Citation
Lost cities brought to light

Material Information

Title:
Lost cities brought to light
Creator:
Kirby, Elizabeth, 1823-1873 ( Author, Primary )
Religious Tract Society (Great Britain) ( Publisher )
R. K. Burt & Co ( Printer )
Kronheim & Co ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
London (Paternoster Row; 65 St. Paul's Churchyard; and 164 Piccadilly)
Publisher:
Religious Tract Society
Manufacturer:
Burt and Co., printers
Kronheim & Co
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
127, [1] p., [1] leaf of plates : ill. (some col.), map ; 17 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Extinct cities -- Juvenile literature -- Middle East ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- Babylon (Extinct city) ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Juvenile literature -- Middle East ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- Nineveh (Extinct city) ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- Thebes (Egypt : Extinct city) ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Juvenile literature -- Tyre (Lebanon) ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1871
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Elizabeth Kirby is the author of "Steps up the ladder."
General Note:
Undated. Date from BLC.
General Note:
Colour frontispiece printed by Kronheim & Co.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisements on [1] p. at end of text.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
Statement of Responsibility:
by the author of "Steps up the ladder," etc.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026714940 ( ALEPH )
ALG7564 ( NOTIS )
63067772 ( OCLC )

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Full Text




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The Baldwin Library | |







* Kronhem & Co, Lundon

NINEVEH AND THE VALLEY OF THE EUPHRATES.











LOST CITIES BROUGHT 10 LIGHT.

BY THE AUTHOR OF

“STEPS UP THE LADDER,” Etc.



Bondo:
THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY;

35, PATERNOSTER Row; 63, ST. PAUL’S CHURCHYARD ;

AND 364, PICCADILLY,


















CONTENTS.

—_+—

CHAPTER I.
PAGE

THE CITIES OF EGYPT «0 4 ou 5
TILE SAND OF THE DESERT-—-THE GIANT STATUES
—-THE CITY OF THE HUNDRED GATES—TPEOPLE AT
WORK, AS PICTURED ON THE MONUMENTS—THE
PALACE OF KING RAMESES—THE OVERTHROW OF
THEBES—TIE TEMPLE OF THE GOD APIS—THE
CITY OF THE SUN.

CHAPTER IL
THE DESERTED CITIES OF THE GIANTS .. 5:

CHAPTER II.
THE CITY OF TYRE vee ae ee BD



1V . CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.
NINEVEH ee ee ee

NINEVEH IN HER GLORY-—-THE REMAINS OF NINE-
VEU—CONCERNING TIE HISTORY OF NINEVEH.

CHAPTER VY.
BABYLON THE GREAT «oe oo

TAGE
ae

fo

. L038

THE WISE MEN OF BABYLON AND THEIR IDOLS—

THE FALL OF BABYLON,







THE CITES OF EGYPT.








HE SAND OF THE
DESERT.

You have heard
the word Desert
many times; and
you know, perhaps, that there are more
deserts than one. A desert is a place where
there are neither towns, nor people, nor
gardens, nor vineyards. In many deserts no-
thing is to be seen but sand—sand every-_
where.

There is a little tract of waste land in our
own country, which may give you a faint idea
of one of these deserts. I mean the Dunes in





8 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

Norfolk. Here is a soft, shifting bed of sand,
ever thoving and forming itself into a number.
of loose hillocks, among which you might
easily lose yourself. The hillocks keep chang-
ing even while you look at them. They are
the sport of the wind, and it drifts and shifts
them about at its pleasure.

On these Dunes you look over a barren
sandy waste, in fact a little desert; but it does
not appear boundless, like the true desert.
Fancy that waste of sand stretching for miles
and miles,.as far as the eye can reach. Now it
is hard and firm, now soft and yielding, and it
has treacherous places into which a man may
sink and be buried. And fancy a burning sky
glowing like a furnace, and a sun that is scarce
ever veiled by a cloud, and you have a good
picture of the desert, in which some of the
buried cities lie hidden. ,

The terrors of the desert are still great, in
spite of all that man can do. The caravan
slowly toils over the dreary plains. The silence
is, at times, awful. Here and there are stones
lying scattered in the path. The traveller
knows what they mean; he knows that, on this
spot, some wearied pilgrim, unable to proceed,
lay down and died, and was buried by his



THE SAND OF THE DESERT. 9

companions. There, too, lie the skeletons of
animals that have perished, in their march
through the wilderness, from fatigue or
scarcity of water.













































































































WATER | WATER!

The -heat and the reflection of the burning
sand cause intolerable thirst. Thirst is the



10 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

great enemy that men meet with in the desert ;
for the means of allaying it are not always to
be met with. The wells are few and far
between. Often, for days together, no water
can be found. ‘The travellers must carry with
them what they need for the journey, and if
their supply fails them they must die. It
sometimes happens that the water-skins are
emptied, the wells are dried up, and numbers
perish from thirst. At such a time, if a stream
is approached, the whole caravan rushes eagerly
towards it; men and women, chiefs and common
people, camels and horses, all mixed confusedly
together, that they may quench their raging
thirst.

Sometimes the sand will rise in pillars or
columns, and speed along the ground as though
it were alive. Or the hot wind will drive it
onward, like a cloud of scorching dust. Then
the traveller fears it greatly. He calls it “the
Simoom.” I am speaking now of the great
African desert, where no rain ever falls. On
its borders grow stunted trees and shrubs; for
here a shower will now and then moisten the
earth ; and, in happier regions still, is found
the oasis, with its palm-trees and its wells of
water, But the true desert lies like a grim





THE SAND OF THE DESERT. 11

enemy, ready to swallow up whatever of the
works of man are left in its way.

Egypt could not have existed without the
bountiful river which has been its preserver.

















































































































THE SIMOOM,

The Nile and the desert, it has been, well said,
have fought for ages, and the battle has not
ended yet. In places where men live and
towns flourish, the river gains the mastery ;



12 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

but there are spots where the desert, like
another sea, has overflowed its bounds.

When the ancient cities of Egypt were de-
serted they were given over to the destroyer.
The hungry tyrant drew them into its clutches.
The wind of the desert brought clouds of sand
from the arid waste close by. It fell like a
shower upon the ruined temples and forsaken
palaces. Man had done his utmost to des-
troy them ; now the sand made haste to cover
them up.

Tt fell like showers, or drifted steadily
onward, through the long days and silent
nights. It was a feeble foe. A handful of
sand! But see what it has done. It has buried
the temples and the palaces of kings!

The great sphynx, gigantic as it is, can
barely keep its monstrous head above the bil-
lows of sand. Its body, and the temple between
its paws, lie buried, and can never be seen.
Pillars, columns, obelisks, inscriptions, all the
treasures of history, lie beneath.

The final instrument which blotted them out -
was the soft, drifting, minute, ever-shifting sand.
In this sea of oblivion are swallowed up the
once famous cities of Thebes and of Memphis.
Others, that we shall name, have gone down





THE TWO GIANT STATUES. 13

like the wrecks of once gallant vessels. The
skill of man has found them out, and laid bare
some of their secrets; but when he stays his
hand, the smooth treacherous enemy will gain
, upon them and blot them out. Buried cities
they will ever remain. Such is their doom,
spoken by the Almighty; and man and nature
have helped to bring it to pass.

THE TWO GIANT STATUES.

THERE is a period, in the history of the world,
about which we know very little. The king-
doms and nations, then in their glory, are seen
no more on the face of the earth. Very old
books have given us a few facts about them;
and more books were once written, but they
have been destroyed. There was a wonderful
library at the town of Alexandria, in Egypt.
Jt contained hundreds and thousands of yo-
lumes. If that library were in existence, we
should be able to answer many questions that
have puzzled the learned of all ages. We
might perhaps know the secrets of the buried
cities, and the mighty nations to which’ they
belonged. But a fierce Arab chief, named



14s LOST -CITIES BROUGHT TO’ LIGHT.

Omar, once conquered Egypt, and took the
town of Alexandria. He caused the books to
be taken from their shelves, and used as fuel in
the public baths. It took six months to burn
them up!

This was one of the worst misfortunes that
could happen to the world of letters. The loss
of these precious volumes has made a blank in
history which can never be filled up. There
is, however, one Book that gives much of the
history we want. Imean the Bible.

In the Bible days, the ancient nations were
in their glory; their ships were sailing through
all seas, and their merchandise was carried to
the ends of the earth. The buried cities were
then standing in their full magnificence, and
you would wonder how such massive walls and
gigantic buildings could have fallen into ruins. -
They seemed as if made to defy all time; but
God, by his prophets, foretold their doom, even
in the days of their prosperity. The prophet,
as he looked upon them, with their busy swarms
of people, their temples, and their palaces,
declared they should be desolate, and, as they
are now, a heap of ruins,

You will see how every word spoken of them
has come to pass!





THE TWO GIANT STATUES. 15

Tong before Moses lay in his ark of bul-
rushes, on the banks of the Nile, that river
flowed through a land of temples and palaces,
such as may never be seen again. One of the
most famous cities was called in the Bible
“Populous No.” We shall come upon it in
our course along the ancient river. An old:
writer called it the city of the hundred gates.
We call it Thebes.

Do you see yonder giant statues sitting side
by side in their solitary grandeur? Do you
notice their gigantic sizeP The sand of the
desert has drifted round them, until it has
buried seven feet of their height. But still
they tower seventy feet on high. Hach mighty
arm.is seventeen feet in length; the foot itself
is. equal to the stature of a giant. They sit
each on a pedestal or throne; their hands are
on their knees. Their faces are broken, and
one of them has the features gone. But still
they seem. as if looking forward over the great
river Nile.

Age after age », they - have sat there; from
etre the time Sviea the children of Israel
laboured at their tasks, or the cry went through

the land that in every house of the Egyptians
was found one dead.



16 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

On the opposite bank of the river were
crowded the temples and palaces of Thebes.
Here kings and priests walked in procession ;
busy throngs swarmed in the streets; all was





THE GIANT STATUES OF THEBES,

life and stir. The sand of the desert was kept
Lack by the industry of man, Where it now
spreade. like a vast wreath, there were fruitful



THE TWO GIANT STATUES. 17

gardens and pleasant fields. In those days, the
overflowing of the Nile did not reach the spot
where the statues sit, And they formed only a
small part of an avenue, of statues and images,
which led to one of the most splendid temples
in the world. :

For nearly a mile, this gigantic avenue
stretched onwards. It was built on rising
ground, A stranger, coming down the river,
would be startled by the view of the huge
statues, and monstrous sphynxes, standing side
by side, and forming a spectacle such as will
never be seen again. Statues and temples,
priests and people, are alike gone. Only these
two figures keep their lonely watch over the
ruins of their former grandeur. One of the
statues has his name written on the stone
pedestal that serves him for a throne. He
was one of the Pharaohs, and was called
Amenoph. His name occurs in other places,
on, the ruined walls of the city. We might have
seen his likeness, but that the features are .
destroyed. The Greeks gave another name to
the statue. They called it Memnon. A story
has been handed down through many centuries
about Memnon ; it was said that, when the sun
began to rise over the mountains, a sound of

. B



18 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

music was heard from the lips of the statue.
The Greeks, who were very fanciful, used to
say it was Memnon’s song to Aurora, goddess
of the morning.

But a much more sensible explanation can
be given. The priests of Egypt were very
cunning, and one of them might have hidden
himself in a niche of the statue, and caused the
sound by striking the stone with an iron rod:
Eyen if there were no priest at all, the music
might very well be made by the wind that
rushed through the chinks in the statue, and
produced a sound like an Afolian harp.

In these days the Nile, in its overflow, has
crept up to the twin statues, Zamar and Chama,
as the Arabs call them. Then it flows round
them, and they look like islands of stone.

THE CITY OF THE HUNDRED GATES.

WHEN you have gazed your fill at the twin .
statues, and pictured to yourself the avenue to
which they once belonged, you must behold
greater wonders ‘still.

I shall introduce you to Thebes, the city of
the hundred gates, the No-Ammon of the



THE CITY OF THE HUNDRED GATES, 19

Bible, that was said to be “situate among
the rivers.” a

The men who built Thebes chose a good
position for their city. In Lower Egypt the
valley of the Nile is narrow, and there would
not have been space to display the giant edi-
fices to advantage. But there is a spot in
Upper Egypt where the mountains, that hem
in the river, fall back, and the narrow strip of
land becomes a plain. In this plain, there once
stood the city of the hundred gates. It stood
partly on one side of the river, and partly on
the other. No trace has been found of a
bridge, and it is not clearly known whether
such a thing existed.

In one of the pictures, on the walls of a
temple, there is a scene from the life of a king.
The king is coming to the river with a number
of prisoners whom he has taken in war. The
priests and the people are on the opposite bank,
and there is a streak or band across the river
which might be “intended for a bridge.” But
this is mere conjecture, and nothing certain is
known about it.

The vast temples and palaces, among which
we shall wander presently, were placed near to
the water's edge. The rest of the plain was



20 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

filled with private houses, and gardens and
orchards.

The dwellings of the poorer people were not
at all grand. By the side of the mighty struc-
tures yonder, they must have looked mean and
small. Nota single remnant is left. Houses
and streets lie buried in the sand. But we can
tell from the pictures on the walls of the tem-
ples and the tombs, what they were like.

The mansions of the rich had gateways like
those of the temples. And there were columns
and obelisks, painted to look like granite. The
outer wall had battlements to it, and there
were doors with the name of the owner written
over. All round the house was a garden, full
of flowers and pleasant plants. As very little
rain falls in Egypt, the garden had to be kept
watered. And there was a lake on purpose to
supply the water. The lake was a great orna-
ment to the garden. Lotus flowers floated on
its surface, and the banks were shaded with
cool spreading trees. Here the master of the
house would come and enjoy himself, and row
about upon the water.

‘The garden was watered in a very simple
manner. A man had a pole or yoke across his
shoulders, and a bucket at each end; with



THE CITY OF THE HUNDRED GATES, 21

these buckets the water was fetched, just as we
might donow. In this way a number of slaves
were employed to keep the garden in a state of
Tuxuriance. It was a well-watered garden.
But, besides his town mansion, the owner would
very likely have a farm or villa outside the city.

You will be amused to hear that some of the
deeds, relating to the purchase of land about
Thebes, are in existence now. In one such
deed, the buyer and the seller have their per-
sonal appearances described, and the descrip-
tion has been handed down through all these
ages. The man who sold the land was bald,

round faced, and of a dark complexion, He «—

was forty-five years old. The man who was
the buyer had also a round face, but with a
flat nose, and was twenty-two years old. His
father was a leather-cutter, and the piece of land
was said to be bounded by the “ Royal Street.”

Where now should we look for streets, or
lands, or houses? The desert has blotted out
every vestige of them. We stand in a place of
utter silence and of solitude. The wind, as it
sweeps mournfully by, seems to repeat the
words of Scripture,* “I will make the land
desolate, and all that is therein!”

* Ezekiel xxix, 8-12,



22 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

THE PEOPLE AT WORK, AS PICTURED ON THE
MONUMENTS.

Brrorz we leave this humble part of the city,
we will take a glance at what the people are
doing. You must not forget that I am trying
to picture to you Thebes as it was in the early
days of the Bible; and you will perceive, that
almost every ernployment of the ancient Eeyp-
tians is mentioned in the sacred volume.

In the busy scene which we have, as it were,
unburied before us, we shall see how the work-
men are plying their trades. The weaver
is at his loom. The loom is fastened to the
ground by four pegs or posts, and he seems to
be drawing the thread through with his hand
instead of throwing it witha shuttle. The pro-
cess must have been very tedious; but how gay
are the colours he is weaving in! Itisa cloth
of divers colours, such as we read about many
times in the Bible. He weaves in the colours
as he goes along.

Joseph’s coat of many colours was very likely
woven in this manner. But there was another
kind of cloth of divers colours superior to this ;
it was so costly that only kings and princes
wore it,



PEOPLE AT WORK, 28

If you wish to see this class of workpeople,
you must look into the palace of the king.
Here, ladies of high rank, and their maidens,
are busy with their needles; they are em-
broidering the lovely colours we admire so
much, on the cloth, by hand. Often the sump-
tuous garment, when it was finished, was given
as a present.

When the mother of Sisera looked out of the
lattice, she hoped to see her son returning in
triumph, and bringirig his spoils with him. She.
was thinking ef these very garments when she
said—

“To Sisera a prey of divers colours of needlework,
Of divers colours of needlework on both sides,
Meet “or the necks of them that take the spoil.”

But besides this gay apparel, the Egyptians
loved to adorn themselves with jewels. The
goldsmith carried on a brisk trade in the city.
Many of the earrings, and bracelets, and arm-
lets, were of solid gold, and very massive. A
gold chain was worn by the king; and, if you
remember, Pharaoh put one round the neck of
Joseph as a mark of his favour.

‘When the children of Israel were thrust
out of Egypt, in the night, they borrowed all



24 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

the jewels they could of their neighbours; and
they were said on this account “to spoil the
Egyptians.”

