Citation
Child's history of Rome

Material Information

Title:
Child's history of Rome from Tarquinius Superbus to Camillus, 365 years B.C. : the heroes of the seven hills
Creator:
Laing, Caroline H. Butler ( Caroline Hyde Butler ), 1804-1892
John C. Winston Company ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Philadelphia ;
Chicago ;
Toronto
Publisher:
John C. Winston Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
International ed.
Physical Description:
244 p., [11] : ill. ; 20 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Rome ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1871 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1871
Genre:
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
Canada -- Toronto
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Date of publication from preface: 1871.
General Note:
Title page is double ruler in red.
General Note:
Publisher's catalogue follows text.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Mrs. C.H.B. Laing.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026715587 ( ALEPH )
ALG7596 ( NOTIS )
71279254 ( OCLC )

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are |



CHILD'S
HISTORY OF ROME

FROM TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS TO
CAMILLUS; 365 YEARS B.C.

THE HEROES OF THE
SEVEN HILLS

Bs :
MRS. C. H. B. LAING
Author of ‘‘The Seven Kings of the Seven Hills.”’

THE JOHN C. WINSTON CO.
CHICAGO PHILADELPHIA TORONTO







PREFACE.

[HE author of the following pages wishes

to say a few words to the parents or
guardians of the young, for whose pleasure and
instruction the lives of “The Seven Kings of
the Seven Hills” of Rome have been com-
piled—compiled even in that old city wherein
the events which this little volume perpetuates
were enacted. She would assure them that in
placing this book in the hands of their child-
ren, she has carefully studied to make it a

work which may increase their desire for a

(ili)



lv PREFACE.

more intimate knowledge of Ancient Rome—
of Rome, which in the 19th century has again
become the ‘Head of Italy.” In doing this,
she has been guided by the best writers upon
Ancient History—Pliny, Plutarch, Dionysius,
Livy, Niebuhr, as also by more modern authors.
From this wide field, these facts have been
gathered. No fiction has been called in to
assist their interest. However startling may
be the events recorded, her young friends may
rest assured their record is borne out by history.

All readers of Ancient History can bear
testimony to the wide discrepancy in its
chronology. They all differ more or less. To
assert, therefore, the perfect accuracy of the
following pages in their chronological dates,
would be a questionable matter indeed. The *
author has carefully compared and revised the
dates, which both ancient and modern writers
have affixed to the founding of Rome, and to



PREFACE. v
the reigns of ber seven kings. She has aimed
at correctness; and she only claims the same
indulgence, granted to those who have labored
in the field before her.

Rome, 1871.













CONTENTS.

Romulus, the First King of Rome. .

Numa Pompilius, the Second King of Rome .-
Tullus Hostilius, the Third King of Rome

Ancus Marcius, the Fourth King of Rome.
Targuinius Priscus, the Fifth King of Rome ;
Servius Tullius, the Sixth King of Rome

Tarquinius Superbus, ‘the Seventh King of Rome

(vii)

PAGE

79
93
129
153
185

21a







ROMULUS,

THE FIRST KING OF ROME









CHAPTER I.

I Y pEAR young friends, I have a plan in

view. It is this. I wish to take you

with me far, far back into the ages of the Past.

We can do it easily. We need no scrip nor

store—not even a change of garment. Indeed,

we will make our journey with the same rapi-

dity as did those venturesome travellers of

whom we have all read in that wonderful story

_book of the Arabian Nights, who, when wish-
ing to do battle with this or that wicked

-enchanter thousands of miles away, or to
release from “durance vile” some captive prin-

cess, merely seated themselves upon a bit of

tapestry, and by whispering one magical word,

even without lifting a finger—lo—they were

at the place where they wished to be!
| (11)



12 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

But imagination can fly as swiftly as any
enchanted carpet in the realms of Arabian
Fairy Land, and if you will trust yourselves
with me, will convey us in the twinkling of an
eye to a point in the world’s history, seven
hundred and fifty-three years before the birth
of our Saviour, when in moral darkness it
waited for that great Light which was to come!
waited for the coming of that Star which
centuries later pointed the way to the manger
wherein lay cradled the holy child Jesus—
Prince of Peace! The Light of the Harth!

The earth with its thousands of miles in cir-
cumference; yet we will only travel to a very
small speck upon its surface, which, small as
it is however, has filled a larger space in her
history than all the other nations of the globe!

Are you ready?

Then gather yourselves about me—now !

Ah—here we are! Two thousand six hun-
dred and twenty-four years from our starting.
point, which you will see includes the eighteen
hundred and seventy-one years which have



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 13

rolled away since the shepherds saw that great
Light upon the plains of Bethlehem.

We might, it is true, pursue the “back
track” a few centuries earlier, only I fear we
might perchance be swallowed up in one of
those terrible earthquakes which in those days
cut such wide gaps in the local history of this
region. Italy itself being but the boot of some
volcanic agent, thrust through the glowing sur-
face of the earth to cool. But when it did
cool, why it became a very pleasant spot to
dwell upon, and has continued so even to the
nineteenth century.

Let us then walk up this boot and rest
upon the site of its most wonderful city—
Rome—even before Rome was !

We will not interest ourselves in the earlier
settlement of this tempting region further than
may be useful to us in studying out the
founding of Rome. Perhaps when you are
older, the impetus now given may lead you to
trace more fully the history of those peoples



14 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

who from time to time planted themselves on
heel, top, and toe of this volcanic boot.

It will be sufficient for me to tell you, that
when Troy, one of the ancient cities of Asia
Minor, was taken by the confederated Greeks
after a siege of seven years; a brave and good
man named Aineas, himself of the race of the
old Trojan king Priam, fled from the burning
city, bearing upon his shoulders not bags of
gold and silver, but the priceless burthen of an
aged father. A few faithful friends accom-
panied him, and with them they took the
images of their household gods. Mount Ida
became their refuge. There they abode the
winter, and then set forth to found themselves
a colony in some other region.

By-and-by they sailed across the sea, and
finally landed upon the shores of Italy, at a
point about sixteen miles from where Rome
now stands. This region was called Latium,
and at the time when Aineas landed, was
ruled by king Latinus, then a very old man.
And after a while the king was pleased with



ROMUL US, THE FIRST KING OF ROWE. 15

these Trojan strangers, and gave his caugater
Lavinia to be the wife of Aineas.

Then the old king died, and four years later
fineas died also. Thirty years after this,
history tells us, that Ascanius, the son of Aineas
and Lavinia, founded Alba Longa.

It was a charming spot which the grandson
of old king Latinus selected for his new city.
The hills came sweeping down from the Alban
Mountains to the edge of a lovely lake, set
deep down amid banks wreathed with vines
and pretty blossoms. The blue sky bent over
its clear surface, and only the song of the birds
was heard to break the peaceful solitude.

“We will go no further,” said Ascanius,
‘‘Let us build here a city close to the water’s
edge.”

And all his followers agreed it was good to
do so. And as the hills which came down were
very steep, they built it right along the lip or
edge of the lake, and as it extended for more
than a mile in one long street, they called their
new city Alba Longa.



16 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

The lake of Albano, which is the same I
am telling you about, is more than two miles
in length, and one mile and three-quarters in
breadth. .

Well—years rolled on. The first founders
of Alba Longa were laid in their tombs. Ge-
nerations passed away, until finally it came to
pass that the crown rested upon the head of a
wicked king named Amulius. But he had no
right to wear it. It belonged to his elder
brother Numitor.

Now Numitor, the good, had two children, a
son and a daughter, and the wicked Amulius
caused the son to be put to death, and forced
the daughter, who was named Sylvia, to enter
one of the temples devoted to the religion of
the gods. Then he thought all was secure.
There was no one who dared dispute his right
to the kingdom of Alba Longa.

But behold! it was told him one day that
Sylvia had not only escaped his power, but had
actually become the mother of two little twin
boys! He was in a great rage, as you may



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME, 17

well suppose, at this news. Nor did he rest
day nor night until he had accomplished his
revenge. Her he put to death, and then
caused the poor little infants to be thrown into
the river Anio! For this cruel uncle was
afraid the helpless babes might one day claim
the crown as heirs to their grandfather
Numitor.

Now all this which I have heen telling you,
is but to prepare you for the story of Romulus
and Remus, to whom the grand old city of
Rome owes its origin. For these two were the
same little twins cast into the river with the
cruel intent of destroying their innocent lives.

But God watched over the helpless little
ones, and in his infinite wisdom marked out a
erand and noble career for at least one of
those deserted babes, whose name will live so
long as Rome shall live!







CHAPTER II.

ELE slave to whom was intrusted the fate

of the little boys, placed them in a rude sort
of cradle or basket, made of the intertwisted
stalks of palm branches, and then launched it
upon the waters of the Anio, The frail bark
floated off with its pretty freight, and God's
angels took care it should not sink, but bore
it in safety to the waters of the Tiber.

“The troubled river knew them,
And smoothed his yellow foam,
And gently rocked the cradle
That bore the fate of Rome.
The ravening she-wolf know them,
And licked them o’er and o’er,
And gave them of her own fierce milk
Rich with raw flesh and gore.”

The river, at that time swollen by heavy rains,
(1g)



ROMOLUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 19

received the precious charge, somewhat boister-
ously it is true, and the little cradle rocked up
and down with the rocking waves. The little
fellows within were doubtless very hungry,
but they watched the clouds, and the birds
which flew low, and the soft blue sky, and I
dare say, took their little thumbs in their
mouths and sucked them right heartily.

But by and by, as the old Tiber, far out of
its limits, swept around the base of a hill
called the Palatine, a great wave lifted the
little cradle and tossing it high, overturned it
right under the shelter of a fine fig-tree.

All very nice—only the twins could not get
at the figs, and would not have known how to
manage them if they had. Something better
however was in store for them. .

And yet I think no mother would have
been well pleased to have seen the great beast
approaching her children, which by and by
drew near those little ones.

Yes—a savage she-wolf came lazily down to
the river side to slake her thirst. Her keen



20 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

scent soon detected the poor little ones lying
so helpless under the fig-tree. She walked
round and round them, smelt of them with
her long pointed nose, licked them, and then
God moved the heart of this wild beast to a
pity unknown to their cruel uncle Amulius, for
as she stooped over them, the little fellows
caught at her long teats, and began to smack
their little lips with such a relish that the old
wolf was amazingly pleased, and as she turned
her head around she licked them softly again,
saying to herself:

““ Well, I have milk enough for these queer
animals and for my own beautiful cubs too.”

And so for many days the wolf would trot
down to the river where the little boys lay
curled up in the grass, either sleeping or striv-
ing with their tiny hands to catch at the
wings of a gay wood-pecker, which flying close
down to their little faces would drop a bit of
ripe fig or a wild grape in their open mouths,
for we are told that even the birds took part in
the nourishment of these pretty twins. Then



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 21

the old wolf would turn them over and over,
aud tickle them with her great paws until they
cooed and laughed merrily, when she would
lie down by their side and lick them with her
great rough tongue, as the happy little fellows
drew in her milk.

Now it chanced one day that an old shep-
herd who lived upon the Palatine Hill, came —
strolling along down to the river, and hearing
the pretty cooing of the children and the soft
motherly gruntings of the old wolf, peeped
through the bushes-to see what it could mean.
If ever any man was surprised—that old shep-
herd was, when he saw two naked little babies
clinging to the teats of a savage wolf, and their
chubby hands patting her hairy legs! A wolf
that he would be glad to shoot! Perhaps the
very beast that had been prowling around his
hut and had carried off his lambs!

He ran to call his neighbors to see the strange
sight, who came carefully, on tip-toe—lest they
would arouse the wolf so intent upon the little
ones whom she began to love as her own cubs,



22 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS

and at that very time might have been plan-
ning how she could carry them to her den,
which was safely hidden near by in one of the
deep lava cliffs.

Fortunately she did not see or hear the shep-
herds, and soon jogged off to her own little
cubs.

Then the shepherd, whose name was Faus-
tulus, hurried forward, and catching the little
twins up in his arms ran home with them as
“ fast as he could, for fear the wolf might turn
back and chase him; which she most likely
would have done had she seen the act. Poor
old creature, how she moaned for the little
ones when she came back to the fig-tree and
found them gone!

The image of that kind creature is cherished
in Rome even to this day. In the very Capi-
tol of the city—in one of its noblest halls, there
stands a bronze statue of the Palatine Wolf
with the little ones by her side.

We may take this lesson from it—namely—



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 23

that a rough, ungainly exterior, can cover &
kind, affectionate nature.

It was a very kind deed in the shepherd to
charge himself and wife with the care of these
two strange children found under the fig-
tree, for they had already twelve goodly sons
of their own! You have heard it said that
‘¢ where there’s a will, there’s a way”—and so
the way was found, and the twin boys grew up
to be shepherds with their foster-brothers.
And they were fine strong lads too.

I have forgotten to tell you that the old
shepherd Faustulus named them Romulus and
Remus, because, as he said, they had been
suckled by a wolf. -

In childhood, we are told, they were remark-
able for their beauty and intelligence; and as
they grew up to manhood they were brave and
fearless of danger. Whether called forth to
fight against those bands of robbers which some-
~ times infested the Palatine Hill, carrying off the
flocks of the shepherds; or roaming the for-
ests in search of wild beasts, no other lads were



24 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

so brave as Romulus and Remus. It seemed
as if they had drawn in courage and strength
with the milk of the old wolf!

But the time was coming when their high
origin was to be made known, and their wrongs
avenged.

Now the shepherds who lived on the Pala.
tine Hill, frequently pastured their flocks and
cattle upon another hill called the Aventine,
where the herdsmen from Alba Longa also
‘pastured the cattle of their king. It chanced
one day as both parties met upon the grassy
slopes of the Aventine, that some dispute arose
about the rights of pasturage, resulting at
length in a fierce encounter wherein the herds-
men of the king so far gained the mastery as
to seize Remus and bear him off to Alba
Longa.

Remus borne off a prisoner seemed a most
unfortunate event. It proved otherwise, as we
shall see.

By that Divine Power which watches over
the innocent, and suffers no ill deed to go un.



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROHE. 25

punished, the parentage of these brave youths
now became known, and in this manner.

The captors of Remus conducted their pris-
oner into the presence of the King of Alba
Longa—the unjust Amulius. Struck with his
noble bearing, the king demanded of the young
man whence he came, and of his parentage.
Remus could only tell him that he with a twin
brother had been found by a shepherd of the
Palatine Hill near the banks of the river Tiber,
who had brought them up to manhood as his
own sons. Guilt and terror shook the con-
science of the king at this simple narrative,
for like a flash of light the truth was revealed
—in this young shepherd he recognised the
grandson of his brother Numitor. His wicked
designs had been overruled by a higher Power.

In the mean time, Romulus, raising a com-
pany of brave young shepherds, and accom-
panied by old Faustulus, his foster-father, set
out in all haste for Alba Longa to rescue his
brother Remus, arriving just at the time when,

overpowered by his own guilt, Amulius was
3



26 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

powerless to resist the claims of conscience.
The inhabitants of Alba Longa uniting in the
cause of right, rose in arms against the wicked
king, and placed Numitor, the grandfather of
Romulus and Remus, who was now a very
aged man, upon his rightful throne.

The twin brothers remained for a while with
the good old Numitor. Then, their hearts
yearning with strong affection for the old place
where they had been brought up, they finally
bade farewell to their grandfather and to Alba
Longa, and came to dwell once more upon the
Palatine Hill. The grandsons of a king, they
now possessed both wealth and power—and so
they said they would build a city upon the’
banks of the great river Tiber.

Now although they both wished to do so,
they could not agree upon the spot where this
city should be placed. Romulus, loving the
old Palatine, wished to build it there. Remus
on the contrary chose the Aventine.

Finding they could not agree, they at length



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 2)

determined to leave the matter to chance.
Said Romulus:

“ Now, brother, let us take our stations—you
on the Aventine Hill, and I on the Palatine.
We will count the vultures that shall fly over
us between this time and sunrise, and the one
who can count the greatest number shall gain
his wish.”

“ Agreed,” said Remus.

Accordingly the brothers took their stand—
each on his favorite hill under the calm, beau-
tiful sky—the stars watching with them, and
the pleasant lapse of the Tiber upon its shores,
the only sound to disturb that solemn night-
watch. Undoubtedly the hours seemed very
long to both. The birds, too, flew but slowly,
and it was only between the dawn and the sun-
rise, that sia vultures swept over the Aventine.
The anxious watcher upon the neighboring
mount was not more successful, until just at
the moment when the result of his brother’s
vigil was made known to him, twelve vultures
flew slowly over the brow of the Palatine!



28 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Remus claimed the victory. He had counted
his six birds in advance of his brother's good
fortune. However, the decision was left to the
shepherds, who all pronounced in favor of
Romulus.

It is no easy matter to give up a favorite
project—especially if we think ourselves in the
right. Therefore Remus, as you may suppose,
was not well pleased at being forced to yield
his wishes to those of his brother. But there
was no help for it.

So Romulus now began to lay out the bound-
aries of his city, by drawing a line around the
desired limits of the Palatine. He then yoked
a beautiful white cow and an ox to a plough,
and ploughed a furrow through this line—the
cow upon the inside, by which Romulus in-
tended to show that the women should stay at
home within the city, while the men were to
go bravely forth, and become a terror to their
foes.

This done, he commenced building his wall.
Luckily Romulus did not have to go far to find



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME, 29

the materials. The Palatine Hill itself afforded
all that was needed. Men set to work at once
cleaving the volcanic rocks—hewing and shap-
ing those grand blocks of stone from a deposit
called Tufa, or Peperino, which the workmen
then laid inside of the furrow, marking the
boundary of the new city. The outer ridge
was to be held sacred to the heathen gods
whom men then worshipped. This was called
the Pomerium. You will, perhaps, be glad to
know that'some portions of this wall are still
remaining, and if you should ever visit Rome,
you will see them in those huge fragments of
erumbling stones which rest upon the western
side of the Palatine Hill.

Remus in the mean while could not get over
his disappointment, and watched all these move-
ments with envy and jealousy, and finally one
day, with a scornful laugh, he leaped over the
wall, exclaiming:

“Look—just so will the enemy leap over
this frail barrier!”

At which insult, one of the companions of

3%



30 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Romulus, in the heat of his anger, turned sud-
denly upon Remus, saying:

“And in this manner will we meet the
enemy!” And as he said this, he killed him
upon the spot!

It has been said that when Romulus saw
Remus spring over the wall in derision, the
savage blood of the She-Wolf mounted into his
brain, bringing forth another terrible tragedy
as when Cain slew his brother Abel! But we
will not for a moment believe this. No! Ro-
mulus deeply mourned for Remus, and when
the time came that he sat upon the throne of
Rome, he caused another throne to be placed
at nis side in memory of his ill-fated brother,
and to demonstrate to the people that if Remus
had lived he would have shared with him in
the government of the city.







CHAPTER III.

HERE is a proverb—“ Rome was not built
inaday.”. It was not. But in a very short
time that portion of the Palatine included
within the walls, was covered with fine streets
and with handsome, substantial dwellings, in
place of pasture lands and shepherds’ huts.
Then Romulus called his city Rome.

You must not forget that we have gone back
in time seven hundred and fifty-three years
before the coming of Christ on earth, that we
might mark the founding of this city which was
to become the ‘‘Queen of the World!” the
‘“ Mother of Nations!”

Let us look on and see what follows.

His city built, Romulus, as was right, took

its government into his own hands. His first
(31)



32 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

care was to frame such good and just laws as
should make the people happy. He arrayed
himself quite like a king in royal robes edged
with purple, and chose twelve men who were
called Lictors, to attend him wheresoever he
went. A lictor was an officer who bore a
bundle of rods, with an axe placed in their
centre. And this was intended to let people
know that the person before whom they were
borne, had the power to scourge and to slay.
Now Romulus was very ambitious; and after
all did not feel quite satisfied with the limits he
had given to his city; so he extended it still
further. taking in the Capitoline Hill, then
called “Mons Saturnius.” But the original
limits were always known as “ Roma Quad-
rata’”—which means “Square Rome.” Having
accomplished this, Romulus then proclaimed
his city to be a place of refuge not only for
debtors and slaves, but also for criminals.
This seems a strange thing for Romulus to have
done—to make a home for such a population
in the new and beautiful city he had taken such



“ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROHME. 33

care to build! However, Romulus understood
his own plans best, so we will not trouble our-
selves with them. |

With such tempting offers, what wonder that
Rome soon became thickly peopled? Then
another trouble arose—it was this. We may
be sure that class of persons who gladly flocked
into the city at the invitation of its founder,
had not burthened themselves with wives and
children—not they. And so it came to pass
that after a while Romulus sent offers of mar-
riage from his young men to the young maidens
of the neighboring towns; especially to the
Sabines, a people dwelling near Rome.

Perhaps those people were growing jealous of
the fast increasing power of the new city—
perhaps they did not wish to unite their daugh-
ters with these Romans—certain it is, they one
and all refused the marriage offers of the Roman
youths. Romulus was wroth at what he con-
sidered so great a slight.

“Come,” said he, “if we cannot obtain wives
by free consent, why we will gain them by

c



34 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

force! The great festival which we are to
hold in honor of the god Neptune is close at
hand, Let the games be made ready, and let
everything be done in the most attractive man-
ner. When all is prepared we will invite our
neighbors with their wives and daughters to
attend. Then, my good citizens, when the sports
are at the highest, a signal shall be given, at
which, let every brave lad seize upon the
maiden he likes and bear her off to become his
wife!”

This proposal was received with a loud shout
of approbation. Accordingly great preparations
were made for the festival of Neptune, the
rumor of which spread far. Romulus then
sent friendly invitations to the people of the
neighboring towns, and especially to the Sa-
bines. Unsuspicious of danger, the chief inhab-
itants of those towns assembled within the
walls of Rome to witness the games.
~ The sun arose bright and cloudless on that
eventful day, and at an early hour the city
presented a most animated scene. As the



EKOMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 35

strangers arrived they were received with the
greatest politeness by the chief officers of King
Romulus, who himself, attired in splendid robes
and with the crown upon his head, went around
among them to see that all were accommodated ;
and gave the most favorable places for viewing
the games to the wives and daughters of his
Sabine guests. ;

The young maidens looked as lovely as the
day itself in their pretty holiday dresses, and,
little thinking of the fate in store for them,
entered with innocent mirth and pleasure into
the festivities of the scene. The parents, too,
were no less pleased and flattered by the atten-
tions of the king, and looked with great sur-
prise upon the splendors already gathered
together in this new Palatine city.

At length the sports began. When the
games were in the full tide of progress, and
every eye bent with intense interest upon the
contestants in the race as they neared the goal,
Romulus suddenly stood up on his lofty throne,
and, under pretence of watching more closely



36 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

the results, gave the concerted signal—-whish
was to fold his robe more closely around his
person,

With the bound of young race-horses the
Roman youths rushed forward to the seats
where sat the Sabine women, and each one
seizing a fair young girl, bore her off in his
arms ere the parents were scarcely aware of
the treacherous deed!

All was now terror and confusion. Cries of
vengeance arose from the indignant fathers,
who having come unarmed to the festival, were
unable to resist this violence. “Oh my child!
my child! give me back my child!” screamed
the almost frantic mothers—screams which
were answered by the shrieks and cries of
their terrified daughters.

But in vain.. In spite of tears and prayers
they were borne off, and with a tenderness and
care little expected from their bold captors,
were placed in a secure retreat, while their
future husbands returned to the scene of dis.
order and wild lamentation.



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 37

Romulus, assuming all the dignity of that
kingly race to which he belonged—all the
majestic bearing of his grandfather the old King
Numitor of Alba Longa, went around among
his unhappy guests, and endeavored by gentle
words to calm the storm he himself had raised.

“ My friends,” said he, “I mean you no har:n.
This I have done, has been done for your own
advantage, as well as for that of Rome. Hear
me then without prejudice—hear me with
coolness—moderate your anger and listen. My
young men desire wives. Where, I ask, would
they find such wives as you can give them, my
friends? Where could they seek a better alli-
ance than with you? They Lave once offered
this alliance, and have been refused! Your
daughters are as fair as were their mothers—
and seeing this, the young men of Rome, no
longer asking your consent, have borne away
your children from you, and will make them
their wives. Then blame them not for what
you yourselves have been the cause. ‘‘ Come,”

added Romulus, looking around with a pleasant
4



88 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

smile, and extending both hands—‘ come, let’ .
there be peace between us, and let this make us
not only better friends, but kinsmen. Receive
the captors of your daughters as your sons.
Be assured, although their wooing has been
rough, they will make the kinder husbands !”

Romulus spoke well, and meant well.

As easy would it have been for him to check
the flow of the rushing Tiber as to calm the
fury of passions raging within the breasts of
his Sabine guests. They remained silent to
this appeal, or if they spoke, it was only to
utter threats of vengeance against their
treacherous entertainer.

And thus this pleasant gathering of the
morning under heaven’s own peaceful sky, broke
in storm-clouds fraught with coming trouble to
Romulus and Rome.

And the storm soon burst. The bereaved
parents, clothing themselves in mourning gar-
ments, went forth to the neighboring cities and
towns, stirring up their inhabitants to avenge
their grievances. Men are easily moved to war



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 39

from a spirit of envy or jealousy, and Romulus,
by his exceeding strength, and the almost daily
increase of his dominions, had roused both
these passions in the breasts of the people
dwelling in Crustumerium, Ceenina, and Fidena,
three cities within a short distance of Rome.

Glad of a cause, they resolved to march at
once into the Roman territories. Puffed up
with a vain conceit of their own prowess, the Ces-
nenses were the first to commence the war;
and unaided, they dared the power of King
Romulus. 3

But Romulus heeded their attack no more
than he-would a descent of crows into his cane-
fields! He soon put their whole army to
flight—killed their king, whose name was
Acron, and their chief generals—marched on to
their city which he captured, and then returned
victorious to Rome.

Believing his victory gained by the influence
of Jupiter, Romulus at once marked out the
boundaries for a magnificent temple to be
erected to that god, upon the Capitoline Hill,



40 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

wherein not only the spoils he had gained, but
also those that either himself or the kings who
came after his death, might gain, were to be
treasured.

And this was the first temple consecrated
to Jupiter in Rome. I will tell you more
about this presently, but first we must follow
Romulus.

We have seen how easily he conquered the
Ceenenses. It was only the beginning of battles.
For now united against him came the Crustu-
minii, and the Autemnates. They had better
have remained in their own dominions, and not
waged war upon one to whose natural bravery
was added the ferocity and courage of the wolf!
They were beaten, their cities taken, and
themselves subjugated to the Roman power.







CHAPTER IV.

UT what has become of those poor Sabine
maidens all this time?

As wives of those bold Roman youths, they
have learned to love and respect their hus-
bands; who in return treat them with a ten-
derness due to the cruel manner in which they
had been torn from their parents. However
they might sigh for their old homes, and the
friends they had thus suddenly lost, their new _
homes and their new ties served to make them
_ happy.

The Sabine people themselves, although the
most aggrieved, were the last to assert their
wrongs. They were very cautious, and secretly
bent on revenge—but wisely made no move

until fully prepared for battle. This done—
4% (41)



42 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

under the command of their king Titus Tatius
in person, they marched against him who had
robbed their homes of their dearest treasures—
their children !

At this time the Roman citadel on the
Capitoline Hill was in charge of a Roman
named Tarpeius. He was the father of a beau-
tiful girl—Tarpeia. Now it happened that one
day Tarpeia passing outside the walls of the
city to bring water for some sacrificial offering,
chanced to meet the Sabine king Tatius, who
in disguise was probably prowling around to
watch the movements of the foe. He entered
into conversation with her, and pretending to
be captivated with the beauty of the girl, he
so flattered the vanity of the silly maiden, that
finally by the promise of gold and rich orna-
ments, Tarpeia wickedly consented to betray

the citadel into his hands!

The hour appointed came. The false Tar-
peia was at her post: “Come,” said she to the
Sabine soldiers, ‘let every one as he passes
in, throw me the golden circlet from his arm,



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 43

and the ring from his finger!’ For the men
wore broad bracelets of heavy gold, and rings
of precious jewels. This they promised to do.
But mark the punishment of one so false to
her country !

The soldiers kept their promise, but, with
their bracelets, they also threw their heavy
shields, and the miserable Tarpeia was crushed
to death beneath their weight!

And there they buried her. And that place
is called the Tarpeian Rock even to this day!

Thus the Sabines gained possession of the
Roman citadel. And the next day a furious
battle was fought within the walls—ably
conducted on both sides. The Sabines held
their ground steadily against the assaults of the
Romans, and for a time the victory seemed
theirs. Having slain the Roman general Hos-
tillius, a brave man, they pressed the Romans
hard even to the Palatine Gate, crying out:

“¢ Ah-ha, son of a wolf! You shall see it is
one thing to fight with men, and another to
carry off helpless maidens !”



d4 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Then Romulus with fire in his eye turned to
his soldiers :

“Ha! do you hear those boasting Sabines ?
Will you suffer your manhood to be thus in-
sulted? Renew the fight, I command you in
the name of Jupiter, the father of gods and
men !”

So saying he advanced upon the foe, while,
animated by his words and courage, the Ro-
mans dashed forward, and made a tere
onslaught upon the Sabines.

But at this moment both armies found them-
selves suddenly held in check by a new and
strange event. For between the contending
parties rushed the daughters of the Sabines,
their hair all in disorder, their eyes red with
weeping. With a courage which only true
affection could inspire, they threw themselves
between the clashing swords of their fathers,
brothers, and husbands:

“Cease this unnatural strife!” they cried.
“Cease, fathers and brothers, to imbrue your
hands in the blood of our husbands! Hus.



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 45

bands, throw down your swords, that you slay
not the fathers of your wives—the grandsires
of our innocent children! What! would you
give them a parricide for afather? If such be
your will—then slay your wives also. As we
have been the innocent cause of this unholy
combat, we will sooner die—yes, we call the
gods to witness, we will sooner die, than, as
widows, live with the fathers who have slain
- our husbands—or as wives, with the murderers
of our fathers.”

What a scene that must have been, my dear
young friends! Pause a moment here, and try
toimagine those two armies in the midst of
their maddened strife, thus suddenly brought
to bay—their uplifted swords checked in their
descent, their eyes filling with tears, and look-
ing with wonder upon this brave little band of
women, who came fluttering in among them
like doves, the messengers of peace.

