-t bet 404 ,n . uinM.W g Z ivat i4 to keep the weed competttton down.

Since perennial peanut does not produce seed, it mUat be Pianted 0om vegetatve mateta -- hL zome . hKizomes must 'be dug while the
peanut is dormant during the winter. The only efficient way that we
have found for digging rhizomes is to use a bermuda sprig digger. We also usually use a bermuda sprig planter, but you can successfully plant the rhizomes by spreading them out and discing them under -- just as many people plant bermuda.









Page 4


The Suwanne. Vattey Retiet 04owe4 .iActofty lists some vendors
of rhizomes and custom operators who can sprig for you. The Vie4toAy is available from the Live Oak AREC (362. 1725., Coumbia County Exten on 06(Lee (.752-5384), or Suwannee County Extension 044ee (362-2771).

Etabtishment Z4 expenazve. Sellers are currently getting $2.25 to $2.50 per bushel for rhizomes (already dug). In on-farm trials in the Suwannee Valley, we've got our best stands at a seeding rate of 80 bushels
per acre. So -- planting costs (see Table 3, Page 5).

But, there are two things to remember. First, you only need to plant once. Second, even assuming the establishment costs in Table 3, which includes interest, the cost of owning machinery, and so on, you can
still get your money back during the first full year of production. For other high value, perennial crops such as grapes, blueberries, or pecans, the grower must wait 'much longer to recover his, investment.

You can avoid mu.ch o4 the eost 06 estate shment by devetoplag you 0Wn lULAey. Each acre of mature perennial peanut provides enough trhizomes to plant another 20 to 30 acres. Digging rhi.omes do" not kill your nursery, although you will have to provide extra care to get it back into production after digging. If you keep your nursery in good condition, you can dig rhizomes-every other year. Selling rhizomes can provide another source of income.

The University of Florida' s I&t(te oj Food and AgAicidual Scenc. (TFAS). has a cooperative program for establishing nurseries with growers in the Suwannee Valley, IZn this program, IFAS provides rhizomes and will plant the material (up to 2 acres). The grower is responsible for all other costs of establshbent. Once the stand is mature, the grower is asked to provide rhizomes from 1/2 of the nursery acreage to TFAS (first digging only) for further plantings. This program operates on a first-come, first-served basis. If you are interested, call your County Agent ox MCkle Swi4he at the Lve Oak AREC.

If you are interested gn planting perennial peanut, please ask for our Special Editi'on of SWatRnee VaULy Favng called "Planting Perennial Peanut." It's available from your County Exte*1non Ogl~e or the Live Oak AREC.












Page 5


Table 3
Estimated Co6t o6 EUtabliiZng One Asse o6 PeAenniat Peanut


Item Cost

cash Expensesz
Rhizomes $200.00
Lime 6.67
Herbicide 60.00
Tractor and Equipment (For Land Preparation) 6.43
Custom Planting 25.00
Tractor and Machinery (For Weed Control, Including Mowing) 11.64
Pickup Truck 2.40.
Labor (Land Preparation and Wed Control). 15.75
Land Rent 20.00
Interest on Cash Expensesl 45.23
Total Cash Expenses 393.12

Fixed Costs;
Tractor $ 17.28
Equipment 8*5
Pickup Truck 3.00
Total Fixed Costs 28.83

TOTAL COSTS $42195

At 13% Interest


Fam,4 F/an Se44th, Suwannee Vattey FamLng, No. 2, NovembeA, 1985


U6e oj b4zde name does not conatitute a guaAantee oa wwoant4 o6 p'wduct6 named and does not 6igntg yapptovat to the extu6ion o6 simUtt pioducts.