Besides the jewels, you would see in the
goldsmiths’ workshop the most elegant baskets
of silver and gold. These were used in the
palace of the king, and the servants used to









it — = ——
EGYPTIAN BASKETS.

carry them about on their heads. The chief
baker in Joseph’s dream had three baskets
on his head. The common people could not
afford the costly jewels worn by the rich and
great. They had to be content with ornaments
of glass; and here was another busy trade car-



PEOPLE AT WORK. 25

ried on in the city. The worker in glass had
as much as he could do; his glass beads were
almost as good as those made of precious stones; -
indeed, you could hardly tell the true from the
false. A great many. of these beads have been



HEAD-DRESSES.

found in the tombs, or round the necks of the
mummies. ,

The glass maker was also very clever at
making little images of glass. They were used







26 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

-either as charms or as idols, and were often put
among the folds of the mummy’s dress. Even
the great coffin, or sarcophagus, in which some
king was buried, was covered over with a coat-
ing of glass to give it a glazed Jook, so that the
pictures with which it was covered could be
seen more clearly.

The glass worker would also supply house-



SIGNET RINGS.

holds with cups and vases and bottles, which
looked like the finest porcelain ; and even the
seal rings of which we hear so much were
sometimes made of glass.

The potters and the brickmakers were all



PEOPLE AT WORK, vad

carrying on their respective employments.
One picture of brickmakers at work is believed
to represent the Jews making bricks, as de-
scribed in the book of Exodus.

The mummy makers, or embalmers of the
dead, had a street to themselves; their houses
were full of patterns made in wood, and which























GROUP OF DRINKING CUPS,

were intended to represent the body and the
different modes of embalming it.

In the most expensive mode, the body, after
being prepared, was filled with sweet spices,
such as myrrh and cassia; and it was wrapped



28 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

in long strips of cloth, so long that one strip
was found to measure more than two hundred
yards; and the strips were gummed so tightly
down, that it was no easy matter to pull
them off.

The maker of the mummy case was a dif-
ferent person from the embalmer, and had a





HARVESTING,

‘separate trade. Only the richer class of people
could afford to patronise him. His cases were
made of wood, and the upper part was shaped
like the head and face of a person. There
was a great deal of painting and varnishing



PEOPLE AT WORK. 29

about the case, and it was covered with figures.
There was also an inner case, within which the
mummy was placed, and here it lies nearly as
perfect as-it was when the embalmer put it
there, two thousand years ago !

It is rather a relief to quit this gloomy street,
and wander for a moment into the rich corn-
fields close at hand; for in many of these
ancient cities, fields and vineyards were actually
within the walls. Men are reaping the corn
by cutting off the ears, and carrying them
away in baskets. There are vast granaries
where it is stored wp, and the brickmakers use
the straw for their bricks, and the cattle have
it for fodder.

And yonder are the wine makers treading
out the grapes. You may fancy you hear
their joyous shouts as they spring up and
down, holding by ropes fastened over their
heads. The red juice runs out in plenty
through the sides of the vat, and men are
bringing the purple clusters in baskets. The
grapes were not very plentiful in Egypt, and
there was great rejoicing when the grape har-
vest was ripe; and crushing the fruit in the
Winepress was esteemed a time for mirth and
gladness. It was the worst threat that could



30 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

be uttered, that of the prophet, “The treaders
shall tread out no wine in their presses; I
have made their vintage shouting to cease.’’*







THE VINTAGE,

THE PALACE OF KING RAMESES.

Wuew a city has been deserted and. half-
buried for ages, there is sure to be a difficulty
in settling every fact concerning it. The hun-
dred gates of Thebes have given rise to a great

deal of conjecture among learned men.

The poet, Homer, talked about them in
his ‘Tliad.” He said that Thebes was the
richest city in the world. And in time of war

* Isaiah xvi, 10.



THE PALACE OF KING RAMESES. 31

it could send two hundred warriors in their
chariots from each of its gates.

Some people have thought that by the gates
were meant those wonderful gateways, each
with two vast. towers, which stood before the
temples. After this lapse of time, it isnot
possible to decide the question. But whether
it were so or not, the city well deserved its title
of “the hundred-gated Thebes.”’ It is almost
beyond the reach of our fancy to conjure up
the mighty temples which once stood on either
side of the river. The granite, of which they
were built, came from a place more than a
hundred miles to the south of Thebes. Here
was a district, called Syene, where a number of
quarries formed a storehouse for the Egyptian
workmen. A granite, called Syenite, was
brought from here. Indeed, it was a most
impor tant place, in the old days we are speak-
ing of,

You would wonder how such immense blocks
could be moved to so great a distance; but.
from ancient history we get a glimpse of how
it was done. We are told, that two thousand
men were employed to move one-single block ! _
And the number of blocks used for each temple
was Sonnerly to be reckoned,



32 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

Men were always toiling in these quarries in
order to adorn and beautify the city. A huge
mass, intended probably for an obelisk, lies at
this very day, upon the road just where they
had dragged it.

Before every temple were two rows of
sphynxes. The sphynx was, as perhaps you
know, a figure with the body of a lion and the
head of a man or of a woman. The sphynxes
of Thebes had, some of them, ‘the heads of
rams. ;

Yonder palace is called the Ramesium: the
name is given to it from King Rameses. It
was a temple and a palace too. Here religious
ceremonies were performed, and here the king
dwelt.

Before we enter, there is something we must
pause to look at. A statue lies broken on the
ground; perhaps the largest ever known. If
you measure it across the shoulders you will
find that it is more than twenty feet in breadth;
each of its toes is a yard in length. Even as
it lies broken on the ground, a mere ruin, the
traveller gazes at it in wonder.

The outer walls of the building are covered
with sculptured figures. Some of the vast
columns still remain. Grave and solemn figures



THE PALACE OF KING RAMESES. 33

stand with folded hands looking down, as it
were, upon the broken statue at their feet.































































THE TEMPLE OF DENDERATIL



34 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

The great hall within the palace must have
been splendid indeed. Forty-eight pillars sup-
ported the ceiling; the tops of the pillars are
carved into the form of plants and flowers that
grow on the banks of the Nile; they were
painted with brilliant colours. Here we sce the
lotus, and the papyrus, and many other plants.
It is a kind of garden carved in stone.

The hall was lighted by open spaces left at
the top of the roof. Here the blue sky was
seen, and the golden sunshine of Reypt would

pictured walls. In every 7 plait you see King
Rameses; every picture is a scene from his life.

That figure which towers high above the rest
is the king. Here, too, you see many of the .
frightful images or idols that the Egyptians
were foolish enough to worship. Iii one place

-the king is receiving a sword from the gods.
And you see his battles, and his victories, and
his prisoners, and all the acts that he did; you
may read them as in a book.

And learned men cari make out an inscrip- .
tion which says, “It is the will of the gods that
the palace should stand as long as the sky.”

The inscription remains as if to mock at the
ruined scene around. ‘For the gods of the



THE PALACE OF KING RAMESES. _ 85

Egyptians were idols of wood and stone: they
had no power to keep the palace standing.
It has fallen in spite of them, and is, as you
see, an utter desolation.

But here is another room in the palace. It
is called the library, and has, on the ceiling,
a picture relating to the study of the stars.
Books were, no doubt, kept here in the days
that are gone. By the word books I mean
those curious rolls made of the papyrus, and
which were written all over with figures of
men, and birds, and animals. Each figure was
meant to represent a word, and this mode of
writing by pictures is called hieroglyphics.
Many of these rolls of papyrus have been found
in the tombs of the kings, and in various other
places. The writing is as fresh as if it had
been done yesterday.

The size of the Ramesium when in its glory
was immense. It was six hundred feet long
and two hundred broad. The pillars, and there
were a hundred and fifty of them, were thirty
feet high. What kind of men were those, we
ask, who planned such works as these ?



36

THE OVERTHROW OF THEBES.

Tue ruin of Thebes did not happen all at
once: it came slowly on, age by age. For
many centuries, each king as he ruled, improved.
and beautified the capital. Temple after temple
was built, till the city became one of the won-
ders of the world.

But at last its glory began to decline.

The kings of Lower Egypt came into power,
and carried away the seat of government to
another city. This was a great blow to the
prosperity of Thebes. One of these kings is
mentioned in the Bible; he is Shishak, who
fought against Rehoboam and plundered Jeru-
salem. He brought to Thebes the golden
shields that Solomon had hung up in the
Temple.

- But the greatest misfortune that befell the
city was when Cambyses, king of Persia, con-
quered Egypt. The Persians worshipped the
sun, and held idols in abhorrence. Cambyses
was a furious prince; many people thought he
was mad. He went through the land, over-
throwing its temples, and pulling down its
statues. He came to Thebes and did all he
could to rifle its tombs and destroy its palaces.



THE OVERTHROW OF THEBES. 37

But even after this had been done the city
‘began to recover. Many of its palaces were
still standing. These parts of the city are now
wretched little villages that have sprung up
where was once the mighty Thebes. The vil-
lages, peopled with Arabs, are called Carnak,
and Luxor, and Medinet Abou.

At each of these places are the ruins of the
most magnificent halls and temples that the
world ever saw. The temple at Carnak re-
mained for a long time unbroken: it had twelve
entrances, each through a colossal gateway,
and on the sides of the gateway were gigantic
statues sitting or standing.

The temple itself was so vast that it covered
more than a mile of ground; and you ap-
proached it by one of those wonderful avenues
-of sphynxes that reached for two miles across
the plain.

I can give you by mere words but a faint
idea of the grandeur of Carnak. Part of the
“hall of columns” is still standing ; and when
Napoleon the First with his army came in
sight of it, they stopped as if struck with
amazement. Then the soldiers gave a shout of
admiration, and clapped their hands ; they had
never even imagined such a sight.



388 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

I should tell you that some of the most
beautiful sculptures in Egypt are found in this
“hall of columns.” One is of King Shishak,











WARIO AMES

ws

it

: t x = ry: 7; § a ae ; a j in
Hibh iki Anica ahr atime
TG i 7 = sane ae S

















feet























































HALL OF COLUMNS, CARNAK,

dragging along his prisoners: these are thought
to be the Jews whom he had brought from
Jerusalem. The generals of Alexander the



THR OVERTHROW OF THEBES. 89

Great had the delight of seeing the temple
of Carnak in its beauty; they saw also the
temple at Luxor and the one at Medinet Abou.
All three were standing in their days.

Alexander freed the people of Thebes from
the tyranny of the Persians. And then began
the race of the Ptolemies, about whom you
read in history.

These were modern days, compared to the
ancient times of which we have been speak-
ing. Thebes was still in a state of outward
grandeur, and the Ptolemies improved and
beautified it. AN

But now came the final step to the doom
which was impending; the inhabitants of
Thebes rebelled against one of the Ptolemies.
They were besieged in their city, and took
refuge in their temple palaces. In these
strongholds they defied the king for three
years; but they were reduced by famine, and
overpowered by numbers.

You can fancy what happened in the end.
The city of the hundred gates was given up
to pillage; the gigantic buildings, the temples,
and the columns were overthrown, and left in
the state in which you see them now; over
their wrecks the sand of the desert has kept



40 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

slowly drifting. There are no busy hands to
keep it back, or to reclaim fields and gardens
from the waste. The once “Populous No”’ is
a city buried and deserted.

THE TEMPLE OF THE GOD APIS.

THERE was a time, as we have seen, when the
kings of Egypt dwelt at Thebes. Buta change
took place by degrees in the country. One of
the kings turned the course of the river, and
caused it to flow towards the desert. A piece
of land at the mouth of the Nile was reclaimed,
and formed what is called the Delta.

Canals were cut all over the country to drain
it, and in the end a city was built called Mem-
phis. It stood on the left bank of the Nile,
opposite to Cairo.

It was intended to be a royal city, and here
the kings took up their abode. When Memphis
was in its glory it was sixteen miles in extent.
It was the seat of learning and of science.
Kings and warriors, philosophers and men. of
letters, flocked hither. Its vast temple, called
by the Greeks the “ Serapeum,”’ has been partly



THE TEMPLE OF THE GOD APIS. 41

unburied. An avenue of sphynxes led to it,
all of which have, for ages, been lost in
sand. Close by the Serapeum was the abode
of Apis.

You will smile when I relate to you the
story of Apis. He was worshipped as a god
from one end of Egypt to the other. But his
home was at Memphis, in the beautiful temple
which was then standing.

Apis was nothing more than an ox. The
priests had the care of him from the time of
his birth. I told you how cunning they were.
They pretended that Apis had certain marks
on his body by which he might be known to be
a sacred animal.

He had a square mark on his forehead, an
eagle on his back, and a mark like the sacred
beetle under his tongue. For the Egyptians
worshipped even a beetle! The priests are
suspected of making the marks themselves.
At any rate, when the old Apis died, or was
secretly drowned, they produced another, which
had the right marks upon his body. :

And then came a number of feasts, and. pro-
cessions, and rejoicings. ‘The new Apis was
taken on the river in a splendid boat, gaily
adorned, with curtains, and sparkling with gold



42 LOST CITIES BROUGHT To LiaHut,

They conducted him to the temples of Thebes,
and kept him there for many days. After
that, he was brought back to Memphis, and
took up his abode in the temple. The people
were allowed to gaze at him through a window,
and it was thought a great honour to do so. |

Apis was considered sacred to the moon and
to the stars, and he was supposed to cause the
overflowing of the Nile. The country was said
to owe its fertility to the god Apis.

When Cambyses was in the city of Memphis
he met, in the streets, a procession of priests
leading Apis to his dwelling. The sight made
him so angry, that he drew his sword and killed
Apis on the spot. .

The mummy pits, we see yonder, were the
burying-places of the numerous tribe of Apis.
His body was embalmed and placed there with
as much honour as if he had been a king. His
tombstone was set up in the palace, with the
date of his birth and of his death. These

tablets are of great use to learned men in fixing
the time of certain events.

Where is Memphis now? Once the rival of
Thebes, and the riches and grandeur of which
caused it to be the first city in the world?
All you can behold are yonder mounds of



THE TEMPLE OF THE GOD APIS. 43

earth, and a little village called Gisa, quite of
modern growth. The whole of the city is
underground, buried in its own ruins.

We read much in the Bible of the idolatry
of the Egyptians. We know that the children
of Israel were inclined to worship images, in
spite of the threatenings of the Most High.
They were always setting up their golden
calves, for they had been reared in the very

cradle of idolatry. ‘

I have taken you into the land of idols.
You have seen their temples, their processions, -
and their gods. No creature so mean but the
ligyptian would worship it. The snake, the
beetle, the ox, the bird called the ibis, even a
plant, a.feeble rush, was adored! The reason
of this gross idolatry can easily be traced. It
lay at the very root of their religion. The
priests appear to have taught the doctrine of a .
Supreme Being, the Author and Sustainer of

-all things. They also taught the doctrine of
the immortality of the soul, and of future
rewards and punishments.

But there was gross error mixed with their
belief. They did not view the Creator as a
Spiritual Being, dwelling in the high and holy
place, and separate from the works He had



44 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

made. They thought that He dwelt in those
works, and was part of them, as the soul dwells
in the body. So that every portion of the
universe, the sun and moon, the animals, even
the plants, might be worshipped as parts of the
deity.

From this error sprang the idolatry of Egypt.
The priests had great learning, and were skilled
in many sciences, but they kept their know-
ledge to themselves. The mass of the people
were in ignorance, and worshipped all kinds of
creatures as gods, without any reference to the
Supreme Being.

Numbers of animals were considered sacred,
and the people were taxed to support them.
In Thebes, and the country round, this tax was
not paid. The inhabitants refused to contri-
bute to the maintenance of the cats and dogs,
birds and crocodiles, that their fellow-country-
men adored,

We read, you remember, in the New Testa-
- ment, that a young child was brought down
into Egypt, by Mary his mother, to escape
from the fury of King Herod. That young
child was Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who
stooped to become a babe, that He might be our
Saviour. He revealed to us the true God, and



THE CITY OF THE SUN. 45

taught us to pray to Him as Our Father.
When He returned from Egypt to His own
country, the words of the prophet Hosea were
fulfilled: “Out of Egypt have I called my
Son.”* The idols of Egypt have been abo-
lished, and its cities have perished; but there
are thousands, yea, millions of men, women,
and children, throughout the whole world, who
love and serve this Saviour, and pray to God
the Father in His name. _

The prephets, as we have seen, foretold the
destruction of the idols. And they also fore-
tell that a period will come, when the kingdom
of Jesus Christ will prevail and cover the earth
as the waters cover the sea. Then, all that is
evil will flee away as shadows before the sun.

‘Should we not pray that this kingdom may
be set up in our hearts, and that He may reign
over us, whose right it is ?

THE CITY OF THE SUN.

Berorz we take our leave of Egypt, I must
point out one solitary object. A stately column
rises yonder from the midst of a clump of trees.

* Hosea xi, 1; Matt. ii. 15,



46 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

Part of its base is buried in the earth, The











































= .

OBELISK OF THE TEMRLE OF 2OTIPHERAH,
« column is of red granite, and has on it the



THE CITY OF THE suN. 47

usual picture writing, and the name of the
king who erected it.

He was one of those monarchs who adorned
and beautified the city of Thebes. Part of the
temple of Carnak was built by him.

We are far away from Thebes now. The
spot where we stand is in Lower Egypt, some
miles north of Cairo. Weare again in soli-
tude and silence. Nothing meets our view but
the lonely column and a few mounds of earth.
The mounds once formed a causeway or eleva-
tion on which stood a famous city. It was
the “On” of the Bible, the Heliopolis, or
City of the Sun. It was the seat of all the
learning and wisdom of the nation. Here
were temples and schools where the priests
explained the rites and mysteries of their
religion. Science,- literature, law, and all the
curious arts of Egypt, were taught here. It was
considered the fountain-head of knowledge.