A deep silence followed this appeal. Then
fathers embraced their children, and husbands
their wives. Both kings, Romulus and Tatius,



46 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

commanded their soldiers to retire. A council
was then held, composed of the chief men on
both sides, and after due deliberation, a formal
treaty was made, by which both the Roman
and Sabine territories became as one. Then
Romulus invited the Sabine king to share with
him the throne of Rome, and for five years
these two good men held their regal. possession
jointly, and in perfect harmony. And certainly
those who had brought about this happy state
of things, were more than content with their
lot—now reunited to their parents and kins-
folk, and more and more respected and beloved
by their husbands for their noble conduct.
And upon the spot where the two armies
sheathed their swords at the prayers of these
brave women, Romulus built a temple under
the name of “ Jupiter Stator,” the foundations
of which may still be traced on the high ground
close by the old gate of the Palatine city.
And now while Rome is so happily taken
care of under the united friendship and king-
ship of Romulus and Tatius, I think we will



“THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS. 47

leave it for a little while, and have a talk about
the gods and goddesses of those days. You
will remember, perhaps, that I promised to tell
you more about Jupiter, to whom Romulus
built the first temple in Rome, after his victory
over the bold Ceenenses.

Have you studied ancient Mythology? If
so, I can tell you nothing new perhaps. If not,
itis better that we should understand something
of those heathen deities ere we proceed further
on our Roman journey; for I assure you we shall
meet them at every step we take, and we might
feel very much embarrassed not to know their
names, nor their particular virtues, so very
powerful was their rule, until the only One
True God revealed Himself in the person of
His Beloved Son.







CHAPTER V.

“ For all the gods of the nations are idols: but the
Lord made the Heavens. Say among the heathen that the
Lord reigneth. He is to be feared above all gods.”

Psalm xevi.

ROM the earliest ages of the world, man

has felt the necessity of worshipping some-
thing. All have owned a higher power,
although ignorant of God. This instinct is
implanted in the breasts even of the most
savage nations; and in some way or another
they have manifested this instinct; in very
many cases by deeds of cruelty—so little did
they understand this feeling in their hearts to
mean love—not vengeance.

How terrible some of these superstitions were,

you probably know. You have read of the
(48)



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME, 49

. Juggernaut idol, crushing beneath the wheels
of his chariot the wretched victims thrown in
his path ; and you have heard of Moloch, into
whose red-hot arms of brass, mothers tossed
their innocent. babes, to appease the wrath of
a horrible image—“who had eyes, but saw
not’—and “ears that heard not.”

Cultivated nations responded in a more re-
fined degree to this divine call of the soul, and
in time a race of gods and goddesses sprang
into the minds of men as real beings, endowed
with all powers, and to them they built tem-
ples—gave them a form, and sacrificed before
them.

You now understand that Rome knew not
the true God. They saw the glorious heavens
above them—the sun, the moon, and the bright
stars. They watched the return of seed-time
and harvest. They delighted as we do in the
song of birds; in green meadows, in broad for-
ests, and in the loveliness and perfume of
flowers. They were awed by the grandeur of

the boundless ocean—pleased with the rippling
5 D



50 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

river, and laughing brook. But to whom, or
to what, were they to ascribe all this? Who
gave a voice to the clouds that in thunder-tones,
and with fiery darts, rebuked their evil deeds?
Who let loose the fury of the winds in the
whirlwind, or cooled their heated brows with
soft, gentle breezes? What power was it that
hurled mountains from their base with volcanic
throes, and choked their lakes with red-hot
cinders, and piled up new mountains, and
opened new lakes? Who sent the soft rain-
drops, and watered the valleys with dew ?

Their delusion gave not this power to one,
but to many gods.

Not equal—but sharing in the rule of the
heavens and the earth. Shut in by clouds from
the eyes of men, these gods were supposed to
dwell in a region of boundless enchantment
and loveliness. And to this fabled spot they
gave the name of Olympus.

The god to whom they ascribed the greatest
power was



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME, 51

JUPITER.

Him they styled the “father of gods and
of men.” Great honors were paid tohim. In
any enterprise about to be undertaken, the
favor of Jupiter was first invoked, especially
before going to battle. And when, returning
victorious from the fray, the conquering gen-
erals entered Rome, their first duty was to the
god Jupiter. Borne in their chariots of ivory
and gold, up to the Capitoline Mount, they
here in his temple gave thanks to “Jupiter
Optimus Maximus,” which means the best and
the greatest, who had crowned their arms with
victory. They fully believed that this supreme
god, who looked down from the curtained clouds
on Mount Olympus, gave signs and tokens of
his displeasure, or of approbation, and spoke to
them in many wonderful ways.

If Jupiter was angry,then dark clouds gath-
ered over Rome—lightning darted its forked
tongue, and the arm of Jupiter hurled the
heavy thunderbolt! If the god was at peace,



52 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

then the blue sky and the bright sunbeam were
as hissmile! He is astern-looking old fellow—
this same Jupiter. We will know him. He
carries a sceptre in his left hand upon which is
perched an eagle, and in his right he is usually
seen grasping the thunderbolts, ready to hurl
them down upon those who displease him.

As Jupiter was the king-god of Olympus, so
was the majestic Juno the queen-goddess, and
as such, was worshipped by the Romans.

Mars



was the god of war—a very lion for bravery
and magnanimity. And yet he did not disdain
to become the protector of all cattle, and of
agricultural pursuits. He also had many beau-
tiful temples erected to his honor, and those
who worshipped him, danced before his image,

clothed in full armor.

Tue Goppess MINERVA

was one to be loved. She was supposed te
preside over the arts and sciences—over poetry



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 53

and music; and, like Mars, did not disdain more
humble occupations, for she was also the pat-
roness of sewing, spinning, and weaving. And
as she was supposed to guide the movements,
and preserve all brave men on the field of battle,
so she usually went armed, and wore a helmet
of gold, with a shining breast-plate. She car-
ried a lance—and on her shield were snakes!
Sometimes she took off her helmet, and wore
a crown of olives, emblem of peace—and again,
instead of a lance, she carried an owl—and
this was to signify that she was the goddess of
wisdom.

HERCULES

was the giant of Olympus! Stronger even
than Samson, he could slay lions, and hydra-
headed monsters; and yet feel no more fatigue
than if he had been snapping off the heads of
so many little kittens. He was supposed to
watch with favor all athletic games, or feats of
strength. Temples were built to him on the
summit of high hills, and upon the banks of

rivers. If we should chance to see a god with
5*



Set THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

a lion skin thrown over one shoulder, and with
a monstrous knotty club in his hand, we can
safely say, “There is Hercules!”

APOLLO

was the god the Romans delighted to deify.
They believed him to be so glorious, that they
gave him even the sun as his chariot, and com-
posed many hymns, and built many beautiful
temples to him. Everywhere the most grace-
ful statues of Apollo were to be seen. A great
poet calls this god, “The sun in human limbs
arrayed.” All who worshipped him, believed
that at the dawn of day, a beautiful goddess,
named Aurora, veiled in soft rosy clouds,
aroused Apollo from his sleep, and opened the
Olympian gates. Then the sun-god mounting
his fiery chariot, drawn by such steeds as need
no other hoof-hold than the billowy clouds,
and followed by the swift gliding Hours, sped
forth triumphant upon his diurnal round! Nor
was this his only care—namely, to awaken the
earth from sleep. For Apollo was the god of



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 55

harmony. He was a shepherd too, fond of
groves, and of quiet meadow brooks. It was
his delight to sit under some shady tree, and
play upon the shepherd’s pipe, making sweet
music. We may meet him shod in buskins—
a cloak falling gracefully from his right shoul-
der, with a bow and arrows in one hand, and
a lyre in the other. Around his brows he will
have a laurel crown. Or perhaps we may see
him leaning against a tree in a pensive attitude,
playing upon the pipe.

MeERcURY

was a swift-footed god—and no wonder, for he
wore wings upon his heels and head too! So
Mercury was called the god of speed, and of
messages—the electric telegraph from the gods
of Olympus to men! Even now, when we see
him represented in marble, or upon the paint-
er’s canvas, we feel that we must look quick,
or the restless god will be off.



56 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

NEPTUNE

ruled the ocean—and when a fleet was about
to leave their ports, the Romans sacrificed to
this god, casting rich offerings into the sea—
just as the Chinese do at the presentday. We
cannot mistake old Neptune, for he stands up-
right in his chariot, formed of one immense
shell, which is drawn by sea-horses, and furi-
ous-looking animals they are, dashing and
splashing the green waves with their great
hoofs. He always holds a three-tined sceptre,
like a three-tined fork, in his hand.
We must give due honors to

VULCAN,

“the god of fire.” His was an honorable and

trustworthy profession, for he forged the thun- |
derbolts of his father Jupiter, and the arms
of all the gods. He was quite deformed it
seems, and shared so little in the beauty of the
gods, that they threw him down to earth from
the Olympian heaven, breaking his leg in the



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 57

fall! But for all that he was highly honored,
and many beautiful temples from time to time
were built to him. If we should enter into
one of those temples we would see Vulcan rep-
resented lame, and standing by an anvil with
his blacksmith’s tools in his hand.

There was one jolly inhabitant of the Olym-
pian heavens, whom the Romans supposed to
preside over their feasts, and as such they did
him great honors. His name was

BAccuus.

Tt was Bacchus who took care that no blight
should spread over the young and tender vines.
It was Bacchus who caused the rich clusters of
grapes to grow so luxuriantly; and then, when
their amber juices were fully ripe, it was Bac-
chus who presided over the wine-press, and saw
that the labors of the vine dresser were plen-
tifully rewarded. And then were great festi-
vals held in honor of this merry god. Crowned
with vine leaves, the statue of Bacchus was
borne through the streets, surrounded by dane



58 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

ing maidens and skipping goats. Or perhaps
some youth was permitted to act the part of
the god.

JANUS

was a god with two faces, and could see things

past as well as future. I think I have forgot-
ten to tell you, that when Romulus admitted
Titus Tatius, the Sabine king, to share his
throne, he built a temple to Janus, as a proof
that both nations were at peace, and to give
the Romans an idea, perhaps, that “two heads
were better than one.”

VENUS

was the goddess of all grace and beauty. Cra-
dled in a shell of pearl, and borne on the
sparkling sea-foam to a pleasant island; the
Hours, they say, took care of the lovely little
child, and then when she was old enough not
to be troublesome, they carried her to live with
Jupiter and Juno in Olympus. She was a
great favorite with the Roman people. It
would be impossible to tell how many temples



ROMULUS, THE FIRST ‘KING OF ROME. 59

were raised to her, nor how often they attempted
to reproduce her exquisite beauty in marble.
And not satisfied with what their own art
could accomplish, they travelled to other
parts of the world to find the ideal of her love-
liness realized, and then brought those images
of the goddess to Rome, and set them up in
her temples.
Cupp,
as being a very beautiful boy, was thought to
be the son of Venus. He was considered a very
mischievous, dangerous little fellow to have any
dealings with. He was full of sport and play,
and decidedly a most cunning little rogue! He
was never seen without his bow and arrows,
which he always kept slyly ready to shoot at
the hearts of mortals at the most unexpected
moment! Cupid was called the god of love.
Then there was the beautiful goddess

Diana,

who was worshipped as the mistress of the
hunt, and was supposed to roam the forests in



60 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

buskins and short robes—holding in check a
favorite hound, and with a bow and arrows
slung over her shoulder. Sometimes she was
called Luna—the moon—and wore a silver
crescent upon her pale brow. I think we shall
meet this lovely goddess more than once.

ARSCULAPIUS

held the responsible office of physician to gods
and men. He was highly esteemed by the
Greeks and Romans, as the god of healing.
Many groves were held sacred to this deity, and
many temples raised to do him honor. The
most celebrated was at Epidaurus, in Greece,
where he was worshipped under the form of a
serpent. In all the statues, or other represen-
tions which we see of Aisculapius, he bears
in his right hand a staff, around which, twines
a serpent. The serpent was looked upon as a
symbol of prudence and foresight.

Tam very much afraid that you are getting
tired with this long history of the dwellers
upon Mount Olympus. In one moment we will



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 61

close. Tonly wish to tell you further, that the
Romans worshipped Crrzs, who took care of
the corn, and the young wheat, Pomona, who
guarded their orchards, Frora, who danced
amid the flowers, and a colony of lovely
Nymphs for their fountains, their groves, and
their rivers.

Much as we may lament the blindness of
the world, for so many hundreds of years, in
thus bowing down to gods of wood and stone,
yet we must acknowledge that in poetry and
in art we owe much that is beautiful to the
memory of these heathen deities! Do you not
still love to think about the little fairies with
their silver wands tipped in the moonbeams,
that we have been told, once flitted in and out
the summer woods—that danced merrily by the
meadow brook,—that sipped dewdrops from the
pretty yellow cowslip, and were borne on the
rainbow wings of butterflies, just where they
wanted to go? Do you not love the memory
of those graceful little sprites? Ido. For my
part, I am very sorry they have gone, with all

6



62 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

their bewitching ways! And even those giants
who strode grimly over the earth, in their
seven-league boots—well, I own I am sorry
they do not still stride about!

Gods and goddesses, nymphs, satyrs, fauns,
fairies, and giants have all gone, and only live
to us in poetic fables, or on the canvas! Yes,
we are living in a very prosaic age, there is no
doubt of it.

But for the truth, let us bless God! Although
we do love to read of those heathen deities—
Jupiter and Mars—of Juno and Minerva, we
do it with our senses enlightened. Yes, let us
bless God for the truth—for that great light
which shone suddenly upon the world; to
make clear the darkness, and to destroy those
temples, such as St. Paul saw in Athens in-
scribed to the

“Unknown Gop!”





: spew
Coe

ty es pi ve



CHAPTER VI.

‘VOU will now feel better acquainted, I am
sure, with the dwellers of Mount Olympus
when we chance to meet them, and we there-
fore again salute the good King Romulus. For
he was not only a good king but a wise one,
framing such excellent laws as were held by all
nations in respect. Even the English, and
again our own American code of laws, are
mainly founded upon those which Romulus
gave to Rome.
It is wise men who make good laws. It is
only fools who break them. .
Intending that Rome should be a city of
order—Romulus divided the people into three
sections, and those three he again subdivided

into ten, and out of compliment to his Sabine
(63)



64 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

allies, whose chief city was Cures, he called
those three sections the “ Curea’—and then as
a further mark of respect to the Sabine wives
of the Romans, he gave their names to each of
the thirty divisions. And when any matters
of state required their attention, these Curea
met in council together in an open space called
the Forum. These meetings were called the
Cureata Comitium.

Their deliberations were important. No law
could be passed without their consent. Not
even the will of the king himself was legal
‘unless with the approval of the Curea.

Romulus also installed a more select body of
men even than these, chosen from among the
most talented and experienced men of Rome.
This body was called the Senate. The original
number was one hundred—but after Titus
Tatius shared the throne with Romulus, one
hundred more were added, and these were
wisely chosen from the Sabines. These two
bodies incorporate were known under the
venerated title of “Conscript Fathers.”



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME, 65

This happy state of things continued about
five years, and then a most unhappy event oc-
curred. Friends of King Tatius, living in the
city of Lavinium, as they were journeying on
to Rome, which was sixteen miles distant,
were met by a party from Laurentium. These
last set upon them, and attempted to rob them
of their valuables—the people of Lavinium
stoutly defended themselves—but being over-
come by superior numbers, they were nearly
all slain.

Both of these towns were exceedingly pleas-
ant, and being situated only three miles from the
Mediterranean Sea, were consequently regaled
with its pleasant breezes. At Lavinium were
many beautiful temples to the gods, and one of
very great fame which was consecrated to the
goddess Venus. Itisa very little village now—
even its pretty name is lost. The place is now
known as Protica.

Laurentium was so called, because it was
surrounded with such delightful laurel groves,
the fragrance of which filled the air around

6* E



66 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

with sweetness, while flitting among the glossy
green leaves were many beautiful birds. Deep
marshes of tall grass were atno little distance ;
through which waded wild boars and buffaloes,
affording most excellent sport for the hunts-
men. This city, too, is swept away—all gone
with the laurels, and its name. Torre Paterus,
a poor, wretched, unhealthy village, is said to
occupy the site of the once populous Lauren-
tium.

Now as King Tatius was so nearly allied to
the inhabitants of Lavinium, it was of course
believed that he would at once avenge their
wrongs, and they sent ambassadors to Rome
claiming his assistance. But Tatius took no
notice of this appeal, although it is said Rom-
ulus advised him to do so. At this they were
very angry, and swore to be revenged. And
so when the unsuspecting old king Tatius went.
to Lavinium to sacrifice to the gods, as was his
yearly custom, some of the wicked people fell
upon him as he was engaged in those sacred
rites, and slew him!



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 67

When this dreadful news was brought to
Rome, indignation and horror at so vile a deed,
shared in the hearts of the people the grief
which all classes felt for the death of so good
a man. Fearful of the consequences upon
themselves, the murderers of the king were
sent to Rome by the people of Lavinium. But
Romulus sent them back, with the words:

‘Blood for blood!” meaning, as was sup-
posed, that as the innocent blood of the kins-
men of King Tatius had been unavenged by
him—his blood had been required by the gods,
as an atonement.

Now soon after, there broke out such a ter-
rible pestilence in Rome, as was never before
known! People dropped down dead in the
streets without any previous sickness. The
cattle died also, and a destructive blight over-
spread their corn-fields, their orchards, and
vineyards. It is said too, that it rained blood
upon the city!

What could this mean? Why were the gods
angry? Was it not that those men who had



68 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

killed King Tatius, still lived, and had been
left unpunished?

So thought the Romans. So thought Rom-
ulus.

Then those murderers were sent for in hot
haste, and by the judgment of Romulus and
the Conscript Fathers, met the fate they de-
served.

And from that day the plague ceased.

Not long after these events, a war broke out.
The people of Fidensz, and of Veii, under-
took to fight against the Roman power. They
learned a hard lesson by the attempt. Romu-
lus took the city of Fidenw, and subjugated
its inhabitants. With the Veientines the siege
was longer—but Romulus came off victorious,
and marched upon the city to destroy it. But
the inhabitants came forth to meet him, humbly
suing for peace.

This the Roman king granted, on condition
that they would give up to him a certain dis-
trict close upon the boarders of the river Ti-
ber—which is supposed to have included the



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 69

lintits of the Vatican and Janiculum Hills;
and also some salt works at the mouth of the
river. This was agreed upon, and a truce for
one hundred years was made between Rome
and Veil.

Again all was quiet in Rome. Romulus
reigned alone.

For thirty-nine years this good king main-
tained quiet and order at home, and at the same
time inspired respect and fear abroad. By the
Romans he was worshipped almost as a god ;
especially did the soldiers love him, as one
truly brave man always loves another. He
who envies another his greatness, is not brave!

But the time was at hand when Romulus
was to be taken from them, and from the great
city now covering several hills, which he had
founded upon one!

Although at peace, Romulus never neglected
to be prepared for war. It was his custom to
review his whole army at certain seasons, on
a wide plain just without the walls of the city



70 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

This plain was the Campus Martius—or Field
of Mars.

Upon one occasion, and the last—the whole
grand army were drawn up for the inspection
of their king, who, in great state, went forth
uttended by his twelve Lictors, and. the Con-
script Fathers, to review this noble Roman
soldiery. It was while thus engaged, that dense
black clouds suddenly covered the sky, from
which the thunder rolled in awful peals, and
the vivid forked lightning struck terror into
the hearts even of the boldest men upon the
ground. And with the thunder and the light-
ning came also a thick mist—a vapor so dense
that no man could see the man who stood next
to him!

And behold—when the mist was lifted—
Romulus, their king, was gone! Gone! but
where? How? In vain they sought him
through the field. Urged by anxious hands,
hither and thither gallopped the fiery steeds.
In terror and confusion the foot soldiers rushed~
through the ranks calling in vain upon their .



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 71

xing. Consternation sat upon the faces of the
Couscript Fathers. At length one of that .
venerable body, who had until the moment re-
mained silent, and stood as if overcome by
some great fear, now suddenly lifted up his
voice, and said: .

“ Friends, all—Romans—soldiers! Look no
more for your father and king—the god-like
Romulus. He has ascended to the gods! Hear
me. Lo—at the moment when thestorm raged
most furiously, I beheld a chariot of fire de-
scend from the Olympian heaven—therein was
seated a mighty god, clothed in bright and daz-
mling armor. He it was who, catching up our
heloved king, has borne him from us to dwell
hereafter with the gods! Look to see him no
more.”

A deep silence followed this dreadful an-
nouncement. Sorrow was on every counte-
nance, and filled every heart. Had a beloved
father been suddenly torn at that moment from
each man upon the field, the feeling of univer-



72 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

sal orphanage could not have been more gen-
eral. At length a loud cry arose:

“Let us make Romulus a god!”

“Yes, a god!” was re-echoed from every
mouth. And instantly the whole legion fell
upon their knees and prayed to Romulus, thei
god—their father—and their king, to bless and
protect them who were his children; and for-
ever to watch over the welfare and happiness
of Rome—the city he had founded.

Tt was afterwards said, that taking advantage
of the heavy mist which so closely shut in the
good king from sight of the army, the Con-
script Fathers, ambitious of more power them-
selves, and beginning to hate Romulus for
his very virtues, had slain him; and then cut-
ting his body in small pieces, had concealed his
remains under the ample folds of their togas.
But we need not believe so wicked a deed
unless we please. _

We have seen that Romulus was a good man;
that he cultivated those principles of right
which are planted in every heart, and which



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 73

flourish like the beautiful garden flowers, shed-
ding sweet odors around, if they are watched
and tended with care—otherwise, baneful weeds
check their growth, and the garden of the heart
becomes a waste.

Of course we do not believe for a moment in
_ the story of a fabulous god, coming down from
a fabulous heaven, and bearing Romulus away !
We believe no such thing. But we may with °
more reason believe, that as Romulus was so
good a man, ruling his people with love and
equity, and thus serving acceptably the One
True and Living God, although he knew Him
not, that when our Heavenly Father removed
him from earth, it was from the worship of
false gods, to the feet of Jesus!

Thus deprived of their ruler, what was to
be expected but disorder and contention in that
late peaceful city ?

Who should be their king? That was now
the question, for Romulus left no son to suc-
ceed him.

The Sabines desired a king chosen from their

7



74 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

own people. The Romans, on the contrary,
disdaining any other than a Roman, declared
that none other than a Roman should sit upon
the throne of Romulus. There was earnest
debate and great deliberation on both sides.
And then a new dilemma suddenly presented
itself. It was this. What if during their in-
decision, some foreign power should take the
opportunity thus afforded them, and attack
them? Rome without a head! her armies
without a leader! Seized with this idea, the
minds of the Conscript Fathers were greatly
troubled; and at length they entered into a
solemn compact to share between them the
government. In this wise. Ten of the Sena-
tors were to rule Rome five days in succession.
One of the chosen ten was to assume more state
than the others, and to be attended somewhat
after the fashion of a king.

And this code of government was called “ Jn-
terregnum,” and is so called to this day.

Well, this state of things lasted about a year.
And then the people began to murmur and find



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 75

fault—saying that in place of one king, they
now had a hundred kings to obey!
When they saw the public mind was so much
averse to this interregnum—the Senators
wisely concluded it was best to give Rome a
king. They accordingly notified the people to
choose such a man to rule over them as they
_ might think worthy to sit upon the throne of
Romulus, and provided they, the Senate, ap-
proved the choice, they would confirmit. This
was very pleasing to the Romans. They ac
Knowledged the respect paid them by the Sen-
ate, in thus allowing them to choose a ruler—
and, not to be outdone in generosity, they
requested the Conscript Fathers to select their
king, and they, the people, would vote thereon,

Heaven surely directed their choice.

There was at this time living at Cures, a
man eminent alike for his goodness and for
his learning—one skilled in philosophy, and in
all the sciences of the day. He was a man,
too, fond of retirement and a country life, and



76 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

passed a great portion of his time in wander-
ing through the groves and meadows.

His name was Numa Pompilius.

Cures was a city of the Sabines. Conse-
quently Numa was a Sabine. But the Ro-
mans now felt the importance of selecting for
their ruler, a just and good man, whether Sa-
bine or Roman, and therefore both Senate and
people unanimously conferred the crown upon
Numa Pompilius, as second king of Rome.

You remember that when Romulus was
about to found the city of Rome upon the Pal-
-atine Hill, the event was decided by augury—
which means tokens supposed to be received
from the gods, either in approval or disapproval.
And even so did Numa command that the gods.
should be consulted, before he would consent
to accept the throne. When they would have
put upon him the royal robes, he bade them
pause until the will of the gods should be
known. Then taking with him the priests of
the temple, he went up to the Capitoline Hill.
One of the priests then covered the head of



ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 77

Numa, and turned his face toward the south.
Taking a “crooked stick,” he slowly moved it
from the north to the south, marking out in
his own mind a certain space, across which the
birds were to fly in answer to his prayer.

“Oh, Father Jupiter!” he cried, placing his
right hand upon the head of Numa. “If it be
thy will that Numa Pompilius shall be king of
Rome, then send forth, I pray thee, thy winged
messengers the birds, by the way I have marked
out for them.” -

A deep silence followed this appeal. The
moments rolled on in anxious suspense. But
within the given time, the birds flew past on
the right hand!

And then Numa took the royal robe, and
put upon his head the crown, and was declared
by the will of the gods to be king of Rome.

This was B. C. 714.

Here ends the story of Romulus, the first

king of Rome.
q *







NUMA POMPILIUS,

THE SECOND KING OF ROME.









CHAPTER I.

ANG ROMUULUS, borne off in a chariot of

fire; Numa Pompilius, with the approba-
tion of gods and of men, seated upon the throne
of Rome!

It was there we last parted. Once more
together, my dear young friends, let us follow
this King Numa and judge for ourselves whether
he was worthy to fill the seat of the brave,
heroic Romulus. We shall find him, I assure
you, all and even more than was expected of
him:

“ Ruling the people with equity.”

When once fairly established upon the throne,
and seeing how great confidence both Romans

and Sabines reposed in him, he began his reign
F (81)



B2 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

by instilling more peaceful sentiments into the
hearts of the people. His first act, according
to Plutarch, was to dismiss the body of three
hundred men, whom King Romulus had em-
ployed as guards about his person; saying, he
would not distrust the people over whom he
was called to reign—neither would he have
them distrust him.

He wished his subjects to be brave, but at the
same time to feel the duty of preserving peace :
if necessary, let the foe be promptly met, and
with courage—but let no war be provoked.
He would improve them by study and labor.
He would have them cultivate the soil—to
navigate the rivers—to improve their cattle,
and learn to exchange the rich products of their
industry with other tribes and nations, for
what such tribes and nations could offer. In
short—he would make of his beloved subjects,
whom he considered as intrusted to his care by
Jupiter, not only brave warriors, but good citi-
zens, good husbands, and good fathers. He
knew that as the minds of the children were



NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 83

moulded into good form, so in lke manner
would be moulded the future of Rome; and
with a foreknowledge akin to the gods, he looked
far, far into the coming years, and saw Rome
the “Queen of Nations’ and “The Capital of
the World!”

Numa inculcated no principles that he did
not strictly practise himself. There are per-
sons who preach eloquently, but fail to prac-
tise what they preach. Some will cry, “ How
blessed it is to give!” while at the same time
they place a double clasp upon their pocket-
books! “The sin of idleness!” says another,
leaning comfortably back in an elbow chair,
with folded hands. And again there are others,
who will lift their eyebrows with scorn at the
idea of cheating one’s neighbor, and yet shave
a sixpence down for the dust.

Not of this manner of men was the good
Numa Pompilius—what he counselled he acted.
The king was a man of great piety. His rev-
erence for the gods was deep. You remember,
do you not, what I told you about the Olym-



84 THE SHVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

pian heaven, and its fabled gods? These to
Numa were sacred, and to be worshipped. And
knowing that no nation is secure that has not
religion for its basis, he began his rule by in-
stituting many ordinances in honor and rever-
ence of the Olympian gods, and setting aside
days wherein no business should be done save
what was required in the observance of those
sacred rites. In his own person he performed
many religious offices, especially those belong-
ing to a priest of Jupiter. He also appointed
other priests who were called Flamens to attend
upon the temples of the gods, who were dis-
tinguished by wearing little bands of wool,
ealled fillets, and flame-colored tufts on their
caps. Those persons whom he selected especi-
ally for the service of Jupiter and of Mars, were
more highly esteemed, under the title of Pon-
tifices [Pontiffs]. The highest in rank was
called Pontifex Maximus. They wore fine soft
robes, and sat in Curule Chairs. A curule chair
was a seat without arms or back, placed in a
chariet and borne by flamens or priests to the



NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 85

temples, whenever the presence of the pontifices
were required.

It is to Numa too, that we owe the months
of January and February; for, previous to his
reign, the year was divided into ten months
only. This was done by Romulus. These
months Plutarch tells us were irregular in their
number of days, and all computed only gave to
the year three hundred and four, instead of
three hundred and sixty-five. Numa thought
and studied deeply. He watched the motions
of the celestial bodies closely, resulting in the
more equal division of time—adding the two
months, January and February, and the ad-
ditional sixty-one days. February was always
considered an unlucky month by the ancients.

Not far from the Capitoline Mount, Numa
erected and dedicated a temple to Janus, who,
as you will remember, looks two ways—sees
what has passed—and to the future. These two
heads were also styled “Peace,” and ‘ War.”
When the gates were thrown open, the head
of war was seen. When closed, the head of

8



86 TAB SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

peace alone was visible. The horrid face of
“orim war” was never seen during the whole
forty years that Numa reigned in Rome! Think
what happiness Rome enjoyed, with peace in
her palaces, and plenty in her streets!

Nor was so glorious an example lost upon
the neighboring states. They beheld her with
respect, and would not make war on a city so
devoted to the worship of the gods.

There is in Rome at this day, a most grace-
ful little building which is called the “ Temple
of Vesta.” Perhaps you may have seen a draw-
ing of it. It is not, of course, the very same
temple which Numa erected to that goddess,
though it bears the same form. This temple
dates back to the time of Vespasian, A. D. 70,
and is one of the best preserved monuments of
ancient Rome—a perfect picture of grace, though
black and stained by the hand of time. ‘There
is now no statue to Vesta within its beautiful
columned portico, but an altar is there raised to
~ the Living God, and before it, Christians kneel



NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 87

in humble prayer. Itwas built for pagan wor-
ship—but God has consecrated it to Himself.