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PAGE 1

TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES UNIVEASITY OF FLOAIOA FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE ~uwann~i Val liy farming Vol. 2 SPECIAL EDITION Nov. No. 6 . 1985 PERENNIAL PEANUT: A HIGH QUALITY., LOW COST FORAGE M. E. Swisher, Multi-County Agent E. C. French, Agronomist Live Oak Agricultural Research and Education Center Rt. 2, Box 2181, Live Oak, FL 32060 ,904) 362-1725). Perennial peanut is a warm season forage legume. It is related to the. "eating" peanut, but does not form a. nut. The plant comes from the 1\nla~on River Basin in South A,merica. This far north, it produces: forage during the warm season from March through November and dies back and goes dormant during the winter months. :Perennial :peanut cannot be grown very far north of the Georgia state line. hay. $105 We think so. :Perennial peanut compares: well with alfalfa in terms of quality, and the same peo ple who buy alfalfa hay can use peanut hay. Major markets are dairies and horse farms. Alfalfa sells for an average of $190 per ton in Florida. Undercutting alfalfa, we can sell pea nut hay for $100 to $150 per ton. Table l {Page shows the cost per acre for producing peanut hay. Table 2 (.Page 2). shows the pot.e.n:tl.al net pll.06,U peJL aCJLe at various yields and selling prices for the Moderate yields of 4 tons of hay per acre show a potential profit of to $305 pelt aCJie, depending on selling price~ What'~ Good abol.lt PeJLennla.l Pe.a.nut? It.'~ a pVtenriial. Unlike alfalfa, you only need to plant it once. One of our peanut fields at the U.ve. Oak AREC is 10 years old and still going strong. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin. COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING

PAGE 2

Ta.bu 1 fl-U,n(d~ Co1,,t 06 P1t0cluc.bl.g One AMe 06 P~ l'ean.t Ha.y '. Item Cash.Expenses, . Pliosphate Potash Lime Tracte>r" and Maohtnuy . 'l'wine (Small Bales). J?:tckup T~ck Labor . Iiand Bent Cost/Acre . $ 20.ao 18.00 6.67 3$.00 13.00 1.20 . s,hoo 20.00 . I~terest on C~sh Expenses : l TQtal Cash . Expen~s 22~71 .,.,. 197.38 Pixed . Costs: T:ractor i:ind Ma<:hinert Pickup Truck E$1:al'>lishlnent ; (.t>ror~ted . Oyer 10 '?lears) 4$ .. 00 9.00 . 4 . 2i20 Tota.l Pi . xed Costs 96.20 TOTAL . COSTS . = '.$29 . l;ss . 1 At 13, Interest Table . 2 . 'Poten.tia.t 1'Mqit 1'eJL ~Me 6olL 'PeJ!ten.nial . f>ea,w,t Hay at .. V Se lli.1'19 l?r$ . ce $100/'l'on . $120/'l'on . $150/Ton $ 6.42 $ 6~.42 . . $156.42 106 •. 40. 186 .40 306 40 . 206.40 306.40 456.40