We may well pause to call up a few of the
scenes which took place in the City of the Sun.
Two of the most noted-characters in holy writ
are linked with it—Joseph and Moses.

Joseph is connected in every way with
Ligypt. Ons of the caravans from the desert
brought him, a friendless and forsaken youth,



48 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

left by his brethren to die, and afterwards
sold to the travelling Ishmaelites. He was a
slave in one of the very cities we have been
describing, trod its streets, and looked upon
its giant splendours.

We meoct with him, again, in one of the
palaces of the Pharaohs. The gold chain is
put upon his neck, and he rides in a chariot
such as we see depicted on the walls of the
temples.

This place, so desolate, but then teeming
with life, was where Joseph came to fetch his
bride. er father was the priest, or prince, of
On. The feet of Moses trod this very ground.
He was taught in these schools the science and
the lore of Egypt.

In one of the rolls of papyrus, Moses is
thought to be spoken of. He is said to be the
‘infant who owed his life to those who res-
cued him;” alluding, no doubt, to that touching
scene in his history when Pharach’s daughter —
found him in the little ark of bulrushes by the
river Nile.

He was afterwards spoken of as “a magician,”
and as having gained “great power over the
wretched people of Shem,” meaning the He-
brews, who were then in bondage. This same



THE CITY OF THE SUN. 49

magician is said to have led out the people of
Shem from their work, and to have been pur-
sued by the Egyptian host. Then the roll tells
-us of a terrible catastrophe having happened
to the Egyptians, and that the flower of their
army perished in the abyss. .

It has taken learned men their whole life-
time to make out the writing on the rolls; but
the trouble is amply repaid when we come
upon a record such as this!

We have but to bring before our minds the
ancient glory of Egypt, and we shall know
something of the scenes amid which the youth
of Moses was spent. He had been brought up
in all the luxury of palaces, such as Thebes
and Carnak. He had beheld the mighty avenues
of images, the processions, the solemn pomp
of the Hgyptian worship. He had seen the
oppressed Hebrews toiling under their daily
task. With them he need have had nothing
to do. He was the adopted son of Pharaoh’s
daughter.

All the pleasures and honours of the land
were at his command, But God gave him
grace to turn away from these. When he came
to manhood, he refused to be called the son of
Pharaoh’s daughter. He chose to cast in his

: b



50 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

lot with the people of God, in their suffengs
and hardships, “esteeming the reproach of
‘ Christ greater riches than the treasures of
Egypt.” At length, Moses became the deliverer
of his people, and with many signs and wonders
led them to the promised land.

This ancient spot, with its lonely pillars,
recalls to us those days so long passed away.

Heliopolis is now no more. Its ruins lie
buried under these neglected mounds. Its lore,
its pomp, and its religious worship bave alike
departed. Its very language is forgotten.

Happily for us, a purer faith has dawned
upon the earth. The children of Israel were
taught God’s law amid the thunders and
lightnings of Mount Sinai. In these days
God has spoken to us by his Son. “ The law
came by Moses, but grace and truth came by
Jesus Christ.”







THE DESERTED CITIES OF THE GIANTS.








CHAPTER II.

THE DESERTED CITIES OF THE GIANTS.

HEN Moses was old and stricken
in years, he was led up into a
mountain to behold the promised
land. There it lay, spread out
before him, a land of olive-trees
and vineyards ; and which, in the
poetical language of the East,
was said to flow with milk and honey. The
productions of this fair country were on a
grand scale. When the spies sent by Joshua
brought home a cluster of grapes, it required,
we are told, two men to carry it.

The inhabitants of Canaan were armed men,
fierce and terrible, There dwelt the giants of
old. Moses, in the view granted him from the
mountain top, no doubt beheld the walled cities
reared by the men of Canaan, Many a heart





54 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

fainted for fear of them, when the time came
to take possession of the land. But God went
- with the armies of Israel, and nothing could
withstand them.

We are going to visit the very land over
which the aged Moses gazed. Strange as it
may seem, some of the cities of Canaan are
thought to be yet standing just as when the
old giants left them. They are not buried
cities, though some of them are choked up
with rubbish ; but they are deserted. No man
passes by that way, except the “ stranger that
comes from a far land,” and the wandering
Arab, the robber of the desert.

They were once the principal cities in a,
flourishing and mighty kingdom. ‘Its name
was Bashan. If you look on the map of Pales-
tine, you will find it at once. Its fields were
rich in pasture, and spread like a plain to the
foot of Mount Hermon. Its oaks were famous.
You may see them even now, dotting over the
landscape. The oaks of Bashan, and its flocks
and herds, are spoken of many times in the
Old Testament; and the men who lived in
Bashan are described by the sacred writer.
We are told they were giants—in fact, the
land is. called the land of giants; and the



THE DESERTED CITIES OF THE GIANTS. 55

buildings T shall describe to you could scarcely
have been erected by men of the usual size and





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE MOUNTAINS OF BASHAN.

strength. The children of Israel spoke of
themselves as grasshoppers by the side of the
men of Canaan.

Bashan is perhaps the oldest kingdom in the
world. . It stretches back farther than human



56 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

research can reach. All we know of it is told
us by the word of God.

Who has not heard of Og, king of Bashan ?
He ruled over a large portion of Canaan, from
the river to the desert; and he resolved to
defend his kingdom, and drive out these
strangers who had come to attack it. He drew
up a formidable army, with all his mighty
men of valour. He thought to strike terror
into the children of Israel; but God fought
_ for His people, and the giant. king was slain.
After the battle, his capital city, Edrei, was
taken and given to pillage. The Bible speaks of
the gigantic size of the bedstead of King Og.

By degrees Bashan was conquered, but some
of its ancient tribes still remained. They had,
it is true, to quit their rich pastures and pleas-
ant fields ; but they hid in the rocky caves and
recesses of Hermon, and continued to exist
there. David met with them in his exile. He
married a daughter-of one of their chiefs, who
became the mother of Absalom. To this very
day these rocky caves are the abode of wander-
ers and exiles. They are like cities of refuge ;
whoever reaches them, no matter what his
crime may be, is safe as long as he remains
hidden in their fastnesses,



THE DESERTED CITIES OF THE GIANTS. 57

A good man (the Rev. J. L. Porter) once
turned his steps to this land of wonder and of
interest. He had his Bible in his hand, and as
he travelled on he read the history of Bashan.
When he reached a certain place darkness
came on. It rained heavily, and there seemed
no shelter for the night. But he could faintly
perceive what looked like buildings.

The guide stopped, and he thought they were
going to halt among the ruins. He asked the
guide if it were possible to get shelter from the
rain. “Oh, yes,’ replied the guide, “there is
a house ready for you. The place is full of
houses. It is a city.”

Strange as it may seem, the traveller found
himself.in the midst of a city, which he
believed to have been built by the great dwel-
lers in Bashan. There were the houses, just as
the old Canaanites had left them. Houses which,
perhaps, were standing when, ages ago, Moses
gazed over the promised land. Then, they were
occupied by warriors and by men of renown;
now, the owl shrieks from the lonely tower,
and the wild beast of the desert dwells there.

The houses. are rude and simple. There is.
none of the splendour of Thebes or of Memphis.
They were built for strength, and were suited to



58 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

the people who dwelt there. The material is
solid stone ; the walls are blocks of stone. The
roof is constructed of the same massive blocks
or slabs; placed side by side. A stone cornice
runs round the room. The door is stone, and
turns easily in its sockets; the window has a
stone shutter. The town consisted of many
houses, some larger and some smaller. But
they were all built on the same principle.

Can you not understand the feelings of the
traveller as he stood in the deserted mansion ?
There was neither ruin nor decay; but the
race that built it had for ages passed away.
There was literally “no man,” the highways
were deserted. 3

All over. the country are scattered these
cities, known even now by their Scripture
names. There is Bosrah, and Argob, and
Kenath, and hundreds more; cities once
fenced with high walls, and gates, and bars.
There are still the old streets, the deserted
terraces, the overgrown vineyards. It seems
like a dream or a fiction ; but the fact remains
the same. They are “without man,” “ with-
out inhabitant and without beast.”

“For the cities thereof shall be desolate,
without any to dwell therein ” (Jer. xlviii. 9).



THE CITY OF TYRE,








CHAPTER III.
THE CITY OF TYRE.

=, ¥ you look at the map of Palestine
* you will find a strip of land run-
ning the whole length of the sea-
coast. At the northern end it
becomes very narrow, and is shut
- in, as it were, by the mountains of
Cite and Lebanon. This narrow strip of
land, in the old days, was called Pheenicia. Ié
was peopled by the sons of Canaan, and the
inhabitants were therefore called Canaanites
When the children of Israel drove out the
people of the land, they do not appear to have
meddled with Phcenicia. Its wealth and power
remained: the same as it had ever been. The
Israelites would even trade with their wealthy
neighbours, and seek their aid when any very
skilful artificer was needed. I should tell you





62 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGEY.

that the Pheenicians were noted for their com-
merce and ships, as Englandis now. Phainicia
has been called the England of the old world.
Two cities flourished in great glory on the
coast of Pheenicia, I mean Tyre and Sidon.



SIDON,

Sidon was the oldest city of the two, and
‘Tyre was, in the beginning, a colony founded
by the Sidonians ; but it soon became of more
importance than the parent city; It was “the



THE CITY OF TYRE. 63

queen of nations” spoken of in the Bible, “the
joyous city ; the mart of the world.”

There is an account given of Tyre by the
prophet Ezekiel,* and it reads like a poem.
He describes her markets and her fairs, to
which every kind of merchandise was brought.
Here were all the sweet spices of the Hast;
all precious stones, coral, emerald, and agate.
Here were gold and silver, and iron and tin,
and lead. Here was honey, and oil, and balm.
Here were purple garments, and rich apparel
stored in chests of cedar. Here were ivory and
ebony, and horses and mules, and wine and
wheat, and white wool, and aienast everything
‘that can be named.

The merchants of Tyre sang her praises in
all lands. ‘Their ships were built of the
choicest woods; fir-trees and cedars were
taken for the masts, and oaks of Bashan for
the oars; the benches were of ivory; and the
sails were of fine linen with embroidered work
from Egypt, and with ornaments of purple and
blue. Wise men were said to be their mariners
and. pilots. :

But even while the prophet beheld all this
pomp and splendour, these crowded fairs and

* Ezek, xsvil.



64 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

sumptuous vessels, he declared that the city
would become deserted, and a place of rocks
on which the fisherman would spread his nets
to dry. ,



































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE PORT OF TYRE,

If you go to the spot where Tyre once stood,
what meets your view? -Nothing can be more
desolate, There arc some ruins, a wretched



THE CITY OF TYRE. . 65

village, and some smooth rocks, on which the
fishermen have spread out their nets.

Her vessels are gone, and her merchandise
ceased. There is neither buying nor selling
in her streets ; there is neither pomp, nor glory,
nor riches. All have passed awiy like a dream !
You may well ask where is Tyre, the queen of
nations ? Except these few ruins, she lies buried
beneath; there you might, indeed, find her
shattered temples and columns.

‘At one time, some men employed in digging
for stones, came upon the remains of Tyre.
They found a statue, and a portion of a temple.
No doubt many of her temples might be re-
' vealed should the veil be lifted from the fallen
city. But the traveller can only walk over the
sput where Tyre once was, but now is not.

Only one portion of the old sea wall of Tyre
remains. When in its grandeur it was a
hundred and fifty feet in height, and of a great
breadth. The stone which is left is seventeen
- feet long and six feet thick. It remains just as
the workmen left it when they built the walls
ages and ages ago. The waves dash against it,
and have done for thousands of years; but it
resists them yet, and may do to the end of
time.

x



66 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

Let us turn from this ponderous ruin, and

- glance at those fragile shells that lie scattered
on the shore. They, too, are a remnant of
ancient Tyre. The Tyrian purple, once so





































RUINS OF TYRE,

famous, was produced by them. No one cares
for the purple now. The shells, once gathered
with such industry, lie neglected on the beach.
There are no vessels in the forsaken harbour.
All is ruin and desolation; for the Lord had



TIE CITY OF TYRE. 87

said he would make of Tyre “a desolate city,
like the cities that are not inhabited,” *

Tyre was built partly on the mainland and
partly on an island. For a long time these
were distinct places, and the Tyre on the main-
land was the most ancient. In after years, as
you will see, a causeway was made from the
island to the land.

In the early days there was a great friendship
between the King of Israel and the King of Tyre.
They were like neighbours living side by side.

When King Solomon came to the throne, his
neighbour, Hiram, king of Tyre, wrote to con-
gratulate him, Solomon replied to this letter
by saying that David, his father, had wished to
build a temple to the Lord; he had not been
able to do so, because of his constant wars.
But now King Solomon thanked God that he
was at peace, and had leisure to begin the
work. He wished King Hiram to send some
of his men to Mount Lebanon to cut down the
timber, for they were more skilful than his -
own. people.

The Tyrian monarch sent his workmen to
cut down the cedar and the cypress-trees, as
Solomon.wished. There were thirty thousand

* Haek, xxvi: 19,



68 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

of these workmen. They made the wood into
‘rafts, and sent it by sea to some convenient
place from which it could be carried to Jeru-
salem.

Some time after, when the temple was nearly
finished, King Solomon sent again to Tyre for
a workman. The name of the workman was
also Hiram, and he was a worker in gold, and
in silver, and in brass. He made all the orna-
ments for the pillars, and the pomegranates and
the lily work. Also the basins, and the lavers,
and the molten sea, and all the choice articles
required in the worship of the temple.

The King of Tyre is said to have given his
daughter in marriage to King Solomon. He,
too, was building temples, but they were. in
honour of the heathen godsa Jupiter and
Hercules.

Many princes reigned after King Hiram;
but the wickedness of the people became very
great; and they added to it by an act of cruelty
to their neighbours the Jews. The later kings
of Tyre seemed to forget the friendship between
Hiram and David.. On one occasion, they took
some of the Jews captive and sold them as
slaves.

This unjust deed caused the anger of God to



THE CITY OF TYRE. 69

be kindled against them. A great enemy was
raised up in the person of Nebuchadnezzar,
king of Babylon. He came with his army,
his horsemen, and his engines of war, and laid
siege to Tyre. But the Tyrians had the reputa-
tion of being wise men. ‘They had made a
kind of refuge for themselves, to which they
might escape from the fury of the King of
Babylon.

Tyre had been as fond of sending out colo-
nies as the mother city, Sidon, had been. Her
colonies were in “Tarshish and the isles.”
The “isles”? were in the Mediterranean Sea ;
and Tarshish was @ city of Spain. To these
places of refuge they intended to flee.

When they heard the noise of the engines
that were to batter down their walls, they lost
no time. They gathered together their gold
and silver and treasures, and put them on
board some of their beautiful ships. Then
they sailed to the “isles” for safety. The
siege of Tyre had been so long it had
almost wearied out the enemy. The Bible
tells us that “every head was made bare, and
every shoulder peeled,” by reason of the hard-
ships inflicted upon the people. The siege
lasted thirteen years, and then at last, Tyre



70 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

was taken, and the soldiers of King Nebuchad-
nezzar forced their way into the city. But
they had little reward for their pains; most of
the treasures had been taken away, and the
city partly despoiled.

The king had no “wages for his labour.”
But although many of the Tyrian people had
escaped to “the isles,” they had no rest. The.

prophet had declared it should be so, and his

words came literally true. A doom seemed to
be on Tyre and her colonies. Carthage was
one of the most famous cities founded by the
Tyrians; and you know the mournful story
of Carthage and her wars with the Romans.
In the end, Carthage became a ruined and a
buried city.

After many years the Tyrians came back to
their home, and in spite of past troubles the
city began to revive. Her fairs were again
famous for their merchandise; and her sump-
tuous vessels, with their sails of purple and fine
Iinen, went through all seas, She was again
“the joyous city, the mart of nations.”

But her prosperity did not last long ; another
enemy was raised up against her. Alexander
the Great, king of Macedonia, came with his
army and encamped round about Tyre.



THE CITY OF TYRE. 71

Again, the people thought of their “isles,”
and many of them fled thither. These were
fortunate, indeed ; for evil days were coming.
The city was taken by storm, and one of those
terrible sacks took place such as we know
nothing about in modern days. Two thousand.
of the wretched captives were crucified by order
of the conqueror, and many more were sold for
slaves. Thus was fulfilled the prophecy of
Joel, “Behold, I will return your recompense |
upon your own heads, and I will sell your sons
and your daughters.” *

The old city of Tyre was pulled down by-
Alexander, and made a complete ruin. He
used the materials to build a causeway joining
the island to the mainland.

Tyre was now supject to the King of Mace-
donia, and was ruled by a monarch chosen by
him; but still she began once more to struggle
into life. Her wonderful fairs and markets
began again to draw merchants from all parts
of the world; her vessels still plied their
. course over the waters; her purple garments
were still worn by kings and priests.

The city had been given to idolatry. Her-
cules had been worshipped under the name of
Baal—a name often mentioned in the Bible

* Joel iii. 4, 8



72 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

The noble and stately temples, now no more,
had been reared to false gods. But after a
time, the Tyrians seemed to have learned a
purer faith from their neighbours the Jews.
When our Saviour was on earth, teaching
and working miracles, a vast multitude came














































































































































































































































































































































































































































ona Oe
IS gh 7b

RUINS ON COAST OF TYRE,

from the coasts of Tyre and Sidon to hear him,
and. to be healed of their diseases.