But in the days of Numa, he raised a tem-
ple to Vesta, the guardian of domestic happi-
ness, the goddess who watched over the home
hearth, and the sacred fire that was kindled
thereon. This shows what a loving, gentle na-
ture Numa possessed. Numa appointed young
girls, who were called Vestals, to watch night
and day over the sacred fire lighted within the
temple, that this bright flame consecrated to
Vesta and to domestic love, should not go out.
It was a beautiful ordinance. It is true we
have no goddess Vesta in our day, yet we have
as strict a duty to perform as did those Vestals.
It is our duty to watch that the fire of affection
upon our own domestic hearths is not extin-
guished. Let every youth of whatever age,
endeavor to keep this lovely flame of home
love bright and clear. Never let it die out,
until that sad hour come, when the Angel of
Death with his dark wing sweeps it away bes
yond our relighting.





CHAPTER II.

HERE is at the present day on the Via
Appia [Appian Way], about two miles
from Rome, a little grotto half concealed amid
the vines which in wild and tangled luxuriance
wave over its humid walls. The dark-leaved
ilex trees, and the tall cypress, wave their sol-
emn branches above it. Around spreads the
desolate Campagna, where every night-breeze
that blows over the waste, comes fraught with
pestilence and death, so that no man can dwell
thereon. Old towers and tombs rise like ghosts
of the past; and the broken chain of aque-
ducts seem leaping across the plain, as if they
too would fain fly from the spot. In this
grotto a lovely little fountain bubbles up its
bright waters, in which long sprays of pretty
(88)



NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 89

inaidenhair, and the feathery fern, dip and
dance. The floor yet bears a few fragments of
variegated marbles, and around the sides are
niches which once held beautiful statues.

This was the grotto of the goddess Kgeria.

Egeria was no doubt a beautiful, highly culti-
vated woman, although the Romans in their
early superstition have claimed for her the title
of a goddess, and as such she is spoken of by
ancient writers, and is still remembered.

Egeria was the friend of Numa, who believed
her to be inspired by Jupiter with greatness—
by Minerva with wisdom—by Juno with her
love for nature—by Apollo with grace, and by
Venus with beauty.

And the wise Numa did not disdain to seek
mstruction even from the lips of this talented
woman. Near the decline of day at a certain
hour, he took his way alone to the grotto—this
favorite retreat of Egeria, who there awaited his
coming. Shepherds passing that way with their
fleecy flocks, heard the sweet tones of her voice,
and as they dared to look, they saw their good

8*



90 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

King Numa sitting as one entranced near the
edge of the fountain, gazing up into the inspired
countenance of Egeria; and as he caught the
words of wisdom which fell from her lips, tran-
scribed them on sheets of parchment.

Twelve books filled with all wisdom and
piety did Numa write by her dictation. These
were called the ‘‘Sacred Books.” “And when
Numa came to die, he ordered those twelve
books to be placed in a stone coffin by them-
selves, and buried side by side with his own
body, which he forbade to be burned as was
then the custom. Both coffins of stone were
therefore buried upon the Janiculum Hill.
That containing the remains of Numa was
borne upon the shoulders of the Conscript
Fathers, and followed by all the people, deeply
lamenting with sighs and tears the loss of their
beloved friend and king.

Five hundred years after, and one hundred
before the birth of our Saviour, these wonder-
ful volumes were discovered. A heavy fall of
rain having washed away the earth which



NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 91

covered the coffins, and the lids falling off, one
was found empty, but in the other were the
volumes inspired by Egeria. All of these books
were then ordered by the Senate to be burned !
The reason is plain. For in the mean time the
Romans had introduced into their religion
many superstitious and fovlish observances,
which found no counterpart in those books of
wisdom—therefore they wished them to be de-
stroyed. And so they burned them.

There were no startling events in the life of
Numa Pompilius. But a king that could for
forty years maintain peace and order, and gain
the love and respect of the Roman people, while
at the same time he instilled into every heart
a sense of its own self-respect and courage, was
worthy the love of Rome, and of a tender rev-
erence from us.

When Numa accepted the call of the Roman
people to reign over them, he was forty years
old.. He died at the age of eighty, before
Christ 674. Numa left one daughter who was



92 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

named Pompilia, and a little grandson, then
five years old, who was called Ancus Marcius.

Rome mourned not alone for the good king.
Far and near he was regretted. And it is said
that when the goddess Egeria, so called, you
remember, by the Romans, was told that Numa
was dead, she wept so bitterly that Jupiter in
pity for her grief, changed. her from a goddess
to a fountain, that her tears could flow for ever.

Here ends the story of Numa Pompilius, the
second king of Rome.





TULLUS HOSTILIUS,

THE THIRD KING OF ROME.









CHAPTER I.

WE now enter upon more stirring scenes.

The good King Numa dead, the Roman
people were again in perplexity, and until a
king could be found, the state once more
adopted the Interregnum, or alternate rule of
the two hundred Senators. But this met with
no more favor than did the interregnum after
the death of Romulus.

Tullus Hostilius was finally chosen by the
people and Senate as king of Rome. Hostilius
the father had done good service in the days
of Romulus, and therefore the choice of the
people pointed to his son Tullus.

A very different man had they now to deal
with. A tiger and a lamb could not be more

unlike than Tullus Hostilius and Numa Pom-
(95)



96 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

pilius. Numa promoted peace at home and
abroad. Tullus, on the contrary, incited the
people first to contentions—then to war.

Mounted upon the throne, he looked around
within Rome: he saw the temple of Janus with
closed gates, displaying only the front of Peace.
Day by day he saw his subjects go forth from
their homes to their several occupations,—some
to their merchandise—some to skilful hus-
bandry, and others to till the fields, or drive
their flocks to pasture. At night, each man
returned to his happy dwelling, where round
the open door sat their wives with their little
ones. No warrior tents dotted the Campagna.
The trumpet and bugle were silent. Over the
green plains roved the dove-hued cattle undis-
turbed—the little sheep-folds were “full of
sheep,” and the sounds wafted thence, were the
sweet rural sounds of lowing herds, and the
happy songs of the shepherds.

Tullus saw also the devotion paid to the
gods, and that the lessons of piety implanted
by Numa had indeed taken deep root, and



TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME, 97

were yielding rich fruitage. Such was the scene
which Tullus found at home. Then he looked
abroad. The Dove of Peace sat there also.
There was nothing to feed his warlike appetite.
— “Come,” said he, “this will not do. Tam
no woman to play with doves and nightingales !
No. Ye gods, it is not thus King Tullus will
rule Rome! Too long have the people grown
fat and waxed slothful. Their swords are
blunted—their armor is rusty. Unloose for me
the bold Roman Eagle, so long sitting with
folded wings, and eyes all afilm! Let mine
be the task to rouse these Romans from their
rest—throw wide the gates of Janus—make
sharp their blunted swords, and with hard blows
clink the rust from their armor.”

Sixteen miles from Rome stood the city of
Alba Longa. You remember, without doubt,
that in Alba the twins Romulus and Remus
were born, and were then cast forth upon the
waters of the river by their cruel uncle
Amulius,

9 G



98 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS8.

‘¢ Who spake the words of doom:
“The children to the Tiber,
The mother to the tomb.”

In the time of Tullus it was a flourishing,
populous city; and upon its subjugation the .
mind of the Roman king was bent. An occa-
sion soon offered. A fossé, or ditch, marked the
boundaries of the Roman and Alban territories,
and hither the herdsmen of both cities drove
their cattle to pasture, and cultivated their re-
spective fields. Although on friendly terms,
yet instances of aggression had been known on
both sides. King Romulus could not eradicate
all evil from the hearts of his subjects, and
even in his reign, Romans had encroached upon
Alban rights, and Albans upon Roman. But
Numa referring all such difficulties to the gods,
by his peaceful influence soon quieted their dis-
turbances.

Ah, Tullus was not Numa! On the first
complaint he started up:

“What!” cried he. Do these Alban boors
presume to rob Roman citizens! We will give



Full Text

The Baldwin Library




are |
CHILD'S
HISTORY OF ROME

FROM TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS TO
CAMILLUS; 365 YEARS B.C.

THE HEROES OF THE
SEVEN HILLS

Bs :
MRS. C. H. B. LAING
Author of ‘‘The Seven Kings of the Seven Hills.”’

THE JOHN C. WINSTON CO.
CHICAGO PHILADELPHIA TORONTO




PREFACE.

[HE author of the following pages wishes

to say a few words to the parents or
guardians of the young, for whose pleasure and
instruction the lives of “The Seven Kings of
the Seven Hills” of Rome have been com-
piled—compiled even in that old city wherein
the events which this little volume perpetuates
were enacted. She would assure them that in
placing this book in the hands of their child-
ren, she has carefully studied to make it a

work which may increase their desire for a

(ili)
lv PREFACE.

more intimate knowledge of Ancient Rome—
of Rome, which in the 19th century has again
become the ‘Head of Italy.” In doing this,
she has been guided by the best writers upon
Ancient History—Pliny, Plutarch, Dionysius,
Livy, Niebuhr, as also by more modern authors.
From this wide field, these facts have been
gathered. No fiction has been called in to
assist their interest. However startling may
be the events recorded, her young friends may
rest assured their record is borne out by history.

All readers of Ancient History can bear
testimony to the wide discrepancy in its
chronology. They all differ more or less. To
assert, therefore, the perfect accuracy of the
following pages in their chronological dates,
would be a questionable matter indeed. The *
author has carefully compared and revised the
dates, which both ancient and modern writers
have affixed to the founding of Rome, and to
PREFACE. v
the reigns of ber seven kings. She has aimed
at correctness; and she only claims the same
indulgence, granted to those who have labored
in the field before her.

Rome, 1871.







CONTENTS.

Romulus, the First King of Rome. .

Numa Pompilius, the Second King of Rome .-
Tullus Hostilius, the Third King of Rome

Ancus Marcius, the Fourth King of Rome.
Targuinius Priscus, the Fifth King of Rome ;
Servius Tullius, the Sixth King of Rome

Tarquinius Superbus, ‘the Seventh King of Rome

(vii)

PAGE

79
93
129
153
185

21a

ROMULUS,

THE FIRST KING OF ROME



CHAPTER I.

I Y pEAR young friends, I have a plan in

view. It is this. I wish to take you

with me far, far back into the ages of the Past.

We can do it easily. We need no scrip nor

store—not even a change of garment. Indeed,

we will make our journey with the same rapi-

dity as did those venturesome travellers of

whom we have all read in that wonderful story

_book of the Arabian Nights, who, when wish-
ing to do battle with this or that wicked

-enchanter thousands of miles away, or to
release from “durance vile” some captive prin-

cess, merely seated themselves upon a bit of

tapestry, and by whispering one magical word,

even without lifting a finger—lo—they were

at the place where they wished to be!
| (11)
12 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

But imagination can fly as swiftly as any
enchanted carpet in the realms of Arabian
Fairy Land, and if you will trust yourselves
with me, will convey us in the twinkling of an
eye to a point in the world’s history, seven
hundred and fifty-three years before the birth
of our Saviour, when in moral darkness it
waited for that great Light which was to come!
waited for the coming of that Star which
centuries later pointed the way to the manger
wherein lay cradled the holy child Jesus—
Prince of Peace! The Light of the Harth!

The earth with its thousands of miles in cir-
cumference; yet we will only travel to a very
small speck upon its surface, which, small as
it is however, has filled a larger space in her
history than all the other nations of the globe!

Are you ready?

Then gather yourselves about me—now !

Ah—here we are! Two thousand six hun-
dred and twenty-four years from our starting.
point, which you will see includes the eighteen
hundred and seventy-one years which have
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 13

rolled away since the shepherds saw that great
Light upon the plains of Bethlehem.

We might, it is true, pursue the “back
track” a few centuries earlier, only I fear we
might perchance be swallowed up in one of
those terrible earthquakes which in those days
cut such wide gaps in the local history of this
region. Italy itself being but the boot of some
volcanic agent, thrust through the glowing sur-
face of the earth to cool. But when it did
cool, why it became a very pleasant spot to
dwell upon, and has continued so even to the
nineteenth century.

Let us then walk up this boot and rest
upon the site of its most wonderful city—
Rome—even before Rome was !

We will not interest ourselves in the earlier
settlement of this tempting region further than
may be useful to us in studying out the
founding of Rome. Perhaps when you are
older, the impetus now given may lead you to
trace more fully the history of those peoples
14 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

who from time to time planted themselves on
heel, top, and toe of this volcanic boot.

It will be sufficient for me to tell you, that
when Troy, one of the ancient cities of Asia
Minor, was taken by the confederated Greeks
after a siege of seven years; a brave and good
man named Aineas, himself of the race of the
old Trojan king Priam, fled from the burning
city, bearing upon his shoulders not bags of
gold and silver, but the priceless burthen of an
aged father. A few faithful friends accom-
panied him, and with them they took the
images of their household gods. Mount Ida
became their refuge. There they abode the
winter, and then set forth to found themselves
a colony in some other region.

By-and-by they sailed across the sea, and
finally landed upon the shores of Italy, at a
point about sixteen miles from where Rome
now stands. This region was called Latium,
and at the time when Aineas landed, was
ruled by king Latinus, then a very old man.
And after a while the king was pleased with
ROMUL US, THE FIRST KING OF ROWE. 15

these Trojan strangers, and gave his caugater
Lavinia to be the wife of Aineas.

Then the old king died, and four years later
fineas died also. Thirty years after this,
history tells us, that Ascanius, the son of Aineas
and Lavinia, founded Alba Longa.

It was a charming spot which the grandson
of old king Latinus selected for his new city.
The hills came sweeping down from the Alban
Mountains to the edge of a lovely lake, set
deep down amid banks wreathed with vines
and pretty blossoms. The blue sky bent over
its clear surface, and only the song of the birds
was heard to break the peaceful solitude.

“We will go no further,” said Ascanius,
‘‘Let us build here a city close to the water’s
edge.”

And all his followers agreed it was good to
do so. And as the hills which came down were
very steep, they built it right along the lip or
edge of the lake, and as it extended for more
than a mile in one long street, they called their
new city Alba Longa.
16 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

The lake of Albano, which is the same I
am telling you about, is more than two miles
in length, and one mile and three-quarters in
breadth. .

Well—years rolled on. The first founders
of Alba Longa were laid in their tombs. Ge-
nerations passed away, until finally it came to
pass that the crown rested upon the head of a
wicked king named Amulius. But he had no
right to wear it. It belonged to his elder
brother Numitor.

Now Numitor, the good, had two children, a
son and a daughter, and the wicked Amulius
caused the son to be put to death, and forced
the daughter, who was named Sylvia, to enter
one of the temples devoted to the religion of
the gods. Then he thought all was secure.
There was no one who dared dispute his right
to the kingdom of Alba Longa.

But behold! it was told him one day that
Sylvia had not only escaped his power, but had
actually become the mother of two little twin
boys! He was in a great rage, as you may
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME, 17

well suppose, at this news. Nor did he rest
day nor night until he had accomplished his
revenge. Her he put to death, and then
caused the poor little infants to be thrown into
the river Anio! For this cruel uncle was
afraid the helpless babes might one day claim
the crown as heirs to their grandfather
Numitor.

Now all this which I have heen telling you,
is but to prepare you for the story of Romulus
and Remus, to whom the grand old city of
Rome owes its origin. For these two were the
same little twins cast into the river with the
cruel intent of destroying their innocent lives.

But God watched over the helpless little
ones, and in his infinite wisdom marked out a
erand and noble career for at least one of
those deserted babes, whose name will live so
long as Rome shall live!




CHAPTER II.

ELE slave to whom was intrusted the fate

of the little boys, placed them in a rude sort
of cradle or basket, made of the intertwisted
stalks of palm branches, and then launched it
upon the waters of the Anio, The frail bark
floated off with its pretty freight, and God's
angels took care it should not sink, but bore
it in safety to the waters of the Tiber.

“The troubled river knew them,
And smoothed his yellow foam,
And gently rocked the cradle
That bore the fate of Rome.
The ravening she-wolf know them,
And licked them o’er and o’er,
And gave them of her own fierce milk
Rich with raw flesh and gore.”

The river, at that time swollen by heavy rains,
(1g)
ROMOLUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 19

received the precious charge, somewhat boister-
ously it is true, and the little cradle rocked up
and down with the rocking waves. The little
fellows within were doubtless very hungry,
but they watched the clouds, and the birds
which flew low, and the soft blue sky, and I
dare say, took their little thumbs in their
mouths and sucked them right heartily.

But by and by, as the old Tiber, far out of
its limits, swept around the base of a hill
called the Palatine, a great wave lifted the
little cradle and tossing it high, overturned it
right under the shelter of a fine fig-tree.

All very nice—only the twins could not get
at the figs, and would not have known how to
manage them if they had. Something better
however was in store for them. .

And yet I think no mother would have
been well pleased to have seen the great beast
approaching her children, which by and by
drew near those little ones.

Yes—a savage she-wolf came lazily down to
the river side to slake her thirst. Her keen
20 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

scent soon detected the poor little ones lying
so helpless under the fig-tree. She walked
round and round them, smelt of them with
her long pointed nose, licked them, and then
God moved the heart of this wild beast to a
pity unknown to their cruel uncle Amulius, for
as she stooped over them, the little fellows
caught at her long teats, and began to smack
their little lips with such a relish that the old
wolf was amazingly pleased, and as she turned
her head around she licked them softly again,
saying to herself:

““ Well, I have milk enough for these queer
animals and for my own beautiful cubs too.”

And so for many days the wolf would trot
down to the river where the little boys lay
curled up in the grass, either sleeping or striv-
ing with their tiny hands to catch at the
wings of a gay wood-pecker, which flying close
down to their little faces would drop a bit of
ripe fig or a wild grape in their open mouths,
for we are told that even the birds took part in
the nourishment of these pretty twins. Then
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 21

the old wolf would turn them over and over,
aud tickle them with her great paws until they
cooed and laughed merrily, when she would
lie down by their side and lick them with her
great rough tongue, as the happy little fellows
drew in her milk.

Now it chanced one day that an old shep-
herd who lived upon the Palatine Hill, came —
strolling along down to the river, and hearing
the pretty cooing of the children and the soft
motherly gruntings of the old wolf, peeped
through the bushes-to see what it could mean.
If ever any man was surprised—that old shep-
herd was, when he saw two naked little babies
clinging to the teats of a savage wolf, and their
chubby hands patting her hairy legs! A wolf
that he would be glad to shoot! Perhaps the
very beast that had been prowling around his
hut and had carried off his lambs!

He ran to call his neighbors to see the strange
sight, who came carefully, on tip-toe—lest they
would arouse the wolf so intent upon the little
ones whom she began to love as her own cubs,
22 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS

and at that very time might have been plan-
ning how she could carry them to her den,
which was safely hidden near by in one of the
deep lava cliffs.

Fortunately she did not see or hear the shep-
herds, and soon jogged off to her own little
cubs.

Then the shepherd, whose name was Faus-
tulus, hurried forward, and catching the little
twins up in his arms ran home with them as
“ fast as he could, for fear the wolf might turn
back and chase him; which she most likely
would have done had she seen the act. Poor
old creature, how she moaned for the little
ones when she came back to the fig-tree and
found them gone!

The image of that kind creature is cherished
in Rome even to this day. In the very Capi-
tol of the city—in one of its noblest halls, there
stands a bronze statue of the Palatine Wolf
with the little ones by her side.

We may take this lesson from it—namely—
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 23

that a rough, ungainly exterior, can cover &
kind, affectionate nature.

It was a very kind deed in the shepherd to
charge himself and wife with the care of these
two strange children found under the fig-
tree, for they had already twelve goodly sons
of their own! You have heard it said that
‘¢ where there’s a will, there’s a way”—and so
the way was found, and the twin boys grew up
to be shepherds with their foster-brothers.
And they were fine strong lads too.

I have forgotten to tell you that the old
shepherd Faustulus named them Romulus and
Remus, because, as he said, they had been
suckled by a wolf. -

In childhood, we are told, they were remark-
able for their beauty and intelligence; and as
they grew up to manhood they were brave and
fearless of danger. Whether called forth to
fight against those bands of robbers which some-
~ times infested the Palatine Hill, carrying off the
flocks of the shepherds; or roaming the for-
ests in search of wild beasts, no other lads were
24 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

so brave as Romulus and Remus. It seemed
as if they had drawn in courage and strength
with the milk of the old wolf!

But the time was coming when their high
origin was to be made known, and their wrongs
avenged.

Now the shepherds who lived on the Pala.
tine Hill, frequently pastured their flocks and
cattle upon another hill called the Aventine,
where the herdsmen from Alba Longa also
‘pastured the cattle of their king. It chanced
one day as both parties met upon the grassy
slopes of the Aventine, that some dispute arose
about the rights of pasturage, resulting at
length in a fierce encounter wherein the herds-
men of the king so far gained the mastery as
to seize Remus and bear him off to Alba
Longa.

Remus borne off a prisoner seemed a most
unfortunate event. It proved otherwise, as we
shall see.

By that Divine Power which watches over
the innocent, and suffers no ill deed to go un.
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROHE. 25

punished, the parentage of these brave youths
now became known, and in this manner.

The captors of Remus conducted their pris-
oner into the presence of the King of Alba
Longa—the unjust Amulius. Struck with his
noble bearing, the king demanded of the young
man whence he came, and of his parentage.
Remus could only tell him that he with a twin
brother had been found by a shepherd of the
Palatine Hill near the banks of the river Tiber,
who had brought them up to manhood as his
own sons. Guilt and terror shook the con-
science of the king at this simple narrative,
for like a flash of light the truth was revealed
—in this young shepherd he recognised the
grandson of his brother Numitor. His wicked
designs had been overruled by a higher Power.

In the mean time, Romulus, raising a com-
pany of brave young shepherds, and accom-
panied by old Faustulus, his foster-father, set
out in all haste for Alba Longa to rescue his
brother Remus, arriving just at the time when,

overpowered by his own guilt, Amulius was
3
26 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

powerless to resist the claims of conscience.
The inhabitants of Alba Longa uniting in the
cause of right, rose in arms against the wicked
king, and placed Numitor, the grandfather of
Romulus and Remus, who was now a very
aged man, upon his rightful throne.

The twin brothers remained for a while with
the good old Numitor. Then, their hearts
yearning with strong affection for the old place
where they had been brought up, they finally
bade farewell to their grandfather and to Alba
Longa, and came to dwell once more upon the
Palatine Hill. The grandsons of a king, they
now possessed both wealth and power—and so
they said they would build a city upon the’
banks of the great river Tiber.

Now although they both wished to do so,
they could not agree upon the spot where this
city should be placed. Romulus, loving the
old Palatine, wished to build it there. Remus
on the contrary chose the Aventine.

Finding they could not agree, they at length
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 2)

determined to leave the matter to chance.
Said Romulus:

“ Now, brother, let us take our stations—you
on the Aventine Hill, and I on the Palatine.
We will count the vultures that shall fly over
us between this time and sunrise, and the one
who can count the greatest number shall gain
his wish.”

“ Agreed,” said Remus.

Accordingly the brothers took their stand—
each on his favorite hill under the calm, beau-
tiful sky—the stars watching with them, and
the pleasant lapse of the Tiber upon its shores,
the only sound to disturb that solemn night-
watch. Undoubtedly the hours seemed very
long to both. The birds, too, flew but slowly,
and it was only between the dawn and the sun-
rise, that sia vultures swept over the Aventine.
The anxious watcher upon the neighboring
mount was not more successful, until just at
the moment when the result of his brother’s
vigil was made known to him, twelve vultures
flew slowly over the brow of the Palatine!
28 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Remus claimed the victory. He had counted
his six birds in advance of his brother's good
fortune. However, the decision was left to the
shepherds, who all pronounced in favor of
Romulus.

It is no easy matter to give up a favorite
project—especially if we think ourselves in the
right. Therefore Remus, as you may suppose,
was not well pleased at being forced to yield
his wishes to those of his brother. But there
was no help for it.

So Romulus now began to lay out the bound-
aries of his city, by drawing a line around the
desired limits of the Palatine. He then yoked
a beautiful white cow and an ox to a plough,
and ploughed a furrow through this line—the
cow upon the inside, by which Romulus in-
tended to show that the women should stay at
home within the city, while the men were to
go bravely forth, and become a terror to their
foes.

This done, he commenced building his wall.
Luckily Romulus did not have to go far to find
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME, 29

the materials. The Palatine Hill itself afforded
all that was needed. Men set to work at once
cleaving the volcanic rocks—hewing and shap-
ing those grand blocks of stone from a deposit
called Tufa, or Peperino, which the workmen
then laid inside of the furrow, marking the
boundary of the new city. The outer ridge
was to be held sacred to the heathen gods
whom men then worshipped. This was called
the Pomerium. You will, perhaps, be glad to
know that'some portions of this wall are still
remaining, and if you should ever visit Rome,
you will see them in those huge fragments of
erumbling stones which rest upon the western
side of the Palatine Hill.

Remus in the mean while could not get over
his disappointment, and watched all these move-
ments with envy and jealousy, and finally one
day, with a scornful laugh, he leaped over the
wall, exclaiming:

“Look—just so will the enemy leap over
this frail barrier!”

At which insult, one of the companions of

3%
30 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Romulus, in the heat of his anger, turned sud-
denly upon Remus, saying:

“And in this manner will we meet the
enemy!” And as he said this, he killed him
upon the spot!

It has been said that when Romulus saw
Remus spring over the wall in derision, the
savage blood of the She-Wolf mounted into his
brain, bringing forth another terrible tragedy
as when Cain slew his brother Abel! But we
will not for a moment believe this. No! Ro-
mulus deeply mourned for Remus, and when
the time came that he sat upon the throne of
Rome, he caused another throne to be placed
at nis side in memory of his ill-fated brother,
and to demonstrate to the people that if Remus
had lived he would have shared with him in
the government of the city.




CHAPTER III.

HERE is a proverb—“ Rome was not built
inaday.”. It was not. But in a very short
time that portion of the Palatine included
within the walls, was covered with fine streets
and with handsome, substantial dwellings, in
place of pasture lands and shepherds’ huts.
Then Romulus called his city Rome.

You must not forget that we have gone back
in time seven hundred and fifty-three years
before the coming of Christ on earth, that we
might mark the founding of this city which was
to become the ‘‘Queen of the World!” the
‘“ Mother of Nations!”

Let us look on and see what follows.

His city built, Romulus, as was right, took

its government into his own hands. His first
(31)
32 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

care was to frame such good and just laws as
should make the people happy. He arrayed
himself quite like a king in royal robes edged
with purple, and chose twelve men who were
called Lictors, to attend him wheresoever he
went. A lictor was an officer who bore a
bundle of rods, with an axe placed in their
centre. And this was intended to let people
know that the person before whom they were
borne, had the power to scourge and to slay.
Now Romulus was very ambitious; and after
all did not feel quite satisfied with the limits he
had given to his city; so he extended it still
further. taking in the Capitoline Hill, then
called “Mons Saturnius.” But the original
limits were always known as “ Roma Quad-
rata’”—which means “Square Rome.” Having
accomplished this, Romulus then proclaimed
his city to be a place of refuge not only for
debtors and slaves, but also for criminals.
This seems a strange thing for Romulus to have
done—to make a home for such a population
in the new and beautiful city he had taken such
“ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROHME. 33

care to build! However, Romulus understood
his own plans best, so we will not trouble our-
selves with them. |

With such tempting offers, what wonder that
Rome soon became thickly peopled? Then
another trouble arose—it was this. We may
be sure that class of persons who gladly flocked
into the city at the invitation of its founder,
had not burthened themselves with wives and
children—not they. And so it came to pass
that after a while Romulus sent offers of mar-
riage from his young men to the young maidens
of the neighboring towns; especially to the
Sabines, a people dwelling near Rome.

Perhaps those people were growing jealous of
the fast increasing power of the new city—
perhaps they did not wish to unite their daugh-
ters with these Romans—certain it is, they one
and all refused the marriage offers of the Roman
youths. Romulus was wroth at what he con-
sidered so great a slight.

“Come,” said he, “if we cannot obtain wives
by free consent, why we will gain them by

c
34 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

force! The great festival which we are to
hold in honor of the god Neptune is close at
hand, Let the games be made ready, and let
everything be done in the most attractive man-
ner. When all is prepared we will invite our
neighbors with their wives and daughters to
attend. Then, my good citizens, when the sports
are at the highest, a signal shall be given, at
which, let every brave lad seize upon the
maiden he likes and bear her off to become his
wife!”

This proposal was received with a loud shout
of approbation. Accordingly great preparations
were made for the festival of Neptune, the
rumor of which spread far. Romulus then
sent friendly invitations to the people of the
neighboring towns, and especially to the Sa-
bines. Unsuspicious of danger, the chief inhab-
itants of those towns assembled within the
walls of Rome to witness the games.
~ The sun arose bright and cloudless on that
eventful day, and at an early hour the city
presented a most animated scene. As the
EKOMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 35

strangers arrived they were received with the
greatest politeness by the chief officers of King
Romulus, who himself, attired in splendid robes
and with the crown upon his head, went around
among them to see that all were accommodated ;
and gave the most favorable places for viewing
the games to the wives and daughters of his
Sabine guests. ;

The young maidens looked as lovely as the
day itself in their pretty holiday dresses, and,
little thinking of the fate in store for them,
entered with innocent mirth and pleasure into
the festivities of the scene. The parents, too,
were no less pleased and flattered by the atten-
tions of the king, and looked with great sur-
prise upon the splendors already gathered
together in this new Palatine city.

At length the sports began. When the
games were in the full tide of progress, and
every eye bent with intense interest upon the
contestants in the race as they neared the goal,
Romulus suddenly stood up on his lofty throne,
and, under pretence of watching more closely
36 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

the results, gave the concerted signal—-whish
was to fold his robe more closely around his
person,

With the bound of young race-horses the
Roman youths rushed forward to the seats
where sat the Sabine women, and each one
seizing a fair young girl, bore her off in his
arms ere the parents were scarcely aware of
the treacherous deed!

All was now terror and confusion. Cries of
vengeance arose from the indignant fathers,
who having come unarmed to the festival, were
unable to resist this violence. “Oh my child!
my child! give me back my child!” screamed
the almost frantic mothers—screams which
were answered by the shrieks and cries of
their terrified daughters.

But in vain.. In spite of tears and prayers
they were borne off, and with a tenderness and
care little expected from their bold captors,
were placed in a secure retreat, while their
future husbands returned to the scene of dis.
order and wild lamentation.
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 37

Romulus, assuming all the dignity of that
kingly race to which he belonged—all the
majestic bearing of his grandfather the old King
Numitor of Alba Longa, went around among
his unhappy guests, and endeavored by gentle
words to calm the storm he himself had raised.

