HISTORY OF ROME
FROM TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS TO
CAMILLUS; 365 YEARS B. C.
THE HEROES OF THE
MRS. C. H. B. LAING
Author of "The Seven Kings of the Seven Hills."
THE JOHN C. WINSTON CO.
CHICAGO PHILADELPHIA TORONTO
THE author of the following pages wishes
to say a few words to the parents or
guardians of the young, for whose pleasure and
instruction the lives of "The Seven Kings of
the Seven Hills" of Rome have been com-
piled-compiled even in that old city wherein
the events which this little volume perpetuates
were enacted. She would assure them that in
placing this book in the hands of their child-
ren, she has carefully studied to make it a
work which may increase their desire for a
more intimate knowledge of Ancient Rome-
of Rome, which in the 19th century has again
become the "Head of Italy." In doing this,
she has been guided by the best writers upon
Ancient History-Pliny, Plutarch, Dionysius,
Livy, Niebuhr, as also by more modern authors.
From this wide field, these facts have been
gathered. No fiction has been called in to
assist their interest. However startling may
be the events recorded, her young friends may
rest assured their record is borne out by history.
All readers of Ancient History can bear
testimony to the wide discrepancy in its
chronology. They all differ more or less. To
assert, therefore, the perfect accuracy of the
following pages in their chronological dates,
would be a questionable matter indeed. The
author has carefully compared and revised the
dates, which both ancient and modern writers
have affixed to the founding of Rome, and to
the reigns of her seven kings. She has aimed
at correctness; and she only claims the same
indulgence, granted to those who have labored
in the field before her.
Romulus, the First King of Rome 9
Numa Pompilius, the Second King of Rome 79
Tullus Hostilius, the Third King of Rome 93
Ancus Marcius, the Fourth King of Rome 29
Tarquinius Priscus, the Fifth King of Rome 153
Servius Tullius, the Sixth King of Rome 85
Tarquinius Superbus, the Seventh King of Rome z21
THE FIRST KING OF ROMY
M Y DEAR young friends, I have a plan in
view. It is this. I wish to take you
with me far, far back into the ages of the Past.
We can do it easily. We need no scrip nor
store-not even a change of garment. Indeed,
we will make our journey with the same rapi-
dity as did those venturesome travellers of
whom we have all read in that wonderful story
book of the Arabian Nights, who, when wish-
ing to do battle with this or that wicked
enchanter thousands of miles away, or to
release from durancee vile" some captive prin-
cess, merely seated themselves upon a bit of
tapestry, and by whispering one magical word,
even without lifting a finger-lo--they were
at the place where they wished to be!
12 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
But imagination can fly as swiftly as any
enchanted carpet in the realms of Arabian
Fairy Land, and if you will trust yourselves
with me, will convey us in the twinkling of an
eye to a point in the world's history, seven
hundred and fifty-three years before the birth
of our Saviour, when in moral darkness it
waited for that great Light which was to come!
waited for the coming of that Star which
centuries later pointed the way to the manger
wherein lay cradled the holy child Jesus-
Prince of Peace! The Light of the Earth!
The earth with its thousands of miles in cir-
cumference; yet we will only travel to a very
small speck upon its surface, which, small as
it is however, has filled a larger space in her
history than all the other nations of the globe!
Are you ready?
Then gather yourselves about me-now !
Ah--here we are! Two thousand six hun-
dred and twenty-four years from our starting-
point, which you will see includes the eighteen
hundred and seventy-one years which have
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
rolled away since the shepherds saw that great
Light upon the plains of Bethlehem.
We might, it is true, pursue the "back
track" a few centuries earlier, only I fear we
might perchance be swallowed up in one of
those terrible earthquakes which in those days
cut such wide gaps in the local history of this
region. Italy itself being but the boot of some
volcanic agent, thrust through the glowing sur-
face of the earth to cool. But when it did
cool, why it became a very pleasant spot to
dwell upon, and has continued so even to the
Let us then walk up this boot and rest
upon the site of its most wonderful city-
Rome-even before Rome was!
We will not interest ourselves in the earlier
settlement of this tempting region further than
may be useful to us in studying out the
founding of Rome. Perhaps when you are
older, the impetus now given may lead you to
trace more fully the history of those peoples
14 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
who from time to time planted themselves on
heel, top, and toe of this volcanic boot.
It will be sufficient for me to tell you, that
when Troy, one of the ancient cities of Asia
Minor, was taken by the confederated Greeks
after a siege of seven years; a brave and good
man named iEneas, himself of the race of the
old Trojan king Priam, fled from the burning
city, bearing upon his shoulders not bags of
gold and silver, but the priceless burthen of an
aged father. A few faithful friends accom-
panied him, and with them they took the
images of their household gods. Mount Ida
became their refuge. There they abode the
winter, and then set forth to found themselves
a colony in some other region.
By-and-by they sailed across the sea, and
finally landed upon the shores of Italy, at a
point about sixteen miles from where Rome
now stands. This region was called Latium,
and at the time when 2Eneas landed, was
ruled by king Latinus, then a very old man.
And after a while the king was pleased with
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
these Trojan strangers, and gave his daughter
Lavinia to be the wife of JEneas.
Then the old king died, and four years later
JEneas died also. Thirty years after this,
history tells us, that Ascanius, the son of Eneas
and Lavinia, founded Alba Longa.
It was a charming spot which the grandson
of old king Latinus selected for his new city.
The hills came sweeping down from the Alban
Mountains to the edge of a lovely lake, set
deep down amid banks wreathed with vines
and pretty blossoms. The blue sky bent over
its clear surface, and only the song of the birds
was heard to break the peaceful solitude.
"We will go no further," said Ascanius.
" Let us build here a city close to the water's
And all his followers agreed it was good to
do so. And as the hills which came down were
very steep, they built it right along the lip or
edge of the lake, and as it extended for more
than a mile in one long street, they called their
new city Alba Longa.
16 THE SEVEN KIfNGA OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
The lake of Albano, which is the same I
am telling you about, is more than two miles
in length, and one mile and three-quarters in
Well-years rolled on. The first founders
of Alba Longa were laid in their tombs. Ge-
nerations passed away, until finally it came to
pass that the crown rested upon the head of a
wicked king named Amulius. But he had no
right to wear it. It belonged to his elder
Now Numitor, the good, had two children, a
son and a daughter, and the wicked Amulius
caused the son to be put to death, and forced
the daughter, who was named Sylvia, to enter
one of the temples devoted to the religion of
the gods. Then he thought all was secure.
There was no one who dared 'dispute his right
to the kingdom of Alba Longa.
But behold it was told him one day that
Sylvia had not only escaped his power, but had
actually become the mother of two little twin
boys! He was in a great rage, as you may
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
well suppose, at this news. Nor did he rest
day nor night until he had accomplished his
revenge. Her he put to death, and then
caused the poor little infants to be thrown into
the river Anio! For this cruel uncle was
afraid the helpless babes might one day claim
the crown as heirs to their grandfather
Now all this which I have been telling you,
is but to prepare you for the story of Romulus
and Remus, to whom the grand old city of
Rome owes its origin. For these two were the
same little twins cast into the river with the
cruel intent of destroying their innocent lives.
But God watched over the helpless little
ones, and in his infinite wisdom marked out a
grand and noble career for at least one of
those deserted babes, whose name will live so
long as Rome shall live !
T HE slave to whom was intrusted the fate
of the little boys, placed them in a rude sort
of cradle or basket, made of the intertwisted
stalks of palm branches, and then launched it
upon the waters of the Anio. The frail bark
floated off with its pretty freight, and God's
angels took care it should not sink, but bore
it in safety to the waters of the Tiber.
"The troubled river knew them,
And smoothed his yellow foam,
And gently rocked the cradle
That bore the fate of Rome.
The ravening she-wolf know them,
And licked them o'er and o'er,
And gave them of her own fierce milk
Rich with raw flesh and gore."
The river, at that time swollen by heavy rains,
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
received the precious charge, somewhat boister-
ously it is true, and the little cradle rocked up
and down with the rocking waves. The little
fellows within were doubtless very hungry,
but they watched the clouds, and the birds
which flew low, and the soft blue sky, and I
dare say, took their little thumbs in their
mouths and sucked them right heartily.
But by and by, as the old Tiber, far out of
its limits, swept around the base of a hill
called the Palatine, a great wave lifted the
little cradle and tossing it high, overturned it
right under the shelter of a fine fig-tree.