That was a Tyrian woman who followed our
Saviour with such perseverance, beseeching



THE CITY OF TYRE. 73.

him to heal her daughter, and to whom he
said, “I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of
the house of Isracl.’’ ‘Yes, Lord,” was her
reply, “yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which
fall from their master’s table.”

St. Paul had many converts at Tyre, and
a church was even built for the worship of
God. But with all this, the doom had been
spoken and was slowly creeping on.

The commerce of Tyre, once so famous, began
to decline. A new city had been built by
Alexander the Great, and called Alexandria.
This new city drew away the trade from Tyre,
and speedily brought the once joyous city into
a kind of decay.

Tyre was always changing masters. Now it
belonged to Egypt, now to Syria, and now to
Rome. The Crusaders fought for it with the
Turks, and made it a battle-field. When, at
last, the Turks obtained possession of it, they
sacked and pulled it down, lest it should shelter
the Christian army.

Thus, step by step, the prophecy has been
fulfilled. .

“They shall destroy the walls of Tyre, and
break down her towers.” “Thou shalt be
built no more: for I the Lord have spoken it.” *

* Ezek, xxvi. 14.



74 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

We read that when our Lord was upon the
earth, “ He began to upbraid the cities wherein
“most of his mighty works were done, because
they repented not: Woe unto thee, Chorazin !
woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty
works, which were done in you, had been done
in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented
long ago in sackcloth andashes. But I say unto
you, It ‘shall be more tolerable for Tyre and
Sidon at the day of judgment, than for you.” *

Thus he exhorted those cities to take warn-
ing by the fate of Tyre and Sidon. And the
same warning comes to us. ° We have not
indeed seen our Lord’s mighty works or heard
his voice; but the message of salvation from
his lips has come to us, and we have heard of
his death upon the cross to deliver us from sin
and eternal death. The youngest child, who
reads this book, knows more about God, and is
under far greater obligations to serve him, than
the wisest amongst the heathen. Let the ruins
of Tyre and Sidon warn us against neglecting
the grace of God, or resisting his Holy Spirit.
He, who will come at last to judge the whole
earth, has declared that if we do so, it will be
more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon, for Sodom
and Gomorrah, than for us.

%* Matt, xi, 21,



NINEVEH.








CHAPTER IV.
= NINEVEH IN HER GLORY.



25 HEN a city or nated: in these old
/ world times, had become very
wicked, one of the prophets of
the Lord would be sent to ery
out against it.
oem Often, as in the case of Tyre
or of Thebes, he would foretell

its entire destruction. There was a city called.
Nineveh, which was one of the most ancient
in the world. But it had become as wicked as
any. The inhabitants were given up to their
sins and their idolatry ; and God sent a prophet
named Jonah to cry out against them.

The message, given to Jonah, was very strik-
ing. He was told to declare that in forty days
Nineveh would be utterly destroyed.



78 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

Jonah was one of- the earliest of the prophets.
_ The time, of which we are speaking, was sup-
‘posed to be about the. time when King Jehu
reigned in Israel.

Nineveh had long been a great and mighty
city. It had flourished for many ages; and
had become so vast in size, that it was a three
days’ journey to go round it, or, as some think,
even to go through it. Its walls were a hun-
dred feet in height, and so broad that three
chariots could drive abreast upon. the top.
These mighty walls were strengthened with
towers placed at intervals. ach tower was
two hundred feet in height, and there were as
many as fifteen hundred of them. There is
not a vestige of these great walls remaining.

The city was built on the banks of the
river Tigris. Between this river and the Eu-
phrates was a rich and fertile plain. Indeed,
it was so rich and so luxuriant that it. was sup-
posed to be the site of the garden of Eden.

This was one of the most interesting spots in
the world. Besides its extraordinary fertility,
it was noted for being the dwelling of mankind
immediately after the deluge, and the place
from whence the sons of Noah went forth to
people the earth. It was the birthplace of



NINEVEH IN HER GLORY. 79

many of the Scripture characters, such as Abra-
ham, Sarah, Lot, Rebecca, and the sons of



:







Jacob, This plain has several names by which
it is spoken of in the Old Testament—Padan-
aram, Mesopotamia, or the Land of’Shinar.



80 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIWHT.

The Land of Shinar formed part of the great
Assyrian kingdom, of which Nineveh was the
capital.

Nineveh had attained to the height of power,
and riches, and luxury. Its palaces and its
buildings were splendid and vast as those of
the hundred-gated ‘Thebes.

As we have tried to picture to ourselves
Thebes in its glory, so we will endeavour to
recall the deserted and buried city of Nineveh.
We will draw back the veil from the past, and

_iook upon the pomp and glory that presented.
themselves to the sight of Jonah, when he was
sent to declare that “yet forty days, and Nine-
veh shall be overthrown and destroyed.”

Within the vast and colossal walls there
were palaces and temples of equal vastness.
They were not built of the same material as the
red granite of Thebes. The huge lions that
guarded the entrance were carved in a kind of
alabaster, that was found cropping up in ridges -
on the plain. The iramense slabs that formed
the walls were of this alabaster, and were carved
over with figures. Here, as at Thebes, were
depicted scenes from the life of the king, and
the story of his wars and his victories.

As we stand in this vast chamber, let us



NINEVEH IN HER GLORY. 81

glance at the doorways, which conduct to other
halls and chambers of equal size and grandeur.
They are formed
by colossal figures
such as are met
) with nowhere else.
The figures are
those of mighty-
winged bulls, with
human heads and
wings as of an
eagle. Nothing
can be more ma-
yi jestic than their
|| appearance, carv-
ed as they were
ACh} in alabaster, and
|| painted with bril-
ant colours. The
‘|p head of the man
aio, wassupposed tore-
: i present knowledge;
ised) the body of the
_Ssal| animal, strength ;
and the wings of
the eagle, speed.
The floor, over which we walk, is made of the
F









82 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

same material: it consists of slabs of alabaster,
and is covered with figures and characters.
The ceiling reminds us of many a description »
in the Bible of just such a chamber. It was









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WINGED BULL FROM NINEVEE.

“ceiled with cedar, and painted with ver-
milion.”

The choicest trees were used for the wood-
work, And the ceiling appears to have been
divided into squares, and painted with flowers



NINEVEH IN HER GLORY. 83

and figures. It would sometimes be inlaid with
ivory, and its beams be adorned with gold and
silver.

You can judge a little from this descrip-
tion what the wealth and luxury of the city
must have been.

Indeed the riches of Nineveh are spoken
of in the Bible as very great. There is
said to be “no end of store;” and “spoil of
gold and silver” is promised to the enemies of
the city. All kinds of precious metals were
found in the mountains that bounded the plain ;
and here, as at Tyre, were skilful workmen,
and carvers in gold, and silver, and ivory; and
here too were the purple and embroidered gar-
ments, and the sumptuous dresses that were so
much prized in the days of old. These deserted
and buried palaces echoed to the tread of kings
and of priests, Here was the glitter of golden
ornaments, the sparkling of cups and vessels
of gold, the mirth of feasts, and the notes of
nausic.

The plain of Nineveh was like a well-watered
garden. It was a land of corn, and wine, and.
oil. It had precious perfumes, and cotton, and
the sugar-cane. It had vineyards and orchards ;
and, like the ancient Canaan, might be-said to



84 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

flow with milk and honey. To Nineveh, this
city so rich and powerful, and teeming with
people, was Jonah sent with his message—
“Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be over-
thrown.”

Ti seems as if, at first, he was afraid to go.
“How could a solitary man,” he appears to



:
PART OF BANQUETING SCENE,

have argued, “stand in the midst of such a
throng, and declare such a threat as this?”
His faith in God failed him; he even toek his
place in a vessel about to sail for Tarshish, and
fled from the presence of the Lord !

I need not remind you, that God met with ~



NINEVEH IN HER GLORY. 85

him and trcught him back in a miraculous
manner. ‘hen, a second time, the message
was delivered to him. He was told to go
down. to Nineveh, and declare the same words
—“ Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be over-
thrown.”

This time the prophet did his Master’s bid-
ding. He came to Nineveh, that great city,
and. cried out in her streets the message on
which he had been sent. It was an awful mes-
sage, and the people might well be startled
as they stopped to listen. The king in his
chamber of cedar and vermilion heard it and .
trembled. He put off his broidered garments
and his ornaments of gold and silver. As the
Bible tells us, he and his people “ believed
God.” And he put on sackcloth and sat in
ashes, and proclaimed a solemn fast through-
out the land. His nobles and his subjects were
forbidden to taste either food or water. They
were to cry unto God for mercy. _

“Who can tell if God will turn from his
fierce anger, that we perish not?”

We should scarcely believe, if the Bible had
not told us, that Jonah was displeased when
the Almighty consented to spare Nineveh.

Looking round upon her swarming people,



86 ~ LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

her streets and her palaces, one should imagine:
the threatened doom must have been fearful to
contemplate.

But Jonah was angry: he cneaatis his words
had not come true. And he went and sat under
a gourd to see what would happen, The gourd

chad sprung up, it is thought, in a miraculous
manner, to afford the prophet a shade from the
scorching sun. And we are told that Jonah
was “ axassdingly glad. of the gourd.”

But the Almighty was about to teach him a
lesson. A worm came in the night, and de-
stroyed the gourd. The'sun and wind beat on
the prophet’s head, and he fainted. Then he
said, “It is better for me to die than to live.”

But God made him a reply that you have, no
doubt, read many times: “Thou hadst pity on
the gourd, which came up in a night and
perished in a night: and should not I spare
Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more
than six score thousand persons that cannot
discern their right hand from their left, and
also much cattle ?”’

Our Lord Jesus Christ spoke to the Jews of -
the history of Jonah at Nineveh. “Then cer-
tain of the scribes and of the Pharisees an-
swered, saying, Master, we would see a sign



NINEVEH IN HER GLORY. 87

from thee. But he answered and said unto

them, An evil and adulterous generation seck-

eth after a sign; and there shall no sign be

- given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas:

for as Jonas was three days and three nights:
in the whale’s belly ; so shall the Son of man

be three days and three nights in the heart of
the earth. The men of Nineveh shall rise in

judgment with this generation, and shall con-

demn it: because they repented at the preach-

ing of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas

is here.”

Jonah being three days in the whale’s belly
was a type and prophecy of our Lord’s death,
burial, and-resurrection on the third day. And
the repentance of the Ninevites, at the preach-
ing of Jonah, was a lesson to all who hear or
read the words of Jesus, that they too should
repent. Jonah warned the people of Nineveh
of the ruin and destruction of their city; but
Christ warns us of the danger, yea, the cer-
tainty, of eternal death if we neglect the salva-
tion He offers us. Jonah, though a prophet,
was only a weak and sinful man. But Christ
is greater than Jonah. The Son of God himself
calls us to repent. Jonah undertook a long
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90 LOST CITIES BROUGHT 10 LIGHT.

Ninevites; and he grudged them the mercy
they received. Christ came down from heaven
to die upon the cross, that we might find
mercy. He wept over his enemies; he prayed
for his murderers. He says to us, “How
shall ye escape, if ye neglect so great salva-
tion P”

THE REMAINS OF NINEVEH.

It was by the courage and zeal of Mr.
Layard that the very stones and bricks of
Nineveh were brought to light.. Some of her
gigantic winged figures have been unburied
and conveyed to England: They are now in
our British Museum, and people gaze at them
with wonder and delight.

For a long time, no one could guess the

exact spot where Nineveh had stood. The once
populous city, with its walls a hundred feet
in height, and with its gates and towers, was
gone, as lt seemed, for ever !
_ If you turn to the writings of the prophet
Nahum, you will see that this was clearly fore-
told. The city is spoken of as “empty, and
void, and waste;” “her chariots burned, and
the voice of her messengers heard no more.”



THE REMAINS OF NINEVEH. _ 91

The Jewish historian, Josephus, thought
that Nahum lived in the time of Jotham, king
of Judah, and prophesied about one hundred
and fifteen years before the destruction of
Nineveh. Yet Nahum gives a very exact de-
scription of it, as we shall see presently.

Even in very early days, Nineveh had become
a city of the past. People searched in vain for
a trace of her ancient glory. On the plain
where once she stood, the Arab now feeds his
flock, and there are a few wretched villages.
These are all the inhabitants of a spot once
teeming with busy swarms of men.

The Arabs were accustomed to point out to
the traveller a long mound of earth, which
they called “ Jonah’s grave.” And they would
also show him a huge mass of soil, and brick,
and rubbish, like a tower, and declare it was
the remains of the tower of Babel.

Other mounds were scattered at different
places along the bank of the river Tigris. And
farther still, was a very great mound fifty feet
in height. All these mounds were looked upon
as having to do with the remains of Nineveh
or of Babylon. And the Arabs used to say that
carved figures were to be found within them,
buried amongst the brieks and rubbish. But



92 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

we are indebted to Mr. Layard for nearly all
we know about the ruins of Nineveh. He was.
the first to open the mounds, and bring to light
the images of the winged creatures, that once
stood in the halls of the Assyrian city.













































































































































































































































































































































































































































BIRS NIMROUD,

The mound, or tower, called Birs Nimroud,
was the spot where Mr. Layard began his



THE REMAINS OF NINEVEH. 93

labours. It stands on the lonely plain, where
the Arab pitches his tent. Part of the year
only can he feed his flock there; then grass
grows, and wild flowers cover the huge ruin,
and give it a kind of beauty. But for the re-
maining months the plain is “dry like the
wilderness.” No rain falls, and the parched
sand sweeps over it as though it were a desert.

The ruin itself is made up of broken bricks,
and pottery, and rubbish of every description.
Here the men began to dig, in the hope of
finding traces of the ancient city; and very
soon it was so. Their spades and mattocks
struck upon some of those slabs of alabaster
of which we have been speaking.

The slabs were covered with inscriptions,
and formed the upper part of a room, the
walls of which were of brick such as are —
found in the ruin. It was a kind of brick
much used in Assyria; and was made of
clay and chopped straw, dried in the sun.
The bricks formed only the framework of the
wall; the slabs of alabaster were placed over,
and hid them so completely that no one could
guess they were there. When the slabs were
fixed, the artist began his work of carving the
inscriptions. Here were the very inscriptions



94 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGH.

themselves as perfect and ag fresh as when-he
left them.

It would not have been so, if the slabs had
been exposed to the air. The alabaster is much
more perishable than the granite of Egypt;
but it is thought that the roofs of the build-
ings fell in very soon after they were deserted,
and before the inscriptions had time to fade or
crumble. Ever since they have been completely
buried, and kept from all exposure to the air.

The chamber opened out, by doorways, into
other rooms and halls. It was part of one of
the ancient palaces of Nineveh.

By-and-by, more wonders were brought to
light. The men, with their spades and mat-
tocks, unburied. one of the gigantic winged
bulls, that for ages had been hidden in dark-
ness and oblivion.

Slowly, the vast human head, white with age,
seemed to rise above the earth. The Arabs
screamed and shouted with excitement, and
Mr. Layard himself must have felt emotion at
this rich reward of his labours.

By degrees, many of these winged creatures
came to light; and ornaments of ivory, and
different relics of the byegone race, were
found And as the digging went on, the



THE HISTORY OF NINEVEH. 95

form and size, and even the buildings of the
city could be guessed at. And from the in-
scriptions on the slabs, all kinds of information
was given about the men who once lived and
reigned, and bought and traded, and feasted
and worshipped, where now all is oot
and ruin.

THE HISTORY OF NINEVEH.

A uistory of Assyria was once in existence,
but it has been lost; and for want of it our
knowledge is very scanty Indeed. Most of the
information we possess is derived from the
sculptures which have been unburied, and from
a few bricks and stones containing inscriptions.
We can glean something of the manners and
dresses, and religion of the people; but for
the greater part of their history we must refer
to the Bible; for the Jews were very much
mixed up with the people of Assyria. The
Jewish writer, Josephus, tells us that the
Assyrians once were masters of Asia. That
was as far back as the time when Sodom and
Gomorrah were in their full prosperity.

Five kings or chiefs governed the territory



96 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

of these two cities, and the Assyrians made war
upon them. In the course of these wars, a
battle was fought at the very place where the
two cities were afterwards destroyed by -fire
from heaven. In this battle a prisoner was
taken whose name is familiar to you—I mean





































































THE DEAD SEA,

Lot, the nephew of Abraham. Lot had chosen
the rich plains of Sodom to dwell in, which
were ‘well watered, and as the garden of the
Lord.” The Dead Sea now covers the spot. -



NIE HISTORY OF NINEVEH. 97

When Abraham heard of the misfortune of
his nephew, he came with all his household
and his servants, more than three hundred
men, and rescued him. As Abraham returned
from this battle, he met, as we are told, Mel-
chisedec, king of Salem, who brought forth
bread and wine, and blessed him in the name
of the Lord.

The founder of Nineveh was Asshur, son of
Shem. The Bible says, “Out of that land
went forth Asshur, and founded Nineveh.”
This was very far back indeed; immediately
after the building of Babel, and only sixty
years after the flood.

. The kings of Assyria are mentioned many
times in the Bible; they were constantly
attacking the Jews.