PAGE 3

Onc.e ut:ab.li.,l,hed, .lt'.6 . ye1ty . d-'ti,tt9h:t, tot,e,u:ott . . ... ; ta:lk.e tfe~ti.~9 11 peanuts, pere . wi~l. peanut t grows ~e;t.l Ofi \ sands: and does poorly on heavier . so~ls. . It puts down a deep tapro~ and es:tabli!ih, . d stan4s r~e+M su~fer frQlU lak gf w,ter, eV~l?/ 41.lriAg long dry &pel:ls. . . . .. . . ... _ '1?e1te~ r,e.tmu.t dou . not n/le.d , nltlw9e:n, 6~ze,r.. BEti:ng a legunie, this pl.ant make$ its own ni tro~n. J. Ni : ~ trogen fertilizer cbsts can ., ~l: . , , ',i run 111' to $'15. per ~"'~ Jgr ber.miida f:i:elds. 'rhis coet iseliminat,d >erennial peanu:t. : ' . .. ,. ,, f; The qu.ai..ity o{ pe,anu.:f ka.y a h,i;gft.. . _ on iramples of hsi , tfO~ 'l'ayior Ce> _ l.lfity, c~de , p;re>te$n r . ~ . le .18~:. ijormal range !f ax,,e ftom 1$ t"o 18\. Total ' dig~stible nutrients em tijose . s~les . ran 60 .13'11 This pompar~s we . 11 . 1:o altaJ;j:a alld :far ~xeedstbe ;" qu•t:t . ty corrqnon :t y . found ~ for / grass: hay ...... without applying nitrogen . . Livestoclc.love it. . _ . _. , _' " .To S' cl_!x;te., pe1tetmlal pe.4,nut ~nof~LAJ6vr.~ . ~Y ;ao11orn4~ . .&~:U t 6Mm p~.u . OIL .. de.a.&U. . It willl be v~rt su:q,:rsi~g . tt insects, in partj:cular, tgnore perennial peanut 1=-?reve1( •. Non&t~lt:l':l'El, in. ?~l ~l!t.X'S ' $)f ~er:tmenta:t' WQ~ . . n~ . . p~sts or disaaseS: . ha,ve awpeare.d : t.nat represent a-conomically significant ieve::Ls. Wh.a.t '..s . :the Ca.:tc.h ? _ . . .. &. pll.e,.~ . to .. 6lgh.:t ~ ! 1?~X'enhia.l . peanut . ls : slo~ tc: f ];'rQQUC:$ . . ab<>ve._,:ro~d growth duri _ ng .ttS: first .. growi , ng .. season. . This ~lO"'l : , ea,;ly growth > !s: . . t.he _ ma:j _ c,r: !)roblam w;: _ 1:h . , ecs:tablil;ihnlent and you. m,,t be. , p1t.epa:,c.e.cl .tc mow Md/oJt apply heJt.6-liUde. . dwc1:ng . . :that fl)r,,$t:. 4wnmeJL. . Pere~~ial pEla 7 nu1: is _ a ll,ilrd:y, _ plant. > w~ r ve se~r),it survive , even wlien . ''plan,te(f and :fo:t-. gcStten. 11 But you nei\?ci goQd management during establ _ i~n1: if _ :you . . ~t . to get full , ;;. stand w!th . :f:-n, 1g mor1t~ < pf _,, pl~ting. i' ; .• ;.. ' . . . . . ,. .. Su/tyiviytg . M,lr.4t Mtay J ; 'fhi.s: ;1;".eduoes: standsi.n -m::,st Ye ars, and in the spring of 1985 resulted :tn failur~ . of .. i;ome newlyp , ;Lal'lted , stan~a. ~s . i. ts l\ , ;r,iek. , , ;tha;t \ '1\Uat be . kept . in 1'1.nd. : Y'QWL . > &es..t. be:t O" ~CiJt .ui6wdn.g .&Wiv.lvai. u tc ke.ep .th~ wee.cl c.ompeA:.lti: n9'!;: ~r~U(:f) s,5itd, , U 111,(L&:t be . \ ~d olWm v_e.9~ve . ma,t~ , ..,.,, Jcl.iizc,m~. -• . Rhitomes must.be d,ug while the peanut . _ is 'ormarit duri , ng . tbe . \olinte;-. . Th~ _ \ on;Ly _ e~;:tcient ,. wa,y -c t~twe baye : fo'Qnd / for -di , ggtng rhizome . s' :ts, to use a. bermuda spx-i<,;1 di~~Weal~ usuall.y : us:a llermucla . . SJ:')J:'.:l:.9 l:'>l~t~~, .. f;,~t . y<;>u _ can . s.ucces : s:ful:ly J>l.ant ' the < rhz omeebY' apread:tng . theltJ . out and discing them 'Qnder ...,_ ju~t . a.s man:y ~ople i PlaJ?.t be:p:nuda. , . . . . . . .

PAGE 4

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PAGE 5

if~ L~t1 . './~ ttand pr : ~par~ : on . a,ndl . ' ; ' ~~ ; , r~\n ,. q~ ' ' , ' . ' -.'\: ,,, 'it'ot . 'l.' \t ,~l'::t ~iife ;f t!t f f:' '

PAGE 6

HISTORIC NOTE The publications in this collection do not reflect current scientific knowledge or recommendations. These texts represent the historic publishing record of the Institute for Food and Agricultural Sciences and should be used only to trace the historic work of the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS research may be found on the Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS) site maintained by the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University of Florida