All very nice-only the twins could not get
at the figs, and would not have known how to
manage them if they had. Something better
however was in store for them.
And yet I think no mother would have
been well pleased to have seen the great beast
approaching her children, which by and by
drew near those little ones.
Yes-a savage she-wolf came lazily down to
the river side to slake her thirst. Her keen
20 THE SEVEN KINGS OF TlHE SEVEN HILLS.
scent soon detected the poor little ones lying
so helpless under the fig-tree. She walked
round and round them, smelt of them with
her long pointed nose, licked them, and then
God moved the heart of this wild beast to a
pity unknown to their cruel uncle Amulius, for
as she stooped over them, the little fellows
caught at her long teats, and began to smack
their little lips with such a relish that the old
wolf was amazingly pleased, and as she turned
her head around she licked them softly again,
saying to herself:
Well, I have milk enough for these queer
animals and for my own beautiful cubs too."
And so for many days the wolf would trot
down to the river where the little boys lay
curled up in the grass, either sleeping or striv-
ing with their tiny hands to catch at the
wings of a gay wood-pecker, which flying close
down to their little faces would drop a bit of
ripe fig or a wild grape in their open mouths,
for we are told that even the birds took part in
the nourishment of these pretty twins. Then
BOMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
the old wolf would turn them over and over,
and tickle them with her great paws until they
cooed and laughed merrily, when she would
lie down by their side and lick them with her
great rough tongue, as the happy little fellows
drew in her milk.
Now it chanced one day that an old shep-
herd who lived upon the Palatine Hill, came
strolling along down to the river, and hearing
the pretty cooing of the children and the soft
motherly gruntings of the old wolf, peeped
through the bushes to see what it could mean.
If ever any man was surprised-that old shep-
herd was, when he saw two naked little babies
clinging to the teats of a savage wolf, and their
chubby hands patting her hairy legs! A wolf
that he would be glad to shoot! Perhaps the
very beast that had been prowling around his
hut and had carried off his lambs!
He ran to call his neighbors to see the strange
sight, who came carefully, on tip-toe-lest they
would arouse the wolf so intent upon the little
ones whom she began to love as her own cubs,
22 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS
and at that very time might have been plan-
ning how she could carry them to her den,
which was safely hidden near by in one of the
deep lava cliffs.
Fortunately she did not see or hear the shep-
herds, and soon jogged off to her own little
Then the shepherd, whose name was Faus-
tulus, hurried forward, and catching the little
twins up in his arms ran home with them as
fast as he could, for fear the wolf might turn
back and chase him; which she most likely
would have done had she seen the act. Poor
old creature, how she moaned for the little
ones when she came back to the fig-tree and
found them gone!
The image of that kind creature is cherished
in Rome even to this day. In the very Capi-
tol of the city-in one of its noblest halls, there
stands a bronze statue of the Palatine Wolf
with the little ones by her side.
We may take this lesson from it-namely-
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
that a rough, ungainly exterior, can cover a
kind, affectionate nature.
It was a very kind deed in the shepherd to
charge himself and wife with the care of these
two strange children found under the fig-
tree, for they had already twelve goodly sons
of their own! You have heard it said that
"where there's a will, there's a way"-and so
the way was found, and the twin boys grew up
to be shepherds with their foster-brothers.
And they were fine strong lads too.
I have forgotten to tell you that the old
shepherd Faustulus named them Romulus and
Remus, because, as he said, they had been
suckled by a wolf. -
In childhood, we are told, they were remark-
able for their beauty and intelligence; and as
they grew up to manhood they were brave and
fearless of danger. Whether called forth to
fight against those bands of robbers which some-
times infested the Palatine Hill, carrying off the
flocks of the shepherds; or roaming the for-
ests in search of wild beasts, no other lads were
24 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
so brave as Romulus and Remus. It seemed
as if they had drawn in courage and strength
with the milk of the old wolf!
But the time was coming when their high
origin was to be made known, and their wrongs
Now the shepherds who lived on the Pala-
tine Hill, frequently pastured their flocks and
cattle upon another hill called the Aventine,
where the herdsmen from Alba Longa also
p.-'t.iril the cattle of their king. It chanced
one day as both parties met upon the grassy
slopes of the Aventine, that some dispute arose
about the rights of pasturage, resulting at
length in a fierce encounter wherein the herds-
men of the king so far gained the mastery as
to seize Remus and bear him off to Alba
Remus borne off a prisoner seemed a most
unfortunate event. It proved otherwise, as we
By that Divine Power which watches over
the innocent, and suffers no ill deed to go un-
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
punished, the parentage of these brave youths
now became known, and in this manner.
The captors of Remus conducted their pris-
oner into the presence of the King of Alba
Longa-the unjust Amulius. Struck with his
noble bearing, the king demanded of the young
man whence he came, and of his parentage.
Remus could only tell him that he with a twin
brother had been found by a shepherd of the
Palatine Hill near the banks of the river Tiber,
who had brought them up to manhood as his
own sons. Guilt and terror shook the con-
science of the king at this simple narrative,
for like a flash of light the truth was revealed
-in this young shepherd he recognized the
grandson of his brother Numitor. His wicked
designs had been overruled by a higher Power.
In the mean time, Romulus, raising a com-
pany of brave young shepherds, and accom-
panied by old Faustulus, his foster-father, set
out in all haste for Alba Longa to rescue his
brother Remus, arriving just at the time when,
overpowered by his own guilt, Amulius was
26 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
powerless to resist the claims of conscience.
The inhabitants of Alba Longa uniting in the
cause of right, rose in arms against the wicked
king, and placed Numitor, the grandfather of
Romulus and Remus, who was now a very
aged man, upon his rightful throne.
The twin brothers remained for a while with
the good old Numitor. Then, their hearts
yearning with strong affection for the old place
where they had been brought up, they finally
bade farewell to their grandfather and to Alba
Longa, and came to dwell once more upon the
Palatine Hill. The grandsons of a king, they
now possessed both wealth and power-and so
they said they would build a city upon the'
banks of the great river Tiber.
Now although they both wished to do so,
they could not agree upon the spot where this
city should be placed. Romulus, loving the
old Palatine, wished to build it there. Remus
on the contrary chose the Aventine.
Finding they could not agree, they at length
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
determined to leave the matter to chance.
"Now, brother, let us take our stations-you
on the Aventine Hill, and I on the Palatine.
We will count the vultures that shall fly over
us between this time and sunrise, and the one
who can count the greatest number shall gain
"Agreed," said Remus.
Accordingly the brothers took their stand-
each on his favorite hill under the calm, beau-
tiful sky-the stars watching with them, and
the pleasant lapse of the Tiber upon its shores,
the only sound to disturb that solemn night-
watch. Undoubtedly the hours seemed very
long to both. The birds, too, flew but slowly,
and it was only between the dawn and the sun-
rise, that six vultures swept over the Aventine.
The anxious watcher upon the neighboring
mount was not more successful, until just at
the moment when the result of his brother's
vigil was made known to him, twelve vultures
flew slowly over the brow of the Palatine!
28 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
Remus claimed the victory. He had counted
his six birds in advance of his brother's good
fortune. However, the decision was left to the
shepherds, who all pronounced in favor of
It is no easy matter to give up a favorite
project-especially if we think ourselves in the
right. Therefore Remus, as you may suppose,
was not well pleased at being forced to yield
his wishes to those of his brother. But there
was no help for it.
So Romulus now began to lay out the bound-
aries of his city, by drawing a line around the
desired limits of the Palatine. He then yoked
a beautiful white cow and an ox to a plough,
and ploughed a furrow through this line-the
cow upon the inside, by which Romulus in-
tended to show that the women should stay at
home within the city, while the men were to
go bravely forth, and become a terror to their
This done, he commenced building his wall.
Luckily Romulus did not have to go far to find
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
the materials. The Palatine Hill itself afforded
all that was needed. Men set to work at once
cleaving the volcanic rocks-hewing and shap-
ing those grand blocks of stone from a deposit
called Tufa, or Peperino, which the workmen
then laid inside of the furrow, marking the
boundary of the new city. The outer ridge
was to be held sacred to the heathen gods
whom men then worshipped. This was called
the Pomcerium. You will, perhaps, be glad to
know that some portions of this wall are still
remaining, and if you should ever visit Rome,
you will see them in those huge fragments of
crumbling stones which rest upon the western
side of the Palatine Hill.