“ My friends,” said he, “I mean you no har:n.
This I have done, has been done for your own
advantage, as well as for that of Rome. Hear
me then without prejudice—hear me with
coolness—moderate your anger and listen. My
young men desire wives. Where, I ask, would
they find such wives as you can give them, my
friends? Where could they seek a better alli-
ance than with you? They Lave once offered
this alliance, and have been refused! Your
daughters are as fair as were their mothers—
and seeing this, the young men of Rome, no
longer asking your consent, have borne away
your children from you, and will make them
their wives. Then blame them not for what
you yourselves have been the cause. ‘‘ Come,”

added Romulus, looking around with a pleasant
4
88 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

smile, and extending both hands—‘ come, let’ .
there be peace between us, and let this make us
not only better friends, but kinsmen. Receive
the captors of your daughters as your sons.
Be assured, although their wooing has been
rough, they will make the kinder husbands !”

Romulus spoke well, and meant well.

As easy would it have been for him to check
the flow of the rushing Tiber as to calm the
fury of passions raging within the breasts of
his Sabine guests. They remained silent to
this appeal, or if they spoke, it was only to
utter threats of vengeance against their
treacherous entertainer.

And thus this pleasant gathering of the
morning under heaven’s own peaceful sky, broke
in storm-clouds fraught with coming trouble to
Romulus and Rome.

And the storm soon burst. The bereaved
parents, clothing themselves in mourning gar-
ments, went forth to the neighboring cities and
towns, stirring up their inhabitants to avenge
their grievances. Men are easily moved to war
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 39

from a spirit of envy or jealousy, and Romulus,
by his exceeding strength, and the almost daily
increase of his dominions, had roused both
these passions in the breasts of the people
dwelling in Crustumerium, Ceenina, and Fidena,
three cities within a short distance of Rome.

Glad of a cause, they resolved to march at
once into the Roman territories. Puffed up
with a vain conceit of their own prowess, the Ces-
nenses were the first to commence the war;
and unaided, they dared the power of King
Romulus. 3

But Romulus heeded their attack no more
than he-would a descent of crows into his cane-
fields! He soon put their whole army to
flight—killed their king, whose name was
Acron, and their chief generals—marched on to
their city which he captured, and then returned
victorious to Rome.

Believing his victory gained by the influence
of Jupiter, Romulus at once marked out the
boundaries for a magnificent temple to be
erected to that god, upon the Capitoline Hill,
40 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

wherein not only the spoils he had gained, but
also those that either himself or the kings who
came after his death, might gain, were to be
treasured.

And this was the first temple consecrated
to Jupiter in Rome. I will tell you more
about this presently, but first we must follow
Romulus.

We have seen how easily he conquered the
Ceenenses. It was only the beginning of battles.
For now united against him came the Crustu-
minii, and the Autemnates. They had better
have remained in their own dominions, and not
waged war upon one to whose natural bravery
was added the ferocity and courage of the wolf!
They were beaten, their cities taken, and
themselves subjugated to the Roman power.




CHAPTER IV.

UT what has become of those poor Sabine
maidens all this time?

As wives of those bold Roman youths, they
have learned to love and respect their hus-
bands; who in return treat them with a ten-
derness due to the cruel manner in which they
had been torn from their parents. However
they might sigh for their old homes, and the
friends they had thus suddenly lost, their new _
homes and their new ties served to make them
_ happy.

The Sabine people themselves, although the
most aggrieved, were the last to assert their
wrongs. They were very cautious, and secretly
bent on revenge—but wisely made no move

until fully prepared for battle. This done—
4% (41)
42 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

under the command of their king Titus Tatius
in person, they marched against him who had
robbed their homes of their dearest treasures—
their children !

At this time the Roman citadel on the
Capitoline Hill was in charge of a Roman
named Tarpeius. He was the father of a beau-
tiful girl—Tarpeia. Now it happened that one
day Tarpeia passing outside the walls of the
city to bring water for some sacrificial offering,
chanced to meet the Sabine king Tatius, who
in disguise was probably prowling around to
watch the movements of the foe. He entered
into conversation with her, and pretending to
be captivated with the beauty of the girl, he
so flattered the vanity of the silly maiden, that
finally by the promise of gold and rich orna-
ments, Tarpeia wickedly consented to betray

the citadel into his hands!

The hour appointed came. The false Tar-
peia was at her post: “Come,” said she to the
Sabine soldiers, ‘let every one as he passes
in, throw me the golden circlet from his arm,
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 43

and the ring from his finger!’ For the men
wore broad bracelets of heavy gold, and rings
of precious jewels. This they promised to do.
But mark the punishment of one so false to
her country !

The soldiers kept their promise, but, with
their bracelets, they also threw their heavy
shields, and the miserable Tarpeia was crushed
to death beneath their weight!

And there they buried her. And that place
is called the Tarpeian Rock even to this day!

Thus the Sabines gained possession of the
Roman citadel. And the next day a furious
battle was fought within the walls—ably
conducted on both sides. The Sabines held
their ground steadily against the assaults of the
Romans, and for a time the victory seemed
theirs. Having slain the Roman general Hos-
tillius, a brave man, they pressed the Romans
hard even to the Palatine Gate, crying out:

“¢ Ah-ha, son of a wolf! You shall see it is
one thing to fight with men, and another to
carry off helpless maidens !”
d4 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Then Romulus with fire in his eye turned to
his soldiers :

“Ha! do you hear those boasting Sabines ?
Will you suffer your manhood to be thus in-
sulted? Renew the fight, I command you in
the name of Jupiter, the father of gods and
men !”

So saying he advanced upon the foe, while,
animated by his words and courage, the Ro-
mans dashed forward, and made a tere
onslaught upon the Sabines.

But at this moment both armies found them-
selves suddenly held in check by a new and
strange event. For between the contending
parties rushed the daughters of the Sabines,
their hair all in disorder, their eyes red with
weeping. With a courage which only true
affection could inspire, they threw themselves
between the clashing swords of their fathers,
brothers, and husbands:

“Cease this unnatural strife!” they cried.
“Cease, fathers and brothers, to imbrue your
hands in the blood of our husbands! Hus.
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 45

bands, throw down your swords, that you slay
not the fathers of your wives—the grandsires
of our innocent children! What! would you
give them a parricide for afather? If such be
your will—then slay your wives also. As we
have been the innocent cause of this unholy
combat, we will sooner die—yes, we call the
gods to witness, we will sooner die, than, as
widows, live with the fathers who have slain
- our husbands—or as wives, with the murderers
of our fathers.”

What a scene that must have been, my dear
young friends! Pause a moment here, and try
toimagine those two armies in the midst of
their maddened strife, thus suddenly brought
to bay—their uplifted swords checked in their
descent, their eyes filling with tears, and look-
ing with wonder upon this brave little band of
women, who came fluttering in among them
like doves, the messengers of peace.

A deep silence followed this appeal. Then
fathers embraced their children, and husbands
their wives. Both kings, Romulus and Tatius,
46 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

commanded their soldiers to retire. A council
was then held, composed of the chief men on
both sides, and after due deliberation, a formal
treaty was made, by which both the Roman
and Sabine territories became as one. Then
Romulus invited the Sabine king to share with
him the throne of Rome, and for five years
these two good men held their regal. possession
jointly, and in perfect harmony. And certainly
those who had brought about this happy state
of things, were more than content with their
lot—now reunited to their parents and kins-
folk, and more and more respected and beloved
by their husbands for their noble conduct.
And upon the spot where the two armies
sheathed their swords at the prayers of these
brave women, Romulus built a temple under
the name of “ Jupiter Stator,” the foundations
of which may still be traced on the high ground
close by the old gate of the Palatine city.
And now while Rome is so happily taken
care of under the united friendship and king-
ship of Romulus and Tatius, I think we will
“THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS. 47

leave it for a little while, and have a talk about
the gods and goddesses of those days. You
will remember, perhaps, that I promised to tell
you more about Jupiter, to whom Romulus
built the first temple in Rome, after his victory
over the bold Ceenenses.

Have you studied ancient Mythology? If
so, I can tell you nothing new perhaps. If not,
itis better that we should understand something
of those heathen deities ere we proceed further
on our Roman journey; for I assure you we shall
meet them at every step we take, and we might
feel very much embarrassed not to know their
names, nor their particular virtues, so very
powerful was their rule, until the only One
True God revealed Himself in the person of
His Beloved Son.




CHAPTER V.

“ For all the gods of the nations are idols: but the
Lord made the Heavens. Say among the heathen that the
Lord reigneth. He is to be feared above all gods.”

Psalm xevi.

ROM the earliest ages of the world, man

has felt the necessity of worshipping some-
thing. All have owned a higher power,
although ignorant of God. This instinct is
implanted in the breasts even of the most
savage nations; and in some way or another
they have manifested this instinct; in very
many cases by deeds of cruelty—so little did
they understand this feeling in their hearts to
mean love—not vengeance.

How terrible some of these superstitions were,

you probably know. You have read of the
(48)
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME, 49

. Juggernaut idol, crushing beneath the wheels
of his chariot the wretched victims thrown in
his path ; and you have heard of Moloch, into
whose red-hot arms of brass, mothers tossed
their innocent. babes, to appease the wrath of
a horrible image—“who had eyes, but saw
not’—and “ears that heard not.”

Cultivated nations responded in a more re-
fined degree to this divine call of the soul, and
in time a race of gods and goddesses sprang
into the minds of men as real beings, endowed
with all powers, and to them they built tem-
ples—gave them a form, and sacrificed before
them.

You now understand that Rome knew not
the true God. They saw the glorious heavens
above them—the sun, the moon, and the bright
stars. They watched the return of seed-time
and harvest. They delighted as we do in the
song of birds; in green meadows, in broad for-
ests, and in the loveliness and perfume of
flowers. They were awed by the grandeur of

the boundless ocean—pleased with the rippling
5 D
50 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

river, and laughing brook. But to whom, or
to what, were they to ascribe all this? Who
gave a voice to the clouds that in thunder-tones,
and with fiery darts, rebuked their evil deeds?
Who let loose the fury of the winds in the
whirlwind, or cooled their heated brows with
soft, gentle breezes? What power was it that
hurled mountains from their base with volcanic
throes, and choked their lakes with red-hot
cinders, and piled up new mountains, and
opened new lakes? Who sent the soft rain-
drops, and watered the valleys with dew ?

Their delusion gave not this power to one,
but to many gods.

Not equal—but sharing in the rule of the
heavens and the earth. Shut in by clouds from
the eyes of men, these gods were supposed to
dwell in a region of boundless enchantment
and loveliness. And to this fabled spot they
gave the name of Olympus.

The god to whom they ascribed the greatest
power was
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME, 51

JUPITER.

Him they styled the “father of gods and
of men.” Great honors were paid tohim. In
any enterprise about to be undertaken, the
favor of Jupiter was first invoked, especially
before going to battle. And when, returning
victorious from the fray, the conquering gen-
erals entered Rome, their first duty was to the
god Jupiter. Borne in their chariots of ivory
and gold, up to the Capitoline Mount, they
here in his temple gave thanks to “Jupiter
Optimus Maximus,” which means the best and
the greatest, who had crowned their arms with
victory. They fully believed that this supreme
god, who looked down from the curtained clouds
on Mount Olympus, gave signs and tokens of
his displeasure, or of approbation, and spoke to
them in many wonderful ways.

If Jupiter was angry,then dark clouds gath-
ered over Rome—lightning darted its forked
tongue, and the arm of Jupiter hurled the
heavy thunderbolt! If the god was at peace,
52 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

then the blue sky and the bright sunbeam were
as hissmile! He is astern-looking old fellow—
this same Jupiter. We will know him. He
carries a sceptre in his left hand upon which is
perched an eagle, and in his right he is usually
seen grasping the thunderbolts, ready to hurl
them down upon those who displease him.

As Jupiter was the king-god of Olympus, so
was the majestic Juno the queen-goddess, and
as such, was worshipped by the Romans.

Mars



was the god of war—a very lion for bravery
and magnanimity. And yet he did not disdain
to become the protector of all cattle, and of
agricultural pursuits. He also had many beau-
tiful temples erected to his honor, and those
who worshipped him, danced before his image,

clothed in full armor.

Tue Goppess MINERVA

was one to be loved. She was supposed te
preside over the arts and sciences—over poetry
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 53

and music; and, like Mars, did not disdain more
humble occupations, for she was also the pat-
roness of sewing, spinning, and weaving. And
as she was supposed to guide the movements,
and preserve all brave men on the field of battle,
so she usually went armed, and wore a helmet
of gold, with a shining breast-plate. She car-
ried a lance—and on her shield were snakes!
Sometimes she took off her helmet, and wore
a crown of olives, emblem of peace—and again,
instead of a lance, she carried an owl—and
this was to signify that she was the goddess of
wisdom.

HERCULES

was the giant of Olympus! Stronger even
than Samson, he could slay lions, and hydra-
headed monsters; and yet feel no more fatigue
than if he had been snapping off the heads of
so many little kittens. He was supposed to
watch with favor all athletic games, or feats of
strength. Temples were built to him on the
summit of high hills, and upon the banks of

rivers. If we should chance to see a god with
5*
Set THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

a lion skin thrown over one shoulder, and with
a monstrous knotty club in his hand, we can
safely say, “There is Hercules!”

APOLLO

was the god the Romans delighted to deify.
They believed him to be so glorious, that they
gave him even the sun as his chariot, and com-
posed many hymns, and built many beautiful
temples to him. Everywhere the most grace-
ful statues of Apollo were to be seen. A great
poet calls this god, “The sun in human limbs
arrayed.” All who worshipped him, believed
that at the dawn of day, a beautiful goddess,
named Aurora, veiled in soft rosy clouds,
aroused Apollo from his sleep, and opened the
Olympian gates. Then the sun-god mounting
his fiery chariot, drawn by such steeds as need
no other hoof-hold than the billowy clouds,
and followed by the swift gliding Hours, sped
forth triumphant upon his diurnal round! Nor
was this his only care—namely, to awaken the
earth from sleep. For Apollo was the god of
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 55

harmony. He was a shepherd too, fond of
groves, and of quiet meadow brooks. It was
his delight to sit under some shady tree, and
play upon the shepherd’s pipe, making sweet
music. We may meet him shod in buskins—
a cloak falling gracefully from his right shoul-
der, with a bow and arrows in one hand, and
a lyre in the other. Around his brows he will
have a laurel crown. Or perhaps we may see
him leaning against a tree in a pensive attitude,
playing upon the pipe.

MeERcURY

was a swift-footed god—and no wonder, for he
wore wings upon his heels and head too! So
Mercury was called the god of speed, and of
messages—the electric telegraph from the gods
of Olympus to men! Even now, when we see
him represented in marble, or upon the paint-
er’s canvas, we feel that we must look quick,
or the restless god will be off.
56 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

NEPTUNE

ruled the ocean—and when a fleet was about
to leave their ports, the Romans sacrificed to
this god, casting rich offerings into the sea—
just as the Chinese do at the presentday. We
cannot mistake old Neptune, for he stands up-
right in his chariot, formed of one immense
shell, which is drawn by sea-horses, and furi-
ous-looking animals they are, dashing and
splashing the green waves with their great
hoofs. He always holds a three-tined sceptre,
like a three-tined fork, in his hand.
We must give due honors to

VULCAN,

“the god of fire.” His was an honorable and

trustworthy profession, for he forged the thun- |
derbolts of his father Jupiter, and the arms
of all the gods. He was quite deformed it
seems, and shared so little in the beauty of the
gods, that they threw him down to earth from
the Olympian heaven, breaking his leg in the
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 57

fall! But for all that he was highly honored,
and many beautiful temples from time to time
were built to him. If we should enter into
one of those temples we would see Vulcan rep-
resented lame, and standing by an anvil with
his blacksmith’s tools in his hand.

There was one jolly inhabitant of the Olym-
pian heavens, whom the Romans supposed to
preside over their feasts, and as such they did
him great honors. His name was

BAccuus.

Tt was Bacchus who took care that no blight
should spread over the young and tender vines.
It was Bacchus who caused the rich clusters of
grapes to grow so luxuriantly; and then, when
their amber juices were fully ripe, it was Bac-
chus who presided over the wine-press, and saw
that the labors of the vine dresser were plen-
tifully rewarded. And then were great festi-
vals held in honor of this merry god. Crowned
with vine leaves, the statue of Bacchus was
borne through the streets, surrounded by dane
58 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

ing maidens and skipping goats. Or perhaps
some youth was permitted to act the part of
the god.

JANUS

was a god with two faces, and could see things

past as well as future. I think I have forgot-
ten to tell you, that when Romulus admitted
Titus Tatius, the Sabine king, to share his
throne, he built a temple to Janus, as a proof
that both nations were at peace, and to give
the Romans an idea, perhaps, that “two heads
were better than one.”

VENUS

was the goddess of all grace and beauty. Cra-
dled in a shell of pearl, and borne on the
sparkling sea-foam to a pleasant island; the
Hours, they say, took care of the lovely little
child, and then when she was old enough not
to be troublesome, they carried her to live with
Jupiter and Juno in Olympus. She was a
great favorite with the Roman people. It
would be impossible to tell how many temples
ROMULUS, THE FIRST ‘KING OF ROME. 59

were raised to her, nor how often they attempted
to reproduce her exquisite beauty in marble.
And not satisfied with what their own art
could accomplish, they travelled to other
parts of the world to find the ideal of her love-
liness realized, and then brought those images
of the goddess to Rome, and set them up in
her temples.
Cupp,
as being a very beautiful boy, was thought to
be the son of Venus. He was considered a very
mischievous, dangerous little fellow to have any
dealings with. He was full of sport and play,
and decidedly a most cunning little rogue! He
was never seen without his bow and arrows,
which he always kept slyly ready to shoot at
the hearts of mortals at the most unexpected
moment! Cupid was called the god of love.
Then there was the beautiful goddess

Diana,

who was worshipped as the mistress of the
hunt, and was supposed to roam the forests in
60 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

buskins and short robes—holding in check a
favorite hound, and with a bow and arrows
slung over her shoulder. Sometimes she was
called Luna—the moon—and wore a silver
crescent upon her pale brow. I think we shall
meet this lovely goddess more than once.

ARSCULAPIUS

held the responsible office of physician to gods
and men. He was highly esteemed by the
Greeks and Romans, as the god of healing.
Many groves were held sacred to this deity, and
many temples raised to do him honor. The
most celebrated was at Epidaurus, in Greece,
where he was worshipped under the form of a
serpent. In all the statues, or other represen-
tions which we see of Aisculapius, he bears
in his right hand a staff, around which, twines
a serpent. The serpent was looked upon as a
symbol of prudence and foresight.

Tam very much afraid that you are getting
tired with this long history of the dwellers
upon Mount Olympus. In one moment we will
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 61

close. Tonly wish to tell you further, that the
Romans worshipped Crrzs, who took care of
the corn, and the young wheat, Pomona, who
guarded their orchards, Frora, who danced
amid the flowers, and a colony of lovely
Nymphs for their fountains, their groves, and
their rivers.

Much as we may lament the blindness of
the world, for so many hundreds of years, in
thus bowing down to gods of wood and stone,
yet we must acknowledge that in poetry and
in art we owe much that is beautiful to the
memory of these heathen deities! Do you not
still love to think about the little fairies with
their silver wands tipped in the moonbeams,
that we have been told, once flitted in and out
the summer woods—that danced merrily by the
meadow brook,—that sipped dewdrops from the
pretty yellow cowslip, and were borne on the
rainbow wings of butterflies, just where they
wanted to go? Do you not love the memory
of those graceful little sprites? Ido. For my
part, I am very sorry they have gone, with all

6
62 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

their bewitching ways! And even those giants
who strode grimly over the earth, in their
seven-league boots—well, I own I am sorry
they do not still stride about!

Gods and goddesses, nymphs, satyrs, fauns,
fairies, and giants have all gone, and only live
to us in poetic fables, or on the canvas! Yes,
we are living in a very prosaic age, there is no
doubt of it.

But for the truth, let us bless God! Although
we do love to read of those heathen deities—
Jupiter and Mars—of Juno and Minerva, we
do it with our senses enlightened. Yes, let us
bless God for the truth—for that great light
which shone suddenly upon the world; to
make clear the darkness, and to destroy those
temples, such as St. Paul saw in Athens in-
scribed to the

“Unknown Gop!”


: spew
Coe

ty es pi ve



CHAPTER VI.

‘VOU will now feel better acquainted, I am
sure, with the dwellers of Mount Olympus
when we chance to meet them, and we there-
fore again salute the good King Romulus. For
he was not only a good king but a wise one,
framing such excellent laws as were held by all
nations in respect. Even the English, and
again our own American code of laws, are
mainly founded upon those which Romulus
gave to Rome.
It is wise men who make good laws. It is
only fools who break them. .
Intending that Rome should be a city of
order—Romulus divided the people into three
sections, and those three he again subdivided

into ten, and out of compliment to his Sabine
(63)
64 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

allies, whose chief city was Cures, he called
those three sections the “ Curea’—and then as
a further mark of respect to the Sabine wives
of the Romans, he gave their names to each of
the thirty divisions. And when any matters
of state required their attention, these Curea
met in council together in an open space called
the Forum. These meetings were called the
Cureata Comitium.

Their deliberations were important. No law
could be passed without their consent. Not
even the will of the king himself was legal
‘unless with the approval of the Curea.

Romulus also installed a more select body of
men even than these, chosen from among the
most talented and experienced men of Rome.
This body was called the Senate. The original
number was one hundred—but after Titus
Tatius shared the throne with Romulus, one
hundred more were added, and these were
wisely chosen from the Sabines. These two
bodies incorporate were known under the
venerated title of “Conscript Fathers.”
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME, 65

This happy state of things continued about
five years, and then a most unhappy event oc-
curred. Friends of King Tatius, living in the
city of Lavinium, as they were journeying on
to Rome, which was sixteen miles distant,
were met by a party from Laurentium. These
last set upon them, and attempted to rob them
of their valuables—the people of Lavinium
stoutly defended themselves—but being over-
come by superior numbers, they were nearly
all slain.

Both of these towns were exceedingly pleas-
ant, and being situated only three miles from the
Mediterranean Sea, were consequently regaled
with its pleasant breezes. At Lavinium were
many beautiful temples to the gods, and one of
very great fame which was consecrated to the
goddess Venus. Itisa very little village now—
even its pretty name is lost. The place is now
known as Protica.

Laurentium was so called, because it was
surrounded with such delightful laurel groves,
the fragrance of which filled the air around

6* E
66 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

with sweetness, while flitting among the glossy
green leaves were many beautiful birds. Deep
marshes of tall grass were atno little distance ;
through which waded wild boars and buffaloes,
affording most excellent sport for the hunts-
men. This city, too, is swept away—all gone
with the laurels, and its name. Torre Paterus,
a poor, wretched, unhealthy village, is said to
occupy the site of the once populous Lauren-
tium.

Now as King Tatius was so nearly allied to
the inhabitants of Lavinium, it was of course
believed that he would at once avenge their
wrongs, and they sent ambassadors to Rome
claiming his assistance. But Tatius took no
notice of this appeal, although it is said Rom-
ulus advised him to do so. At this they were
very angry, and swore to be revenged. And
so when the unsuspecting old king Tatius went.
to Lavinium to sacrifice to the gods, as was his
yearly custom, some of the wicked people fell
upon him as he was engaged in those sacred
rites, and slew him!
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 67

When this dreadful news was brought to
Rome, indignation and horror at so vile a deed,
shared in the hearts of the people the grief
which all classes felt for the death of so good
a man. Fearful of the consequences upon
themselves, the murderers of the king were
sent to Rome by the people of Lavinium. But
Romulus sent them back, with the words:

‘Blood for blood!” meaning, as was sup-
posed, that as the innocent blood of the kins-
men of King Tatius had been unavenged by
him—his blood had been required by the gods,
as an atonement.

Now soon after, there broke out such a ter-
rible pestilence in Rome, as was never before
known! People dropped down dead in the
streets without any previous sickness. The
cattle died also, and a destructive blight over-
spread their corn-fields, their orchards, and
vineyards. It is said too, that it rained blood
upon the city!

What could this mean? Why were the gods
angry? Was it not that those men who had
68 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

killed King Tatius, still lived, and had been
left unpunished?

So thought the Romans. So thought Rom-
ulus.

Then those murderers were sent for in hot
haste, and by the judgment of Romulus and
the Conscript Fathers, met the fate they de-
served.

And from that day the plague ceased.

Not long after these events, a war broke out.
The people of Fidensz, and of Veii, under-
took to fight against the Roman power. They
learned a hard lesson by the attempt. Romu-
lus took the city of Fidenw, and subjugated
its inhabitants. With the Veientines the siege
was longer—but Romulus came off victorious,
and marched upon the city to destroy it. But
the inhabitants came forth to meet him, humbly
suing for peace.

This the Roman king granted, on condition
that they would give up to him a certain dis-
trict close upon the boarders of the river Ti-
ber—which is supposed to have included the
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 69

lintits of the Vatican and Janiculum Hills;
and also some salt works at the mouth of the
river. This was agreed upon, and a truce for
one hundred years was made between Rome
and Veil.

Again all was quiet in Rome. Romulus
reigned alone.

For thirty-nine years this good king main-
tained quiet and order at home, and at the same
time inspired respect and fear abroad. By the
Romans he was worshipped almost as a god ;
especially did the soldiers love him, as one
truly brave man always loves another. He
who envies another his greatness, is not brave!

But the time was at hand when Romulus
was to be taken from them, and from the great
city now covering several hills, which he had
founded upon one!

Although at peace, Romulus never neglected
to be prepared for war. It was his custom to
review his whole army at certain seasons, on
a wide plain just without the walls of the city
70 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

This plain was the Campus Martius—or Field
of Mars.

Upon one occasion, and the last—the whole
grand army were drawn up for the inspection
of their king, who, in great state, went forth
uttended by his twelve Lictors, and. the Con-
script Fathers, to review this noble Roman
soldiery. It was while thus engaged, that dense
black clouds suddenly covered the sky, from
which the thunder rolled in awful peals, and
the vivid forked lightning struck terror into
the hearts even of the boldest men upon the
ground. And with the thunder and the light-
ning came also a thick mist—a vapor so dense
that no man could see the man who stood next
to him!

And behold—when the mist was lifted—
Romulus, their king, was gone! Gone! but
where? How? In vain they sought him
through the field. Urged by anxious hands,
hither and thither gallopped the fiery steeds.
In terror and confusion the foot soldiers rushed~
through the ranks calling in vain upon their .
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 71

xing. Consternation sat upon the faces of the
Couscript Fathers. At length one of that .
venerable body, who had until the moment re-
mained silent, and stood as if overcome by
some great fear, now suddenly lifted up his
voice, and said: .

“ Friends, all—Romans—soldiers! Look no
more for your father and king—the god-like
Romulus. He has ascended to the gods! Hear
me. Lo—at the moment when thestorm raged
most furiously, I beheld a chariot of fire de-
scend from the Olympian heaven—therein was
seated a mighty god, clothed in bright and daz-
mling armor. He it was who, catching up our
heloved king, has borne him from us to dwell
hereafter with the gods! Look to see him no
more.”

A deep silence followed this dreadful an-
nouncement. Sorrow was on every counte-
nance, and filled every heart. Had a beloved
father been suddenly torn at that moment from
each man upon the field, the feeling of univer-
72 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

sal orphanage could not have been more gen-
eral. At length a loud cry arose:

“Let us make Romulus a god!”

“Yes, a god!” was re-echoed from every
mouth. And instantly the whole legion fell
upon their knees and prayed to Romulus, thei
god—their father—and their king, to bless and
protect them who were his children; and for-
ever to watch over the welfare and happiness
of Rome—the city he had founded.

Tt was afterwards said, that taking advantage
of the heavy mist which so closely shut in the
good king from sight of the army, the Con-
script Fathers, ambitious of more power them-
selves, and beginning to hate Romulus for
his very virtues, had slain him; and then cut-
ting his body in small pieces, had concealed his
remains under the ample folds of their togas.
But we need not believe so wicked a deed
unless we please. _

We have seen that Romulus was a good man;
that he cultivated those principles of right
which are planted in every heart, and which
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 73

flourish like the beautiful garden flowers, shed-
ding sweet odors around, if they are watched
and tended with care—otherwise, baneful weeds
check their growth, and the garden of the heart
becomes a waste.

Of course we do not believe for a moment in
_ the story of a fabulous god, coming down from
a fabulous heaven, and bearing Romulus away !
We believe no such thing. But we may with °
more reason believe, that as Romulus was so
good a man, ruling his people with love and
equity, and thus serving acceptably the One
True and Living God, although he knew Him
not, that when our Heavenly Father removed
him from earth, it was from the worship of
false gods, to the feet of Jesus!

Thus deprived of their ruler, what was to
be expected but disorder and contention in that
late peaceful city ?

Who should be their king? That was now
the question, for Romulus left no son to suc-
ceed him.

The Sabines desired a king chosen from their

7
74 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

own people. The Romans, on the contrary,
disdaining any other than a Roman, declared
that none other than a Roman should sit upon
the throne of Romulus. There was earnest
debate and great deliberation on both sides.
And then a new dilemma suddenly presented
itself. It was this. What if during their in-
decision, some foreign power should take the
opportunity thus afforded them, and attack
them? Rome without a head! her armies
without a leader! Seized with this idea, the
minds of the Conscript Fathers were greatly
troubled; and at length they entered into a
solemn compact to share between them the
government. In this wise. Ten of the Sena-
tors were to rule Rome five days in succession.
One of the chosen ten was to assume more state
than the others, and to be attended somewhat
after the fashion of a king.

And this code of government was called “ Jn-
terregnum,” and is so called to this day.

Well, this state of things lasted about a year.
And then the people began to murmur and find
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 75

fault—saying that in place of one king, they
now had a hundred kings to obey!
When they saw the public mind was so much
averse to this interregnum—the Senators
wisely concluded it was best to give Rome a
king. They accordingly notified the people to
choose such a man to rule over them as they
_ might think worthy to sit upon the throne of
Romulus, and provided they, the Senate, ap-
proved the choice, they would confirmit. This
was very pleasing to the Romans. They ac
Knowledged the respect paid them by the Sen-
ate, in thus allowing them to choose a ruler—
and, not to be outdone in generosity, they
requested the Conscript Fathers to select their
king, and they, the people, would vote thereon,

Heaven surely directed their choice.