King Hezekiah had to pay Sennacherib a
vast sum of money to induce him to retire.
He even stripped the plates of gold from the
doors and pillars of the temple, and gave them
to him. This did not prevent the Assyrian
monarch from coming again, with a great army,
‘and laying siege to Jerusalem. Then God
sent his angel, and smote the camp of the
Assyrians, so that they were all dead men.

The overthrow of Nineveh was foretold in
G@



Full Text

Unive cra

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The Baldwin Library | |




* Kronhem & Co, Lundon

NINEVEH AND THE VALLEY OF THE EUPHRATES.








LOST CITIES BROUGHT 10 LIGHT.

BY THE AUTHOR OF

“STEPS UP THE LADDER,” Etc.



Bondo:
THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY;

35, PATERNOSTER Row; 63, ST. PAUL’S CHURCHYARD ;

AND 364, PICCADILLY,












CONTENTS.

—_+—

CHAPTER I.
PAGE

THE CITIES OF EGYPT «0 4 ou 5
TILE SAND OF THE DESERT-—-THE GIANT STATUES
—-THE CITY OF THE HUNDRED GATES—TPEOPLE AT
WORK, AS PICTURED ON THE MONUMENTS—THE
PALACE OF KING RAMESES—THE OVERTHROW OF
THEBES—TIE TEMPLE OF THE GOD APIS—THE
CITY OF THE SUN.

CHAPTER IL
THE DESERTED CITIES OF THE GIANTS .. 5:

CHAPTER II.
THE CITY OF TYRE vee ae ee BD
1V . CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.
NINEVEH ee ee ee

NINEVEH IN HER GLORY-—-THE REMAINS OF NINE-
VEU—CONCERNING TIE HISTORY OF NINEVEH.

CHAPTER VY.
BABYLON THE GREAT «oe oo

TAGE
ae

fo

. L038

THE WISE MEN OF BABYLON AND THEIR IDOLS—

THE FALL OF BABYLON,




THE CITES OF EGYPT.


HE SAND OF THE
DESERT.

You have heard
the word Desert
many times; and
you know, perhaps, that there are more
deserts than one. A desert is a place where
there are neither towns, nor people, nor
gardens, nor vineyards. In many deserts no-
thing is to be seen but sand—sand every-_
where.

There is a little tract of waste land in our
own country, which may give you a faint idea
of one of these deserts. I mean the Dunes in


8 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

Norfolk. Here is a soft, shifting bed of sand,
ever thoving and forming itself into a number.
of loose hillocks, among which you might
easily lose yourself. The hillocks keep chang-
ing even while you look at them. They are
the sport of the wind, and it drifts and shifts
them about at its pleasure.

On these Dunes you look over a barren
sandy waste, in fact a little desert; but it does
not appear boundless, like the true desert.
Fancy that waste of sand stretching for miles
and miles,.as far as the eye can reach. Now it
is hard and firm, now soft and yielding, and it
has treacherous places into which a man may
sink and be buried. And fancy a burning sky
glowing like a furnace, and a sun that is scarce
ever veiled by a cloud, and you have a good
picture of the desert, in which some of the
buried cities lie hidden. ,

The terrors of the desert are still great, in
spite of all that man can do. The caravan
slowly toils over the dreary plains. The silence
is, at times, awful. Here and there are stones
lying scattered in the path. The traveller
knows what they mean; he knows that, on this
spot, some wearied pilgrim, unable to proceed,
lay down and died, and was buried by his
THE SAND OF THE DESERT. 9

companions. There, too, lie the skeletons of
animals that have perished, in their march
through the wilderness, from fatigue or
scarcity of water.













































































































WATER | WATER!

The -heat and the reflection of the burning
sand cause intolerable thirst. Thirst is the
10 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

great enemy that men meet with in the desert ;
for the means of allaying it are not always to
be met with. The wells are few and far
between. Often, for days together, no water
can be found. ‘The travellers must carry with
them what they need for the journey, and if
their supply fails them they must die. It
sometimes happens that the water-skins are
emptied, the wells are dried up, and numbers
perish from thirst. At such a time, if a stream
is approached, the whole caravan rushes eagerly
towards it; men and women, chiefs and common
people, camels and horses, all mixed confusedly
together, that they may quench their raging
thirst.

Sometimes the sand will rise in pillars or
columns, and speed along the ground as though
it were alive. Or the hot wind will drive it
onward, like a cloud of scorching dust. Then
the traveller fears it greatly. He calls it “the
Simoom.” I am speaking now of the great
African desert, where no rain ever falls. On
its borders grow stunted trees and shrubs; for
here a shower will now and then moisten the
earth ; and, in happier regions still, is found
the oasis, with its palm-trees and its wells of
water, But the true desert lies like a grim


THE SAND OF THE DESERT. 11

enemy, ready to swallow up whatever of the
works of man are left in its way.

Egypt could not have existed without the
bountiful river which has been its preserver.

















































































































THE SIMOOM,

The Nile and the desert, it has been, well said,
have fought for ages, and the battle has not
ended yet. In places where men live and
towns flourish, the river gains the mastery ;
12 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

but there are spots where the desert, like
another sea, has overflowed its bounds.

When the ancient cities of Egypt were de-
serted they were given over to the destroyer.
The hungry tyrant drew them into its clutches.
The wind of the desert brought clouds of sand
from the arid waste close by. It fell like a
shower upon the ruined temples and forsaken
palaces. Man had done his utmost to des-
troy them ; now the sand made haste to cover
them up.

Tt fell like showers, or drifted steadily
onward, through the long days and silent
nights. It was a feeble foe. A handful of
sand! But see what it has done. It has buried
the temples and the palaces of kings!

The great sphynx, gigantic as it is, can
barely keep its monstrous head above the bil-
lows of sand. Its body, and the temple between
its paws, lie buried, and can never be seen.
Pillars, columns, obelisks, inscriptions, all the
treasures of history, lie beneath.

The final instrument which blotted them out -
was the soft, drifting, minute, ever-shifting sand.
In this sea of oblivion are swallowed up the
once famous cities of Thebes and of Memphis.
Others, that we shall name, have gone down


THE TWO GIANT STATUES. 13

like the wrecks of once gallant vessels. The
skill of man has found them out, and laid bare
some of their secrets; but when he stays his
hand, the smooth treacherous enemy will gain
, upon them and blot them out. Buried cities
they will ever remain. Such is their doom,
spoken by the Almighty; and man and nature
have helped to bring it to pass.

THE TWO GIANT STATUES.

THERE is a period, in the history of the world,
about which we know very little. The king-
doms and nations, then in their glory, are seen
no more on the face of the earth. Very old
books have given us a few facts about them;
and more books were once written, but they
have been destroyed. There was a wonderful
library at the town of Alexandria, in Egypt.
Jt contained hundreds and thousands of yo-
lumes. If that library were in existence, we
should be able to answer many questions that
have puzzled the learned of all ages. We
might perhaps know the secrets of the buried
cities, and the mighty nations to which’ they
belonged. But a fierce Arab chief, named
14s LOST -CITIES BROUGHT TO’ LIGHT.

Omar, once conquered Egypt, and took the
town of Alexandria. He caused the books to
be taken from their shelves, and used as fuel in
the public baths. It took six months to burn
them up!

This was one of the worst misfortunes that
could happen to the world of letters. The loss
of these precious volumes has made a blank in
history which can never be filled up. There
is, however, one Book that gives much of the
history we want. Imean the Bible.

In the Bible days, the ancient nations were
in their glory; their ships were sailing through
all seas, and their merchandise was carried to
the ends of the earth. The buried cities were
then standing in their full magnificence, and
you would wonder how such massive walls and
gigantic buildings could have fallen into ruins. -
They seemed as if made to defy all time; but
God, by his prophets, foretold their doom, even
in the days of their prosperity. The prophet,
as he looked upon them, with their busy swarms
of people, their temples, and their palaces,
declared they should be desolate, and, as they
are now, a heap of ruins,

You will see how every word spoken of them
has come to pass!


THE TWO GIANT STATUES. 15

Tong before Moses lay in his ark of bul-
rushes, on the banks of the Nile, that river
flowed through a land of temples and palaces,
such as may never be seen again. One of the
most famous cities was called in the Bible
“Populous No.” We shall come upon it in
our course along the ancient river. An old:
writer called it the city of the hundred gates.
We call it Thebes.

Do you see yonder giant statues sitting side
by side in their solitary grandeur? Do you
notice their gigantic sizeP The sand of the
desert has drifted round them, until it has
buried seven feet of their height. But still
they tower seventy feet on high. Hach mighty
arm.is seventeen feet in length; the foot itself
is. equal to the stature of a giant. They sit
each on a pedestal or throne; their hands are
on their knees. Their faces are broken, and
one of them has the features gone. But still
they seem. as if looking forward over the great
river Nile.

Age after age », they - have sat there; from
etre the time Sviea the children of Israel
laboured at their tasks, or the cry went through

the land that in every house of the Egyptians
was found one dead.
16 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

On the opposite bank of the river were
crowded the temples and palaces of Thebes.
Here kings and priests walked in procession ;
busy throngs swarmed in the streets; all was





THE GIANT STATUES OF THEBES,

life and stir. The sand of the desert was kept
Lack by the industry of man, Where it now
spreade. like a vast wreath, there were fruitful
THE TWO GIANT STATUES. 17

gardens and pleasant fields. In those days, the
overflowing of the Nile did not reach the spot
where the statues sit, And they formed only a
small part of an avenue, of statues and images,
which led to one of the most splendid temples
in the world. :

For nearly a mile, this gigantic avenue
stretched onwards. It was built on rising
ground, A stranger, coming down the river,
would be startled by the view of the huge
statues, and monstrous sphynxes, standing side
by side, and forming a spectacle such as will
never be seen again. Statues and temples,
priests and people, are alike gone. Only these
two figures keep their lonely watch over the
ruins of their former grandeur. One of the
statues has his name written on the stone
pedestal that serves him for a throne. He
was one of the Pharaohs, and was called
Amenoph. His name occurs in other places,
on, the ruined walls of the city. We might have
seen his likeness, but that the features are .
destroyed. The Greeks gave another name to
the statue. They called it Memnon. A story
has been handed down through many centuries
about Memnon ; it was said that, when the sun
began to rise over the mountains, a sound of

. B
18 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

music was heard from the lips of the statue.
The Greeks, who were very fanciful, used to
say it was Memnon’s song to Aurora, goddess
of the morning.

But a much more sensible explanation can
be given. The priests of Egypt were very
cunning, and one of them might have hidden
himself in a niche of the statue, and caused the
sound by striking the stone with an iron rod:
Eyen if there were no priest at all, the music
might very well be made by the wind that
rushed through the chinks in the statue, and
produced a sound like an Afolian harp.

In these days the Nile, in its overflow, has
crept up to the twin statues, Zamar and Chama,
as the Arabs call them. Then it flows round
them, and they look like islands of stone.

THE CITY OF THE HUNDRED GATES.

WHEN you have gazed your fill at the twin .
statues, and pictured to yourself the avenue to
which they once belonged, you must behold
greater wonders ‘still.

I shall introduce you to Thebes, the city of
the hundred gates, the No-Ammon of the
THE CITY OF THE HUNDRED GATES, 19

Bible, that was said to be “situate among
the rivers.” a

The men who built Thebes chose a good
position for their city. In Lower Egypt the
valley of the Nile is narrow, and there would
not have been space to display the giant edi-
fices to advantage. But there is a spot in
Upper Egypt where the mountains, that hem
in the river, fall back, and the narrow strip of
land becomes a plain. In this plain, there once
stood the city of the hundred gates. It stood
partly on one side of the river, and partly on
the other. No trace has been found of a
bridge, and it is not clearly known whether
such a thing existed.

In one of the pictures, on the walls of a
temple, there is a scene from the life of a king.
The king is coming to the river with a number
of prisoners whom he has taken in war. The
priests and the people are on the opposite bank,
and there is a streak or band across the river
which might be “intended for a bridge.” But
this is mere conjecture, and nothing certain is
known about it.

The vast temples and palaces, among which
we shall wander presently, were placed near to
the water's edge. The rest of the plain was
20 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

filled with private houses, and gardens and
orchards.

The dwellings of the poorer people were not
at all grand. By the side of the mighty struc-
tures yonder, they must have looked mean and
small. Nota single remnant is left. Houses
and streets lie buried in the sand. But we can
tell from the pictures on the walls of the tem-
ples and the tombs, what they were like.

The mansions of the rich had gateways like
those of the temples. And there were columns
and obelisks, painted to look like granite. The
outer wall had battlements to it, and there
were doors with the name of the owner written
over. All round the house was a garden, full
of flowers and pleasant plants. As very little
rain falls in Egypt, the garden had to be kept
watered. And there was a lake on purpose to
supply the water. The lake was a great orna-
ment to the garden. Lotus flowers floated on
its surface, and the banks were shaded with
cool spreading trees. Here the master of the
house would come and enjoy himself, and row
about upon the water.

‘The garden was watered in a very simple
manner. A man had a pole or yoke across his
shoulders, and a bucket at each end; with
THE CITY OF THE HUNDRED GATES, 21

these buckets the water was fetched, just as we
might donow. In this way a number of slaves
were employed to keep the garden in a state of
Tuxuriance. It was a well-watered garden.
But, besides his town mansion, the owner would
very likely have a farm or villa outside the city.

You will be amused to hear that some of the
deeds, relating to the purchase of land about
Thebes, are in existence now. In one such
deed, the buyer and the seller have their per-
sonal appearances described, and the descrip-
tion has been handed down through all these
ages. The man who sold the land was bald,

round faced, and of a dark complexion, He «—

was forty-five years old. The man who was
the buyer had also a round face, but with a
flat nose, and was twenty-two years old. His
father was a leather-cutter, and the piece of land
was said to be bounded by the “ Royal Street.”

Where now should we look for streets, or
lands, or houses? The desert has blotted out
every vestige of them. We stand in a place of
utter silence and of solitude. The wind, as it
sweeps mournfully by, seems to repeat the
words of Scripture,* “I will make the land
desolate, and all that is therein!”

* Ezekiel xxix, 8-12,
22 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

THE PEOPLE AT WORK, AS PICTURED ON THE
MONUMENTS.

Brrorz we leave this humble part of the city,
we will take a glance at what the people are
doing. You must not forget that I am trying
to picture to you Thebes as it was in the early
days of the Bible; and you will perceive, that
almost every ernployment of the ancient Eeyp-
tians is mentioned in the sacred volume.

In the busy scene which we have, as it were,
unburied before us, we shall see how the work-
men are plying their trades. The weaver
is at his loom. The loom is fastened to the
ground by four pegs or posts, and he seems to
be drawing the thread through with his hand
instead of throwing it witha shuttle. The pro-
cess must have been very tedious; but how gay
are the colours he is weaving in! Itisa cloth
of divers colours, such as we read about many
times in the Bible. He weaves in the colours
as he goes along.

Joseph’s coat of many colours was very likely
woven in this manner. But there was another
kind of cloth of divers colours superior to this ;
it was so costly that only kings and princes
wore it,
PEOPLE AT WORK, 28

If you wish to see this class of workpeople,
you must look into the palace of the king.
Here, ladies of high rank, and their maidens,
are busy with their needles; they are em-
broidering the lovely colours we admire so
much, on the cloth, by hand. Often the sump-
tuous garment, when it was finished, was given
as a present.

When the mother of Sisera looked out of the
lattice, she hoped to see her son returning in
triumph, and bringirig his spoils with him. She.
was thinking ef these very garments when she
said—

“To Sisera a prey of divers colours of needlework,
Of divers colours of needlework on both sides,
Meet “or the necks of them that take the spoil.”

But besides this gay apparel, the Egyptians
loved to adorn themselves with jewels. The
goldsmith carried on a brisk trade in the city.
Many of the earrings, and bracelets, and arm-
lets, were of solid gold, and very massive. A
gold chain was worn by the king; and, if you
remember, Pharaoh put one round the neck of
Joseph as a mark of his favour.

‘When the children of Israel were thrust
out of Egypt, in the night, they borrowed all
24 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

the jewels they could of their neighbours; and
they were said on this account “to spoil the
Egyptians.”

Besides the jewels, you would see in the
goldsmiths’ workshop the most elegant baskets
of silver and gold. These were used in the
palace of the king, and the servants used to









it — = ——
EGYPTIAN BASKETS.

carry them about on their heads. The chief
baker in Joseph’s dream had three baskets
on his head. The common people could not
afford the costly jewels worn by the rich and
great. They had to be content with ornaments
of glass; and here was another busy trade car-
PEOPLE AT WORK. 25

ried on in the city. The worker in glass had
as much as he could do; his glass beads were
almost as good as those made of precious stones; -
indeed, you could hardly tell the true from the
false. A great many. of these beads have been



HEAD-DRESSES.

found in the tombs, or round the necks of the
mummies. ,

The glass maker was also very clever at
making little images of glass. They were used




26 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

-either as charms or as idols, and were often put
among the folds of the mummy’s dress. Even
the great coffin, or sarcophagus, in which some
king was buried, was covered over with a coat-
ing of glass to give it a glazed Jook, so that the
pictures with which it was covered could be
seen more clearly.

The glass worker would also supply house-



SIGNET RINGS.

holds with cups and vases and bottles, which
looked like the finest porcelain ; and even the
seal rings of which we hear so much were
sometimes made of glass.

The potters and the brickmakers were all
PEOPLE AT WORK, vad

carrying on their respective employments.
One picture of brickmakers at work is believed
to represent the Jews making bricks, as de-
scribed in the book of Exodus.