Remus in the mean while could not get over
his disappointment, and watched all these move-
ments with envy and jealousy, and finally one
day, with a scornful laugh, he leaped over the
Look-just so will the enemy leap over
this frail barrier!"
At which insult, one of the companions of
30 THE SEVEP KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
Romulus, in the heat of his anger, turned sud-
denly upon Remus, saying:
And in this manner will we meet the
enemy!" And as he said this, he killed him
upon the spot!
It has been said that when Romulus saw
Remus spring over the wall in derision, the
savage blood of the She-Wolf mounted into his
brain, bringing forth another terrible tragedy
as when Cain slew his brother Abel! But we
will not for a moment believe this. No! Ro-
mulus deeply mourned for Remus, and when
the time came that he sat upon the throne of
Rome, he caused another throne to be placed
at nis side in memory of his ill-fated brother,
and to demonstrate to the people that if Remus
had lived he would have shared with him in
the government of the city.
THERE is a proverb-" Rome was not built
in a day." It was not. But in a very short
time that portion of the Palatine included
within the walls, was covered with fine streets
and with handsome, substantial dwellings, in
place of pasture lands and shepherds' huts.
Then Romulus called his city Rome.
You must not forget that we have gone back
in time seven hundred and fifty-three years
before the coming of Christ on earth, that we
might mark the founding of this city which was
to become the "Queen of the World!" the
"Mother of Nations!"
Let us look on and see what follows.
His city built, Romulus, as was right, took
its government into his own hands. His first
32 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILS.
care was to frame such good and just laws as
should make the people happy. He arrayed
himself quite like a king in royal robes edged
with purple, and chose twelve men who were
called Lictors, to attend him wheresoever he
went. A lictor was an officer who bore a
bundle of rods, with an axe placed in their
centre. And this was intended to let people
know that the person before whom they were
borne, had the power to scourge and to slay.
Now Romulus was very ambitious; and after
all did not feel quite satisfied with the limits he
had given to his city; so he extended it still
further, taking in the Capitoline Hill, then
called "Mons Saturnius." But the original
limits were always known as Roma Quad-
rata"-which means Square Rome." Having
accomplished this, Romulus then proclaimed
his city to be a place of refuge not only for
debtors and slaves, but also for criminals.
This seems a strange thing for Romulus to have
done-to make a home for such a population
in the new and beautiful city he had taken such
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
care to build! However, Romulus understood
his own plans best, so we will not trouble our-
selves with them.
With such tempting offers, what wonder that
Rome soon became thickly peopled? Then
another trouble arose-it was this. We may
be sure that class of persons who gladly flocked
into the city at the invitation of its founder,
had not burthened themselves with wives and
children-not they. And so it came to pass
that after a while Romulus sent offers of mar-
riage from his young men to the young maidens
of the neighboring towns; especially to the
Sabines, a people dwelling near Rome.
Perhaps those people were growing jealous of
the fast increasing power of the new city-
perhaps they did not wish to unite their daugh-
ters with these Romans-certain it is, they one
and all refused the marriage offers of the Roman
youths. Romulus was wroth at what he con-
sidered so great a slight.
"Come," said he, "if we cannot obtain wives
by free consent, why we will gain them by
34 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
force! The great festival which we are to
hold in honor of the god Neptune is close at
hand. Let the games be made ready, and let
everything be done in the most attractive man-
ner. When all is prepared we will invite our
neighbors with their wives and daughters to
attend. Then, my good citizens, when the sports
are at the highest, a signal shall be given, at
which, let every brave lad seize upon the
maiden he likes and bear her off to become his
This proposal was received with a loud shout
of approbation. Accordingly great preparations
were made for the festival of Neptune, the
rumor of which spread far. Romulus then
sent friendly invitations to the people of the
neighboring towns, and especially to the Sa-
bines. Unsuspicious of danger, the chief inhab-
itants of those towns assembled within the
walls of Rome to witness the games.
The sun arose bright and cloudless on that
eventful day, and at an early hour the city
presented a most animated scene. As the
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
strangers arrived they were received with the
greatest politeness by the chief officers of King
Romulus, who himself, attired in splendid robes
and with the crown upon his head, went around
among them to see that all were accommodated;
and gave the most favorable places for viewing
the games to the wives and daughters of his
The young maidens looked as lovely as the
day itself in their pretty holiday dresses, and,
little thinking of the fate in store for them,
entered with innocent mirth and pleasure into
the festivities of the scene. The parents, too,
were no less pleased and flattered by the atten-
tions of the king, and looked with great sur-
prise upon the splendors already gathered
together in this new Palatine city.
At length the sports began. When the
games were in the full tide of progress, and
every eye bent with intense interest upon the
contestants in the race as they neared the goal,
Romulus suddenly stood up on his lofty throne,
and, under pretence of watching more closely
36 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
the results, gave the concerted signal--whiih
was to fold his robe more closely around his
With the bound of young race-horses the
Roman youths rushed forward to the seats
where sat the Sabine women, and each one
seizing a fair young girl, bore her off in his
arms ere the parents were scarcely aware of
the treacherous deed!
All was now terror and confusion. Cries of
vengeance arose from the indignant fathers,
who having come unarmed to the festival, were
unable to resist this violence. Oh my child!
my child! give me back my child !" screamed
the almost frantic mothers-screams which
were answered by the shrieks and cries of
their terrified daughters.
But in vain. In spite of tears and prayers
they were borne off, and with a tenderness and
care little expected from their bold captors,
were placed in a secure retreat, while their
future husbands returned to the scene of dis-
order and wild lamentation.
BOMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
Romulus, assuming all the dignity of that
kingly race to which he belonged-all the
majestic bearing of his grandfather the old King
Numitor of Alba Longa, went around among
his unhappy guests, and endeavored by gentle
words to calm the storm he himself had raised.
"My friends," said he, "I mean you no har:n.
This I have done, has been done for your own
advantage, as well as for that of Rome. Hear
me then without prejudice-hear me with
coolness-moderate your anger and listen. My
young men desire wives. Where, I ask, would
they find such wives as you can give them, my
friends ? Where could they seek a better alli-
ance than with you? They Lave once offered
this alliance, and have been refused! Your
daughters are as fair as were their mothers-
and seeing this, the young men of Rome, no
longer asking your consent, have borne away
your children from you, and will make them
their wives. Then blame them not for what
you yourselves have been the cause. Come,"
added Romulus, looking around with a pleasant
88 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
smile, and extending both hands-" come, let
there be peace between us, and let this make us
not only better friends, but kinsmen. Receive
the captors of your daughters as your sons.
Be assured, although their wooing has been
rough, they will make the kinder husbands !"
Romulus spoke well, and meant well;
As easy would it have been for him to check
the flow of the rushing Tiber as to calm the
fury of passions raging within the breasts of
his Sabine guests. They remained silent to
this appeal, or if they spoke, it was only to
utter threats of vengeance against their
And thus this pleasant gathering of the
morning under heaven's own peaceful sky, broke
in storm-clouds fraught with coming trouble to
Romulus and Rome.
And the storm soon burst. The bereaved
parents, clothing themselves in mourning gar-
ments, went forth to the neighboring cities and
towns, stirring up their inhabitants to avenge
their grievances. Men are easily moved to war
BROULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
from a spirit of envy or jealousy, and Romulus,
by his exceeding strength, and the almost daily
increase of his dominions, had roused both
these passions in the breasts of the people
dwelling in Crustumerium, Coenina, and Fidena,
three cities within a short distance of Rome.
Glad of a cause, they resolved to march at
once into the Roman territories. Puffed up
with a vain conceit of their own prowess, the Ce-
nenses were the first to commence the war;
and unaided, they dared the power of King
But Romulus heeded their attack no more
than he would a descent of crows into his cane-
fields! He soon put their whole army to
flight-killed their king, whose name was
Acron, and their chief generals-marched on to
their city which he captured, and then returned
victorious to Rome.
Believing his victory gained by the influence
of Jupiter, Romulus at once marked out the
boundaries for a magnificent temple to be
erected to that god, upon the Capitoline Hill,
40 THE SEVEN l~INGS OF THE SEVEN BILLS.
wherein not only the spoils he had gained, but
also those that either himself or the kings who
came after his death, might gain, were to be
And this was the first temple consecrated
to Jupiter in Rome. I will tell you more
about this presently, but first we must follow
We have seen how easily he conquered the
Csenenses. It was only the beginning of battles.