There was at this time living at Cures, a
man eminent alike for his goodness and for
his learning—one skilled in philosophy, and in
all the sciences of the day. He was a man,
too, fond of retirement and a country life, and
76 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

passed a great portion of his time in wander-
ing through the groves and meadows.

His name was Numa Pompilius.

Cures was a city of the Sabines. Conse-
quently Numa was a Sabine. But the Ro-
mans now felt the importance of selecting for
their ruler, a just and good man, whether Sa-
bine or Roman, and therefore both Senate and
people unanimously conferred the crown upon
Numa Pompilius, as second king of Rome.

You remember that when Romulus was
about to found the city of Rome upon the Pal-
-atine Hill, the event was decided by augury—
which means tokens supposed to be received
from the gods, either in approval or disapproval.
And even so did Numa command that the gods.
should be consulted, before he would consent
to accept the throne. When they would have
put upon him the royal robes, he bade them
pause until the will of the gods should be
known. Then taking with him the priests of
the temple, he went up to the Capitoline Hill.
One of the priests then covered the head of
ROMULUS, THE FIRST KING OF ROME. 77

Numa, and turned his face toward the south.
Taking a “crooked stick,” he slowly moved it
from the north to the south, marking out in
his own mind a certain space, across which the
birds were to fly in answer to his prayer.

“Oh, Father Jupiter!” he cried, placing his
right hand upon the head of Numa. “If it be
thy will that Numa Pompilius shall be king of
Rome, then send forth, I pray thee, thy winged
messengers the birds, by the way I have marked
out for them.” -

A deep silence followed this appeal. The
moments rolled on in anxious suspense. But
within the given time, the birds flew past on
the right hand!

And then Numa took the royal robe, and
put upon his head the crown, and was declared
by the will of the gods to be king of Rome.

This was B. C. 714.

Here ends the story of Romulus, the first

king of Rome.
q *

NUMA POMPILIUS,

THE SECOND KING OF ROME.



CHAPTER I.

ANG ROMUULUS, borne off in a chariot of

fire; Numa Pompilius, with the approba-
tion of gods and of men, seated upon the throne
of Rome!

It was there we last parted. Once more
together, my dear young friends, let us follow
this King Numa and judge for ourselves whether
he was worthy to fill the seat of the brave,
heroic Romulus. We shall find him, I assure
you, all and even more than was expected of
him:

“ Ruling the people with equity.”

When once fairly established upon the throne,
and seeing how great confidence both Romans

and Sabines reposed in him, he began his reign
F (81)
B2 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

by instilling more peaceful sentiments into the
hearts of the people. His first act, according
to Plutarch, was to dismiss the body of three
hundred men, whom King Romulus had em-
ployed as guards about his person; saying, he
would not distrust the people over whom he
was called to reign—neither would he have
them distrust him.

He wished his subjects to be brave, but at the
same time to feel the duty of preserving peace :
if necessary, let the foe be promptly met, and
with courage—but let no war be provoked.
He would improve them by study and labor.
He would have them cultivate the soil—to
navigate the rivers—to improve their cattle,
and learn to exchange the rich products of their
industry with other tribes and nations, for
what such tribes and nations could offer. In
short—he would make of his beloved subjects,
whom he considered as intrusted to his care by
Jupiter, not only brave warriors, but good citi-
zens, good husbands, and good fathers. He
knew that as the minds of the children were
NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 83

moulded into good form, so in lke manner
would be moulded the future of Rome; and
with a foreknowledge akin to the gods, he looked
far, far into the coming years, and saw Rome
the “Queen of Nations’ and “The Capital of
the World!”

Numa inculcated no principles that he did
not strictly practise himself. There are per-
sons who preach eloquently, but fail to prac-
tise what they preach. Some will cry, “ How
blessed it is to give!” while at the same time
they place a double clasp upon their pocket-
books! “The sin of idleness!” says another,
leaning comfortably back in an elbow chair,
with folded hands. And again there are others,
who will lift their eyebrows with scorn at the
idea of cheating one’s neighbor, and yet shave
a sixpence down for the dust.

Not of this manner of men was the good
Numa Pompilius—what he counselled he acted.
The king was a man of great piety. His rev-
erence for the gods was deep. You remember,
do you not, what I told you about the Olym-
84 THE SHVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

pian heaven, and its fabled gods? These to
Numa were sacred, and to be worshipped. And
knowing that no nation is secure that has not
religion for its basis, he began his rule by in-
stituting many ordinances in honor and rever-
ence of the Olympian gods, and setting aside
days wherein no business should be done save
what was required in the observance of those
sacred rites. In his own person he performed
many religious offices, especially those belong-
ing to a priest of Jupiter. He also appointed
other priests who were called Flamens to attend
upon the temples of the gods, who were dis-
tinguished by wearing little bands of wool,
ealled fillets, and flame-colored tufts on their
caps. Those persons whom he selected especi-
ally for the service of Jupiter and of Mars, were
more highly esteemed, under the title of Pon-
tifices [Pontiffs]. The highest in rank was
called Pontifex Maximus. They wore fine soft
robes, and sat in Curule Chairs. A curule chair
was a seat without arms or back, placed in a
chariet and borne by flamens or priests to the
NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 85

temples, whenever the presence of the pontifices
were required.

It is to Numa too, that we owe the months
of January and February; for, previous to his
reign, the year was divided into ten months
only. This was done by Romulus. These
months Plutarch tells us were irregular in their
number of days, and all computed only gave to
the year three hundred and four, instead of
three hundred and sixty-five. Numa thought
and studied deeply. He watched the motions
of the celestial bodies closely, resulting in the
more equal division of time—adding the two
months, January and February, and the ad-
ditional sixty-one days. February was always
considered an unlucky month by the ancients.

Not far from the Capitoline Mount, Numa
erected and dedicated a temple to Janus, who,
as you will remember, looks two ways—sees
what has passed—and to the future. These two
heads were also styled “Peace,” and ‘ War.”
When the gates were thrown open, the head
of war was seen. When closed, the head of

8
86 TAB SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

peace alone was visible. The horrid face of
“orim war” was never seen during the whole
forty years that Numa reigned in Rome! Think
what happiness Rome enjoyed, with peace in
her palaces, and plenty in her streets!

Nor was so glorious an example lost upon
the neighboring states. They beheld her with
respect, and would not make war on a city so
devoted to the worship of the gods.

There is in Rome at this day, a most grace-
ful little building which is called the “ Temple
of Vesta.” Perhaps you may have seen a draw-
ing of it. It is not, of course, the very same
temple which Numa erected to that goddess,
though it bears the same form. This temple
dates back to the time of Vespasian, A. D. 70,
and is one of the best preserved monuments of
ancient Rome—a perfect picture of grace, though
black and stained by the hand of time. ‘There
is now no statue to Vesta within its beautiful
columned portico, but an altar is there raised to
~ the Living God, and before it, Christians kneel
NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 87

in humble prayer. Itwas built for pagan wor-
ship—but God has consecrated it to Himself.

But in the days of Numa, he raised a tem-
ple to Vesta, the guardian of domestic happi-
ness, the goddess who watched over the home
hearth, and the sacred fire that was kindled
thereon. This shows what a loving, gentle na-
ture Numa possessed. Numa appointed young
girls, who were called Vestals, to watch night
and day over the sacred fire lighted within the
temple, that this bright flame consecrated to
Vesta and to domestic love, should not go out.
It was a beautiful ordinance. It is true we
have no goddess Vesta in our day, yet we have
as strict a duty to perform as did those Vestals.
It is our duty to watch that the fire of affection
upon our own domestic hearths is not extin-
guished. Let every youth of whatever age,
endeavor to keep this lovely flame of home
love bright and clear. Never let it die out,
until that sad hour come, when the Angel of
Death with his dark wing sweeps it away bes
yond our relighting.


CHAPTER II.

HERE is at the present day on the Via
Appia [Appian Way], about two miles
from Rome, a little grotto half concealed amid
the vines which in wild and tangled luxuriance
wave over its humid walls. The dark-leaved
ilex trees, and the tall cypress, wave their sol-
emn branches above it. Around spreads the
desolate Campagna, where every night-breeze
that blows over the waste, comes fraught with
pestilence and death, so that no man can dwell
thereon. Old towers and tombs rise like ghosts
of the past; and the broken chain of aque-
ducts seem leaping across the plain, as if they
too would fain fly from the spot. In this
grotto a lovely little fountain bubbles up its
bright waters, in which long sprays of pretty
(88)
NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 89

inaidenhair, and the feathery fern, dip and
dance. The floor yet bears a few fragments of
variegated marbles, and around the sides are
niches which once held beautiful statues.

This was the grotto of the goddess Kgeria.

Egeria was no doubt a beautiful, highly culti-
vated woman, although the Romans in their
early superstition have claimed for her the title
of a goddess, and as such she is spoken of by
ancient writers, and is still remembered.

Egeria was the friend of Numa, who believed
her to be inspired by Jupiter with greatness—
by Minerva with wisdom—by Juno with her
love for nature—by Apollo with grace, and by
Venus with beauty.

And the wise Numa did not disdain to seek
mstruction even from the lips of this talented
woman. Near the decline of day at a certain
hour, he took his way alone to the grotto—this
favorite retreat of Egeria, who there awaited his
coming. Shepherds passing that way with their
fleecy flocks, heard the sweet tones of her voice,
and as they dared to look, they saw their good

8*
90 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

King Numa sitting as one entranced near the
edge of the fountain, gazing up into the inspired
countenance of Egeria; and as he caught the
words of wisdom which fell from her lips, tran-
scribed them on sheets of parchment.

Twelve books filled with all wisdom and
piety did Numa write by her dictation. These
were called the ‘‘Sacred Books.” “And when
Numa came to die, he ordered those twelve
books to be placed in a stone coffin by them-
selves, and buried side by side with his own
body, which he forbade to be burned as was
then the custom. Both coffins of stone were
therefore buried upon the Janiculum Hill.
That containing the remains of Numa was
borne upon the shoulders of the Conscript
Fathers, and followed by all the people, deeply
lamenting with sighs and tears the loss of their
beloved friend and king.

Five hundred years after, and one hundred
before the birth of our Saviour, these wonder-
ful volumes were discovered. A heavy fall of
rain having washed away the earth which
NUMA POMPILIUS, SECOND KING OF ROME. 91

covered the coffins, and the lids falling off, one
was found empty, but in the other were the
volumes inspired by Egeria. All of these books
were then ordered by the Senate to be burned !
The reason is plain. For in the mean time the
Romans had introduced into their religion
many superstitious and fovlish observances,
which found no counterpart in those books of
wisdom—therefore they wished them to be de-
stroyed. And so they burned them.

There were no startling events in the life of
Numa Pompilius. But a king that could for
forty years maintain peace and order, and gain
the love and respect of the Roman people, while
at the same time he instilled into every heart
a sense of its own self-respect and courage, was
worthy the love of Rome, and of a tender rev-
erence from us.

When Numa accepted the call of the Roman
people to reign over them, he was forty years
old.. He died at the age of eighty, before
Christ 674. Numa left one daughter who was
92 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

named Pompilia, and a little grandson, then
five years old, who was called Ancus Marcius.

Rome mourned not alone for the good king.
Far and near he was regretted. And it is said
that when the goddess Egeria, so called, you
remember, by the Romans, was told that Numa
was dead, she wept so bitterly that Jupiter in
pity for her grief, changed. her from a goddess
to a fountain, that her tears could flow for ever.

Here ends the story of Numa Pompilius, the
second king of Rome.


TULLUS HOSTILIUS,

THE THIRD KING OF ROME.



CHAPTER I.

WE now enter upon more stirring scenes.

The good King Numa dead, the Roman
people were again in perplexity, and until a
king could be found, the state once more
adopted the Interregnum, or alternate rule of
the two hundred Senators. But this met with
no more favor than did the interregnum after
the death of Romulus.

Tullus Hostilius was finally chosen by the
people and Senate as king of Rome. Hostilius
the father had done good service in the days
of Romulus, and therefore the choice of the
people pointed to his son Tullus.

A very different man had they now to deal
with. A tiger and a lamb could not be more

unlike than Tullus Hostilius and Numa Pom-
(95)
96 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

pilius. Numa promoted peace at home and
abroad. Tullus, on the contrary, incited the
people first to contentions—then to war.

Mounted upon the throne, he looked around
within Rome: he saw the temple of Janus with
closed gates, displaying only the front of Peace.
Day by day he saw his subjects go forth from
their homes to their several occupations,—some
to their merchandise—some to skilful hus-
bandry, and others to till the fields, or drive
their flocks to pasture. At night, each man
returned to his happy dwelling, where round
the open door sat their wives with their little
ones. No warrior tents dotted the Campagna.
The trumpet and bugle were silent. Over the
green plains roved the dove-hued cattle undis-
turbed—the little sheep-folds were “full of
sheep,” and the sounds wafted thence, were the
sweet rural sounds of lowing herds, and the
happy songs of the shepherds.

Tullus saw also the devotion paid to the
gods, and that the lessons of piety implanted
by Numa had indeed taken deep root, and
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME, 97

were yielding rich fruitage. Such was the scene
which Tullus found at home. Then he looked
abroad. The Dove of Peace sat there also.
There was nothing to feed his warlike appetite.
— “Come,” said he, “this will not do. Tam
no woman to play with doves and nightingales !
No. Ye gods, it is not thus King Tullus will
rule Rome! Too long have the people grown
fat and waxed slothful. Their swords are
blunted—their armor is rusty. Unloose for me
the bold Roman Eagle, so long sitting with
folded wings, and eyes all afilm! Let mine
be the task to rouse these Romans from their
rest—throw wide the gates of Janus—make
sharp their blunted swords, and with hard blows
clink the rust from their armor.”

Sixteen miles from Rome stood the city of
Alba Longa. You remember, without doubt,
that in Alba the twins Romulus and Remus
were born, and were then cast forth upon the
waters of the river by their cruel uncle
Amulius,

9 G
98 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS8.

‘¢ Who spake the words of doom:
“The children to the Tiber,
The mother to the tomb.”

In the time of Tullus it was a flourishing,
populous city; and upon its subjugation the .
mind of the Roman king was bent. An occa-
sion soon offered. A fossé, or ditch, marked the
boundaries of the Roman and Alban territories,
and hither the herdsmen of both cities drove
their cattle to pasture, and cultivated their re-
spective fields. Although on friendly terms,
yet instances of aggression had been known on
both sides. King Romulus could not eradicate
all evil from the hearts of his subjects, and
even in his reign, Romans had encroached upon
Alban rights, and Albans upon Roman. But
Numa referring all such difficulties to the gods,
by his peaceful influence soon quieted their dis-
turbances.

Ah, Tullus was not Numa! On the first
complaint he started up:

“What!” cried he. Do these Alban boors
presume to rob Roman citizens! We will give
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME. 99

them a lesson to read upon the blades of our
swords!”

How easy itis toincite angry passions! “Be-
hold what a smoke a little fire kindleth !” says
the proverb, and the smoke of King Tullus’s
angry breath was wafted into the nostrils of the
Romans. First he sent ambassadors to de-
_ mand restitution from the hands of the king
of Alba. At the same time came ambassadors
from Alba Longa for a like purpose, they
deeming themselves to be the injured party.
They returned home on both sides without
effecting any compromise. And again the king
of Alba sent to the king of Rome.

The messengers came before Tullus with
great show of respect, but at the same time
boldly made known the mind of their king—
viz.: That unless restitution of property was
given them, their orders were to declare war
between Alba and Rome.

War! delightful sound in the ears of the
fiery Tullus Hostilius! Nothing could equal
100 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

the fierceness of his anger, however, as turning
to the ambassadors he said:

“Go tell your master that the king of Rome
needs no second challenge! I call the gods to
witness, ye have caused this war. Let its blood
be upon you! Go to your master and tell him
that in thirty days he will feel what it is to
provoke a Roman.”

Then did preparations for the coming strug-
gle commence with great activity—and through
the late quiet streets of Rome, now rang the
din of arms. It was a pity,for the Albans
were nearly connected by ties of blood with
the Romans—the Romans, themselves descend-
ed from the kings of Alba Longa!

The thirty days’ truce was ended. Both
armies were ready. The Albans marched first
to the field, and intrenched themselves within
the Roman territory. And then a strange
thing happened. Before any battle could be
fought, the king of Alba was seized with a
pestilential fever, and died suddenly within the
camp.
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME. 101

Another leader for the Alban army was cho-
sen. His name was Metius Fuffetius.

When the tidings that the Alban king was
dead, reached the ears of Tullus Hostilius, he
rejoiced exceedingly, for he looked upon it as
a favor of the gods shown to himself. And he
said :

“T thank thee, Jupiter, that by thus smiting
down the king of Alba, thou hast made known
to the Roman people, that thy vengeance will
be poured out upon the race of Alba Longa!”

To those who believed as did the Romans in
the interference of the Olympian gods with the
affairs of mankind, the death of the Alban
king inspired them with fresh spirit, and thus
sure of the favor of Jupiter and of Mars, they
followed their bold leader, the king himself in
person, joyfully to the field.

Adroitly passing the camp of the enemy dur-
ing the darkness of the night, Tullus with
his brave army encamped within the Alban
borders, taking care to leave a sufficient force
to defend the gates of Rome.

g*
102 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS,

The next day both armies drew up in order
of battle. Then a herald was suddenly seen
approaching, with apparent haste, the Roman
camp. His errand was made known. Metius
Fuffetius, the Alban general, demanded a con-
ference with the king and leader of the Roman
army. ‘This was granted.

Then while both armies in the full panoply
of war, spread far over the plain, Tullus Hos-
tilius and Metius Fuffetius, each attended by
their chief officers, met between the hostile
ranks.

Metius was the first to speak :

“King Tullus, you have called the gods to
witness that this war is of our seeking. J call
the gods to witness that it is to you we owe it!
You have denied us redress for the plunder of
your subjects, and therefore are we thus drawn
up in battle to secure what you, King Tullus,
have refused. Our armies are strong. They
are brave. They will fight nobly, both Albans
and Romans—for, O king, have we not the same
warlike blood in our veins? Let us not be hasty.
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME. 103

Let us reflect and be wise. A powerful state
is around us. The Etruscans already aim at
our conquest. When our numbers are dimin-
ished by war—when our men are enfeebled by
fatigue, and our resources become low, then, do
you not think, King Tullus, that this people will
seize the opportunity never before afforded
them, and in turn become victors alike of the
victors and the vanquished ?

‘¢ Let us then consult together, that we may
adopt some plan by which our present griev-
ances may be settled without risking the alter-
native of war.”

Tullus, although eager to bathe his sword in
Alban blood, yet saw the facts as Metius saw
them. He replied:

“You speak well, Metius Fuffetius. But
that ye have fastened this war upon Rome, I
again appeal to Jupiter, who has already slain
your king in token of his displeasure against
you. Tam not unwilling, however, to confer
with you, that together we may form some
104 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

treaty which shall be alike for the honor of
Rome and of Alba.”

What that treaty was the next chapter will
tell us.




CHAPTER II.

NOW it was a singular fact, that in the camp

of the Roman army were three brothers,
born at the same time, of equal strength and
bravery. They were called Horatii. And in
the Alban army were also three brothers born
atthe same time. They were named Curiatii.*
This remarkable coincidence was looked upon
as having been especially assigned by the gods
as a means of settling this warfare between
Romans and Albans. It was therefore agreed
by both parties, that the Horatii and the Cu-
riatii should meet in mortal combat, and with
their swords decide this contest. Whichever

* We are told by Dionysius that the mothers of these

brave youths were sisters.
(105)
106 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILL.

side, be it Roman or be it Alban, the cham-
pions came off conquerors, then the defeated
party, representing the whole state, should be
subject to the other without any dispute or
further warfare.

This compact was sealed. The six brave
youths, ready to sacrifice their own lives to
preserve the many, solemnly prepared them-
selves for the fatal combat.

That night the two armies slept in peace
under the calm light of the moon. At the
dawn of day, both were astir to witness the
coming contest between combatants equal in
rank, in strength, in valor, and in the justness
of their cause.

Laying by their swords, and lifting their hel-
mets from their brows, the soldiers seated them-
selves in ranks upon the grass; while King
Tullus and Metius, in all the splendor of their
rank, stood side by side to meet a crisis so tre-
mendous; which was to give either Rome to
Alba, or Alba to Rome.

Scarcely had the sun tipped the mountain
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME. 107

tops, ere the brothers were seen with burnished
swords and glittering armor approaching. The
Horatii from the Roman camp—the Curiatii
from the Alban. As they appeared—so young,
so brave—shout after shout rose up from both
armies:

“The gods be with you, brave Horatii!”

“Strike for Alba, brave Curiatii!”

And then all men held their breath.

Brave, handsome youths they were. Per-
sonal danger they heeded not. It was for
Rome—for Alba, they fought. Each noble
youth bore in his own bosom the horror of an
enslaved people, and rather than such should
be the fate of their countrymen-—their friends
and kinsfolk, they would dare the struggle even
to the death!

The signal given, with a prayer to the gods
they rushed furiously to the combat! Sword
clashed with sword—sharp, quick, death-dealing
strokes! No word was spoken—no sound heard,
save the meeting of flashing steel! |

Now blood was seen to follow the sword-
108 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

strokes. A Horatius staggers—he uplifts his
sword with a vain effort to strike—it drops from
his hand—he clutches the air wildly—alas, he
falls! /

The strife grows hotter. Another Horatius has
fallen!

What dismay to the Romans! But the three
Curiatii are wounded—blood is seen trickling
through their armor. The third Horatius is
unhurt.

A shout arose from the Alban camp, as they
witnessed the fall of the second Horatius. And
the Romans cry:

“Fieht on, brave Horatius! The gods are
with you!”

The Curiatii, however, are but slightly
wounded, and, fired with the triumph of having
slain the two Roman brothers, they rush upon
the last Horatius. He, seeing how unequal will
be the struggle, has resort to strategy. He
turns and flies the field! Looking behind him,
he sees, as he expected, the three brothers pur-
suing him—but not together—some distance
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME, 109

divides them. Slacking his pace a little to
allow the first of the Curiatii to come up with
him, he suddenly turns and plunges his sword
into the breast of his pursuer !

Loud shouts now rise from the camp of the
Romans—for see, Horatius meets and slays the
second Curiatius, and now rushes back to meet
the third! The contest was now, indeed, un-
equal, for Horatius was without a wound, while
Curiatius, bleeding and fainting with exhaus-
tion, still strove vainly to defend himself. Ho-
ratius stood before him, and then turning to
the Roman camp, he cried with a loud voice:

«“ Two of the Curiatii have I offered to the
shades of my brothers—the third, I offer to
Rome—that Rome may rule over Alba!” So
saying, with one blow, he slew the last of the
brave Curiatii!

The Romans received their victor with shouts
of triumph and congratulations, and the king
greeted him with the greeting due to a brave
man.

And then both Romans and Albans went
10
110 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

forth mournfully, and buried the dead where
they fell.

The tombs of these noble youths now form
solemn mounds upon the Appian Way. The
tall grass waves above them, and the trailing
myrtle which loves to shield the dead, clusters
thickly with the pretty wild flowers around
their green slopes. Gone are all the splendid
decorations of marble and stucco, which hon-
ored these youths—gone are the statues raised
to their memory! all are gone, save the mas-
sive blocks of Alban stone forming the found-
ation, upon which these tombs of the cham.
pions rested. On one—the first of the Curiatii
who fell by the cunning strategy of the last
Horatius, rises a modern tower. The height
of these mounds is probably twenty feet—their
circumference fifty. And as you look beyond
them, you see the plain on which the two armies
awaited the issue of that fatal combat.

I have told you this, in order to show ycu,
that although so many centuries have rolled
away since those brave brothers fell, yet these
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME. ill

sacred mounds wherein by warrior hands their
ashes were placed, still remain to thrill the
heart with the story of the Horatii and Curi-
ati !

But to return. Both armies retired in peace
to their cities. Tullus Hostilius took no ad-
vantage of his victory—only saying, as he parted
from the Alban general :

“Metius, keep the young men well trained
in arms; J shall want to use them!”

So you see both sides accepted the fate of the
combat.

And now a most afflicting event occurred.
When the Roman army entered Rome, the
victor Horatius walked first, with the spoils of
the vanquished borne before him. The sister
of Horatius, a lovely girl of very tender age,
was already betrothed to one of the Curiatii,
and not knowing of the disastrous event, went
forth to the city gates to meet her brothers.
- Seeing upon the shoulder of Horatius a mili-
tary robe which she herself had wrought for
her lover, she needed no word to tell her he
112 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

was slain! And with cries and lamentations
she began to call upon his name.

"That his sister should weep, even for her be-
trothed husband, while all others were rejoic-
ing—and that his victory should thus be met
by her reproaches—so excited the anger of Ho-
ratius that, losing all self-control, in the fury
of his passion he drew his sword, and pierced
the unfortunate young girl to the heart, ex-
claiming as he did so:

“May every Roman woman thus perish, who
mourns an enemy !”

A sad and bitter ending indeed for the victory
he had won.

The people around, shocked at a deed so
cruel and unnatural, seized Horatius and led
him before King Tullus for judgment. The
king was greatly moved. To his mind the ~
bravery shown that day by the Horatii, and its
important results, far outweighed the fratrici-
dal deed, and unwilling himself to pronounce
sentence, he gave him liberty to appeal to the
public. Should that voice proclaim him guilty,
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME, 118

then the penalty was—death! the unhappy
youth to be hung with ropes, his head down-
wards.

Horatius availed himself of the king’s per-
mission, and appealed to his countrymen. But
a far stronger appeal than the unhappy young
man could make, was made by his poor old
father. He came forward to justify his son for
the murder of his daughter. Said he:

“Do you suppose, Romans, that had I not
thought him justified, I would have left the
punishmentof my son to any other than my own
sword! Romans! this day two of my sons have
given their lives for you! I ask the life of the
third. Givehim tome! Do you not remember
that to my three brave boys you owe your freedom
from Alban slavery? Look upon this youth—
my boy—alas, my only boy——would you see
your benefactor bound to a gallows? Romans,
I demand my son!”

The people, moved to pity by this appeal of
the bereaved old man, at once released Ho-

ratius.
10* a
114 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Not far from the old Capena Gate, on the
spot of her cruel murder, they buried the young
Horatia. Her sepulchre is still shown.




CHAPTER III.

HE treaty made with Alba Longa, and
sealed with the blood of the Horatii and
Curiatii, was soon brought to a most disastrous
termination through the treachery of Metius
Fuffetius the Alban general. And in the fol-
lowing manner.

No battle having been fought, and the ques
tion of conquest settled by the loss of five lives,
in place of thousands; why, the consequence
was, that the fiery blood of Tullus still cried
out for war. And the Roman soldiers having
armed themselves for a battle so peacefully
ended, felt theirown warlike spirits had been
aroused by the clank of arms,—they thought of

the days of their fathers when Romulus led forth
(115)
116 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

his armies to battle, and they longed to throw
wide the gates of Janus.

Etruria bordered very closely upon the Ro-
man territory; only separated by the river
Tiber. Before Rome was—the Htruscans were
a people of great power. Not only had they
attained high cultivation, but even lived in a
state of luxury. In fact we are told by ancient
writers, that at one time almost all of Italy
was under the sway of Etruria. Veii was one
of their large cities. You remember, do you
not, that it was with the people of Veii that
King Romulus entered into a treaty of peace
to continue one hundred years? Pity such
treaties could not be made and kept by all na-
tions on the face of the globe! ;

Fidene had been an Ktrurian city un-
until after its conquest by Romulus—since
which time it had remained a Roman colony.
But the yoke sat heavy on the neck of this
once free and prosperous city, and not long
after the victory gained over the Albans by
Tullus Hostilius, they prevailed upon the in-
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME. 117

habitants of Veii to unite with them in shak-
ing off their bondage. Accordingly, the people
of Fideng openly revolted against Rome, and
drove from their gates the Roman colonists.

Here was just the state of things King Tul-
lus most desired, and he rose like a giant in his
wrath to put down this rebellion. Despatch-
ing messengers at once to Metius Fuffetius, to
join him with the whole Alban army,
the king massed his soldiers, and bore down
with his legions upon the Etruscans—viz: the
Veientines, and the people of Fidense. Cross-
ing the river Anio, Tullus pitched his camp in
the plain where the Tiber and the Anio unite
their waters.

Against the Veientines he marched his own
Roman army. To thestrength and bravery of
the Albans, he allots Fidenee. |

Unsuspicious of treachery, Tullus opens the
fight.

And now Metius shows his cloven foot! See-
ing how great was the force of the enemy, he
is seized with a spirit to be revenged upon the
118 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Roman king, not unmingled, however, with
a cowardice which perhaps did as much to in-
fluence his actions. To avoid the attack, while
at the same time he leaves his Roman allies in
the lurch, Metius files off his troops slowly
toward the mountains. Having led them far
enough to suit his purpose, he halts his men.
His idea was, to watch the chances of the bat-
tle—and then—to join with his army edther
force, where victory led!

The Romans engaged before Fidense saw this
desertion of their allies with perfect astonish-
ment, and sent a messenger at once to com-
municate the fact to their king, then engaged
in a furious battle with the Veientines.

King Tullus heard. He swore an oath to
the gods, and vowed two temples to Panic and
Paleness. But not to make known his belief
in the desertion of Metius, he dashed _for-
ward, and proclaimed in a loud voice that the
Alban general had with admirable strategy
only filed off in the direction cf the mountains,
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME. 119

that he might the better sweep down upon the
unprotected rear of the enemy.

Hearing, and believing this, the soldiers now
fought like tigers. Tullus Hostilius himself
pushing forward against the Fidenates, soon
routed their whole army. Throwing away
their arms they fled, some to the river—some
to the mountains. Tullus, the war-king, had
fighting enough that day!

After thus overcoming the Fidenates, he
dashed back again to where the battle was
raging with the Veientines. A more desperate
fight had never been fought by the Romans
than that day witnessed—yet they came off
victorious. The Etruscan army was most fa-
tally repulsed and slain.