The mummy makers, or embalmers of the
dead, had a street to themselves; their houses
were full of patterns made in wood, and which























GROUP OF DRINKING CUPS,

were intended to represent the body and the
different modes of embalming it.

In the most expensive mode, the body, after
being prepared, was filled with sweet spices,
such as myrrh and cassia; and it was wrapped
28 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

in long strips of cloth, so long that one strip
was found to measure more than two hundred
yards; and the strips were gummed so tightly
down, that it was no easy matter to pull
them off.

The maker of the mummy case was a dif-
ferent person from the embalmer, and had a





HARVESTING,

‘separate trade. Only the richer class of people
could afford to patronise him. His cases were
made of wood, and the upper part was shaped
like the head and face of a person. There
was a great deal of painting and varnishing
PEOPLE AT WORK. 29

about the case, and it was covered with figures.
There was also an inner case, within which the
mummy was placed, and here it lies nearly as
perfect as-it was when the embalmer put it
there, two thousand years ago !

It is rather a relief to quit this gloomy street,
and wander for a moment into the rich corn-
fields close at hand; for in many of these
ancient cities, fields and vineyards were actually
within the walls. Men are reaping the corn
by cutting off the ears, and carrying them
away in baskets. There are vast granaries
where it is stored wp, and the brickmakers use
the straw for their bricks, and the cattle have
it for fodder.

And yonder are the wine makers treading
out the grapes. You may fancy you hear
their joyous shouts as they spring up and
down, holding by ropes fastened over their
heads. The red juice runs out in plenty
through the sides of the vat, and men are
bringing the purple clusters in baskets. The
grapes were not very plentiful in Egypt, and
there was great rejoicing when the grape har-
vest was ripe; and crushing the fruit in the
Winepress was esteemed a time for mirth and
gladness. It was the worst threat that could
30 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

be uttered, that of the prophet, “The treaders
shall tread out no wine in their presses; I
have made their vintage shouting to cease.’’*







THE VINTAGE,

THE PALACE OF KING RAMESES.

Wuew a city has been deserted and. half-
buried for ages, there is sure to be a difficulty
in settling every fact concerning it. The hun-
dred gates of Thebes have given rise to a great

deal of conjecture among learned men.

The poet, Homer, talked about them in
his ‘Tliad.” He said that Thebes was the
richest city in the world. And in time of war

* Isaiah xvi, 10.
THE PALACE OF KING RAMESES. 31

it could send two hundred warriors in their
chariots from each of its gates.

Some people have thought that by the gates
were meant those wonderful gateways, each
with two vast. towers, which stood before the
temples. After this lapse of time, it isnot
possible to decide the question. But whether
it were so or not, the city well deserved its title
of “the hundred-gated Thebes.”’ It is almost
beyond the reach of our fancy to conjure up
the mighty temples which once stood on either
side of the river. The granite, of which they
were built, came from a place more than a
hundred miles to the south of Thebes. Here
was a district, called Syene, where a number of
quarries formed a storehouse for the Egyptian
workmen. A granite, called Syenite, was
brought from here. Indeed, it was a most
impor tant place, in the old days we are speak-
ing of,

You would wonder how such immense blocks
could be moved to so great a distance; but.
from ancient history we get a glimpse of how
it was done. We are told, that two thousand
men were employed to move one-single block ! _
And the number of blocks used for each temple
was Sonnerly to be reckoned,
32 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

Men were always toiling in these quarries in
order to adorn and beautify the city. A huge
mass, intended probably for an obelisk, lies at
this very day, upon the road just where they
had dragged it.

Before every temple were two rows of
sphynxes. The sphynx was, as perhaps you
know, a figure with the body of a lion and the
head of a man or of a woman. The sphynxes
of Thebes had, some of them, ‘the heads of
rams. ;

Yonder palace is called the Ramesium: the
name is given to it from King Rameses. It
was a temple and a palace too. Here religious
ceremonies were performed, and here the king
dwelt.

Before we enter, there is something we must
pause to look at. A statue lies broken on the
ground; perhaps the largest ever known. If
you measure it across the shoulders you will
find that it is more than twenty feet in breadth;
each of its toes is a yard in length. Even as
it lies broken on the ground, a mere ruin, the
traveller gazes at it in wonder.

The outer walls of the building are covered
with sculptured figures. Some of the vast
columns still remain. Grave and solemn figures
THE PALACE OF KING RAMESES. 33

stand with folded hands looking down, as it
were, upon the broken statue at their feet.































































THE TEMPLE OF DENDERATIL
34 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

The great hall within the palace must have
been splendid indeed. Forty-eight pillars sup-
ported the ceiling; the tops of the pillars are
carved into the form of plants and flowers that
grow on the banks of the Nile; they were
painted with brilliant colours. Here we sce the
lotus, and the papyrus, and many other plants.
It is a kind of garden carved in stone.

The hall was lighted by open spaces left at
the top of the roof. Here the blue sky was
seen, and the golden sunshine of Reypt would

pictured walls. In every 7 plait you see King
Rameses; every picture is a scene from his life.

That figure which towers high above the rest
is the king. Here, too, you see many of the .
frightful images or idols that the Egyptians
were foolish enough to worship. Iii one place

-the king is receiving a sword from the gods.
And you see his battles, and his victories, and
his prisoners, and all the acts that he did; you
may read them as in a book.

And learned men cari make out an inscrip- .
tion which says, “It is the will of the gods that
the palace should stand as long as the sky.”

The inscription remains as if to mock at the
ruined scene around. ‘For the gods of the
THE PALACE OF KING RAMESES. _ 85

Egyptians were idols of wood and stone: they
had no power to keep the palace standing.
It has fallen in spite of them, and is, as you
see, an utter desolation.

But here is another room in the palace. It
is called the library, and has, on the ceiling,
a picture relating to the study of the stars.
Books were, no doubt, kept here in the days
that are gone. By the word books I mean
those curious rolls made of the papyrus, and
which were written all over with figures of
men, and birds, and animals. Each figure was
meant to represent a word, and this mode of
writing by pictures is called hieroglyphics.
Many of these rolls of papyrus have been found
in the tombs of the kings, and in various other
places. The writing is as fresh as if it had
been done yesterday.

The size of the Ramesium when in its glory
was immense. It was six hundred feet long
and two hundred broad. The pillars, and there
were a hundred and fifty of them, were thirty
feet high. What kind of men were those, we
ask, who planned such works as these ?
36

THE OVERTHROW OF THEBES.

Tue ruin of Thebes did not happen all at
once: it came slowly on, age by age. For
many centuries, each king as he ruled, improved.
and beautified the capital. Temple after temple
was built, till the city became one of the won-
ders of the world.

But at last its glory began to decline.

The kings of Lower Egypt came into power,
and carried away the seat of government to
another city. This was a great blow to the
prosperity of Thebes. One of these kings is
mentioned in the Bible; he is Shishak, who
fought against Rehoboam and plundered Jeru-
salem. He brought to Thebes the golden
shields that Solomon had hung up in the
Temple.

- But the greatest misfortune that befell the
city was when Cambyses, king of Persia, con-
quered Egypt. The Persians worshipped the
sun, and held idols in abhorrence. Cambyses
was a furious prince; many people thought he
was mad. He went through the land, over-
throwing its temples, and pulling down its
statues. He came to Thebes and did all he
could to rifle its tombs and destroy its palaces.
THE OVERTHROW OF THEBES. 37

But even after this had been done the city
‘began to recover. Many of its palaces were
still standing. These parts of the city are now
wretched little villages that have sprung up
where was once the mighty Thebes. The vil-
lages, peopled with Arabs, are called Carnak,
and Luxor, and Medinet Abou.

At each of these places are the ruins of the
most magnificent halls and temples that the
world ever saw. The temple at Carnak re-
mained for a long time unbroken: it had twelve
entrances, each through a colossal gateway,
and on the sides of the gateway were gigantic
statues sitting or standing.

The temple itself was so vast that it covered
more than a mile of ground; and you ap-
proached it by one of those wonderful avenues
-of sphynxes that reached for two miles across
the plain.

I can give you by mere words but a faint
idea of the grandeur of Carnak. Part of the
“hall of columns” is still standing ; and when
Napoleon the First with his army came in
sight of it, they stopped as if struck with
amazement. Then the soldiers gave a shout of
admiration, and clapped their hands ; they had
never even imagined such a sight.
388 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

I should tell you that some of the most
beautiful sculptures in Egypt are found in this
“hall of columns.” One is of King Shishak,











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HALL OF COLUMNS, CARNAK,

dragging along his prisoners: these are thought
to be the Jews whom he had brought from
Jerusalem. The generals of Alexander the
THR OVERTHROW OF THEBES. 89

Great had the delight of seeing the temple
of Carnak in its beauty; they saw also the
temple at Luxor and the one at Medinet Abou.
All three were standing in their days.

Alexander freed the people of Thebes from
the tyranny of the Persians. And then began
the race of the Ptolemies, about whom you
read in history.

These were modern days, compared to the
ancient times of which we have been speak-
ing. Thebes was still in a state of outward
grandeur, and the Ptolemies improved and
beautified it. AN

But now came the final step to the doom
which was impending; the inhabitants of
Thebes rebelled against one of the Ptolemies.
They were besieged in their city, and took
refuge in their temple palaces. In these
strongholds they defied the king for three
years; but they were reduced by famine, and
overpowered by numbers.

You can fancy what happened in the end.
The city of the hundred gates was given up
to pillage; the gigantic buildings, the temples,
and the columns were overthrown, and left in
the state in which you see them now; over
their wrecks the sand of the desert has kept
40 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

slowly drifting. There are no busy hands to
keep it back, or to reclaim fields and gardens
from the waste. The once “Populous No”’ is
a city buried and deserted.

THE TEMPLE OF THE GOD APIS.

THERE was a time, as we have seen, when the
kings of Egypt dwelt at Thebes. Buta change
took place by degrees in the country. One of
the kings turned the course of the river, and
caused it to flow towards the desert. A piece
of land at the mouth of the Nile was reclaimed,
and formed what is called the Delta.

Canals were cut all over the country to drain
it, and in the end a city was built called Mem-
phis. It stood on the left bank of the Nile,
opposite to Cairo.

It was intended to be a royal city, and here
the kings took up their abode. When Memphis
was in its glory it was sixteen miles in extent.
It was the seat of learning and of science.
Kings and warriors, philosophers and men. of
letters, flocked hither. Its vast temple, called
by the Greeks the “ Serapeum,”’ has been partly
THE TEMPLE OF THE GOD APIS. 41

unburied. An avenue of sphynxes led to it,
all of which have, for ages, been lost in
sand. Close by the Serapeum was the abode
of Apis.

You will smile when I relate to you the
story of Apis. He was worshipped as a god
from one end of Egypt to the other. But his
home was at Memphis, in the beautiful temple
which was then standing.

Apis was nothing more than an ox. The
priests had the care of him from the time of
his birth. I told you how cunning they were.
They pretended that Apis had certain marks
on his body by which he might be known to be
a sacred animal.

He had a square mark on his forehead, an
eagle on his back, and a mark like the sacred
beetle under his tongue. For the Egyptians
worshipped even a beetle! The priests are
suspected of making the marks themselves.
At any rate, when the old Apis died, or was
secretly drowned, they produced another, which
had the right marks upon his body. :

And then came a number of feasts, and. pro-
cessions, and rejoicings. ‘The new Apis was
taken on the river in a splendid boat, gaily
adorned, with curtains, and sparkling with gold
42 LOST CITIES BROUGHT To LiaHut,

They conducted him to the temples of Thebes,
and kept him there for many days. After
that, he was brought back to Memphis, and
took up his abode in the temple. The people
were allowed to gaze at him through a window,
and it was thought a great honour to do so. |

Apis was considered sacred to the moon and
to the stars, and he was supposed to cause the
overflowing of the Nile. The country was said
to owe its fertility to the god Apis.

When Cambyses was in the city of Memphis
he met, in the streets, a procession of priests
leading Apis to his dwelling. The sight made
him so angry, that he drew his sword and killed
Apis on the spot. .

The mummy pits, we see yonder, were the
burying-places of the numerous tribe of Apis.
His body was embalmed and placed there with
as much honour as if he had been a king. His
tombstone was set up in the palace, with the
date of his birth and of his death. These

tablets are of great use to learned men in fixing
the time of certain events.

Where is Memphis now? Once the rival of
Thebes, and the riches and grandeur of which
caused it to be the first city in the world?
All you can behold are yonder mounds of
THE TEMPLE OF THE GOD APIS. 43

earth, and a little village called Gisa, quite of
modern growth. The whole of the city is
underground, buried in its own ruins.

We read much in the Bible of the idolatry
of the Egyptians. We know that the children
of Israel were inclined to worship images, in
spite of the threatenings of the Most High.
They were always setting up their golden
calves, for they had been reared in the very

cradle of idolatry. ‘

I have taken you into the land of idols.
You have seen their temples, their processions, -
and their gods. No creature so mean but the
ligyptian would worship it. The snake, the
beetle, the ox, the bird called the ibis, even a
plant, a.feeble rush, was adored! The reason
of this gross idolatry can easily be traced. It
lay at the very root of their religion. The
priests appear to have taught the doctrine of a .
Supreme Being, the Author and Sustainer of

-all things. They also taught the doctrine of
the immortality of the soul, and of future
rewards and punishments.

But there was gross error mixed with their
belief. They did not view the Creator as a
Spiritual Being, dwelling in the high and holy
place, and separate from the works He had
44 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

made. They thought that He dwelt in those
works, and was part of them, as the soul dwells
in the body. So that every portion of the
universe, the sun and moon, the animals, even
the plants, might be worshipped as parts of the
deity.

From this error sprang the idolatry of Egypt.
The priests had great learning, and were skilled
in many sciences, but they kept their know-
ledge to themselves. The mass of the people
were in ignorance, and worshipped all kinds of
creatures as gods, without any reference to the
Supreme Being.

Numbers of animals were considered sacred,
and the people were taxed to support them.
In Thebes, and the country round, this tax was
not paid. The inhabitants refused to contri-
bute to the maintenance of the cats and dogs,
birds and crocodiles, that their fellow-country-
men adored,

We read, you remember, in the New Testa-
- ment, that a young child was brought down
into Egypt, by Mary his mother, to escape
from the fury of King Herod. That young
child was Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who
stooped to become a babe, that He might be our
Saviour. He revealed to us the true God, and
THE CITY OF THE SUN. 45

taught us to pray to Him as Our Father.
When He returned from Egypt to His own
country, the words of the prophet Hosea were
fulfilled: “Out of Egypt have I called my
Son.”* The idols of Egypt have been abo-
lished, and its cities have perished; but there
are thousands, yea, millions of men, women,
and children, throughout the whole world, who
love and serve this Saviour, and pray to God
the Father in His name. _

The prephets, as we have seen, foretold the
destruction of the idols. And they also fore-
tell that a period will come, when the kingdom
of Jesus Christ will prevail and cover the earth
as the waters cover the sea. Then, all that is
evil will flee away as shadows before the sun.

‘Should we not pray that this kingdom may
be set up in our hearts, and that He may reign
over us, whose right it is ?

THE CITY OF THE SUN.

Berorz we take our leave of Egypt, I must
point out one solitary object. A stately column
rises yonder from the midst of a clump of trees.

* Hosea xi, 1; Matt. ii. 15,
46 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

Part of its base is buried in the earth, The











































= .

OBELISK OF THE TEMRLE OF 2OTIPHERAH,
« column is of red granite, and has on it the
THE CITY OF THE suN. 47

usual picture writing, and the name of the
king who erected it.

He was one of those monarchs who adorned
and beautified the city of Thebes. Part of the
temple of Carnak was built by him.

We are far away from Thebes now. The
spot where we stand is in Lower Egypt, some
miles north of Cairo. Weare again in soli-
tude and silence. Nothing meets our view but
the lonely column and a few mounds of earth.
The mounds once formed a causeway or eleva-
tion on which stood a famous city. It was
the “On” of the Bible, the Heliopolis, or
City of the Sun. It was the seat of all the
learning and wisdom of the nation. Here
were temples and schools where the priests
explained the rites and mysteries of their
religion. Science,- literature, law, and all the
curious arts of Egypt, were taught here. It was
considered the fountain-head of knowledge.

We may well pause to call up a few of the
scenes which took place in the City of the Sun.
Two of the most noted-characters in holy writ
are linked with it—Joseph and Moses.

Joseph is connected in every way with
Ligypt. Ons of the caravans from the desert
brought him, a friendless and forsaken youth,
48 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

left by his brethren to die, and afterwards
sold to the travelling Ishmaelites. He was a
slave in one of the very cities we have been
describing, trod its streets, and looked upon
its giant splendours.

We meoct with him, again, in one of the
palaces of the Pharaohs. The gold chain is
put upon his neck, and he rides in a chariot
such as we see depicted on the walls of the
temples.

This place, so desolate, but then teeming
with life, was where Joseph came to fetch his
bride. er father was the priest, or prince, of
On. The feet of Moses trod this very ground.
He was taught in these schools the science and
the lore of Egypt.

In one of the rolls of papyrus, Moses is
thought to be spoken of. He is said to be the
‘infant who owed his life to those who res-
cued him;” alluding, no doubt, to that touching
scene in his history when Pharach’s daughter —
found him in the little ark of bulrushes by the
river Nile.