For now united against him came the Crustu-
minii, and the Autemnates. They had better
have remained in their own dominions, and not
waged war upon one to whose natural bravery
was added the ferocity and courage of the wolf!
They were beaten, their cities taken, and
themselves subjugated to the Roman power.
BUT what has become of those poor Sabine
maidens all this time ?
As wives of those bold Roman youths, they
have learned to love and respect their hus-
bands; who in return treat them with a ten-
derness due to the cruel manner in which they
had been torn from their parents. However
they might sigh for their old homes, and the
friends they had thus suddenly lost, their new
homes and their new ties served to make them
The Sabine people themselves, although the
most aggrieved, were the last to assert their
wrongs. They were very cautious, and secretly
bent on revenge-but wisely made no move
until fully prepared for battle. This done-
42 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
under the command of their king Titus Tatius
in person, they marched against him who had
robbed their homes of their dearest treasures-
At this time the Roman citadel on the
Capitoline Hill was in charge of a Roman
named Tarpeius. He was the father of a beau-
tiful girl-Tarpeia. Now it happened that one
day Tarpeia passing outside the walls of the
city to bring water for some sacrificial offering,
chanced to meet the Sabine king Tatius, who
in disguise was probably prowling around to
watch the movements of the foe. He entered
into conversation with her, and pretending to
be captivated with the beauty of the girl, he
so flattered the vanity of the silly maiden, that
finally by the promise of gold and rich orna-
ments, Tarpeia wickedly consented to betray
the citadel into his hands !
The hour appointed came. The false Tar-
peia was at her post: "Come," said she to the
Sabine soldiers, "let every one as he passes
in, throw me the golden circlet from his arm,
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
and the ring from his finger !" For the men
wore broad bracelets of heavy gold, and rings
of precious jewels. This they promised to do.
But mark the punishment of one so false to
The soldiers kept their promise, but, with
their bracelets, they also threw their heavy
shields, and the miserable Tarpeia was crushed
to death beneath their weight!
And there they buried her. And that place
is called the Tarpeian Rock even to this day!
Thus the Sabines gained possession of the
Roman citadel. And the next day a furious
battle was fought within the walls-abl-
conducted on both sides. The Sabines held
their ground steadily against the assaults of the
Romans, and for a time the victory seemed
theirs. Having slain the Roman general Hos-
tillius, a brave man, they pressed the Romans
hard even to the Palatine Gate, crying out:
"Ah-ha, son of a wolf! You shall see it is
one thing to fight with men, and another to
carry off helpless maidens!"
44 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
Then Romulus with fire in his eye turned to
Ha! do you hear those boasting Sabines ?
Will you suffer your manhood to be thus in-
sulted ? Renew the fight, I command you in
the name of Jupiter, the father of gods and
So saying he advanced upon the foe, while,
animated by his words and courage, the Ro-
mans dashed forward, and made a terrible
onslaught upon the Sabines.
But at this moment both armies found them-
selves suddenly held in check by a new and
strange event. For between the contending
parties rushed the daughters of the Sabines,
their hair all in disorder, their eyes red with
weeping. With a courage which only true
affection could inspire, they threw themselves
between the clashing swords of their fathers,
brothers, and husbands:
"Cease this unnatural strife!" they cried.
"Cease, fathers and brothers, to imbrue your
hands in the blood of our husbands! Hus-
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
bands, throw down your swords, that you slay
not the fathers of your wives-the grandsires
of our innocent children What! would you
give them a parricide for a father ? If such be
your will-then slay your wives also. As we
have been the innocent cause of this unholy
combat, we will sooner die-yes, we call the
gods to witness, we will sooner die, than, as
widows, live with the fathers who have slain
our husbands-or as wives, with the murderers
of our fathers."
What a scene that must have been, my dear
young friends Pause a moment here, and try
to imagine those two armies in the midst of
their maddened strife, thus suddenly brought
to bay-their uplifted swords checked in their
descent, their eyes filling with tears, and look-
ing with wonder upon this brave little band of
women, who came fluttering in among them
like doves, the messengers of peace.
A deep silence followed this appeal. Then
fathers embraced their children, and husbands
their wives. Both kings, Romulus and Tatius,
46 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.-
commanded their soldiers to retire. A council
was then held, composed of the chief men on
both sides, and after due deliberation, a formal
treaty was made, by which both the Roman
and Sabine territories became as one. Then
Romulus invited the Sabine king to share with
him the throne of Rome, and for five years
these two good men held their regal. possession
jointly, and in perfect harmony. And certainly
those who had brought about this happy state
of things, were more than content with their
lot-now reunited to their parents and kins-
folk, and more and more respected and beloved
by their husbands for their noble conduct.
And upon the spot where the two armies
sheathed their swords at the prayers of these
brave women, Romulus built a temple under
the name of Jupiter Stator," the foundations
of which may still be traced on the high ground
close by the old gate of the Palatine city.
And now while Rome is so happily taken
care of under the united friendship and king-
ship of Romulus and Tatius, I think we will
THE SEVEN KINGS OF TEE SEVEN HILLS.
leave it for a little while, and have a talk about
the gods and goddesses of those days. You
will remember, perhaps, that I promised to tell
you more about Jupiter, to whom Romulus
built the first temple in Rome, after his victory
over the bold Csenenses.
Have you studied ancient Mythology? If
so, I can tell you nothing new perhaps. If not,
it is better that we should understand something
of those heathen deities ere we proceed further
on our Roman journey; for I assure you we shall
meet them at every step we take, and we might
feel very much embarrassed not to know their
names, nor their particular virtues, so very
powerful was their rule, until the only One
True God revealed Himself in the person of
His Beloved Son.
"For all the gods of the nations are idols: but the
Lord made the Heavens. Say among the heathen that the
Lord reigneth. He is to be feared above all gods."
FROM the earliest ages of the world, man
has felt the necessity of worshipping some-
thing. All have owned a higher power,
although ignorant of God. This instinct is
implanted in the breasts even of the most
savage nations; and in some way or another
they have manifested this instinct; in very
many cases by deeds of cruelty-so little did
they understand this feeling in their hearts to
mean love-not vengeance.
How terrible some of these superstitions were,
you probably know. You have read of the
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
Juggernaut idol, crushing beneath the wheels
of his chariot the wretched victims thrown in
his path; and you have heard of Moloch, into
whose red-hot arms of brass, mothers tossed
their innocent. babes, to appease the wrath of
a horrible image-" who had eyes, but saw
not"-and "ears that heard not."
Cultivated nations responded in a more re-
fined degree to this divine call of the soul, and
in time a race of gods and goddesses sprang
into the minds of men as real beings, endowed
with all powers, and to them they built tem-
ples-gave them a form, and sacrificed before
You now understand that Rome knew not
the true God. They saw the glorious heavens
above them-the sun, the moon, and the bright
stars. They watched the return of seed-time
and harvest. They delighted as we do in the
song of birds; in green meadows, in broad for-
ests, and in the loveliness and perfume of
flowers. They were awed by the grandeur of
the boundless ocean-pleased with the rippling
50 THE SEEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
river, and laughing brook. But to whom, or
to what, were they to ascribe all this ? Who
gave a voice to the clouds that in thunder-tones,
and with fiery darts, rebuked their evil deeds?
Who let loose the fury of the winds in the
whirlwind, or cooled their heated brows with
soft, gentle breezes? What power was it that
hurled mountains from their base with volcanic
throes, and choked their lakes with red-hot
cinders, and piled up new mountains, and
opened new lakes? Who sent the soft rain-
drops, and watered the valleys with dew?
Their delusion gave not this power to one,
but to many gods.
Not equal-but sharing in the rule of the
heavens and the earth. Shut in by clouds from
the eyes of men, these gods were supposed to
dwell in a region of boundless enchantment
and loveliness. And to this fabled spot they
gave the name of Olympus.
The god to whom they ascribed the greatest
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
Him they styled the "father of gods and
of men." Great honors were paid to him. In
any enterprise about to be undertaken, the
favor of Jupiter was first invoked, especially
before going to battle. And when, returning
victorious from the fray, the conquering gen-
erals entered Rome, their first duty was to the
god Jupiter. Borne in their chariots of ivory
and gold, up to the Capitoline Mount, they
here in his temple gave thanks to "Jupiter
Optimus Maximus," which means the best and
the greatest, who had crowned their arms with
victory. They fully believed that this supreme
god, who looked down from the curtained clouds
on Mount Olympus, gave signs and tokens of
his displeasure, or of approbation, and spoke to
them in many wonderful ways.