And now King Tullus turned his attention
to the Alban army, which at the last had come up
with some show of fighting. Metius had even
the effrontery to congratulate the Roman king
upon the fortunate issues of the day. Tullus
made him no reply, save with such a look of
scorn as chilled the blood of the false Alban,
120 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

The king then assembling the Roman army,
thus spoke:

“Romans! Soldiers! To the immortal gods
do you owe your thanks for this day’s victory!
It was not alone an open foe you have had to
deal with, a brave enemy who gave stroke for
stroke, blow for blow—but you have suffered
from the treachery of our allies! Defended by
the gods, you have bravely met both armies of
the Etruscan foe! That power which was ex-
pected to share with you the struggle and the
triumph, basely and perfidiously deserted you
in the person of Metius Fuffetius, the Alban
general. Romans, Metius has violated our
treaty, sealed with the brave blood of the Ho-
ratii and the Curiatii!’? Then turning to the
Alban army, he continued: “Alba Longa
shall be no more. Your city I will destroy, nor
leave one stone upon another. Your inhabit-
ants I will transplant to Rome. I will admit
your nobles into the Senate—you shall share
our laws—we will become one people. As for
you, Metius Fuffetius, you are a traitor! false
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME. 121

to the gods,—false to the shades of the Curiatii!
As your mind was divided between Fidense and
Rome, even so shall your traitorous body be
divided!”

Then ordering two chariots to be brought
forward to which were harnessed four spirited
horses, Metius was extended at full length be-
tween them, and bound down. Then the
chariots were driven off rapidly in different di-
rections. The result can be imagined, but is
too horrible for us to dwell upon.

“Thus perish all traitors!’ cried Tullus.
“To thee, O Jupiter, I offer this sacrifice !’

The unfortunate dwellers in the city of
Alba Longa, how must we pity their sad fate!
For the Roman king without delay kept his
word, and sent thither a strong force to destroy
the city, and to bring back its inhabitants to
Rome.

That beautiful city with its lovely temples
and groves—where the calm waters of the

Alban Lake swept its base, and the mountains
rs
122 THH SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN ILLS.

reared their tall crests above! Alas, for this
beautiful city!

That day, the helpless women, feeble old
men, and youths not yet old enough to follow
the Alban general to the field; while praying
to the gods for the lives of their husbands, their
fathers, sons, and brothers, saw that legion of
Roman cavalry dashing down upon them, as
swoops the eagle on its prey! Alas! helpless
to resist, they stood paralyzed with terror, wit-
nessing the destruction of their household gods!
saw their dwellings torn down, their goods scat-
tered, and their beloved city put to the fire and
sword! And then when destruction had left
nothing more to destroy; then were they driv-
en forth with the sound of crashing walls in
their ears, and the dust of their falling dwell-
ings mingling with their tears.

Unhappy souls! Can you believe that in a
few hours the Romans destroyed the work of
four hundred years! By the commands of Tul-
lus Hostilius the temples of the gods were alone

spared the general ruin.
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME. 123

Less than three hundred yéars ago, where
were our own fine cities and towns which now
cover America from the Atlantic to the Pacific?
Look at New York—at Philadelphia—Boston,
with so many noble younger cities stretching
themselves over the far West! Would it not
be a dreadful thing to see either, in the space
of a few hours, laid waste by an invading
army ?

To make things more real, we must bring
the subject home.




CHAPTER IV.

OME prospered greatly after uniting the
Alban population. Tullus treated them
with respect, and appointed their nobles to take
place with the Conscript Fathers in the Senate.
He also extended the limits of the city, and built
himself a splendid palace upon the Coelian Hill.
He erected a new Senate house, which he
called after himself, the “Curia Hostilia.”
And all this time he suffered not his army to
diminish, nor neglect those exercises which form
a good soldier.

This done—and then, as you have seen a
great spider looking out from his well-woven
web, for something to prey on—so did Tullus
sit within his new palace, and look abroad for
war. He found it.

(124)
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME. 125

You remember the Sabines. Although they
figured so largely in the time of Romulus, we
have heard little from them of late. But now
they again come before us as a prosperous peo-
ple, having in all these years grown rich and
powerful. Nearly connected by marriage with
their Roman neighbors, and by the reign of the
good old king Titus Tatius, who you remember
ruled Rome with Romulus, for we must not
forget our old friends; yet the Sabines had come
to look with coldness upon Rome, and in sev-
eral instances had dared to defy her power.

Now King Tullus saw this. He resolved,
therefore, to nip this growing bud of rivalry.
A pretext soon offered, and war was declared.

And again was Rome victorious. It seemed
indeed, as if Romulus, whom the Romans had
made a god under the name of Quirinus, still
protected his own city! Wars which devas-
tated other countries, only served to strengthen
the power of Rome. The suckling of the Pal-
atine Wolf still infused, as it were, a fierceness

1L*
126 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

of spirit and daring which could not be sub-
dued:

With the Sabine conquest, the wars of King
Tullus Hostilius ended. For it was but a short
time after, that one morning just as the day be-
gan to dawn, a horseman was seen galloping at
full speed through the Capena Gate, and up the
Coelian Hill. Arriving at the imperial palace,
he threw himself from his panting steed, and
demanded to be conducted into the presence of
the king:

‘‘O king!” he cried, ‘“‘be it known to thee,
that upon the summit of the Alban Mount, red-
hot stones are raining down from Olympus!
The anger of the gods is about to destroy us.
We beseech thee, O king, to petition Jupiter in
our behalf!”

And lo—when Tullus, the king, sent forth
persons in great haste to inquire into this
strange story, they brought back word, that not
only was the air obscured by the swift descent
of red-hot stones and cinders, but that strange
voices and hollow murmurings were heard un-
TULLUS HOSTILIUS, THIRD KING OF ROME, 127

der the earth, as though the infernal gods had
broken loose!

We know of course this strange event was
but the bursting forth of a volcano.

When the king heard the reports brought
back by his messengers, he was greatly moved.
What no foe could inspire, that silent little
monitor, Conscience, did—and that was Fear!

Then Tullus began to think of the good King
Numa, and of the religious ordinances which
he had framed, but which he Tullus had so neg-
lected! And the king trembled upon his throne,
lest the anger of the gods was about to destroy

him.
And it isa singular fact that at this time a
mortal pestilence swept over Rome, and King
Tullus himself was seized with a lingering dis-
ease.

Throwing aside the weapons of war, Tullus
now commanded the Roman people to offer sac-
rifices to the angry gods. New altars were
raised—new temples were built, and new rites
solemnized. Instead of spending his days as of
128 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN GILLS.

old in studying warlike stratagems, the king
now passed his days and nights in religious or-
dinances, if happily by so doing he might ap-
pease the wrath of the heathen gods!

One day consulting some old volume found
in one of the temples, he discovered therein a
certain solemn sacrifice of a secret nature which
had not once been offered to Jupiter. Full of
hope that he had now obtained the power to
propitiate the “ Father of all gods, and of men,”
he shut himself up in a chamber of his palace,
for the purpose of offering that mysterious
rite.

But behold! while thus engaged in that sol-
emn sacrifice to Jupiter, a thunderbolt struck
King Tullus dead! and himself, and his palace,
and all that it contained, were burned to ashes!
This was B. C. 642.

Tullus Hostilius ruled Rome thirty-two years.

Here ends the story of Tullus Hostilius, the
third king of Rome.
ANCUS MARCIUS,

SHE FOURTH KING OF ROME.

~



CHAPTER I.

E are getting on very well, my young
friends. When we saw Romulus mark
out the walls of “Roma Quadrata” upon the
Palatine Hill, we were seven hundred and fifty-
three years in advance of the birth of Christ!
And we have now come down to six hundred
and forty-two years. You have made the jour-
ney pleasantly, I hope, and if you are not tired,
it will be for our advantage to enter Rome once
more, and follow out the fortunes of the Fourth
King of the Seven Hills.

After a short interregum, a king was elected.
You all loved the good king Numa Pompilius,
and when I tell you that the Conscript Fathers
and the citizens of Rome, elected the grandson

of Numa to rule over them, in the person of
(181)
132 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Ancus Marcius, I think you too will approve,
and cry as did the Romans:

“Long live King Ancus!”

The new king commenced a prosperous reign
in a manner well calculated to insure that pros-
perity. His first acts were to re-establish the
laws of his grandfather Numa—laws which, un-
der the stormy dominion of King Tullus Hos-
tilius, had been, as we have already seen, too
long neglected: and those duties due the gods,
the solemn sacrifices, the setting aside particu-
lar days of devotion—all these had fallen into
disuse. It caused the new king great sorrow
to see how little regard was paid to that re-
ligion which Numa so strictly enjoined upon
the citizens of Rome. He therefore commanded
one of the pontiffs to transcribe upon tables of
white stone, those laws and commentaries which
Numa had written, and to place them where
all persons might read them. This was done,
and these valuable lessons were hung up all
around the Forum. In this manner King An-
cus hoped to establish once more that peaceful
ANOCUS MARCIUS, FOURTH KING OF ROME. 133

and happy state of society which had existed
during the reign of that just king.

The character of Ancus Marcius may be said
to interlay that of the first two kings of Rome.
He had not the fiery warlike nature of Romu-
lus—nor had he in all points the pacific temper
of Numa; but enough of both natures happily
blended, to make him a good and wise king,

The turbulent spirit of Tullus Hostilius dur-
ing his reign, had spread through the neighbor-
ing cities and towns, and they grew restless.
They watched cunningly the gradual progress
and order which was being established in Rome
by the grandson of Numa, whom they began
to style “ The Second Numa”; and there were
some who resolved to profit by the apparent
neglect of warlike preparations.

The Latins in particular, although bound by
a treaty of peace under Tullus, now assumed
great boldness, and dared even to invade the
Roman territories, and plunder the fields of the
peasants.

When restitution of the wrong was demanded

12
134 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

of them, they merely returned a contemptuous
answer :

“Ah!” said they, shrugging their shoulders,
and snapping their fingers, “we are safe! This
pious King Ancus prefers to spend his days in
the temples of the gods, rather than meeting
brave men at arms. Like his grandsire Numa,
Ancus will swallow aloes, and give us cream !”
meaning, I suppose, that however bitter might
be the insult, the king of Rome would only re-
turn a soft answer.

They found themselves mistaken.

Latium was situated upon the south side of
the Tiber in the vicinity of Rome. It was said to
be called Latium, because one of the gods came
down from Olympus, and concealed himself
there. Lateo means to lie hidden, and so they
called it Latium. But we are told that it did
not consist of one, but of many cities. How-
ever, we cannot fix the locations of these very
old cities precisely, of which no stone is left
standing, nor is it important for us to do so.
We will content ourselves with the fact that
ANOCUS MARCIUS, FOURTH KING OF ROME. 135

Latium existed six hundred and forty-two years
before Christ, with which time we have now
to do.

Many years before Rome was built, when
over the Palatine Hill spread the rude cane-
huts of the shepherds, dwelling peacefully with
their flocks and herds, there existed in various
parts of Italy a very curious manner of declar-
ing war. This custom Ancus Marcius revived.

It may please you to understand it. It was
in this way:

When any city or town had violated the laws
of any other city or town—had plundered—
trespassed, or given any other just cause of
offence, then an ambassador who was chosen
usually from among the priests of the gods,
with a fillet of wool bound around his brows,
and wearing other insignia of his sacred office,
was sent to the offending parties. Arrived at
the confines of the city, the ambassador halted,
raised his hands to heaven, and cried with a
loud voice:

“Hear, O Jupiter! Let Justice hear! Wit
186 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

ness, ye gods, that I am a public messenger. I
come religiously instructed to demand restitu-
tion of this people.” Entering within the gates,
he repeats the same declamation to the first
man he meets, and again as he appears before
the chief authorities.

If restitution is at first denied, then the
priest of the gods remains for thirty-three days
within the city, that the people may have time
for reflection. If at the end of that time they
still refuse to yield up goods, or persons, then
the ambassador departs, saying as he leaves, to
the magistrates—then as he reaches the city
gates, and again as he leaves its confines:

“Hear, Jupiter—and thou, O Juno, hear!
and all ye celestial and terrestrial gods, and ye
infernal gods, hear! This people are unjust.
They deal not with equity.”

When the result of the embassy was made
known, a council of the chief men was held,
and if the majority were for war, then the
priest was sent back bearing in his hand a jav-
elin or arrow, pointed with steel, and dipped in
ANCUS MARCIUS, FOURTH KING OF ROME. 137

blood. As he drew near the frontiers of the
cnemy, with an invocation to the gods, he then
nurled the javelin within its confines.

Such was this singular custom. How does it
please you?

Now you may know what King Ancus did
when the people of Latium treated his messen-
gers in so contemptuous a manner. He sent
an ambassador to them, who in every particu-
lar carried out the olden law: First, by pro-
claiming his errand at the frontiers—the gates,
and before the chief magistrates of the city.
He had orders to abide there for thirty-three
days, according to ancient usage, if the people
proved obstinate.

And they were obstinate and foolhardy.

When the Roman ambassador left at the end
of thirty-three days, the Latins still shrugged
their shoulders, and, presuming upon the peace-
ful blood of Numa in the veins of Ancus, were
already beginning to plan new aggressions—
when behold—one morning a javelin tipped

with blood, was hurled within their boundaries!
12*
138 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Ah! it was a grand sight to see, when the
brave Roman army marched through the gates
of Rome, and bore down upon Latium. It 1s
hardly necessary to tell you that the Romans
gained the day. The Latins found to their
cost that King Ancus could not only pray to
the gods of Olympus, but could defend the
right, in a spirit worthy of either Romulus or
the later King Tullus.

They were conquered. Following the ex-
ample of the former kings, Ancus conveyed the
inhabitants of Latium to Rome. He treated
them like a generous conqueror, and gave them
the Mount Aventine, whereon they might found
a new colony.

This was but the commencement of wars.
Other towns took up the battle axe and the
sword. The particulars we will not trouble
ourselves with—we have already had fighting
enough. It will answer our purpose to say
that no power was sufficient to conquer the Ro-
man arms, and consequently the population
and possessions of Rome mightily increased.
ANCUS MAROIUS, FOURTH. KING OF ROME. 139

The old King Numa Pompilius, as I have
told you, was buried on the Janiculum Hill,
which at the time was without the limits of
the city. It was situated upon the opposite
shore of the river Tiber. Ancus Marcius, in
reverence for the memory of his grandfather,
now resolved to add the Janiculum to Rome.
So he buzlt the first bridge that ever spanned the
Tiber at the City of the Seven Hills. It was
constructed of wood, resting on piles. The
foundations of this old Pons Sublicius, [Sub-
lician Bridge], as it was called, are still to be
seen, when crossing the Tiber a little higher up
the stream.

We shall have occasion to visit this ancient
bridge on our travels by and by, for a very
heroic deed was done here, and we will see

“ How well Horatius kept the bridge
In the brave days of old.”

After building the bridge, Ancus surrounded
the Janiculum with formidable walls, and
erected a fortress thereon, that it might be pre-
140 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

pared to repel any attack of hostile tribes. And
thus Rome continued to increase, rapidly ad-
vancing to fulfill the decree of Romulus, that
she should be the “Queen of Nations’—the
‘City of the World !”

Her territories now extended to the Mediter-
ranean Sea, where King Ancus founded Ostia,
a port, for centuries after, so important to the
interests of Rome. Only sixteen miles distant,
and with the swift-tided Tiber to bear from
one to the other the rich returns which
commerce yields with foreign nations.

He also established extensive salt works at
that point, which even now are a source of
profit to the Roman government.




CHAPTER, II.

WORD for Ostia, my young friends, as we

may not return here again. From its
founding by King Ancus Marcius, it grew to be
a large and powerful city, containing at one
period, over eighty thousand inhabitants. The
banks of the Tiber bloomed with beauty, and
were crowned by the noble dwellings of the
Romans, extending to the very gates of Rome,
which, as I have already stated, was sixteen
miles distant. Whether in peace or war, all
was activity.

Such was Ostia. Shall I tell you what it is
at the present day? Grass-grown hillocks and
waste plains cover the site of this once beauti-
ful city! little lizards run up and down, and in

and out the mossy stones, and wild flowers and
(141)
142 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

vines make a carpet for your feet as you walk
over the homes of the dead. Down broken
steps you descend into long passages uncovered
from the soil beneath which they have lain
undisturbed for over two thousand years! Here
you find ruined temples, old tombs, and old dwell-
ings. Fallen columns of beautiful marble
strew these dreary courts—on every side are the
fragments of those splendid altars raised to the
gods, and of statues to men, and the deities they
worshipped !

Where are now that busy multitude that
bought and sold, and built themselves houses?
Scarce twenty people now linger around this
ancient city, sleeping on the sides of the old
tombs, or sharing with the cattle the shelter of
a haystack. Fever, with its pestilential breath,
breathes over all. A few pale women huddle
together in the sun. The men gaze at you
vacantly as you pass, and children half naked,
without the grace of childhood, with no child-
ish desire to play, sit in the sand, idle and list-
less. The only signs of active life in old Ostia,
ANCUS MARCIUS, FOURTH KING OF ROME. 143

are to be found in the gangs of galley-slaves
employed in the present excavations, the clank
of their chains, following their every step, like
the voice of Justice speaking anew.

In the early days of Christianity, and while
yet the city of Ostia retained its importance,
the good St. Augustine and his mother Monica
set forth from their distant home to visit Rome.
When they arrived at Ostia the poor Monica
fell sick with a mortal illness; and when she
was near death, seeing how much her son grieved
that being so far away from home, she would
be buried among strangers, she called him to
her and said:

“Bury me anywhere, my dear son, and do
not grieve for me. But there is one thing I ask
of you—it is this, that wherever you go, you
will remember me at the altar of the Lord.”

We will now return to the king, Ancus Mar-
cius, the first founder of this city, who having,
as we have seen, put down all rebellion, con.
tinued to improve Rome, by laying out new
144 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

streets, building fine dwellings, and promoting
the influences of religion and order.

In the mean time there came to live in Rome
a rich man whose name was Lucermo, and his
wife was called Tanaquil. These two persons
have much to do with the future of Rome, as
you will soon see.

The father of Lucermo had fled, an exile,
from Corinth, a Grecian city, and settled in the
land of the Tarquins.

Tarquinia was an Etruscan town, at no great
distance from Rome. And here he amassed a
great fortune, and when he died, left all to his
son Lucermo. This wealth Lucermo further in-
creased by marrying Tanaquil, who was of a no-
ble family, and also inherited great riches.

But one cannot have everything. And so
because the father of Lucermo had fled from
Corinth, [and some people went so far as to say
he had been a slave], the Tarquinians rather
looked down upon this wealthy pair, and did
not admit them into those circles of high life
to which they both considered themselves as
ANCUS MARCIUS, FOURTH KING OF ROME. 145

rightly belonging. Especially did Tanaquil re-
sent this injustice. Born and brought up in
Tarquinia, she had inherited as much pride ag
wealth, and little could she endure such cool
treatment from people whom in fact she con-
sidered her inferiors in rank.

“We will leave Tarquinia!” said she to her
husband.

He let fall a beautiful ornament he was ex-
amining, and looked his wife in the face, as if
astonished at her words.

“Leave Tarquinia, my spouse ?”

“ Yes, my husband, leave Tarquinia! I will
- no longer remain in a city to be thus insulted.
We will go to Rome, Lucermo. I feel that
‘the gods have some great good in store for us
in that wonderful city.”

To say was to do. So they gathered their
effects together, and turned their backs upon
Tarquinia, and their faces toward Rome. T'a-
naquil was an ambitious little woman, and she

thought to herself, ‘‘ who knows ?”
13 K
146 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Now those two little words in Tanaquil’s

busy brain meant a great deal.
' Romulus was a foundling; found under a
fig tree, and suckled by a wolf, and yet had
been—king of Rome! Titus Tatius, a Sabine,
had been—king of Rome! Numa too, was a
»abine—and Tullus Hostilius, the son of a sol-
dier—both had been kings of Rome!

“Ah! who knows?” thought Tanaquil.

While thus indulging her high hopes, which,
as you may guess, pointed to no less a mark
than the crown, Tanaquil and her husband
utrived at the Janiculum Hill. That they
might enter Rome with all the state which they
mtended to assume as citizens, they rode side
by side in a beautiful chariot drawn by four
richly caparisoned horses, while they themselves
were arrayed in a splendid manner.

As they reached the summit of the Janicu-
lum, looking down upon the beautiful city
of Rome itself, and all the cities and towns tor
miles around, girdled in by mountains and
hills; an eagle, which had for some time been
ANCUS MARCIUS, FOURTH KING OF ROME, 147

soaring aloft in the air, suddenly bent its course
to earth, and swooping down, circled several
times around the chariot, and gently lifting
the cap from the head of Lucermo, flew
round and round, and, as if obeying the orders
of Jupiter himself, again deposited the cap up-
on his head, and then with loud cries soaring
aloft was soon out of sight, buried within the
clouds of the Olympian heaven !

Tanaquil was nearly wild with joy at this
auspicious omen! She threw her arms around
her husband :

“Yes,” said she. ‘I told you the gods had
good fortune in store for us! Ah! you may be
certain, my husband, this bird of Jove was sent
to warn us of high power in Rome.” And
then she thought to herself as she tossed her
head proudly :

“ Who knows? I may yet see my husband
king of Rome!”




CHAPTER ITI.

RRIVED in Rome, Lucermo purchased a
noble dwelling, and furnished it with every
luxury of the day. They had slaves and at-
tendants of all grades—carriages and horses
without number, and when all was ready, un-
der the name of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus,
they took possession of their princely dwelling.
A man of brilliant talents, of polished man-
ners, and of kind deeds, Tarquinius Priscus
soon drew upon himself the favorable notice of
the Roman people. He became popular. His
: society was courted by the wealthier classes,
while at the same time the grace and accom-
plishments of Tanaquil, rendered his house a
most delightful resort.
(148)
ANCUS MARCIUS, FOURTH KING OF ROME. 149

This surely was a change from the cool man-
ners of the Tarquinians!

By and by the king, Ancus Marcius, hears of
this affable stranger who has come to dwell in
Rome. Reports reach him of his many be-
nevolent deeds—of his learning—his courteous
manners, until at length, desirous himself of
making the acquaintance of so general a favo-
rite, the king invites him to the palace.

And now was Tanaquil in the seventh heaven
of delight—

“ Who knows?” thought she.

The king found Tarquinius to be all and
more than report had pronounced him. For
once the voice of rumor spoke truly. The king
was indeed charmed with him; and Tarquinius,
urged on by his wife, failed not, day by day, to
cultivate the friendship of Ancus, and by every
possible means to ingratiate himself in his
favor. :

Tarquinius was successful in this attempt.
The ambition of Tanaquil gained strength.
Ancus gave him a place in his confidence ; al-

13*
150 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

lowed him to be present at all public and pri-
vate councils, whether foreign or pertaining
only to Rome—nay more—the king even asked
counsel of him.

And thus matters stood, when after a pros-
perous and happy reign of twenty-four years,
Ancus Marcius was called to give up his earthly
kingdom. Beloved and lamented by all, this
good king died.

After his death it was found that Ancus had
appointed Tarquinius Priscus the sole guardian
to his two sons—lads of ten and twelve years
of age.

Now, taking advantage of the confidence
which the late king had shown him, by admit-
ing him to his councils, and further emboldened
by the solemn trust confided to him, Tarquinius
proposed that no time should be lost in the
election of a king. Delay might imperil the
safety of the state.

His proposition was accepted.

That the sight of the sons of Ancus might
not affect the choice of the people, Tarquinius
ANCUS HARCIUS, FOURTH KING OF ROME. 15)

sent them off with a pleasant party of young
huntsmen for a day’s sport.

When the Conscript Fathers and all were
assembled, Tarquinius Priscus made a most
subtle, brilliant speech, wherein he adroitly in-
serted his high respect for the Roman people;
for their laws, and above all, for their religious
rites, which he hoped ever to see continued
with true piety as in the days of Numa, and
of their late lamented King Ancus! It was,
he assured them, from the love and respect he
felt for Rome, that he had forsaken his own
country and come to place himself under its
laws; and it was in Rome he hoped to draw
his last breath, when called by the gods.

In short, so eloquently did he plead his own
cause, while cunningly pretending to plead the
necessity of electing a king for Rome, that even
there upon the spot, with no dissenting voice,
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, of Tarquinia, was
chosen king of the Seven Hills!

And Tanaquil? Ah! the Roman eagle had
now let fall a crown upon her husband’s head,
152 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

and she was happy! Thatis, if ambition ever
finds its goal.

Here ends the story of Ancus Marcius, the
fourth king of Rome.


TARQUINIUS PRISCUS,

THE FIFTH KING OF ROME.



CHAPTER I.

ERHAPS a more ambitious man never as-

cended a throne than Tarquinius Priscus,
the fifth king of Rome. We have followed
him and his no less ambitious wife from Tar-
quinia. We beheld the auspicious omen upon
the Janiculum Hill, which marked his entrance
into Rome—namely, the descent of the eagle
of Jupiter. We have seen him daily increas-
ing in favor with the Roman people—and surely
no greater proof of esteem, as well as of the
most perfect confidence, could be shown any
man, than did the good king Ancus Marcius
manifest, when he appointed him the guardian
of his two little sons. A solemn trust which
no parent would confide without careful con-

sideration.
(155)
156 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

We have seen, too, in what manner Tarquin«
jus stirred the heart of all Rome in his favor,
by his eloquent and flattering address, plead-
ing his own cause, while pleading for the good
of the state, an address which crowned his
highest hopes. Ambition could go no further.
For now Tarquinius Priscus is king of Rome! -
Tanaquil is queen !

And now, my young friends, as we have seen
him mount the throne, we will watch his kingly
career, and trace the future of the man desig-
nated by the bird of Jove to rule the city of
Romulus.

The same ambitious views which led Tar-
quinius Priscus to the throne, impelled him also
to the exaltation of Rome above all other cities
of the world. He saw how rapidly her popu-
lation was increasing, and that the middle, or
plebeian classes as they were called, might in

_time become dangerous, unless some measures
‘could be adopted to unite them with the higher
orders of Rome.

So he elected one hundred more citizens to
TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, FIFTH KING OF ROMR. 157

the number of Conscript Fathers, and those he
selected from among the less powerful families;
thereby strengthening his hold upon the
hearts of the people. It was a new thing
for this class to be placed thus on an equal foot-
ing with those proud patricians in the counsels
of the state, and they adored their king for his
justice.

He further undertook to raise a number of
plebeian families to patrician rank. But this
attempt was met with great indignation by the
nobles. They treated the measure with scorn,
and even dared to remonstrate with the king.
Tarquinius, however, would probably have
carried his point, as he was a man not easily
set aside from any project he had undertaken,
had it not been for a famous soothsayer whe
lived in those days.

His name was Attus.

A soothsayer, was a person such as we now
call a fortune-teller. One who pretends to look
back into the past, and to the future. Their

influence is very small in our day, yet when
14
158 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

the gods upon Mount Olympus ruled, those
soothsayers were looked upon as interpreting
the will of the celestial deities.

You recollect that Romulus had great faith
in all omens and auguries. You recollect that
the site of the city he would build, was settled
by the flight of vultures; and again that Numa,
even that wise king, refused to accept the king-
dom until sure that the gods were propitious.

This Attus the soothsayer, therefore, came
boldly before the king, and demanded that as in
the days of Romulus, so now this intended pro-
ject of Tarquinius, so important to Rome,
should be decided by augury. At this the king
was greatly offended. Although concealing his
anger, he only pretended to ridicule the idea
of trusting to the chance flight of birds, either
north or south, east or west, soaring aloft or
skimming the earth, the events of a kingdom!
Tarquinius was a man of wisdom.

Said he with a laugh:

“Come, thou great soothsayer, who art so
well skilled in omens, let. us test thy power.
TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, FIFTH KING OF ROME. 159

If thou canst read the movements of birds,
thou canst surely read the motives of man!
Pray tell me, then, Attus, can what is now pass-
ing in my mind be done ?”

“OQ king, the thoughts of man are very
deep—who can penetrate them?” replied Attus.
“As the wind fanning our brows, which we see
not but only feel, so are the thoughts, until
they act for good or for evil. Nevertheless,
King Tarquinius, I tell thee that what thou
hast in thy mind, can be done!”

The king, first looking around with a meaning
smile upon his courtiers—as courtiers, you know,
there will always be, where there is power—
turned to the soothsayer and said :

“ Well, most wise Attus, it is but a small
thing. I was only thinking whether you could
cut in two pieces a whetstone with a razor—
nothing more! take it, and let us see what the
birds can do.”

So saying, he ordered a whetstone and a razor
to be handed Attus—and lo! with one stroke
the stone fell in two pieces upon the ground !
160 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

At this miracle, astonishment filled the mind
of the king, and the minds of all who saw it.
Here indeed was a wonderful thing. Yes, At-
tus must be in favor with the gods!

Tarquinius had the wisdom to concede the
power of him whom he would have exposed,
and therefore allowed-his project of elevating
the plebeins to pass unperformed. Indeed, so
impressed was the king by this act on the part
of Attus, that he caused his statue to be placed
on the steps of the Senate House, and the
whetstone, with the razor, to be deposited un-
derneath them.

This miraculous cleaving of the whetstone,
brought new honors to the class of sooth-
sayers; and their decisions, whether called
forth by the flight of birds, or other signs,
had more weight than the will of the king, and
even the most important projects were often
put off, or entirely given up, provided the birds,
those winged heralds of the gods, flew the
wrong way.

This makes you smile. But we must not
TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, FIFTH KING OF ROME. 161

forget that we are travelling away back in the
ages—not dealing with people of the nineteenth
century; who after all do things quite as ab-
surd. But this is between you and me !”




CHAPTER II.

EPA ECUINIvS continued to display the same

brilliant talents as before he was king, and
won both the love and confidence of his sub-
jects. He studied for the good of this great
empire, nor did he insure it by peace alone—
for several mighty battles were fought during
his reign, the results of which only served to
increase his own power, and the strength of
Rome.

Two wars with the Sabines. One with the
Latins.

In the first conflict, the Sabines were the
attacking party. With so much care and cau-
tion did they plan, that their army had crossed
the river Anio, ere the Romans were aware of

any hostile attempt.
(162)
TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, FIFTH KING GF ROME, 163

Then there was a call to arms—a hurrying
to and fro! The clank of armor echoed from
street to street. Hach soldier donned his good
sword or battle-axe—each cavalry officer nount-
ed his noble war-horse. And led on by the
king, the gallant Roman army moved to meet
the foe. Both sides fought with bravery—yet we
are so accustomed to the success of the Roman
arms, that it would indeed seem strange to
have them defeated. |

They were not, but came off as usual, con-
quering and to conquer.