He was afterwards spoken of as “a magician,”
and as having gained “great power over the
wretched people of Shem,” meaning the He-
brews, who were then in bondage. This same
THE CITY OF THE SUN. 49

magician is said to have led out the people of
Shem from their work, and to have been pur-
sued by the Egyptian host. Then the roll tells
-us of a terrible catastrophe having happened
to the Egyptians, and that the flower of their
army perished in the abyss. .

It has taken learned men their whole life-
time to make out the writing on the rolls; but
the trouble is amply repaid when we come
upon a record such as this!

We have but to bring before our minds the
ancient glory of Egypt, and we shall know
something of the scenes amid which the youth
of Moses was spent. He had been brought up
in all the luxury of palaces, such as Thebes
and Carnak. He had beheld the mighty avenues
of images, the processions, the solemn pomp
of the Hgyptian worship. He had seen the
oppressed Hebrews toiling under their daily
task. With them he need have had nothing
to do. He was the adopted son of Pharaoh’s
daughter.

All the pleasures and honours of the land
were at his command, But God gave him
grace to turn away from these. When he came
to manhood, he refused to be called the son of
Pharaoh’s daughter. He chose to cast in his

: b
50 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

lot with the people of God, in their suffengs
and hardships, “esteeming the reproach of
‘ Christ greater riches than the treasures of
Egypt.” At length, Moses became the deliverer
of his people, and with many signs and wonders
led them to the promised land.

This ancient spot, with its lonely pillars,
recalls to us those days so long passed away.

Heliopolis is now no more. Its ruins lie
buried under these neglected mounds. Its lore,
its pomp, and its religious worship bave alike
departed. Its very language is forgotten.

Happily for us, a purer faith has dawned
upon the earth. The children of Israel were
taught God’s law amid the thunders and
lightnings of Mount Sinai. In these days
God has spoken to us by his Son. “ The law
came by Moses, but grace and truth came by
Jesus Christ.”




THE DESERTED CITIES OF THE GIANTS.


CHAPTER II.

THE DESERTED CITIES OF THE GIANTS.

HEN Moses was old and stricken
in years, he was led up into a
mountain to behold the promised
land. There it lay, spread out
before him, a land of olive-trees
and vineyards ; and which, in the
poetical language of the East,
was said to flow with milk and honey. The
productions of this fair country were on a
grand scale. When the spies sent by Joshua
brought home a cluster of grapes, it required,
we are told, two men to carry it.

The inhabitants of Canaan were armed men,
fierce and terrible, There dwelt the giants of
old. Moses, in the view granted him from the
mountain top, no doubt beheld the walled cities
reared by the men of Canaan, Many a heart


54 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

fainted for fear of them, when the time came
to take possession of the land. But God went
- with the armies of Israel, and nothing could
withstand them.

We are going to visit the very land over
which the aged Moses gazed. Strange as it
may seem, some of the cities of Canaan are
thought to be yet standing just as when the
old giants left them. They are not buried
cities, though some of them are choked up
with rubbish ; but they are deserted. No man
passes by that way, except the “ stranger that
comes from a far land,” and the wandering
Arab, the robber of the desert.

They were once the principal cities in a,
flourishing and mighty kingdom. ‘Its name
was Bashan. If you look on the map of Pales-
tine, you will find it at once. Its fields were
rich in pasture, and spread like a plain to the
foot of Mount Hermon. Its oaks were famous.
You may see them even now, dotting over the
landscape. The oaks of Bashan, and its flocks
and herds, are spoken of many times in the
Old Testament; and the men who lived in
Bashan are described by the sacred writer.
We are told they were giants—in fact, the
land is. called the land of giants; and the
THE DESERTED CITIES OF THE GIANTS. 55

buildings T shall describe to you could scarcely
have been erected by men of the usual size and





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE MOUNTAINS OF BASHAN.

strength. The children of Israel spoke of
themselves as grasshoppers by the side of the
men of Canaan.

Bashan is perhaps the oldest kingdom in the
world. . It stretches back farther than human
56 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

research can reach. All we know of it is told
us by the word of God.

Who has not heard of Og, king of Bashan ?
He ruled over a large portion of Canaan, from
the river to the desert; and he resolved to
defend his kingdom, and drive out these
strangers who had come to attack it. He drew
up a formidable army, with all his mighty
men of valour. He thought to strike terror
into the children of Israel; but God fought
_ for His people, and the giant. king was slain.
After the battle, his capital city, Edrei, was
taken and given to pillage. The Bible speaks of
the gigantic size of the bedstead of King Og.

By degrees Bashan was conquered, but some
of its ancient tribes still remained. They had,
it is true, to quit their rich pastures and pleas-
ant fields ; but they hid in the rocky caves and
recesses of Hermon, and continued to exist
there. David met with them in his exile. He
married a daughter-of one of their chiefs, who
became the mother of Absalom. To this very
day these rocky caves are the abode of wander-
ers and exiles. They are like cities of refuge ;
whoever reaches them, no matter what his
crime may be, is safe as long as he remains
hidden in their fastnesses,
THE DESERTED CITIES OF THE GIANTS. 57

A good man (the Rev. J. L. Porter) once
turned his steps to this land of wonder and of
interest. He had his Bible in his hand, and as
he travelled on he read the history of Bashan.
When he reached a certain place darkness
came on. It rained heavily, and there seemed
no shelter for the night. But he could faintly
perceive what looked like buildings.

The guide stopped, and he thought they were
going to halt among the ruins. He asked the
guide if it were possible to get shelter from the
rain. “Oh, yes,’ replied the guide, “there is
a house ready for you. The place is full of
houses. It is a city.”

Strange as it may seem, the traveller found
himself.in the midst of a city, which he
believed to have been built by the great dwel-
lers in Bashan. There were the houses, just as
the old Canaanites had left them. Houses which,
perhaps, were standing when, ages ago, Moses
gazed over the promised land. Then, they were
occupied by warriors and by men of renown;
now, the owl shrieks from the lonely tower,
and the wild beast of the desert dwells there.

The houses. are rude and simple. There is.
none of the splendour of Thebes or of Memphis.
They were built for strength, and were suited to
58 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

the people who dwelt there. The material is
solid stone ; the walls are blocks of stone. The
roof is constructed of the same massive blocks
or slabs; placed side by side. A stone cornice
runs round the room. The door is stone, and
turns easily in its sockets; the window has a
stone shutter. The town consisted of many
houses, some larger and some smaller. But
they were all built on the same principle.

Can you not understand the feelings of the
traveller as he stood in the deserted mansion ?
There was neither ruin nor decay; but the
race that built it had for ages passed away.
There was literally “no man,” the highways
were deserted. 3

All over. the country are scattered these
cities, known even now by their Scripture
names. There is Bosrah, and Argob, and
Kenath, and hundreds more; cities once
fenced with high walls, and gates, and bars.
There are still the old streets, the deserted
terraces, the overgrown vineyards. It seems
like a dream or a fiction ; but the fact remains
the same. They are “without man,” “ with-
out inhabitant and without beast.”

“For the cities thereof shall be desolate,
without any to dwell therein ” (Jer. xlviii. 9).
THE CITY OF TYRE,


CHAPTER III.
THE CITY OF TYRE.

=, ¥ you look at the map of Palestine
* you will find a strip of land run-
ning the whole length of the sea-
coast. At the northern end it
becomes very narrow, and is shut
- in, as it were, by the mountains of
Cite and Lebanon. This narrow strip of
land, in the old days, was called Pheenicia. Ié
was peopled by the sons of Canaan, and the
inhabitants were therefore called Canaanites
When the children of Israel drove out the
people of the land, they do not appear to have
meddled with Phcenicia. Its wealth and power
remained: the same as it had ever been. The
Israelites would even trade with their wealthy
neighbours, and seek their aid when any very
skilful artificer was needed. I should tell you


62 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGEY.

that the Pheenicians were noted for their com-
merce and ships, as Englandis now. Phainicia
has been called the England of the old world.
Two cities flourished in great glory on the
coast of Pheenicia, I mean Tyre and Sidon.



SIDON,

Sidon was the oldest city of the two, and
‘Tyre was, in the beginning, a colony founded
by the Sidonians ; but it soon became of more
importance than the parent city; It was “the
THE CITY OF TYRE. 63

queen of nations” spoken of in the Bible, “the
joyous city ; the mart of the world.”

There is an account given of Tyre by the
prophet Ezekiel,* and it reads like a poem.
He describes her markets and her fairs, to
which every kind of merchandise was brought.
Here were all the sweet spices of the Hast;
all precious stones, coral, emerald, and agate.
Here were gold and silver, and iron and tin,
and lead. Here was honey, and oil, and balm.
Here were purple garments, and rich apparel
stored in chests of cedar. Here were ivory and
ebony, and horses and mules, and wine and
wheat, and white wool, and aienast everything
‘that can be named.

The merchants of Tyre sang her praises in
all lands. ‘Their ships were built of the
choicest woods; fir-trees and cedars were
taken for the masts, and oaks of Bashan for
the oars; the benches were of ivory; and the
sails were of fine linen with embroidered work
from Egypt, and with ornaments of purple and
blue. Wise men were said to be their mariners
and. pilots. :

But even while the prophet beheld all this
pomp and splendour, these crowded fairs and

* Ezek, xsvil.
64 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

sumptuous vessels, he declared that the city
would become deserted, and a place of rocks
on which the fisherman would spread his nets
to dry. ,



































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE PORT OF TYRE,

If you go to the spot where Tyre once stood,
what meets your view? -Nothing can be more
desolate, There arc some ruins, a wretched
THE CITY OF TYRE. . 65

village, and some smooth rocks, on which the
fishermen have spread out their nets.

Her vessels are gone, and her merchandise
ceased. There is neither buying nor selling
in her streets ; there is neither pomp, nor glory,
nor riches. All have passed awiy like a dream !
You may well ask where is Tyre, the queen of
nations ? Except these few ruins, she lies buried
beneath; there you might, indeed, find her
shattered temples and columns.

‘At one time, some men employed in digging
for stones, came upon the remains of Tyre.
They found a statue, and a portion of a temple.
No doubt many of her temples might be re-
' vealed should the veil be lifted from the fallen
city. But the traveller can only walk over the
sput where Tyre once was, but now is not.

Only one portion of the old sea wall of Tyre
remains. When in its grandeur it was a
hundred and fifty feet in height, and of a great
breadth. The stone which is left is seventeen
- feet long and six feet thick. It remains just as
the workmen left it when they built the walls
ages and ages ago. The waves dash against it,
and have done for thousands of years; but it
resists them yet, and may do to the end of
time.

x
66 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

Let us turn from this ponderous ruin, and

- glance at those fragile shells that lie scattered
on the shore. They, too, are a remnant of
ancient Tyre. The Tyrian purple, once so





































RUINS OF TYRE,

famous, was produced by them. No one cares
for the purple now. The shells, once gathered
with such industry, lie neglected on the beach.
There are no vessels in the forsaken harbour.
All is ruin and desolation; for the Lord had
TIE CITY OF TYRE. 87

said he would make of Tyre “a desolate city,
like the cities that are not inhabited,” *

Tyre was built partly on the mainland and
partly on an island. For a long time these
were distinct places, and the Tyre on the main-
land was the most ancient. In after years, as
you will see, a causeway was made from the
island to the land.

In the early days there was a great friendship
between the King of Israel and the King of Tyre.
They were like neighbours living side by side.

When King Solomon came to the throne, his
neighbour, Hiram, king of Tyre, wrote to con-
gratulate him, Solomon replied to this letter
by saying that David, his father, had wished to
build a temple to the Lord; he had not been
able to do so, because of his constant wars.
But now King Solomon thanked God that he
was at peace, and had leisure to begin the
work. He wished King Hiram to send some
of his men to Mount Lebanon to cut down the
timber, for they were more skilful than his -
own. people.

The Tyrian monarch sent his workmen to
cut down the cedar and the cypress-trees, as
Solomon.wished. There were thirty thousand

* Haek, xxvi: 19,
68 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

of these workmen. They made the wood into
‘rafts, and sent it by sea to some convenient
place from which it could be carried to Jeru-
salem.

Some time after, when the temple was nearly
finished, King Solomon sent again to Tyre for
a workman. The name of the workman was
also Hiram, and he was a worker in gold, and
in silver, and in brass. He made all the orna-
ments for the pillars, and the pomegranates and
the lily work. Also the basins, and the lavers,
and the molten sea, and all the choice articles
required in the worship of the temple.

The King of Tyre is said to have given his
daughter in marriage to King Solomon. He,
too, was building temples, but they were. in
honour of the heathen godsa Jupiter and
Hercules.

Many princes reigned after King Hiram;
but the wickedness of the people became very
great; and they added to it by an act of cruelty
to their neighbours the Jews. The later kings
of Tyre seemed to forget the friendship between
Hiram and David.. On one occasion, they took
some of the Jews captive and sold them as
slaves.

This unjust deed caused the anger of God to
THE CITY OF TYRE. 69

be kindled against them. A great enemy was
raised up in the person of Nebuchadnezzar,
king of Babylon. He came with his army,
his horsemen, and his engines of war, and laid
siege to Tyre. But the Tyrians had the reputa-
tion of being wise men. ‘They had made a
kind of refuge for themselves, to which they
might escape from the fury of the King of
Babylon.

Tyre had been as fond of sending out colo-
nies as the mother city, Sidon, had been. Her
colonies were in “Tarshish and the isles.”
The “isles”? were in the Mediterranean Sea ;
and Tarshish was @ city of Spain. To these
places of refuge they intended to flee.

When they heard the noise of the engines
that were to batter down their walls, they lost
no time. They gathered together their gold
and silver and treasures, and put them on
board some of their beautiful ships. Then
they sailed to the “isles” for safety. The
siege of Tyre had been so long it had
almost wearied out the enemy. The Bible
tells us that “every head was made bare, and
every shoulder peeled,” by reason of the hard-
ships inflicted upon the people. The siege
lasted thirteen years, and then at last, Tyre
70 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

was taken, and the soldiers of King Nebuchad-
nezzar forced their way into the city. But
they had little reward for their pains; most of
the treasures had been taken away, and the
city partly despoiled.

The king had no “wages for his labour.”
But although many of the Tyrian people had
escaped to “the isles,” they had no rest. The.

prophet had declared it should be so, and his

words came literally true. A doom seemed to
be on Tyre and her colonies. Carthage was
one of the most famous cities founded by the
Tyrians; and you know the mournful story
of Carthage and her wars with the Romans.
In the end, Carthage became a ruined and a
buried city.

After many years the Tyrians came back to
their home, and in spite of past troubles the
city began to revive. Her fairs were again
famous for their merchandise; and her sump-
tuous vessels, with their sails of purple and fine
Iinen, went through all seas, She was again
“the joyous city, the mart of nations.”

But her prosperity did not last long ; another
enemy was raised up against her. Alexander
the Great, king of Macedonia, came with his
army and encamped round about Tyre.
THE CITY OF TYRE. 71

Again, the people thought of their “isles,”
and many of them fled thither. These were
fortunate, indeed ; for evil days were coming.
The city was taken by storm, and one of those
terrible sacks took place such as we know
nothing about in modern days. Two thousand.
of the wretched captives were crucified by order
of the conqueror, and many more were sold for
slaves. Thus was fulfilled the prophecy of
Joel, “Behold, I will return your recompense |
upon your own heads, and I will sell your sons
and your daughters.” *

The old city of Tyre was pulled down by-
Alexander, and made a complete ruin. He
used the materials to build a causeway joining
the island to the mainland.

Tyre was now supject to the King of Mace-
donia, and was ruled by a monarch chosen by
him; but still she began once more to struggle
into life. Her wonderful fairs and markets
began again to draw merchants from all parts
of the world; her vessels still plied their
. course over the waters; her purple garments
were still worn by kings and priests.

The city had been given to idolatry. Her-
cules had been worshipped under the name of
Baal—a name often mentioned in the Bible

* Joel iii. 4, 8
72 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

The noble and stately temples, now no more,
had been reared to false gods. But after a
time, the Tyrians seemed to have learned a
purer faith from their neighbours the Jews.
When our Saviour was on earth, teaching
and working miracles, a vast multitude came














































































































































































































































































































































































































































ona Oe
IS gh 7b

RUINS ON COAST OF TYRE,

from the coasts of Tyre and Sidon to hear him,
and. to be healed of their diseases.

That was a Tyrian woman who followed our
Saviour with such perseverance, beseeching
THE CITY OF TYRE. 73.

him to heal her daughter, and to whom he
said, “I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of
the house of Isracl.’’ ‘Yes, Lord,” was her
reply, “yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which
fall from their master’s table.”

St. Paul had many converts at Tyre, and
a church was even built for the worship of
God. But with all this, the doom had been
spoken and was slowly creeping on.

The commerce of Tyre, once so famous, began
to decline. A new city had been built by
Alexander the Great, and called Alexandria.
This new city drew away the trade from Tyre,
and speedily brought the once joyous city into
a kind of decay.

Tyre was always changing masters. Now it
belonged to Egypt, now to Syria, and now to
Rome. The Crusaders fought for it with the
Turks, and made it a battle-field. When, at
last, the Turks obtained possession of it, they
sacked and pulled it down, lest it should shelter
the Christian army.

Thus, step by step, the prophecy has been
fulfilled. .