If Jupiter was angry,then dark clouds gath-
ered over Rome-lightning darted its forked
tongue, and the arm of Jupiter hurled the
heavy thunderbolt! If the god was at peace,
52 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
then the blue sky and the bright sunbeam were
as his smile! He is a stern-looking old fellow-
this same Jupiter. We will know him. He
carries a sceptre in his left hand upon which is
perched an eagle, and in his right he is usually
seen grasping the thunderbolts, ready to hurl
them down upon those who displease him.
As Jupiter was the king-god of Olympus, so
was the majestic Juno the queen-goddess, and
as such, was worshipped by the Romans.
was the god of war-a very lion for bravery
and magnanimity. And yet he did not disdain
to become the protector of all cattle, and of
agricultural pursuits. He also had many beau-
tiful temples erected to his honor, and those
who worshipped him, danced before his image,
clothed in full armor.
THE GODDESS MINERVA
was one to be loved. She was supposed to
preside over the arts and sciences-over poetry
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
and music; and, like Mars, did not disdain more
humble occupations, for she was also the pat-
roness of sewing, spinning, and weaving. And
as she was supposed to guide the movements,
and preserve all brave men on the field of battle,
so she usually went armed, and wore a helmet
of gold, with a shining breast-plate. She car-
ried a lance-and on her shield were snakes!
Sometimes she took off her helmet, and wore
a crown of olives, emblem of peace-and again,
instead of a lance, she carried an owl-and
this was to signify that she was the goddess of
was the giant of Olympus! Stronger even
than Samson, he could slay lions, and hydra-
headed monsters; and yet feel no more fatigue
than if he had been snapping off the heads of
so many little kittens. He was supposed to
watch with favor all athletic games, or feats of
strength. Temples were built to him on the
summit of high hills, and upon the banks of
rivers. If we should chance to see a god with
54 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
a lion skin thrown over one shoulder, and with
a monstrous knotty club in his hand, we can
safely say, There is Hercules!"
was the god the Romans delighted to deify.
They believed him to be so glorious, that they
gave him even the sun as his chariot, and com-
posed many hymns, and built many beautiful
temples to him. Everywhere the most grace-
ful statues of Apollo were to be seen. A great
poet calls this god, The sun in human limbs
arrayed." All who worshipped him, believed
that at the dawn of day, a beautiful goddess,
named Aurora, veiled in soft rosy clouds,
aroused Apollo from his sleep, and opened the
Olympian gates. Then the sun-god mounting
his fiery chariot, drawn by such steeds as need
no other hoof-hold than the billowy clouds,
and followed by the swift gliding Hours, sped
forth triumphant upon his diurnal round Nor
was this his only care-namely, to awaken the
earth from sleep. For Apollo was the god of
RO~ULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
harmony. He was a shepherd too, fond of
groves, and of quiet meadow brooks. It was
his delight to sit under some shady tree, and
play upon the shepherd's pipe, making sweet
music. We may meet him shod in buskins-
a cloak falling gracefully from his right shoul-
der, with a bow and arrows in one hand, and
a lyre in the other. Around his brows he will
have a laurel crown. Or perhaps we may see
him leaning against a tree in a pensive attitude,
playing upon the pipe.
was a swift-footed god-and no wonder, for he
wore wings upon his heels and head too! So
Mercury was called the god of speed, and of
messages-the electric telegraph from the gods
of Olympus to men Even now, when we see
him represented in marble, or upon the paint-
er's canvas, we feel that we must look quick,
or the restless god will be off.
56 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
ruled the ocean-and when a fleet was about
to leave their ports, the Romans sacrificed to
this god, casting rich offerings into the sea-
just as the Chinese do at the present day. We
cannot mistake old Neptune, for he stands up-
right in his chariot, formed of one immense
shell, which is drawn by sea-horses, and furi-
ous-looking animals they are, dashing and
splashing the green waves with their great
hoofs. He always holds a three-tined sceptre,
like a three-tined fork, in his hand.
We must give due honors to
"the god of fire." His was an honorable and
trustworthy profession, for he forged the thun-
derbolts of his father Jupiter, and the arms
of all the gods. He was quite deformed it
seems, and shared so little in the beauty of the
gods, that they threw him down to earth from
the Olympian heaven, breaking his leg in the
BOMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
fall! But for all that he was highly honored,
and many beautiful temples from time to time
were built to him. If we should enter into
one of those temples we would see Vulcan rep-
resented lame, and standing by an anvil with
his blacksmith's tools in his hand.
There was one jolly inhabitant of the Olym-
plan heavens, whom the Romans supposed to
preside over their feasts, and as such they did
him great honors. His name was
It was Bacchus who took care that no blight
should spread over the young and tender vines.
It was Bacchus who caused the rich clusters of
grapes to grow so luxuriantly; and then, when
their amber juices were fully ripe, it was Bac-
chus who presided over the wine-press, and saw
that the labors of the vine dresser were plen-
tifully rewarded. And then were great festi-
vals held in honor of this merry god. Crowned
with vine leaves, the statue of Bacchus was
borne through the streets, surrounded by dano
58 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
ing maidens and skipping goats. Or perhaps
some youth was permitted to act the part of
was a god with two faces, and could see things
past as well as future. I think I have forgot-
ten to tell you, that when Romulus admitted
Titus Tatius, the Sabine king, to share his
throne, he built a temple to Janus, as a proof
that both nations were at peace, and to give
the Romans an idea, perhaps, that two heads
were better than one."
was the goddess of all grace and beauty. Cra-
dled in a shell of pearl, and borne on the
sparkling sea-foam to a pleasant island; the
Hours, they say, took care of the lovely little
child, and then when she was old enough not
to be troublesome, they carried her to live with
Jupiter and Juno in Olympus. She was a
great favorite with the Roman people. It
would be impossible to tell how many temples
ROIULUS, THE FIRST'KIIN OF ROME.
were raised to her, nor how often they attempted
to reproduce her exquisite beauty in marble.
And not satisfied with what their own art
could accomplish, they travelled to other
parts of the world to find the ideal of her love-
liness realized, and then brought those images
of the goddess to Rome, and set them up in
as being a very beautiful boy, was thought to
be the son of Venus. He was considered a very
mischievous, dangerous little fellow to have any
dealings with. He was full of sport and play,
and decidedly a most cunning little rogue He
was never seen without his bow and arrows,
which he always kept slyly ready to shoot at
the hearts of mortals at the most unexpected
moment! Cupid was called the god of love.
Then there was the beautiful goddess
who was worshipped as the mistress of the
hunt, and was supposed to roam the forests in
60 THE SEVENKTNGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
buskins and short robes-holding in check a
favorite hound, and with a bow and arrows
slung over her shoulder. Sometimes she was
called Luna-the moon-and wore a silver
crescent upon her pale brow. I think we shall
meet this lovely goddess more than once.
held the responsible office of physician to gods
and men. He was highly esteemed by the
Greeks and Romans, as the god of healing.
Many groves were held sacred to this deity, and
many temples raised to do him honor. The
most celebrated was at Epidaurus, in Greece,
where he was worshipped under the form of a
serpent. In all the statues, or other represen-
tions which we see of _Esculapius, he bears
in his right hand a staff, around which, twines
a serpent. The serpent was looked upon as a
symbol of prudence and foresight.
I am very much afraid that you are getting
tired with this long history of the dwellers
upon Mount Olympus. In one moment we will
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
close. I only wish to tell you further, that the
Romans worshipped CERES, who took care of
the corn, and the young wheat, POMONA, who
guarded their orchards, FLORA, who danced
amid the flowers, and a colony of lovely
Nymphs for their fountains, their groves, and
Much as we may lament the blindness of
the world, for so many hundreds of years, in
thus bowing down to gods of wood and stone,
yet we must acknowledge that in poetry and
in art we owe much that is beautiful to the
memory of these heathen deities! Do you not
still love to think about the little fairies with
their silver wands tipped in the moonbeams,
that we have been told, once flitted in and out
the summer woods-that danced merrily by the
meadow brook,-that sipped dewdrops from the
pretty yellow cowslip, and were borne on the
rainbow wings of butterflies, just where they
wanted to go? Do you not love the memory
of those graceful little sprites ? I do. For my
part, I am very sorry they have gone, with all
62 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
their bewitching ways! And even those giants
who strode grimly over the earth, in their
seven-league boots-well, I own I am sorry
they do not still stride about!