The second battle with the Sabines was won
by a clever piece of strategy. While both
armies were engaged in the fray, the enemy
having again crossed into the Roman territory,
Tarquinius caused floats of timber to be set on
fire and sent down the rapid flow of the river—
these following each other in quick succession,
lodged about the piers of the bridge, built by
the Sabines, at the junction of the Tiber and
the Anio rivers. Fanned by the wind, and
their own swift descent, the blazing timbers
164 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

caught the piers, which were soon burned
through and fell asunder.

You can imagine the dismay of the Sabines
at this disastrous event—the bridge gone!

A little matter turns the scale. And so at
this sight, the Sabine troops broke rank in dis-
order. In vain their leaders called upon them
to come back—in vain the leaders fought with
desperation themselves! The day was lost.
The soldiers, utterly demoralized, threw away
their arms. Some plunged into the river, and
fled to the hills. Others dashed over the plain,
but, pursued by the Roman cavalry, they were
forced back, and met either death or bondage.

Nor was Tarquinius content to let the matter
rest here. Once provoked to war, he now re-
solved to conquer the whole Sabine people; nor
leave them achance for again daring the power
of Rome. The unfortunate prisoners he sent back
to Rome. The spoils he had won, he caused
to be heaped in the centre of the battle-field,
and burned them there, as an offering to the god
Vulean, who had forged the Roman arms so
TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, FIFTH KING OF ROME. 165

strong, that no others could meet them and
prevail. ;

He then crossed over into the Sabine terri-
tories. When aware that the invincible Ro-
mans were approaching, the undaunted Sabines,
bravely collected a small force, and went out
to meet them. It wasof no use. They were
defeated. They threw down their arms and
sued for peace. Peace was granted. Their
chief city, Collatia, he placed under the com-
mand of his nephew, who now assumed the
name of Collatinus. We must remember this
fact.

Then Tarquinius returned victorious to Rome,
the whole city pouring forth to meet him,
swelling the grand procession up to the temple
of Jupiter, where a victorious general first of
fered his thanks.

Nothing could exceed the splendor with which
the king made this triumphal entry. Robed
in a toga and tunic of royal purple, richly em-
broidered with golden palms and flowers of
brilliant hue-—-with a crown of gold upon his
166 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

head, and a sceptre surmounted by the eagle
of Jove in his hand—riding in a gilded chariot
drawn by four noble horses, and attended by
twelve lictors bearing the axes and the rods,—
thus did Tarquinius Priscus assert to the Ro-
man people his triumph over their enemies, who,
in long procession, captive and in chains, fol-
lowed in the train of the conqueror !

Flushed with success, the king next attacked
the Latins, who by this time were again becom-
ing somewhat powerful; their subjugation by
Ancus Marcius was now a yoke to be shaken
off. But the Roman king soon subdued them,
and made their cities and towns his own. And
we may now compare Tarquinius Priscus with
the Emperor Alexander the Great, who wept
that he had no more worlds to conquer !

Peace again secured, the king looked to the
welfare of the people and of Rome. He saw
the people must have employment—but in
what way?

In the beautiful valley between the Palatine
and the Aventine Hills, then called the Vallis
TARQUINIUS PRISOUS, FIFTH KING OF ROWE. 167

Murcia, Tarquinius now marked out the limits
of the great Circus Maximus, to be used as a
race-course, or, for popular games to please the
public. And here, let me say, this Valley
Murcia, included the same ground where
Romulus celebrated the festival to Neptune,
when the Sabine maidens were borne off by
the youths of Rome.

This great project gave employment and sup-
port to hundreds of freedmen and slaves. The
Circus Maximus covered an area of 2187 feet in
length, and in breadth 960. There were 2500
seats, and the whole space was capable of ac-
commodating 150,000 persons. There was a
circus for you !

Here the king celebrated in the most costly
manner the “ Great Games,” as they were called.

The limits of the ‘Forum Romanum, or Ro-
man Forum, had been appropriated by the
former kings; stretching from the foot of the
Capitoline Hill to the slope of the Velia. To
secure these limits Tarquinius erected upon the
southern side, shops and dwellings—while at
168 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

the upper end of the Forum and under the Ca-
pitoline, he built a splendid temple, called the
““Temple of Saturn.” At the present day,
eight of the beautiful columns belonging to that
temple stand upon its site. They were exca-
vated during the present century.

I will make a little extract from a valuable
work by Emil Braun, secretary of the Arche-
logical Institute of Rome, which will give you
a better idea of this temple which Tarquinius
Priscus erected. He says:

“Tt was on the steps of this temple that the
victorious generals on their return from a cam-
paign were obliged to take a solemn oath that
they had given a true and exact account of the
number of captives, and the value of the spoils.
At this spot where the Sacra Via led up to the
Capitoline, the victor, according to an ancient
custom, stopped his triumphal chariot and
gave orders that the captives confined in the
prison opposite should be strangled !”

Tarquinius also commenced building a mag-
nificent temple to Jupiter, and to sarround the
TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, FIFTH KING OF ROME 169

city by anewand formidable wall. These, how-
ever, I may as well tell you, he did not finish,
but left that duty to his successors.

But there still exists one of the most stupen-
dous works of this king’s reign, a work which
has called forth the admiration and wonder of
centuries, and which for ages yet to come, will
carry down the name of Tarquinius Priscus,
king of Rome.

This was the construction of a sewer, or
drain, running from the Palatine through the
Valabrum, and emptying into the Tiber. Little
pools of water collecting in the marshy soil west
of the Palatine Hill, it was feared might ren-
der the place unhealthy. It was called the
Valabrum, and it was to carry off this water,
as also the refuse from the Palatine, that Tar-
quinius conceived the idea of an underground
channel. This is called the Cloaca Maxima;
and to this day answers the purpose for which
it was intended.

I wish you to understand tlat with Rome

15
170 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

originated the custom of cleaning cities by means
of underground sewers.

It was 606 years before Christ, that Tarquin-
ius built this Cloaca Maxima, and those massive
stones are still as solid as when first put in
place, nearly twenty-five hundred years since !

Ah! when the old Romans built, they seemed
to build for eternity!

The blocks of tufa, or peperino, of volcanic
formation, of which the cloaca is constructed,
are of immense size, and put together without
cement. We are told by ancient writers that
a cart laden with hay could pass easily through
this huge channel. It could not be done now,
owing to the rise in the level of the Tiber. I
have seen this old sewer, and the scene around
is about as wild as you can imagine. The
guide, lighting a torch, placed it upon a long
pole as flexible as a fishing-rod, and led me
through a dark passage, and over a slimy, slip-
pery path, until we reached the spot, where,
bending the light downwards, he showed me
the dark waters under that strong arch, and
TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, FIFTH KING OF ROME. 171 -

then the old pipes, which, in the days of the
Ceesars, led from their imperial palaces on the
Palatine Hill. Here we see the ruins of Rome’s
magnificence! All around are broken arches,
crumbling walls, and jutting slabs of stone,
covered with moss and lickens, tall ferns and
the pretty maidenhair; while the wild fig
trees rooted in the ruins, swing out their green |
branches, and dip them in the swift flow of the
Cloaca Maxima. There is a lovely little stream
which is called in English the Silver Water—
in Italian, “ Acgua Argentina,” which comes
dancing down from the rocks, and falls into the
refuse of the Valabrum. Directly upon the
edge of the cloaca, where the little stream from
the rock cuts through the vines and wild flowers,
was perched a lemonade stand. It looked
strange to see it in that dark cavernous place.
I would as soon have expected to mvet the
old Roman king! A smiling Italian peasant
girl, with a pretty red bodice and blue skirt,
and a fold of white linen over her coal-black
hair, stood by the side of the little table, and
i72 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

holding a goblet to the bright lip of the foun-
tain as it bubbled from the rocks, she said:

“Ah! the Signora will drink of the cool
spring, and give poor me a biocca?” [a small
coin].

But we have now something quite as inter-
esting awaiting us in the palace of Tarquinius,
as the surroundings of the Cloaca Maxima,
where we have been detained solong. We will
leave it with the pretty peasant still standing
by the Silver Water, and proceed thither.




CHAPTER III.

ITH the captives brought by the Roman
king from Corniculum, one of the con-
quered Latin provinces, was Ocresia, the widow
of Servius Tullius, aman of rank and bravery,
who lost his life in the noble defence of his
country. Ocresia, although now a slave, was
received with great favor by Tanaquil, whom
you remember as the wife of Tarquinius Pris-
cus. In fact, it was not long ere a very great
intimacy was formed between them, so much
so, that the widow was treated with the greatest
kindness, and lived more as an equal than as
a slave under the roof of her captor.
Ocresia was the mother of one little son, and

the kindness of Tanaquil extended also to him.
15* (173)
174 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

One day a most wonderful thing occurred in
the palace.

The little boy was put to sleep upon a silken
couch, and a slave left to fan him, and watch
his slumbers.

Suddenly a flame of pale fire surrounded the
head of the sleeping child. The attendant
screamed with terror. What should she do—
the poor child would be burned to death! Her
alarm extended to others, some running for
water, some wringing their hands and calling
upon the gods to save the pretty boy.

Tanaquil, hearing this strange confusion, sent
to inquire the cause: but when they told her
that the little Servius Tullius was nearly en-
veloped in flames, she forbade them either to
extinguish the fire, or to awaken the boy who
stili peacefully slept.

And when a little after, the child awoke
happy and smiling, the strange flame disap-
peared !

- Tanaquil was as wise a woman now as queen,
TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, FIFTH KING OF ROME. 175

as when only the wife of a Roman citizen. She
took her husband aside :

“ Husband,” said she, “we must educate that
boy for a high position!”

“Why so, my queen?” replied Tarquinius,

“Do you not perceive,” continued Tanaquil,
“that the gods favor this little son of the cap-
_tive Ocresia? Yes, they have this day made
known his destiny. Hast thou forgotten, Tar-
quinius, that an eagle, sent by Jupiter, brought
and canst thou not divine the



thee thy crown
meaning of those flames which have this day
played about the head of the little Servius Tul-
lius? Believe the gods—this child will be a
light to Rome! the lustre of his reign shall
outshine. all others!”

“But, Tanaquil, you forget we have sons of
our own,” interrupted the king. “ Would you
have a stranger sit upon the throne ?”

“True, Tarquinius. But if the gods will
that Servius Tullius shall be greater than the
sons of Tarquinius Priscus, they must be obeyed.
We must train this youth well—even as & son,
176 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

since he is higher than our sons. The gods
have given him into our care, let us look well
that we obey the trust.”

And from that day the little son of the cap-
tive widow was reared by the king and queen
as their own.

Servius proved worthy this distinction. He
grew up to bea brave youth. His character
was noble. His talents of a high order. His
disposition generous and affectionate. And,
indeed, so strong an attachment did King Tar-
quinius feel for him, that when Servius reached
the age of manhood, he gave him his own
daughter in marriage.

You remember, I think, the two sons of King
Ancus Marcius, who were left under the guar-
dianship of Tarquinius. The king had in all
things endeavored to do his duty by these young
men, and had deprived them of no privilege due
their high birth—save only the kingdom!

As these sons of Ancus grew up to manhood,
they felt keenly the usurpation of the crown,

belonging, as they believed, by right of inher
TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, FIFTH KING OF ROME. 117

itance to them. They watched sullenly tke
prosperity of the king, and saw with growing
jealousy how much he was beloved by the Ro-
man people. In short, they hated him.

They had not the courage to rebel, but
silently brooded over their wrongs—the worst
thing men can do—and generally leads to mis-
chief.

But when by this new act of Tarquinius—
namely, the marriage of his daughter with Ser-
vius Tullius, they saw the crown apparently re-
moved still further from their reach—then they
put shape to their brooding thoughts. The
time had come for action; but oh! how das-
tardly, how cowardly did they move!

Not against Servius Tullius were their plots
formed,—for Servius dead, another son-in-law
could be found, and the throne be as far from
them as now! No, the sons of Ancus Marcius
aimed at the life of the king!

Cunningly they set to work. They found
two shepherds, who, notwithstanding their

peaceful profession, were cruel and ferocious
M
178 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

men; men who for the sake of gain, were will-
ing to enter into any wicked deed—to whom,
the shedding of innocent blood was nothing,
if with the life-drops, came also gold to their
murderous hands.

The plan was formed. It was this:

Upon a certain day these shepherds were in-
structed to go to the palace, and while care-
lessly lounging about the court, to fall into some
slight dispute, and then gradually to enter into
an altercation so noisy it could not fail to at-
tract the notice of the chief officers, if not of the
king himself. In the height of their dispute,
one of them was to dare the other to refer the
matter to Tarquinius Priscus, who was always
ready to hear the complaints of his most lowly
subjects

All this happened exactly as they wished.
The order of the court was suddenly disturbed
by the rude wrangling and blasphemous oaths
of the two men, who, in simple peasant garb,
had been loitering around, apparently dazzled
by the splendid men-at-arms, or leaning against
TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, FIFTH KING OF ROME, 179

a column, watching with open mouth and star-
ing eyes the groups of noble patricians as they
passed on up to the gates of the palace.

Before they could appeal to the king, as was
the concerted plan, the king heard the con-
fusion and ordered the men to be brought be-
fore him.

Alas for the doomed king!

And they came, scarcely restraining, as it
were, their assumed passion even in the royal
presence. In the manner agreed upon, one of
the shepherds advances nearer to the side of
the king than was customary, and begins to
tell his story in the most vehement manner.
Tarquinius, becoming interested in the well-
forged tale, turns himself entirely around to the
speaker, and in that moment the other shep-
herd, with the quickness of lightning, lifts an
axe concealed beneath his sheepskin robe,
strikes the unfortunate king in the head, and,
leaving the weapon in the wound, both men,
flourishing their daggers, sprang through the
guards, and attempted to escape from the dread«
180 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS,

ful scene. They were seized, however, and
secured.

All was now confusion, dismay, and horror
at the atrocious deed!

But the mind of Tanaquil the queen was equal
to the occasion. She instantly ordered the pal-
ace gates to be closed, and requested all persons
present to retire, in order that she might take
measures to revive the king, and see that his
wounds were properly dressed. She was obeyed.
Then sending for Servius Tullius, she took his
hand, and, in the presence of her poor dying
husband, she said :

“Now, Servius, if you are the man IJ think
you, the kingdom is yours! It shall not be
given to those who have done this bloody deed—
for, see you not that it is to the sons of Ancus
Marcius we owe this great grief? It is the sons
of Ancus who have slain your father, and my
husband! Be a man. Let that celestial fire
which shone around your head in infancy, in-
spire and guide you now. Follow my advice,
Servius. ie calm; be resolute; and, as the
TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, FIFTH KING OF ROME. 18]

gods have ordained, you shall be king of
Rome!”

Tanaquil then went to a window of the pal
ace which faced the temple of Jupiter Stator,
(for the palace of Tarquinius stood upon the
Palatine Hill, close by the Porta Mugeonis),
around which dense crowds were gathered in
consequence of this sad event; and in a most
touching and plausible manner, assured them
their good king was only stunned by the blow;
that, the blood being washed away, it was found
that happily the weapon had not penetrated as
deep as the assassin intended,—the wound itself
was trifling:

““Take courage, my excellent friends, faith-
ful Romans,” she continued. “You will soon
see your beloved king again. The shock to his
system is great, and from loss of blood he feels
weak, and may not, therefore, for a few days
come among you. His loving commands are,
that in the meanwhile you will defer all state
matters and all matters of a private nature to
his son-in-law Servius Tullius, whom he will

16
182 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

empower to administer justice, and to do in all
things even as the king would do himself.”

This speech was received most favorably—
none doubting its truth.

Servius Tullius then came forth in robes of
state, attended by lictors, and took his seat upon
the throne.

A few cases were brought before him to
decide, which he did with great wisdom. If
any matter of grave import was given to his
judgment, then Servius pretended to consult
the king. In this way several days passed on,
and then it was announced to the people and
Senate of Rome, that their king Tarquinius
Priscus was dead.

They mourned deeply, for Tarquinius had
been a good king and father to his subjects.

And to whom could the rule of Rome be
more safely intrusted than to one who had
already proved himself so well able to govern?
and to whom their lamented king had intrusted
so much ?

Therefore—even without consulting the peo.
TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, FIFTH KING OF ROME. 183

ple, who, however, were all unanimous in his
favor—the Senate elected Servius Tullius to sit
upon the throne. This was B. C. 580.

The sons of Ancus Marcius were exiled.
Tanaquil did not long survive her husband, and
died happy in the thought, that in obeying the
celestial mandates of the gods, she had given
to the people so good a man as Servius Tullius
to be the sixth king of Rome.

Here ends the story of Tarquinius Priscus,
the fifth king of Rome.

















SERVIUS TULLIUS,

THE SIXTH KING OF ROME,



oe

















CHAPTER I.

ET us keep our dates correct. I promised
we would make our journey very easily,
at the same time we must remember the ground
we have travelled over, for “‘who knows?” as
Tanaquil said, but we may one day take the
journey again. Suppose then, like travellers
at an inn, after having rested, and partaken of
a good supper, we draw around the table and
compare notes. Are you agreed?
Yes! well, then, we will commence at once.
Now, my dear young friends, when we saw
Romulus mark out the limits of the city he
would build, and turning the fresh furrow
whereby to erect the walls of Rome; how many
years to the birth of Christ? Do you recollect?

‘¢Seven hundred and fifty-three.”
(187)
188 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

When the good Numa Pompilius came from
Cures, and, accepted by the gods, ascended the
throne of Rome?

“ Seven hundred and fourteen.”

When we met the warlike Tullus Hostilius,
and heard the thunderbolt which hurled him
down?

‘¢ Six hundred and seventy-four.”

Then when the greatly beloved King Ancus
Marcius brought once more peace and order to
Rome ?

“ Six hundred and forty-two.”

When the eagle of Jupiter made known the
will of the gods that Tarquinius Priscus should
rule the Romans ?

‘¢ Six hundred and eighteen.”

And now with Servius Tullius upon the
throne, how many?

“Five hundred and eighty.”

Upon my word we have done well. Why,
you look as fresh as when we first commenced
our pilgrimage; and now we have only five
hundred and eighty more years to travel down
SERVIUS TULLIUS, SIXTH KING OF ROME. 189

ere we come to the plains of Bethlehem—or so
near that we may see the dark clouds beginning
to roll off, and the day-spring of glory already
dawning.
We are entering now upon a road, whic
although very peaceful and pleasant at first,
soon becomes tangled and matted over with
weeds of envy; we shall hear the hissing of
serpents as they glide in and out this unwhole-
some herbage, and finally, it will lead us to the
Forum of Rome, with the blood-stains of a good
king upon the steps of its Senate chamber!
Like signal-lights in a man’s life, good deedy
shone in the life and actions of Servius Tullius.
One war only disturbed his reign. It was with
Veii. You have not forgotten that King Rom-
ulus made a truce with Veii for one hundred
years, and that time having long since expired,
the Veientines, remembering their defeat of old,
struck out for conquest. In vain. The good
fortune of Rome still prevailed, and Servius
returning from the field of battle, entwined
himself with the laurels of victory, still closer to
190 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

the hearts of his countrymen. And peace re-
stored, the king, like Numa Pompilius, strove
only for the good of his subjects and the pros-
perity of Rome.

It would be a long and a tedious work for us,
perhaps, to look over all the new laws and regu-
lations which Servius Tullius instituted and
adopted. Indeed, it may with truth be said,
that he formed an entire new constitution for
the state, whereby all citizens, both patricians
and plebeians, might unite on equal terms, and
he gave to property-holders the same power in
the government which had previously belonged
to persons of high birth only. You recollect
that Tarquinius Priscus once attempted the
same thing, but was overruled by the dissent-
ing voice of the patricians, and of Attus the
soothsayer.

Servius was the first king to take a census of
the population of Rome—of the business occu-
pation, and property of its inhabitants. Having
done this, he found that Rome contained eighty
thousand persons eaclusive of slaves, who
SERVIUS TULLIUS, SIXTH KING OF ROHE. 191

were able to serve the state. And these he di-
vided and classified. Without going into any
very particular details, it may instruct us to
know, in a general way, in what manner the
division was made.

In the first place, he formed from the people
eighty centwries—now, centuries in this sense,
represents a squadron of one hundred cavalry,
or one hundred infantry—that is, horse and
foot. Forty of these centuries, or companies,
he called the “Seniors,” whose duty it was to
guard the city. The other forty were called
“ Juniors.” They were intended to do the fight-
ing abroad.

These men were armed, as they say, cap-a-pie,
in coats of mail, with helmets and shields, and
huge boots called “greaves’—all of which were
made of brass. Each man carried a spear and
asword. What a dazzling sight in the sun-
shine! And then to have seen those squadrons
drawn up in battle array, “ten file deep,” as the
historian Niebuhr affirms, with their brass hel-

mets, their glittering mail, and every man’s
> oO 2 2
192 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

shield lapping the shield of the soldier at his
side—thus forming a brazen breastwork against
the enemy !

Many other companies were also enrolled--
each having its particular duty. Some were
armed with long javelins—others carried slings,
dexterously hurling either leaden bullets or
stones.

In forming his armies, Servius wisely con-
sidered that there were three things necessary
to make a good soldier. What were they? you
ask.

First, that every soldier might be able to
supply his own armor; for, as we have seen, the
equipments of the “seniors” and “juniors”
were very expensive.

Second, that every soldier should be so situ-
ated, as to enable him to give all of his time to
the service, and that his means would allow
him to do so without the perplexity of finding
support for his family.

And thirdly, that no expectation of pay
should send a soldier into the ranks. The only
SERVIUS TULLIUS, SIXTH KING OF ROME. 193

stimulus should be a pure love of country. A
blow struck for Rome—for country and for
home! not for money or other reward! Such
were the three rules of Servius Tullius, and
which, carried out, made the Roman army the
first in war.

The laws which Servius framed were so ex-
cellent, that he has been called “The Law
Giver.” .

Before taking the census of peoples and pro-
perty,in order that no man should absent
himself, or underrate his possessions, Servius
issued a proclamation entailing imprisonment
or death upon any such delinquent. The con-
sequence was, he had full returns.

The census taken and the companies enrolled,
he ordered that all thus classified should assem-
ble in that wide plain between the hills and the
river Tiber, called the “Campus Martius’—or
Field of Mars—at the dawn of day, and there to
offer a solemn sacrifice to the gods. This was
done.

And now Servius began to build his great
17 ; N
194 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS

wall, which is to this day called “The Wall of
Servius Tullius.” Within it, he enclosed the
Quirinale and Viminale Hills, and enlarged the
boundaries of the Esquiline. Of this Servian
wall I will say a word. There are portions of
it still remaining here and there about the
modern city. I have seen them, and own I
reverence them. A few years since, between
the Viminale and Quirimale, quite a length of
the old wall was standing—but now, the rail-
road has swept nearly every stone away! Pick-
axe and crowbar, shovel and spade, are even -
now delving deep and upheaving the great
blocks of travertine stone of which the wall was
built, and tossing them upon the roadside, where
I am sure if stones could: speak, and the great
Shakspeare boldly declares there ave “sermons
in stones’—then would they preach eloquently
against that power which has thus disturbed
their sleep of ages! The wall of Servius was
00 feet broad, and upon the outside ran a, ditch
which was 100 feet wide, and 30 feet deep!
The king built for himself a palace upon the
SERVIUS TULLIUS, SIXTH KING OF ROME. 195

Esquiline, which was a part of the city little fa-
vored by the nobles of Rome, in order to ren-
der it more respectable.

The next thing Servius contemplated, was
to ornament the city with beautiful temples in
honor of the gods.

There was at Ephesus, in those days, a cele-
brated temple built to Diana—a goddess whom
all the people greatly worshipped. Now, to be
certain that we are right, let us turn to the 19th
chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, where, in
parts of the 24th, 26th, and 28th verses we
shall read:

“For a certain man named Demetrius, a
silversmith, which made silver shrines for Di-
ana, brought no small gain unto the craftsmen,
whom he called together and said: ‘ Sirs, this
Paul hath persuaded and turned away much
people, saying that they be no gods which be
made with hands !

‘¢ And when they heard it they were full of
wrath, and cried out, saying: ‘ Great 1s Diana
of the Ephesians !”
196 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

We may therefore conclude this same temple
whicl. stood in Ephesus in the time of the sixth
king of Rome, was the same which enshrined
the bright goddess Diana in the days of the
Apostles, so many centuries later.

Servius, in emulation of the Ephesians, erected
a temple to Diana upon the Aventine Hill—
that all who saw it might exclaim: “ Great is
Diana of the Romans !”

One object which Servius had in view in
building this temple, was, that it might serve as
a place of meeting for the people of those La-
tin cities which had been subjugated by Rome,
and he therefore proposed to them to unite with
him in the act, that in this manner their friend-
ship might be the more strongly secured.

This proposal was accepted by the Latins.
And as the temple was to be built in Rome,
why it was a tacit acknowledgment, as it were,
of her supremacy. After the temple was built
the following incident occurred. .

A certain Sabine owned a beautiful young
heifer—so sleek, of a soft dove-color---with
SERVIUS TULLIUS, SIXTH KING OF 2OME. 197

large mild eyes, and horns of such an amazing
size as were the wonder and admiration of all
who saw her.

It chanced that a great soothsayer bebeld
this fine animal, and immediately predicted
that in whatever city the man should be who
sacrificed this young heifer to the goddess Di-
ana, that city should rise above all other cities !
The Sabine was cunning—and thinking to in-
sure the power of his own people, he drove the
pretty creature to Rome, and to the Aventine,
intending to offer the sacrifice himself. But
the priest of the temple was as cunning as the
Sabine, and moreover his ears had already
heard the prediction of the soothsayer. So
when he saw this beautiful heifer with her su-
perb horns, he knew it could be no other than
the one in question, and at once divined the
motive of the Sabine in driving her thither.
Said he to the unsuspecting man:

‘‘What do I behold? Is it possible that
thou dost intend to offer a sacrifice to Diana,
the goddess of Purity, with impure hands?

17*
198 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Look there—seest thou not the Tiber flowing
through the valley? Hasten thither and wash
thy hands, that thou mayest with more pro-
priety approach the sacred altar.”

The Sabine, fearful of committing a sin against
Diana, went down from the temple to the Ti-
ber. You can imagine the rest; for when the
duped man came back, the poor heifer was al-
ready sacrificed, and her horns hanging in the
porch of the temple, where it is said they re-
mained for many ages.

So Rome again got the better of the Sabines.

Another memorial of Servius Tullus remains
in Rome—viz: the horrible Mamertine Prison.
It was commenced by Ancus Marcius. Servius
completed and enlarged it by adding a subter-
ranean dungeon, which was called from him
Tullianum. In this dungeon the Apostles,
Peter and Paul, were confined, and from this
loathsome spot were they led forth to meet their
martyrdom—Saint Peter to the Janiculum Hill,
and Saint Paul to a place without the walls of
the city, now called “St. Paul of the Three

Fountains.”




CHAPTER II.

«“ Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown!’
SHAKSPEARE.

NEHUS far we have only followed the public
life of Servius Tullius, proving his deeds
to be deeds of peace, not of wars.

We will now trace his domestic history—a
history which will show us that a monarch,
however beloved, does not find a wreath of
roses with his crown, nor a heart free from
sorrow under kingly robes.

Servius was the father of two daughters.
Both were named Tullia. But if their names
were the same, their characters certainly were
not—they were as widely different as you can

imagine. You remember that Tarquinius Pris-
(199)
_ 200 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

cus left two sons whose right to the throne 2f
- their father, Tanaquil, in obedience to the will
of the gods had given to Servius Tullius. Re-
membering with horror the wicked act of the
sons of the old king Ancus Marcius, who had
killed Tarquinius, Servius resolved that the
sons of Tarquinius should have no cause of
complaint, by securing to them the succession.
So he married his two daughters to the two
young princes.

The eldest Tullia possessed a most violent
temper. She was wilful, obstinate, and with
no tenderness in her disposition. In childhood
even, she delighted in acts of cruelty to poor
helpless animals, a sure sign of a wicked heart.
The pretty birds which sang to give her pleas-
ure, were torn from their gilded cages and killed
with her own hands! And when she grew up,
her tyrannical nature brought fear, but no love
from those around her.

Her sister, the younger Tullia, on the con-
trary, was a maiden whom all loved. She was
as gentle as the other was violent, and wonld
SERVIUS TULLIUS, SIXTH KING OF ROME. 201

often take the suffering creatures whom her sis-
ter had maimed, and nurse them with tender
pity. Such were the two Tullias.

And the same difference of character marked
the sons of Tarquinius Priscus.

Lucius Tarquinius, the eldest, was cruel.
He was ambitious, looking with an evil, envious
eye already upon the king.

Aruns, the younger, was of a mild and peace-
ful disposition—not tame, nor cowardly—but
one who calmly judged the right from the
wrong, and when he found the right he did it.

Servius Tullius, with the very best intentions,
acted as he believed with judgment, and for the
happiness of all, when he gave his wilful daugh-
ter, the elder Tullia, to be the wife of Aruns,
and wedded his gentle young girl to the cruel
prince Lucius Tarquin.

Surely, he thought, so much loveliness will
soothe and moderate the fiery disposition of
Tarquinius, while the calm nature and good
sense of Aruns will finally prevail over the un-
controlled passions of the elder Tullia.
202 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

It was like mating the fawn with the tiger—
the hyena with the lamb.

The elder Tullia was perfectly enraged at
finding herself the wife of a man like Aruns—
a man so different in every particular from her-
self. She looked upon his virtues with con-
tempt. In vain she tried to rouse him to her
own ambitious views—he shrank from her in
disgust. On the other hand, Tullia admired
the bold, daring spirit of her sister’s husband,
and would often reproach the younger Tullia
that she was not worthy to be the wife of such
aman. Ah! with Lucius Tarquin, she thought,
what power might she not gain?

And just in the same light as she regarded
her sister’s husband, did Tarquin look upon his
brother’s wife, thinking how much better to
have married her than the gentle Tullia.

Two wicked spirits are sure to attract each
other—as naturally as the magnet the loadstone. .

This wicked pair soon found out their views
were the same, and if they expected to earn
success they must work in concert. How could
SHER VIUS TULLIUS, SIXTH KING OF ROME. 203

this be done? Ah! a little poison, and a sharp
dagger soon answered that question!

Aruns and the lovely young Tullia were both
secretly murdered by their wicked partners
And then, the guilty blood-stained hands of
Tarquinius and Tullia were joined in marriage—
though without the willing consent of the
king—he only yielded to their demands.