Gods and goddesses, nymphs, satyrs, fauns,
fairies, and giants have all gone, and only live
to us in poetic fables, or on the canvas Yes,
we are living in a very prosaic age, there is no
doubt of it.
But for the truth, let us bless God Although
we do love to read of those heathen deities-
Jupiter and Mars-of Juno and Minerva, we
do it with our senses enlightened. Yes, let us
bless God for the truth-for that great light
which shone suddenly upon the world; to
make clear the darkness, and to destroy those
temples, such as St. Paul saw in Athens in-
scribed to the
XOU will now feel better acquainted, I am
sure, with the dwellers of Mount Olympus
when we chance to meet them, and we there-
fore again salute the good King Romulus. For
he was not only a good king but a wise one,
framing such excellent laws as were held by all
nations in respect. Even the English, and
again our own American code of laws, are
mainly founded upon those which Romulus
gave to Rome.
It is wise men who make good laws. It is
only fools who break them.
Intending that Rome should be a city of
order-Romulus divided the people into three
sections, and those three he again subdivided
into ten, and out of compliment to his Sabine
64 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
allies, whose chief city was Cures, he called
those three sections the Curea"-and then as
a further mark of respect to the Sabine wives
of the Romans, he gave their names to each of
the thirty divisions. And when any matters
of state required their attention, these Curea
met in council together in an open space called
the Forum. These meetings were called the
Their deliberations were important. No law
could be passed without their consent. Not
even the will of the king himself was legal
unless with the approval of the Curea.
Romulus also installed a more select body of
men even than these, chosen from among the
most talented and experienced men of Rome.
This body was called the Senate. The original
number was one hundred-but after Titus
Tatius shared the throne with Romulus, one
hundred more were added, and these were
wisely chosen from the Sabines. These two
bodies incorporate were known under the
venerated title of "Cnnsuript Fathers."
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
This happy state of things continued about
five years, and then a most unhappy event oc-
curred. Friends of King Tatius, living in the
city of Lavinium, as they were journeying on
to Rome, which was sixteen miles distant,
were met by a party from Laurentium. These
last set upon them, and attempted to rob them
of their valuables-the people of Lavinium
stoutly defended themselves-but being over-
come by superior numbers, they were nearly
Both of these towns were exceedingly pleas-
ant, and being situated only three miles from the
Mediterranean Sea, were consequently regaled
with its pleasant breezes. At Lavinium were
many beautiful temples to the gods, and one of
very great fame which was consecrated to the
goddess Venus. It is a very little village now-
even its pretty name is lost. The place is now
known as Protica.
Laurentium was so called, because it was
surrounded with such delightful laurel groves,
the fragrance of which filled the air around
66 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN hILLS.
with sweetness, while flitting among the glossy
green leaves were many beautiful birds. Deep
marshes of tall grass were at no little distance;
through which waded wild boars and buffaloes,
,lT,.,i.,i most excellent sport for the hunts-
men. This city, too, is swept away-all gone
with the laurels, and its name. Torre Paterus,
a poor, wretched, unhealthy village, is said to
occupy the site of the once populous Lauren-
Now as King Tatius was so nearly allied to
the inhabitants of Lavinium, it was of course
believed that he would at once avenge their
wrongs, and they sent ambassadors to Rome
claiming his assistance. But Tatius took no
notice of this appeal, although it is said Rom-
ulus advised him to do so. At this they were
very angry, and swore to be revenged. And
so when the unsuspecting old king Tatius went
to Lavinium to sacrifice to the gods, as was his
yearly custom, some of the wicked people fell
upon him as he was engaged in those sacred
rites, and slew him!
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
When this dreadful news was brought to
Rome, indignation and horror at so vile a deed,
shared in the hearts of the people the grief
which all classes felt for the death of so good
a man. Fearful of the consequences upon
themselves, the murderers of the king were
sent to Rome by the people of Lavinium. But
Romulus sent them back, with the words:
"Blood for blood!" meaning, as was sup-
posed, that as the innocent blood of the kins-
men of King Tatius had been unavenged by
him-his blood had been required by the gods,
as an atonement.
Now soon after, there broke out such a ter-
rible pestilence in Rome, as was never before
known! People dropped down dead in the
streets without any previous sickness. The
cattle died also, and a destructive blight over-
spread their corn-fields, their orchards, and
vineyards. It is said too, that it rained blood
upon the city!
What could this mean? Why were the gods
angry ? Was it not that those men who had
68 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HTLLS.
killed King Tatius, still lived, and had been
So thought the Romans. So thought Rom-
Then those murderers were sent for in hot
haste, and by the judgment of Romulus and
the Conscript Fathers, met the fate they de-
And from that day the plague ceased.
Not long after these events, a war broke out.
The people of Fidence, and of Veil, under-
took to fight against the Roman power. They
learned a hard lesson by the attempt. Romu-
lus took the city of Fidena, and subjugated
its inhabitants. With the Veientines the siege
was longer-but Romulus came off victorious,
and marched upon the city to destroy it. But
the inhabitants came forth to meet him, humbly
suing for peace.
This the Roman king granted, on condition
that they would give up to him a certain dis-
trict close upon the boarders of the river Ti.
ber-which is supposed to have included the
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF IOME.
limits of the Vatican and Janiculum Hills;
and also some salt works at the mouth of the
river. This was agreed upon, and a truce for
one hundred years was made between Rome
Again all was quiet in Rome. Romulus
For thirty-nine years this good king main-
tained quiet and order at home, and at the same
time inspired respect and fear abroad. By the
Romans he was worshipped almost as a god;
especially did the soldiers love him, as one
truly brave man always loves another. He
who envies another his greatness, is not brave!
But the time was at hand when Romulus
was to be taken from them, and from the great
city now covering several hills, which he had
founded upon one!
Although at peace, Romulus never neglected
to be prepared for war. It was his custom to
review his whole army at certain seasons, on
a wide plain just without the walls of the city
70 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SE VEN HILLS.
This plain was the Campus Martius-or Field
Upon one occasion, and the last-the whole
grand army were drawn up for the inspection
)f their king, who, in great state, went forth
attended by his twelve Lictors, and the Con-
script Fathers, to review this noble Roman
soldiery. It was while thus engaged, that dense
black clouds suddenly covered the sky, from
which the thunder rolled in awful peals, and
the vivid forked lightning struck terror into
the hearts even of the boldest men upon the
ground. And with the thunder and the light-
ning came also a thick mist-a vapor so dense
that no man could see the man who stood next
And behold-when the mist was lifted-
Romulus, their l-iii., was gone! Gone! but
where? How? In vain they sought him
through the field. Urged by anxious hands,
hither and thither gallopped the fiery steeds.
In terror and confusion the foot soldiers rushed
through the ranks calling in vain upon their
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
King. Consternation sat upon the faces of the
Conscript Fathers. At length one of that
venerable body, who had until the moment re-
mained silent, and stood as if overcome by
some great fear, now suddenly lifted up his
voice, and said:
"Friends, all--Romans-soldiers! Look no
more for your father and king-the god-like
Romulus. He has ascended to the gods Hear
me. Lo-at the moment when the storm raged
most furiously, I beheld a chariot of fire de-
scend from the Olympian heaven-therein was
seated a mighty god, clothed in bright and daz-
zling armor. He it was,who, catching up our
beloved king, has borne him from us to dwell
hereafter with the gods! Look to see him no
A deep silence followed this dreadful an-
nouncement. Sorrow was on every counte-
nance, and filled every heart. Had a beloved
father been suddenly torn at that moment from
each man upon the field, the feeling of univer-
72 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
sal orphanage could not have been more gen.
eral. At length a loud cry arose:
"Let us make Romulus a god !"
"Yes, a god!" was re-echoed from every
mouth. And instantly the whole legion fell
upon their knees and prayed to Romulus, theii
god-their father-and their king, to bless and
protect them who were his children; and for-
ever to watch over the welfare and happiness
of Rome-the city he had founded.
It was afterwards said, that taking advantage
of the heavy mist which so closely shut in the
good king from sight of the army, the Con-
script Fathers, ambitious of more power them-
selves, and beginning to hate Romulus for
his very virtues, had slain him; and then cut-
ting his body in small pieces, had concealed his
remains under the ample folds of their togas.
But we need not believe so wicked a deed
unless we please.