The old age of Servius now became wretched.
His days were sorrowful. Abroad, it is true,
he saw peace and happiness which his own
noble acts had wrought—but under the roof of
his palace, bitter wranglings, and that misery
‘which springs from a bad conscience, joined to
the stings of envy. It was impossible for the
king to conceal from himself the designs of his
daughter and son-in-law. Tullia, in fact, ex-
ceeded even Tarquin in wickedness. For the
slow process of nature this bad daughter could
not wait, and would often taunt her-husband in
such words as these :

“When I married you, Tarquin, I thought
I had married a man—not a poor, weak Aruns!
204 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

one who could sit down patiently and wait for
a kingdom to drop into his hands! No! If
you are the son of a king, why not take what
is yours to wear—the crown? If you are de-
scended from a slave—with a slave’s nature,
then why not return to the race from which
you sprang ?”

This bitter speech was in reference to his
grandfather having been exiled from Corinth,
as we have already seen. But he was not a
slave, although it pleased some to cast that
stigma upon Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, his son,
and fifth king of Rome.

Tarquin was bad enough—but Tullia was far
worse. We know, that even a little drop of
water drip-dripping constantly upon a stone,
will in time wear it away ; and so did this inces-
sant goading of Tullia in the ears of her hus-
band, finally wear away all scruples.

When a bad man has made up his mind to
do a bad deed, he does not deliberate long.

Tarquin commenced the work craftily;
going around among the higher order of Ro-
SHER VIUS TULLIUS, SIXTH KING OF ROME. 205

mans, and slyly dropping a word here—a look
there. There are winds which only bring pes-
tilence and death; and there are birds which, as
they fly, drop the seeds of baneful weeds! Tar-
quin did both—wafting suspicion, and sowing
the seeds of distrust in the minds of the pa-
tricians against Servius. When he saw the
poison beginning to work, then, in concert with
Tullia, he formed his plans.

These matured, with a body of armed men,
Tarquin one day suddenly rushed into the
Forum, and entering the Senate House, ascended
the throne. Looking, around with an air of
defiance upon the astonished multitude, he bade
the Conscript Fathers to be summoned at once
to meet—King Tarquin! And it was done.

Boldness, even in an unjust cause, is power-
ful. The Senate assembled in haste at this
‘strange summons—strange to many—though
without doubt there were some present who
knew full well what was coming, and were pre-
pared to assist Tarquin.

Then Tarquin addressed the Senate, and
18
208 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

poured forth violent accusations against the
king. He termed him an usurper of the throne
of Rome—an unjust ruler—he had insulted the
noble patricians, and had made them the slaves
of the plebeians—he, who was but the son of a
slave himself in his father’s palace!

In the mean time, Servius Tullius, in igno--
rance of what was going on, was already pre-
paring to go to the Forum, when he received
information that his son-in-law Tarquin had
mounted the throne, and was haranguing the
people.

Attended by his lictors, the king immediately
hastened to the Forum. As he entered the
portico of the Senate House, he stopped, and in
a dignified manner called out:

“How is this, Tarquin! By what authority
hast thou dared to summon the Senate while J
the king still live? Or by what right dost thou
occupy my throne? Tarquin, I command thee
to come down.”

To this, Tarquin with great insolenre re-
plied :
SERVIUS TULLIUS, SIXTH KING OF ROME. 207

“ Servius, the throne ismine. J the son of
a king, now occupy the throne as a king! not
as a slave like thyself, Servius, who for so long
a time hast ruled thy masters !”

At this rude speech, a rush was made by both
parties—those who sided with Tarquin, and the
faithful adherents of the king. The people
thronged in from the Forum—great confu-
sion, great dismay prevailed, when Tarquin,
becoming alarmed lest the affection which the
plebeians bore for Servius might enable them to
overcome his own faction, suddenly seized the
old king by the waist, and in all the superiority
of youth and strength, dragged the poor old
man to the steps of the Senate House, and with
ferocious violence hurled him to the bottom!
He then daringly re-entered the Senate and
called the Senators about him.

The unfortunate king, stunned and nearly_
lifeless, was being borne home to his palace on
the Esquiline Hill, when, pursued by a party
which Tarquin had sent for the purpose, he was
overtaken at the top of a street called the Vi-
208 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

cus Cyprius, and there brutally slain, and his
poor bleeding body forsaken; for the attendants
fled in peril of their lives.

When Tullia was informed of what had been
done, she mounted her chariot and drove joy-
fully to the Forum, where, summoning her hus-
band forth, she was the first to congratulate
him and call him king!

But even Tarquin himself revolted at this
unfeminine, unfilial act—a daughter rejoicing,
and congratulating the murderer of her father!
He sternly bade her go home, and not expose
herself thus to the eyes of the people.

A dreadful deed, such as exceeds belief, was
then done by this—what shall we call her—
woman? No, let us not thus disgrace the na-
ture of woman—say, rather, this fiend! And
to this day the street in which that wicked
act occurred, is called the Wicked Street—
[ Via Sceleratus].

As the chariot of Tullia entered this street
on her return to the palace, the driver suddenly
reined in his horses in terror, for lo! directly
SER yius TULLIUS, SIXTH KING OF ROME, 209

in their path lay the dead body ef her father—
the poor old king Servius! Unable to speak,
the man pointed out to his mistress this terrible
sight.

And what did Tullia do?

“Drive on!” she cried—“drive on! Do you
stop for carrion ?”

And so over the body of her murdered father
drove the wicked Tullia—her chariot-wheels,
and even the border of her splendid robe, sprink-
led with a parent’s blood!

And thus perished the good king Servius
Tullius after a peaceful reign of forty-four years,
and with him perished all law, all order, all
justice. Long was his memory cherished by
the Roman people, and history has brought him
down to the nineteenth century as ‘“‘ The Good
King Servius.”

And in this wicked manner, and without
either asking “for the votes of the people, or
the approbation of the Senate,” did Tarquin
Superbus make himself the seventh and last

King of the Seven Hills of Rome.
18 * o
. 210 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

This was before Christ five hundred and
thirty-six years.

Here ends the story of Servius Tullius, the
sixth king of Rome.


TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS,

THE SEVENTH KING OF ROME.



CHAPTER I.

We now have arquinius on the throne of
Rome.

Tarquinius Superbus.

Tarquinius the Proud.

Tarquinius the Tyrant.

For by all these titles is he made known in
history, and we must give him his due. That
of “ Superbus,” it is said, he obtained for hav-
ing in derision refused burial to the remains
of his father-in-law, the late old king, saying
scoffingly, as he wrapped his royal robes around
him:

“Why should Servius be buried? King
Romulus was not!”

If we look for a peaceful reign after such
(213)
O14 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

wickedness as marked its commencement, we
may rest assured we shall be mistaken. A
kingdom gained by murder will still drop
blood!

Tarquin began his career by deeds of injus-
tice and cruelty. The Romans soon found to
their sorrow that they had no Servius in their
new ruler, for even against those whom he had
allured on by cunning speeches, and by still
more artful hints, to murmur at the good old
king, did he now turn his wicked measures.

Perhaps they were rightly served as a pun-
ishment for their crime.

Secretly a coward, for an assassin is always
a coward, Tarquin kept himself constantly
surrounded by armed men, lest the example he
himself had given to the Romans might be
followed out in his own case. Thus protected,
he went to work, cutting right and left into
the Roman field, mowing down where he
pleased and as he pleased. Some he robbed of
their goods—some he sent afar off into exile,
and others he scrupled not to slay. As for the
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 215

laws of the Senate, what were they to him?
and in fact to do away with that body was now
his aim; therefore, if any of the Conscript
Fathers died from natural causes or by reason
of his own secret agency, their places were not
filled by other Senators, so that as the bills of
mortality rapidly increased, Tarquin had a fair
chance of seeing’ his wishes realized.

Tarquin Superbus was therefore the first
king who treated that reverend body with eon-
tempt, nor consulted the fathers upon matters
of state. In short he was king and Senate—
the people and the law in his own person, and
fearlessly went on his way by making others
fear. If he chose to go to war, he went. If
he chose to make a treaty, he made it. If he
chose to break a truce, he did it. No “by
your leave, or with your leave” dropped from
the mouth of Tarquin the tyrant.

So you now see, my young friends, what sort
of a king this man made. But we must go on.

To secure power abroad in order that his
power at home might be the stronger, he made
216 AMHE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

offers of friendship to many of the neighboring
cities and provinces. With the Latins he was
especially anxious to gain favor, so much so
that he gave his daughter in marriage to one
of the chief men of Tusculum, whose name
was Metellus.

Although a wise people, the Latins swallowed
the bait thrown by this king-fisher, it was so
artfully concealed in honeyed speeches ; and
in a short time they were willing to be led
almost entirely by his counsels.

One day he sent a summons for the chief
men of the Latins to meet him at an early
hour within the Grove of Ferantina, through
which ran a brook held sacred by the Latins,
and where their most important deliberations
took place. He urged upon them to be prompt,
as there were matters of mutual interest to
discuss.

The people assembled as required; but King
Tarquin came not. Hour after hour they
waited his presence—still he came not, neither
was any message received.
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 217

Of those persons assembled in the Grove was
one Turnus. of Ariccia. He distrusted the
friendship of a man like Tarquin ; and, indig-
nant that so large a body of the chief Latins
~ should have met at his bidding, and he the
king absent himself without even the decensy
of an apology, was so moved to anger, that
rising from his seat and looking around him,
he exclaimed :

“How much Jonger shall we wait the
pleasure of this Tarquin the Proud? Shall
we remain the night in this grove and drink
of the sacred spring for our supper? Let us
break up this assembly at once. What,
Latins—do ye not see that it is to insult us we
are called here? Is it not to show how little
he values us, that he thus dares to make us
his sport? Away, then—and I counsel you,
brothers, not to slip your necks again thus
easily under the yoke of Tarquin the Proud !”

The sun was then near its setting, and
already threw its lengthening shadows across

19
218 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

the plain, when, just as Turnus ended his
speech, the king, as if in great haste, came in.

His quick eye detected mischief; but, con-
cealing it under a smile of affability, he trusted
they would pardon him for keeping them so
long waiting. He assured them that nothing
but a case of urgent necessity had prevented
his coming; that having been chosen as arbiter
between a father and his son, the facts were
such as to render it impossible to settle the
question sooner.

At this remark, Turnus curtly replied; that
a question between father and son had been
more easily decided! thus conveying a hint at
the murder of Servius Tullius.

He had better not have said it. The king
felt the stab keenly; but, without noticing the
remark, he bowed around and said:

‘‘To-morrow, my friends and allies, to-
morrow we will discuss those important
matters which, but for this delay, would have
been placed before you.”

When alone, Tarquin the Tyrant uncovered
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 219

the deep wound caused by the words of Tur-
nus, and swore revenge. Nor did he wait for
the evening stars to spangle the blue heavens
ere he set about its accomplishment. He well
knew whom to trust.

Among the number were two or three Aric-
cians, fellow-townsmen of the man he would
destroy. By their means a servant in the
household of Turnus was bribed to conceal
under his master’s roof a quantity of swords
and other weapons.

This done—before the dawn of day the king
sent secretly and in haste for the principal
men of the Latins.

“My friends,” said he, with well-feigned
agitation, ‘to the mercy of the gods alone we
owe our preservation. I have summoned you
thus early that you may be informed of the
conspiracy against our lives—a conspiracy of
which I regret to say Turnus of Ariccia is the
chief. Yesterday, my friends, the dastardly
deed was to have been done. The gods
delayed me. No doubt the attempt will be
220 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

renewed this morning. Turnus will be here
with his fellow-conspirators. I am told he has
arms concealed in his house. Why wait fer
him—why not proceed at once to his dwelling,
and ascertain if this be true?”

Appearances were certainly not in favor of
the Ariccian, from the fact, especially, of the
speech he had made against the king. Still
the Latin chiefs could not believe him guilty
of the accusation brought against him. They
therefore willingly followed Tarquin to the
residence of Turnus, believing the weapons
would not be found, and the conspiracy prove
a mere fabrication.

Turnus was quietly sleeping when the party
arrived. Guards were marched into his cham-
ber and stationed around it. His faithful ser-
vants attempt to defend their master, who, thus
rudely aroused, hastens to defend himself. It
was useless. ‘The servants were seized, and in
the mean time the swords which had been
hidden by the treacherous domestic were
brought in. Here was proof enough. Turnus
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 221

of Ariccia was guilty! Doubt turned to hatred
in the minds of those who had believed him
innocent. They would listen to no defence ;
but loaded with heavy chains, the unfortunate
man was carried to the Grove of Ferantina,
and thrown into the reservoir of the Sacred
Spring. A close network of split reeds and
twigs, called a hurdle, was placed over him and
then piled up with stones. This done, the
innocent man was left to his miserable fate.

Tarquin the Tyrant then drew a long
breath, and thanked Jupiter.

Where were the thunderbolts, think you?
Perhaps they may be hurled yet—we will see
as we go on.




CHAPTER II.

T was ably managed by Tarquin to unite
more strongly the Latins with the Romans
by forming new regiments of young men, mix-
ing in the Latins freely, thus cementing them
as it were to the Roman walls.

All historians agree that Tarquin was a good
general; wherever he led his armies it was to
conquest. Marching against the Volscians, he
took from them one of their most powerful
cities, namely, Suessa Pometia. The spoils
gained by that victory were of great value,
sufficient in gold and silver to build a magnifi-
cent temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus upon
the Capitoline Hill, which was to excel all

others built by former kings. The site of this
(222)
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 223

temple had been already marked out by his
father Tarquinius Priscus, as we have seen.
It is said that in digging the foundations, the
head of a man was found, at which, considered
as an omen, the soothsayers predicted that
Rome would become the “Head of italy.”

We are on the war-path again. I told you
we were to follow no peaceful track.

Difficulties, at this period, arose between
Rome and Gabii, a powerful city which had
been settled by a colony from Alba Longa;
and Alba Longa, you remember, was the birth-
place of Romulus and Remus. Gabii was
twelve miles from Rome.

They were a brave people certainly—for,
strange as it may seem to us who have always
beheld Rome victorious, Tarquin, with his army,
was repulsed from their walls. This we are
told by the historian Livy.

Tarquin now proved himself a master in
strategy.

And in this way. He went back with his
army to Rome, and commenced building the

w
224 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, as if the
repulse he had met with, and the intended
conquest of Gabii, were alike of little moment.

Tarquin had three sons. Their names were
Titus, Aruns, and Sextus.

Sextus, the youngest, he took into his confi-
dence, and it was arranged between them that
he, Sextus, should flee to Gabii as from the per-
secution of an inhuman parent, and implore
the protection of the Gabians. They being the
most bitter enemies to his father would doubt-
less receive him—and if so, Sextus had his in-
structions what to do, which we shall find out
as we go along.

Sextus proceeded to Gabii, and as expected,
found shelter freely offered with the enemies
of the king.

We will not follow the progress he made in
their good graces, day by day gaining their fa-
vor, and finally their confidence. It will answer
our purpose to know that proving himself a
brave soldier in several skirmishes, not only
with the Romans, but other provinces, the Ga-
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 225

biaas gave him a command in their army. Nor
did they stop there, for after some months,
wherein his military tactics were well tested,
and under the impulse of a fresh victory gained
over a considerable Roman force, probably in
concert with Tarquin; in an evil moment the
Gabians appointed Sextus Tarquin general-in-
chief!

So much of the plot gained. But there was
more to be done. And he did it so well that
his power in Gabii became nearly absolute.
When quite secure of his position, he sent a
trusty messenger to Rome to ask of his father
what should be done, since the gods had given
Gabii into his hands.

Tarquin, fearing to trust any person with his
answer, merely bade the messenger of Sextus
follow him into the gardens of the palace,
where, as he said, he would consider the matter.

Now these gardens were of surpassing beau-
ty; for the taste and skill which other nations
could give, were here employed to create and
embellish these most lovely pleasure-grounds,

P
226 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Rare shrubberies—fanciful flower-beds bloom: |
ing with every variety brought from afar, or
gathered under the blue skies of Italy. There
were little rills spinning silver threads—spark-
ling fountains—shady grottos, and bowers cov-
ered with gold and silver nettings, which, like
one immense, glittering bird-cage, held hun
dreds of sweet warblers, flying freely around
from branch to branch as if in their native
woods.

Into these beautiful gardens did the messen-
ger of Sextus follow King Tarquin. As if in
deep thought, the king began slowly walking
up and down the long alleys, which were bor-
dered with the most exquisite flowers. Indeed,
so absorbed was he in meditation, that as he slow-
ly paced back and forth, with his staff he care-
lessly struck off the heads of these beautiful
flowers to the ground!

Tired, at length, of being so long kept wait-
ing—for never a look or a word had the king
bestowed upon him, the messenger dared tu ask

what answer he should return to his master,
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 227

Tarquin started as if but just aware of the
man’s presence, and still in an absent manne
replied :

“There is no answer.”

In haste the messenger sped back to Se ctus,

“ Well, what said the king?” quoth he

“He gave me no answer,” was the req ly.

“How! no answer? Surely, fellow, y u are
mistaken—what, no reply to my messige?”
said Sextus. “What said the king? What
did he ?”

“The king bade me follow him to the gar-
dens, most noble Sextus, but after that spoke
never a word. Indeed, so lost in thought was
his majesty, that as he walked up and down
the alleys, he struck off the heads of the flowers
right and left with his staff—in faith it was a
pity to see it !”

“ Ah-h-h! I have it!” said Sextus to himself.
“Thave his answer—it is this. ‘Strike off the
heads of the Gabians, even as I do the heads of
these flowers!’ good, I will do it!”

You see, Sextus understood the language of
228 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

flowers. For that was exactly what his father
did mean.

As we have already seen, this young Tarquin
had things pretty much his own way in Gabi.
In fact, the people were so blinded, that the
sway of Tarquin Superbus in Rome was not
much greater than that of Sextus Tarquin in
Gabii.

Under some artful pretext, or by more wicked
deeds through secret agents, Sextus contrived,
little by little, to rid himself of the most influ-
ential citizens, and then—when all things were
ready to his hand—like a base traitor, he deliv-
ered the city into the power of the Roman
king.

Gabii fell without a struggle. One redeem-
ing point in this base affair was, that Tarquin
treated the Gabians with humanity, and soon
concluded a treaty of peace with them—which
treaty, inscribed upon a bull’s hide, wrapped
around a shield of wood, was, for many centuries
after, to be seen in one of the Roman temples.

In the mean time, the building of the great
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 229

temple was going steadily on. Tarquin, re-
solving that this should be of unexampled splen-
dor, made room for its grand dimensions, each
of its four sides being two hundred feet long,
by tearing down other temples to the gods,
built upon the Capitoline. And when com-
pleted, it was consecrated with great pomp to
the three great divinities of pagan worship—
Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva.

And in those days, Tarquin the Tyrant laid
such heavy burthens upon the people, compel-
ling the poor to such hard and servile labor,
that many cried in their sorrow:

“Oh! itis better to die, than to live under
such a king !”




CHAPTER IIT.

NE day there came an old woman before
Tarquin, and in her hand she held nine

' books.

« Will you buy my books, O king?” said she,
naming a price.

“No,” said the king. “Go away.” So she
went away and burned three.

By and by the old woman came again, and in
her hand she held six books:

“ Will you buy my books, O king?” said she,
naming the same price as for the nine.

“No,” said the king. ‘Go away.” And
she went away and burned three more.

By and by the old woman came the third

time, and in her hand she held three books.
(230)
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 231

“ Will you buy my books, O king ?” said she,
again naming the same price as for the nine.

Then the king was greatly amazed. He
called for the soothsayers and demanded of them
what this meant. But when the soothsayers
told him that those books contained the sacred
laws, and that the old woman had been sent by
the gods to deliver them, Tarquin was greatly
alarmed. So he bought the three books of the
old woman, who went away and was never seen
again. And some said it was Minerva, the god-
dess of Wisdom, who, descending from Mount
Olympus, assumed the form of an old woman,
to bring those sacred books to the king.

Tarquin caused the three books to be enclosed
in a large stone box made on purpose to re-
ceive them—and this box was then placed under
ground in the great Capitoline Temple, and two
men were appointed to watch over it. They
were called the Sacred Guards of the Sacred
Books. These books were consulted ever after
when the state was in danger.
232 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Something now happened to frighten the
king.

One day as he was offering sacrifice in his
new temple, a snake suddenly glided out from
under one of the columns, and’ crawling along
to the altar, ate up the sacrifice !

From the days of Romulus down to Tarquin
Superbus, as we have seen, all matters of im-
portance were left to the divination of the gods
through oracles and soothsayers. Now Tar-
quin was greatly disturbed at this omen—this
snake in the temple of Jupiter, devouring the
sacrificial offering !

What could it portend! His guilty soul
trembled with fear. So he resolved to send to
Delphi to consult a celebrated Greek oracle—
the Delphian Apollo—to see what this terrible
apparition of the serpent might mean.

To show more respect to this great oracle, he
gave the errand to his two eldest sons, Titus
and Aruns, and with them went their cousin,
Lucius Junius—called Brutus, or the Dullard.
This title was given him, as he appeared so very
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 233

stupid, living, too, on wild figs and honey, so
unlike other people. But I assure you Brutus
was no “dullard’—not he! He was wise
enough to know that his high birth and great
riches would render him obnoxious to his uncle
the king, if united, too, with talents. So, in
order to preserve his life, he feigned to be of
little wit, and allowed Tarquin to make use of
his estates as he pleased. He thought his own
day might come.

When the three young men set off for Del
phi, Brutus secretly filled a hollow horn staff
with gold as an offering to Apollo—thus im
- plying, that though he might appear dull like
the outside of the cane, he had golden wit in
-his brain. So when they arrived at Delphi,
Brutus placed the horn staff upon the altar of
‘the Delphian Oracle.

After obtaining their answer to the demands
of the king, the young princes asked a ques-
tion for themselves—namely :

“ Which of us shall be king of Rome %”

And the oracle replied :

20*
234 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

«‘The one that shall first Liss his mother!”

Titus and Aruns agreed to draw lots as to
which of them should be the one—and they
also agreed to keep the matter a secret from
their brother Sextus, who, possessed of more
cunning, might perchance outwit them both.

But Brutus understood the meaning of the
oracle in a different sense; so, as they left the
temple, he stumbled, as if by accident, and fell
upon his face to the ground, which he then
kissed, saying to himself:

“Surely, the earth is the mother of us all!”

This act proves Brutus no dullard.

When the two Tarquins and Brutus returned
from Delphi, they found the king at war with
Ardea, then a powerful country some twenty
miles from Rome. The motives which led to
this war on the part of Tarquin, were those of
avarice. The Rutuli were a rich and powerful
people, at the period of which we write. Ardea
was their chief city. Their territories were
not large, but favorably situated upon the
Mediterranean coast.
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 235

These facts drew upon them the attention of
the Roman king, whose treasury had become
greatly reduced, and his subjects beginning to
murmur openly at the labors imposed upon
them, and with so little pay.

To conquer Ardea, therefore, would re-fill his
exhausted treasury, and again buy “the golden
opinions” of the lower orders. A pretext for
war was found, and Tarquin with his armies
assaulted Ardea. But the war was protracted.
Ardea was not so easily taken.

Finding he could not succeed by force of
arms, Tarquin surrounded the city with his
troops—cutting off their supplies by sea and
land, hoping that the horrors of famine would
induce them to capitulate.




CHAPTER IV.

. E now come to a most important point in
the history of the Roman kings, and of
Rome.

Camp life, without the impetus of fighting,
is an idle life—when the blood is not stirred by
the approach of battle, or moved to pity by the
wounds which follow either victory or defeat.

Sitting down under the walls of a besieged
city, therefore, did not offer much amusement
to the Romans; so they diverted themselves
with feasting and frolicking, visiting from tent
to tent ; in short, giving themselves up to any
folly which would serve to pass off the weary
hours.

One night it chanced that the two sons of

Tarquin, Titus and Aruns, went to sup in the
(236)
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 237

tent of their brother Sextus, together with Col-
latinus, their cousin. He was a son of that Col-
latinus who, when Tarquinius Priscus con- ~
quered Collatia, assumed the name of Collati-
nus. Do you remember I said at the time, we
must not forget that fact?

While drinking their wine, eating figs and
grapes, or idly cracking their nuts, the conver-
sation happened to turn upon the merits of
their wives—for they were all four married.
And finally they began to joke and dispute as to
which one of the four was most worthy the
name of a good wife.

Said Collatinus, starting up :

“Why, what is easier than to judge for our-
selves? Come—let us mount our horses, and
go and see what our wives are doing—then we
shall learn which one of them is the most ex-
cellent wife.”

So laughing and jesting, they ordered their
horses, and galloped off to Rome. There they
found the wives of the three Tarquins, Titus,
Aruns, and Sextus, little mindful of their lords’
238 THE SHVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

absence, feasting and dancing, enjoying them-
selves in every luxury!

Then the four husbands rode on swiftly to
Collatia, and, although they arrived there quite
late at night, they found Lucretia, the wife of
Collatinus, sitting with her maidens around her
busily engaged in household pursuits—some
were spinning, and some sat at the loom.

The three Tarquins looked at one another,
and then they said: -

“ Collatinus, you have the most worthy wife !”

And Lucretia, delighted to see her husband
thus unexpectedly, welcomed him most. affec-
tionately, and greeted his cousins with much
cordiality, entertaining them to the best of her
power. After a brief visit they all rode back
to the camp.

The Targuins had pronounced Lucretia the
most worthy wife—and so she was. Few could
compare with her in virtue and loveliness—
but alas! this very loveliness, both of mind and
person, wrought her such woe through the
treachery of Sextus Tarquin, the wicked son
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 239

of a wicked father, that choosing to die rather
than live; in the presence of her father Lucre-
tius, of her husband, and of Brutus the so-
called fool, the unhappy Lucretia with her own
hand put an end to her young life!

At this dreadful sight, her poor father and
wretched husband wept aloud—but Brutus,
drawing forth the bloody dagger with which
Lucretia had committed the deed, he held it
aloft and in a solemn voice said :

“In the name of all the gods, and by the
blood of this pure matron, I swear to avenge
this deed upon King Tarquin and all his ac-
cursed'race! And I solemnly swear there shall
no longer reign a king in Rome. Tarquin the
Tyrant shall be the lasi!”

Collatinus and Lucretius were indeed astun-
ished at hearing such words from a man who
all called “Brutus the Fool!” but there was
that in his speech, and in his bold, clear eye,
which at once brought conviction. :

Brutus the fool was no more. Brutus the
man had risen !
240 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

They swore with Brutus upon the dagger
wet with her blood, that Lucretia should be
avenged.

Then tenderly lifting the body, they bore it
down to the Forum of Collatia, calling out as
they walked:

“Behold, men of Collatia, the deed of the
Tarquins !”

At this piteous sight, all the people were
greatly moved, and joined themselves to the
side of Brutus. They closed the gates of the
city and placed a guard around them, so that
no man might depart to bear the tidings of these
things to the king at Ardea.

Arming themselves, they then followed Brus
tus to Rome.

With a tender appeal, inspired by the just-
ness of his theme, Brutus related to the assem-
bled multitude the deed of Sextus Tarquin, the
son of their king. Then taking advantage of
the indignation he had aroused, he poured forth
a strain of eloquence which stirred the hearts
of the crowd like the war trumpet. He set
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 241

forth in glowing terms the tyranny of the king;
his oppression of the poor; of the grievous bur-
thens laid upon them. He recalled feelingly
the murder of the old king, Servius Tullius,
whom all men loved, and dwelt upon the wicked
acts of Tullia, the mother of that race of Tar-
quins who might one day rule over them! He
bade them be men if they were true Romans—
and now and for ever to spurn the yoke of
kings!

In short, so ably and so powerfully did Bru-
tus plead, that the people of Rome, one and
all, swore against the race of Tarquin, and
bound themselves by solemn oaths to banish
from Rome, King Tarquin Superbus and his
whole family.

The city was now in a great tumult, which
by-and-by reaching the palace, Tullia the queen
demanded the cause. Upon being told, she fled
in all haste, and as she passed along the streets,
every person, both men and women, cursed her
aud spat upon her, praying that the infernal
gods might seize and torment her, and thus

21 Q
242 THE SHVEN KINGS CF THE SEVEN HILLS.

avenge her wicked acts to her poor old father,
Servius Tullius!

Rumors of revolt in Rome reached Ardea.
The king heard them, and set out in all haste
for the city. At the same time, by another
road, Brutus sped to Ardea, where in words as
eloquent as he had spoken in Rome, he soon
roused the soldiers to espouse the cause of lib-
erty.

Placing themselves under his leadership, they
rose against the sons of Tarquin and drove them
from the camp.

How do you think Tarquin Superbus felt,
when, arriving with all speed at his own gates,
he found them closed against him! and then
heard his sentence of banishment coolly read to
him, while he stood foaming with anger upon
the outside!

It is wrong to rejoice over the downfall of
an enemy—but this happened so long agu that
[ suppose we may privately clap our hands as
Tarquin the Proud turns away, a banished man,
from the Roman gates, no longer king of Rome!
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, THE SEVENTH KING. 243

He had reigned for twenty-five years—but

now his reign was ended.
_ Then Tarquin and his two sons Titus and
Aruns went té a city of Etruria, called Ceene,
where they took up their abode. Sextus Tar-
quin, led by his evil genius, fled to Gabii, where
remembering how he had once betrayed their
city into the hands of the Romans, the people
fell upon him and slew him.

And now we have seen seven kings sitting
upon the throne of Rome. Seven kings in two
hundred and forty-five years—namely :

Romulus, who reigned 39 years.

Numa Pompilius, who reigned 40 years.

Tullus Hostilius, who reigned 32 years.

Ancus Marcius, who reigned 24 years.

Tarquinius Priscus, who reigned 38 years.

Servius Tullius, who reigned 45 years.

Tarquinius Superbus, who reigned 25 years.

From the death of Romulus to the reign of
Numa Pompilius—an interreguum of one year.
Also from the death of Numa to the reign of
Tullus Hostilius.
244 THE SEVEN KINGS OF THE SEVEN HILLS.

Brutus swore no other king should again rule
in Rome. No other king ever did.

Here ends the story of Tarquinius Superbus
as king—the seventh and last king of Rome.

But we shall meet this banished Tarquin again,
my young friends, as we journey down the
years, and trace the history of Rome as a Re-
public, under the rule of the “Heroes of the
Seven Hills.”

THE END.


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EDWARD S. ELLIS.

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