We have seen that Romulus was a good man;
that he cultivated those principles of right
which are planted in every heart, and which
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
flourish like the beautiful garden flowers, shed-
ding sweet odors around, if they are watched
and tended with care-otherwise, baneful weeds
check their growth, and the garden of the heart
becomes a waste.
Of course we do not believe for a moment in
the story of a fabulous god, coming down from
a fabulous heaven, and bearing Romulus away !
We believe no such thing. But we may with
more reason believe, that as Romulus was so
good a man, ruling his people with love and
equity, and thus serving acceptably the One
True and Living God, although he knew Him
not, that when our Heavenly Father removed
him from earth, it was from the worship of
false gods, to the feet of Jesus!
Thus deprived of their ruler, what was to
be expected but disorder and contention in that
late peaceful city ?
Who should be their king? That was now
the question, for Romulus left no son to suc-
The Sabines desired a king chosen from their
74 THE SE VEN KINGS OF THE SEY VE HILLS.
own people. The Romans, on the contrary,
disdaining any other than a Roman, declared
that none other than a Roman should sit upon
the throne of Romulus. There was earnest
debate and great deliberation on both sides.
And then a new dilemma suddenly presented
itself. It was this. What if during their in-
decision, some foreign power should take the
opportunity thus afforded them, and attack
them? Rome without a head her armies
without a leader! Seized with this idea, the
minds of the Conscript Fathers were greatly
troubled; and at length they entered into a
solemn compact to share between them the
government. In this wise. Ten of the Sena-
tors were to rule Rome five days in succession.
One of the chosen ten was to assume more state
than the others, and to be attended somewhat
after the fashion of a king.
And this code of government was called "In-
terregnum," and is so called to this day.
Well, this state of things lasted about a year.
And then the people began to murmur and find
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
fault-saying that in place of one king, they
now had a hundred kings to obey!
When they saw the public mind was so much
averse to this interregnum-the Senators
wisely concluded it was best to give Rome a
king. They accordingly notified the people to
choose such a man to rule over them as they
might think worthy to sit upon the throne of
Romulus, and provided they, the Senate, ap-
proved the choice, they would confirm it. This
was very pleasing to the Romans. They ac,
knowledge the respect paid them by the Sen-
ate, in thus allowing them to choose a ruler-
and, not to be outdone in generosity, they
requested the Conscript Fathers to select their
king, and they, the people, would vote thereon,
Heaven surely directed their choice.
There was at this time living at Cures, a
man eminent alike for his goodness and for
his learning-one skilled in philosophy, and in
all the sciences of the day. He was a man,
too, fond of retirement and a country life, and
76 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
passed a great portion of his time in wander-
ing through the groves and meadows.
His name was Numa Pompilius.
Cures was a city of the Sabines. Conse-
quently Numa was a Sabine. But the Ro-
mans now felt the importance of selecting for
their ruler, a just and good man, whether Sa-
bine or Roman, and therefore both Senate and
people unanimously conferred the crown upon
Numa Pompilius, as second king of Rome.
You remember that when Romulus was
about to found the city of Rome upon the Pal-
atine Hill, the event was decided by augury-
which means tokens supposed to be received
from the gods, either in approval or disapproval.
And even so did Numa command that the gods
should be consulted, before he would consent
to accept the throne. When they would have
put upon him the royal robes, he bade them
pause until the will of the gods should be
known. Then taking with him the priests of
the temple, he went up to the Capitoline Hill.
One of the priests then covered the head of
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME.
Numa, and turned his face toward the south.
Taking a "crooked stick," he slowly moved it
from the north to the south, marking out in
his own mind a certain space, across which the
birds were to fly in answer to his prayer.
Oh, Father Jupiter!" he cried, placing his
right hand upon the head of Numa. If it be
thy will that Numa Pompilius shall be king of
Rome, then send forth, I pray thee, thy winged
messengers the birds, by the way I have marked
out for them."
A deep silence followed this appeal. The
moments rolled on in anxious suspense. But
within the given time, the birds flew past on
the right hand!
And then Numa took the royal robe, and
put upon his head the crown, and was declared
by the will of the gods to be king of Rome.
This was B. C. 714.
Here ends the story of Romulus, the first
king of Rome.
THE SECOND KING OF ROMB.
_.- ,"".- ^ ^ r':'-r, ^^. .
.*-,<.._., ., .. '*.
KING ROMULUS, borne off in a chariot of
fire; Numa Pompilius, with the approba-
tion of gods and of men, seated upon the throne
It was there we last parted. Once more
together, my dear young friends, let us follow
this King Numa and judge for ourselves whether
he was worthy to fill the seat of the brave,
heroic Romulus. We shall find him, I assure
you, all and even more than was expected of
Ruling the people with equity."
When once fairly established upon the throne,
and seeing how great confidence both Romans
and Sabines reposed in him, he began his reign
82 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
by instilling more peaceful sentiments into the
hearts of the people. His first act, according
to Plutarch, was to dismiss the body of three
hundred men, whom King Romulus had em-
ployed as guards about his person; saying, he
would not distrust the people over whom he
was called to reign-neither would he have
them distrust him.
He wished his subjects to be brave, but at the
same time to feel the duty of preserving peace:
if necessary, let the foe be promptly met, and
with courage-but let no war be provoked.
He would improve them by study and labor.
He would have them cultivate the soil-to
navigate the rivers-to improve their cattle,
and learn to exchange the rich products of their
industry with other tribes and nations, for
what such tribes and nations could offer. In
short-he would make of his beloved subjects,
whom he considered as intrusted to his care by
Jupiter, not only brave warriors, but good citi-
zens, good husbands, and good fathers. HP
knew that as the minds of the children were
NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OP ROME. 83
moulded into good form, so in like manner
would be moulded the future of Rome; and
with a foreknowledge akin to the gods, he looked
far, far into the coming years, and saw Rome
the "Queen of Nations" and "The Capital of
Numa inculcated no principles that he did
not strictly practise himself. There are per-
sons who preach eloquently, but fail to prac-
tise what they preach. Some will cry, How
blessed it is to give!" while at the same time
they place a double clasp upon their pocket-
books The sin of idleness!" says another,
leaning comfortably back in an elbow chair,
with folded hands. And again there are others,
who will lift their eyebrows with scorn at the
idea of cheating one's neighbor, and yet shave
a sixpence down for the dust.
Not of this manner of men was the good
Numa Pompilius-what he counselled he acted.
The king was a man of great piety. His rev-
erence for the gods was deep. You remember,
do you not, what I told you about the Olym-
84 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
pian heaven, and its fabled gods? These to
Numa were sacred, and to be worshipped. And
knowing that no nation is secure that has not
religion for its basis, he began his rule by in-
stituting many ordinances in honor and rever-
ence of the Olympian gods, and setting aside
days wherein no business should be done save
what was required in the observance of those
sacred rites. In his own person he performed
many religious offices, especially those belong-
ing to a priest of Jupiter. He also appointed
other priests who were called Flamens to attend
upon the temples of the gods, who were dis-
tinguished by wearing little bands of wool,
called fillets, and flame-colored tufts on their
caps. Those persons whom he selected especi-
ally for the service of Jupiter and of Mars, were
more highly esteemed, under the title of Pon-
tifices [Pontiffs]. The highest in rank was
called Pontifex Maximus. They wore fine soft
robes, and sat in Curule Chairs. A curule chair
was a seat without arms or back, placed in a
chariot and borne by flames or priests to the
NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 85
temples, whenever the presence of the pontifices
It is to Numa too, that we owe the months
of January and February; for, previous to his
reign, the year was divided into ten months
only. This was done by Romulus. These
months Plutarch tells us were irregular in their
number of days, and all computed only gave to
the year three hundred and four, instead of
three hundred and sixty-five. Numa thought
and studied deeply. He watched the motions
of the celestial bodies closely, resulting in the
more equal division of time-adding the two
months, January and February, and the ad-
ditional sixty-one days. February was always
considered an unlucky month by the ancients.
Not far from the Capitoline Mount, Numa
erected and dedicated a temple to Janus, who,
as you will remember, looks two ways-sees
what has passed-and to the future. These two
heads were also styled "Peace," and "War."
When the gates were thrown open, the head
of war was seen. When closed, the head of
86 T3E SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
peace alone was visible. The horrid face of
"grim war" was never seen during the whole
forty years that Numa reigned in Rome! Think
what happiness Rome enjoyed, with peace in
her palaces, and plenty in her streets!
Nor was so glorious an example lost upon
the neighboring states. They beheld her with
respect, and would not make war on a city so
devoted to the worship of the gods.
There is in Rome at this day, a most grace-
ful little building which is called the Temple
of Vesta." Perhaps you may have seen a draw-
ing of it. It is not, of course, the very same
temple which Numa erected to that goddess,
though it bears the same form. This temple
dates back to the time of Vespasian, A. D. 70,
and is one of the best preserved monuments of
ancient Rome-a perfect picture of grace, though
black and stained by the hand of time. There
is now no statue to Vesta within its beautiful
columned portico, but an altar is there raised to
the Living God, and before it, Christians kneel
NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 87
in humble prayer. It was built for pagan wor-
ship-but God has consecrated it to Himself.
But in the days of Numa, he raised a tem-
ple to Vesta, the guardian of domestic happi-
ness, the goddess who watched over the home
hearth, and the sacred fire that was kindled
thereon. This shows what a loving, gentle na-
ture Numa possessed. Numa appointed young
girls, who were called Vestals, to watch night
and day over the sacred fire lighted within the
temple, that this bright flame consecrated to
Vesta and to domestic love, should not go out.
It was a beautiful ordinance. It is true we
have no goddess Vesta in our day, yet we have
as strict a duty to perform as did those Vestals.
It is our duty to watch that the fire of affection
upon our own domestic hearths is not extin-
guished. Let every youth of whatever age,
endeavor to keep this lovely flame of home
love bright and clear. Never let it die out,
until that sad hour come, when the Angel of
Death with his dark wing sweeps it away be.
yond our relighting.
THERE is at the present day on the Via
Appia [Appian Way], about two miles
from Rome, a little grotto half concealed amid
the vines which in wild and tangled luxuriance
wave over its humid walls. The dark-leaved
ilex trees, and the tall cypress, wave their sol-
emn branches above it. Around spreads the
desolate Campagna, where every night-breeze
that blows over the waste, comes fraught with
pestilence and death, so that no man can dwell
thereon. Old towers and tombs rise like ghosts
of the past; and the broken chain of aque-
ducts seem leaping across the plain, as if they
too would fain fly from the spot. In this
grotto a lovely little fountain bubbles up its
bright waters, in which long sprays of pretty
NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 89
maidenhair, and the feathery fern, dip and
dance. The floor yet bears a few fragments of
variegated marbles, and around the sides are
niches which once held beautiful statues.
This was the grotto of the goddess Egeria.
Egeria was no doubt a beautiful, highly culti-
vated woman, although the Romans in their
early superstition have claimed for her the title
of a goddess, and as such she is spoken of by
ancient writers, and is still remembered.
Egeria was the friend of Numa, who believed
her to be inspired by Jupiter with greatness-
by Minerva with wisdom-by Juno with her
love for nature-by Apollo with grace, and by
Venus with beauty.
And the wise Numa did not disdain to seek
instruction even from the lips of this talented
woman. Near the decline of day at a certain
hour, he took his way alone to the grotto-this
favorite retreat of Egeria, who there awaited his
coming. Shepherds passing that way with their
fleecy flocks, heard the sweet tones of her voice,
and as they dared to look, they saw their good
O0 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
King Numa sitting as one entranced near the
edge of the fountain, gazing up into the inspired
countenance of Egeria; and as he caught the
words of wisdom which fell from her lips, tran-
scribed them on sheets of parchment.
Twelve books filled with all wisdom and
piety did Numa write by her dictation. These
were called the "Sacred Books." And when
Numa came to die, he ordered those twelve
books to be placed in a stone coffin by them-
selves, and buried side by side with his own
body, which he forbade to be burned as was
then the custom. Both coffins of stone were
therefore buried upon the Janiculum Hill.
That containing the remains of Numa was
borne upon the shoulders of the Conscript
Fathers, and followed by all the people, deeply
lamenting with sighs and tears the loss of their
beloved friend and king.
Five hundred years after, and one hundred
before the birth of our Saviour, these wonder-
ful volumes were discovered. A heavy fall of
rain having washed away the earth which
NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KINO OF BOME. 91
covered the coffins, and the lids falling off, one
was found empty, but in the other were the
volumes inspired by Egeria. All of these books
were then ordered by the Senate to be burned!
The reason is plain. For in the mean time the
Romans had introduced into their religion
many superstitious and foolish observances,
which found no counterpart in those books of
wisdom-therefore they wished them to be de-
stroyed. And so they burned them.
There were no startling events in the life of
Numa Pompilius. But a king that could for
forty years maintain peace and order, and gain
the love and respect of the Roman people, while
at the same time he instilled into every heart
a sense of its own self-respect and courage, was
worthy the love of Rome, and of a tender rev-
erence from us.
When Numa accepted the call of the Roman
people to reign over them, he was forty years
old. He died at the age of eighty, before
Christ 674. Numa left one daughter who was
92 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
named Pompilia, and a little grandson, then
five years old, who was called Ancus Marcius.
Rome mourned not alone for the good king.
Far and near he was regretted. And it is said
that when the goddess Egeria, so called, you
remember, by the Romans, was told that Numa
was dead, she wept so bitterly that Jupiter in
pity for her grief, changed her from a goddess
to a fountain, that her tears could flow for ever.
Here ends the story of Numa Pompilius, the
second king of Rome.
THE THIRD KING OF ROMSA
W E now enter upon more stirring scenes.
The good King Numa dead, the Roman
people were again in perplexity, and until a
king could be found, the state once more
adopted the Interregnum, or alternate rule of
the two hundred Senators. But this met with
no more favor than did the interregnum after
the death of Romulus.
Tullus Hostilius was finally chosen by the
people and Senate as king of Rome. Hostilius
the father had done good service in the days
of Romulus, and therefore the choice of the
people pointed to his son Tullus.
A very different man had they now to deal
with. A tiger and a lamb could not be more
unlike than Tullus Hostilius and Numa Pom-
96 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
pilius. Numa promoted peace at home and
abroad. Tullus, on the contrary, incited the
people first to contentions-then to war.
Mounted upon the throne, he looked around
within Rome: he saw the temple of Janus with
closed gates, displaying only the front of Peace.
Day by day he saw his subjects go forth from
their homes to their several occupations,-some
to their merchandise-some to skilful hus-
bandry, and others to till the fields, or drive
their flocks to pasture. At night, each man
returned to his happy dwelling, where round
the open door sat their wives with their little
ones. No warrior tents dotted the Campagna.
The trumpet and bugle were silent. Over the
green plains roved the dove-hued cattle undis-
turbed-the little sheep-folds were "full of
sheep," and the sounds wafted thence, were the
sweet rural sounds of lowing herds, and the
happy songs of the shepherds.
Tullus saw also the devotion paid to the
gods, and that the lessons of piety implanted
by Numa had indeed taken deep root, and
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME. 97
were yielding rich fruitage. Such was the scene
which Tullus found at home. Then he looked
abroad. The Dove of Peace sat there also.
There was nothing to feed his warlike appetite.
"Come," said he, "this will not do. I am
no woman to play with doves and nightingales!
No. Ye gods, it is not thus King Tullus will
rule Rome Too long have the people grown
fat and waxed slothful. Their swords are
blunted-their armor is rusty. Unloose for me
the bold Roman Eagle, so long sitting with
folded wings, and eyes all a-film! Let mine
be the task to rouse these Romans from their
rest-throw wide the gates of Janus-make
sharp their blunted swords, and with hard blows
clink the rust from their armor."
Sixteen miles from Rome stood the city of
Alba Longa. You remember, without doubt,
that in Alba the twins Romulus and Remus
were born, and were then cast forth upon the
waters of the river by their cruel uncle
98 THBE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.
Who spake the words of doom:
The children to the Tiber,
The mother to the tomb."
In the time of Tullus it was a flourishing,
populous city; and upon its subjugation the
mind of the Roman king was bent. An occa-
sion soon offered. A fossg, or ditch, marked the
boundaries of the Roman and Alban territories,
and hither the herdsmen of both cities drove
their cattle to pasture, and cultivated their re-
spective fields. Although on friendly terms,
yet instances of aggression had been known on
both sides. King Romulus could not eradicate
all evil from the hearts of his subjects, and
even in his reign, Romans had encroached upon
Alban rights, and Albans upon Roman. But
Numa referring all such difficulties to the gods,
by his peaceful influence soon quieted their dis-
Ah, Tullus was not Numa! On the first
complaint he started up:
What!" cried he. Do these Alban boors
presume to rob Roman citizens We will give