“They shall destroy the walls of Tyre, and
break down her towers.” “Thou shalt be
built no more: for I the Lord have spoken it.” *

* Ezek, xxvi. 14.
74 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

We read that when our Lord was upon the
earth, “ He began to upbraid the cities wherein
“most of his mighty works were done, because
they repented not: Woe unto thee, Chorazin !
woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty
works, which were done in you, had been done
in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented
long ago in sackcloth andashes. But I say unto
you, It ‘shall be more tolerable for Tyre and
Sidon at the day of judgment, than for you.” *

Thus he exhorted those cities to take warn-
ing by the fate of Tyre and Sidon. And the
same warning comes to us. ° We have not
indeed seen our Lord’s mighty works or heard
his voice; but the message of salvation from
his lips has come to us, and we have heard of
his death upon the cross to deliver us from sin
and eternal death. The youngest child, who
reads this book, knows more about God, and is
under far greater obligations to serve him, than
the wisest amongst the heathen. Let the ruins
of Tyre and Sidon warn us against neglecting
the grace of God, or resisting his Holy Spirit.
He, who will come at last to judge the whole
earth, has declared that if we do so, it will be
more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon, for Sodom
and Gomorrah, than for us.

%* Matt, xi, 21,
NINEVEH.


CHAPTER IV.
= NINEVEH IN HER GLORY.



25 HEN a city or nated: in these old
/ world times, had become very
wicked, one of the prophets of
the Lord would be sent to ery
out against it.
oem Often, as in the case of Tyre
or of Thebes, he would foretell

its entire destruction. There was a city called.
Nineveh, which was one of the most ancient
in the world. But it had become as wicked as
any. The inhabitants were given up to their
sins and their idolatry ; and God sent a prophet
named Jonah to cry out against them.

The message, given to Jonah, was very strik-
ing. He was told to declare that in forty days
Nineveh would be utterly destroyed.
78 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

Jonah was one of- the earliest of the prophets.
_ The time, of which we are speaking, was sup-
‘posed to be about the. time when King Jehu
reigned in Israel.

Nineveh had long been a great and mighty
city. It had flourished for many ages; and
had become so vast in size, that it was a three
days’ journey to go round it, or, as some think,
even to go through it. Its walls were a hun-
dred feet in height, and so broad that three
chariots could drive abreast upon. the top.
These mighty walls were strengthened with
towers placed at intervals. ach tower was
two hundred feet in height, and there were as
many as fifteen hundred of them. There is
not a vestige of these great walls remaining.

The city was built on the banks of the
river Tigris. Between this river and the Eu-
phrates was a rich and fertile plain. Indeed,
it was so rich and so luxuriant that it. was sup-
posed to be the site of the garden of Eden.

This was one of the most interesting spots in
the world. Besides its extraordinary fertility,
it was noted for being the dwelling of mankind
immediately after the deluge, and the place
from whence the sons of Noah went forth to
people the earth. It was the birthplace of
NINEVEH IN HER GLORY. 79

many of the Scripture characters, such as Abra-
ham, Sarah, Lot, Rebecca, and the sons of



:







Jacob, This plain has several names by which
it is spoken of in the Old Testament—Padan-
aram, Mesopotamia, or the Land of’Shinar.
80 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIWHT.

The Land of Shinar formed part of the great
Assyrian kingdom, of which Nineveh was the
capital.

Nineveh had attained to the height of power,
and riches, and luxury. Its palaces and its
buildings were splendid and vast as those of
the hundred-gated ‘Thebes.

As we have tried to picture to ourselves
Thebes in its glory, so we will endeavour to
recall the deserted and buried city of Nineveh.
We will draw back the veil from the past, and

_iook upon the pomp and glory that presented.
themselves to the sight of Jonah, when he was
sent to declare that “yet forty days, and Nine-
veh shall be overthrown and destroyed.”

Within the vast and colossal walls there
were palaces and temples of equal vastness.
They were not built of the same material as the
red granite of Thebes. The huge lions that
guarded the entrance were carved in a kind of
alabaster, that was found cropping up in ridges -
on the plain. The iramense slabs that formed
the walls were of this alabaster, and were carved
over with figures. Here, as at Thebes, were
depicted scenes from the life of the king, and
the story of his wars and his victories.

As we stand in this vast chamber, let us
NINEVEH IN HER GLORY. 81

glance at the doorways, which conduct to other
halls and chambers of equal size and grandeur.
They are formed
by colossal figures
such as are met
) with nowhere else.
The figures are
those of mighty-
winged bulls, with
human heads and
wings as of an
eagle. Nothing
can be more ma-
yi jestic than their
|| appearance, carv-
ed as they were
ACh} in alabaster, and
|| painted with bril-
ant colours. The
‘|p head of the man
aio, wassupposed tore-
: i present knowledge;
ised) the body of the
_Ssal| animal, strength ;
and the wings of
the eagle, speed.
The floor, over which we walk, is made of the
F






82 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT,

same material: it consists of slabs of alabaster,
and is covered with figures and characters.
The ceiling reminds us of many a description »
in the Bible of just such a chamber. It was









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WINGED BULL FROM NINEVEE.

“ceiled with cedar, and painted with ver-
milion.”

The choicest trees were used for the wood-
work, And the ceiling appears to have been
divided into squares, and painted with flowers
NINEVEH IN HER GLORY. 83

and figures. It would sometimes be inlaid with
ivory, and its beams be adorned with gold and
silver.

You can judge a little from this descrip-
tion what the wealth and luxury of the city
must have been.

Indeed the riches of Nineveh are spoken
of in the Bible as very great. There is
said to be “no end of store;” and “spoil of
gold and silver” is promised to the enemies of
the city. All kinds of precious metals were
found in the mountains that bounded the plain ;
and here, as at Tyre, were skilful workmen,
and carvers in gold, and silver, and ivory; and
here too were the purple and embroidered gar-
ments, and the sumptuous dresses that were so
much prized in the days of old. These deserted
and buried palaces echoed to the tread of kings
and of priests, Here was the glitter of golden
ornaments, the sparkling of cups and vessels
of gold, the mirth of feasts, and the notes of
nausic.

The plain of Nineveh was like a well-watered
garden. It was a land of corn, and wine, and.
oil. It had precious perfumes, and cotton, and
the sugar-cane. It had vineyards and orchards ;
and, like the ancient Canaan, might be-said to
84 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

flow with milk and honey. To Nineveh, this
city so rich and powerful, and teeming with
people, was Jonah sent with his message—
“Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be over-
thrown.”

Ti seems as if, at first, he was afraid to go.
“How could a solitary man,” he appears to



:
PART OF BANQUETING SCENE,

have argued, “stand in the midst of such a
throng, and declare such a threat as this?”
His faith in God failed him; he even toek his
place in a vessel about to sail for Tarshish, and
fled from the presence of the Lord !

I need not remind you, that God met with ~
NINEVEH IN HER GLORY. 85

him and trcught him back in a miraculous
manner. ‘hen, a second time, the message
was delivered to him. He was told to go
down. to Nineveh, and declare the same words
—“ Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be over-
thrown.”

This time the prophet did his Master’s bid-
ding. He came to Nineveh, that great city,
and. cried out in her streets the message on
which he had been sent. It was an awful mes-
sage, and the people might well be startled
as they stopped to listen. The king in his
chamber of cedar and vermilion heard it and .
trembled. He put off his broidered garments
and his ornaments of gold and silver. As the
Bible tells us, he and his people “ believed
God.” And he put on sackcloth and sat in
ashes, and proclaimed a solemn fast through-
out the land. His nobles and his subjects were
forbidden to taste either food or water. They
were to cry unto God for mercy. _

“Who can tell if God will turn from his
fierce anger, that we perish not?”

We should scarcely believe, if the Bible had
not told us, that Jonah was displeased when
the Almighty consented to spare Nineveh.

Looking round upon her swarming people,
86 ~ LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

her streets and her palaces, one should imagine:
the threatened doom must have been fearful to
contemplate.

But Jonah was angry: he cneaatis his words
had not come true. And he went and sat under
a gourd to see what would happen, The gourd

chad sprung up, it is thought, in a miraculous
manner, to afford the prophet a shade from the
scorching sun. And we are told that Jonah
was “ axassdingly glad. of the gourd.”

But the Almighty was about to teach him a
lesson. A worm came in the night, and de-
stroyed the gourd. The'sun and wind beat on
the prophet’s head, and he fainted. Then he
said, “It is better for me to die than to live.”

But God made him a reply that you have, no
doubt, read many times: “Thou hadst pity on
the gourd, which came up in a night and
perished in a night: and should not I spare
Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more
than six score thousand persons that cannot
discern their right hand from their left, and
also much cattle ?”’

Our Lord Jesus Christ spoke to the Jews of -
the history of Jonah at Nineveh. “Then cer-
tain of the scribes and of the Pharisees an-
swered, saying, Master, we would see a sign
NINEVEH IN HER GLORY. 87

from thee. But he answered and said unto

them, An evil and adulterous generation seck-

eth after a sign; and there shall no sign be

- given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas:

for as Jonas was three days and three nights:
in the whale’s belly ; so shall the Son of man

be three days and three nights in the heart of
the earth. The men of Nineveh shall rise in

judgment with this generation, and shall con-

demn it: because they repented at the preach-

ing of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas

is here.”

Jonah being three days in the whale’s belly
was a type and prophecy of our Lord’s death,
burial, and-resurrection on the third day. And
the repentance of the Ninevites, at the preach-
ing of Jonah, was a lesson to all who hear or
read the words of Jesus, that they too should
repent. Jonah warned the people of Nineveh
of the ruin and destruction of their city; but
Christ warns us of the danger, yea, the cer-
tainty, of eternal death if we neglect the salva-
tion He offers us. Jonah, though a prophet,
was only a weak and sinful man. But Christ
is greater than Jonah. The Son of God himself
calls us to repent. Jonah undertook a long
and difficult journey that he might warn the -






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90 LOST CITIES BROUGHT 10 LIGHT.

Ninevites; and he grudged them the mercy
they received. Christ came down from heaven
to die upon the cross, that we might find
mercy. He wept over his enemies; he prayed
for his murderers. He says to us, “How
shall ye escape, if ye neglect so great salva-
tion P”

THE REMAINS OF NINEVEH.

It was by the courage and zeal of Mr.
Layard that the very stones and bricks of
Nineveh were brought to light.. Some of her
gigantic winged figures have been unburied
and conveyed to England: They are now in
our British Museum, and people gaze at them
with wonder and delight.

For a long time, no one could guess the

exact spot where Nineveh had stood. The once
populous city, with its walls a hundred feet
in height, and with its gates and towers, was
gone, as lt seemed, for ever !
_ If you turn to the writings of the prophet
Nahum, you will see that this was clearly fore-
told. The city is spoken of as “empty, and
void, and waste;” “her chariots burned, and
the voice of her messengers heard no more.”
THE REMAINS OF NINEVEH. _ 91

The Jewish historian, Josephus, thought
that Nahum lived in the time of Jotham, king
of Judah, and prophesied about one hundred
and fifteen years before the destruction of
Nineveh. Yet Nahum gives a very exact de-
scription of it, as we shall see presently.

Even in very early days, Nineveh had become
a city of the past. People searched in vain for
a trace of her ancient glory. On the plain
where once she stood, the Arab now feeds his
flock, and there are a few wretched villages.
These are all the inhabitants of a spot once
teeming with busy swarms of men.

The Arabs were accustomed to point out to
the traveller a long mound of earth, which
they called “ Jonah’s grave.” And they would
also show him a huge mass of soil, and brick,
and rubbish, like a tower, and declare it was
the remains of the tower of Babel.

Other mounds were scattered at different
places along the bank of the river Tigris. And
farther still, was a very great mound fifty feet
in height. All these mounds were looked upon
as having to do with the remains of Nineveh
or of Babylon. And the Arabs used to say that
carved figures were to be found within them,
buried amongst the brieks and rubbish. But
92 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

we are indebted to Mr. Layard for nearly all
we know about the ruins of Nineveh. He was.
the first to open the mounds, and bring to light
the images of the winged creatures, that once
stood in the halls of the Assyrian city.













































































































































































































































































































































































































































BIRS NIMROUD,

The mound, or tower, called Birs Nimroud,
was the spot where Mr. Layard began his
THE REMAINS OF NINEVEH. 93

labours. It stands on the lonely plain, where
the Arab pitches his tent. Part of the year
only can he feed his flock there; then grass
grows, and wild flowers cover the huge ruin,
and give it a kind of beauty. But for the re-
maining months the plain is “dry like the
wilderness.” No rain falls, and the parched
sand sweeps over it as though it were a desert.

The ruin itself is made up of broken bricks,
and pottery, and rubbish of every description.
Here the men began to dig, in the hope of
finding traces of the ancient city; and very
soon it was so. Their spades and mattocks
struck upon some of those slabs of alabaster
of which we have been speaking.

The slabs were covered with inscriptions,
and formed the upper part of a room, the
walls of which were of brick such as are —
found in the ruin. It was a kind of brick
much used in Assyria; and was made of
clay and chopped straw, dried in the sun.
The bricks formed only the framework of the
wall; the slabs of alabaster were placed over,
and hid them so completely that no one could
guess they were there. When the slabs were
fixed, the artist began his work of carving the
inscriptions. Here were the very inscriptions
94 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGH.

themselves as perfect and ag fresh as when-he
left them.

It would not have been so, if the slabs had
been exposed to the air. The alabaster is much
more perishable than the granite of Egypt;
but it is thought that the roofs of the build-
ings fell in very soon after they were deserted,
and before the inscriptions had time to fade or
crumble. Ever since they have been completely
buried, and kept from all exposure to the air.

The chamber opened out, by doorways, into
other rooms and halls. It was part of one of
the ancient palaces of Nineveh.

By-and-by, more wonders were brought to
light. The men, with their spades and mat-
tocks, unburied. one of the gigantic winged
bulls, that for ages had been hidden in dark-
ness and oblivion.

Slowly, the vast human head, white with age,
seemed to rise above the earth. The Arabs
screamed and shouted with excitement, and
Mr. Layard himself must have felt emotion at
this rich reward of his labours.

By degrees, many of these winged creatures
came to light; and ornaments of ivory, and
different relics of the byegone race, were
found And as the digging went on, the
THE HISTORY OF NINEVEH. 95

form and size, and even the buildings of the
city could be guessed at. And from the in-
scriptions on the slabs, all kinds of information
was given about the men who once lived and
reigned, and bought and traded, and feasted
and worshipped, where now all is oot
and ruin.

THE HISTORY OF NINEVEH.

A uistory of Assyria was once in existence,
but it has been lost; and for want of it our
knowledge is very scanty Indeed. Most of the
information we possess is derived from the
sculptures which have been unburied, and from
a few bricks and stones containing inscriptions.
We can glean something of the manners and
dresses, and religion of the people; but for
the greater part of their history we must refer
to the Bible; for the Jews were very much
mixed up with the people of Assyria. The
Jewish writer, Josephus, tells us that the
Assyrians once were masters of Asia. That
was as far back as the time when Sodom and
Gomorrah were in their full prosperity.

Five kings or chiefs governed the territory
96 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

of these two cities, and the Assyrians made war
upon them. In the course of these wars, a
battle was fought at the very place where the
two cities were afterwards destroyed by -fire
from heaven. In this battle a prisoner was
taken whose name is familiar to you—I mean





































































THE DEAD SEA,

Lot, the nephew of Abraham. Lot had chosen
the rich plains of Sodom to dwell in, which
were ‘well watered, and as the garden of the
Lord.” The Dead Sea now covers the spot. -
NIE HISTORY OF NINEVEH. 97

When Abraham heard of the misfortune of
his nephew, he came with all his household
and his servants, more than three hundred
men, and rescued him. As Abraham returned
from this battle, he met, as we are told, Mel-
chisedec, king of Salem, who brought forth
bread and wine, and blessed him in the name
of the Lord.

The founder of Nineveh was Asshur, son of
Shem. The Bible says, “Out of that land
went forth Asshur, and founded Nineveh.”
This was very far back indeed; immediately
after the building of Babel, and only sixty
years after the flood.

. The kings of Assyria are mentioned many
times in the Bible; they were constantly
attacking the Jews.

King Hezekiah had to pay Sennacherib a
vast sum of money to induce him to retire.
He even stripped the plates of gold from the
doors and pillars of the temple, and gave them
to him. This did not prevent the Assyrian
monarch from coming again, with a great army,
‘and laying siege to Jerusalem. Then God
sent his angel, and smote the camp of the
Assyrians, so that they were all dead men.

The overthrow of Nineveh was foretold in
G@
98 LOST CITIES BROUGLIT TO LIGHT.

the clearest manner by Nahum the prophet.
He relates the circumstances very minutely,



CAPTIVE JEWS,

and calls his prophecy the “Burden of
Nineveh.” ,

‘The Lord hath his way in the whirlwind

And in the storm,

And the clouds are the dust of his feet.

His fury is poured out like fire,

And the rocks are thrown down by him,

But with an overrunning flood he will make an utter
end of the place thereof.”

And these words, as you will see, literally
came true.

He tells us, also, that the people were drunken
and feasting, and careless of the doom that was
THE HISTORY OF NINEVEH. 99

coming upon them. He even gives a glimpse
of the manner in which the city was taken.
He says that “the gates of the river shall be
opened, and -the palace dissolved.” And he
speaks of the gold and silver, and rich stores,
and pleasant furniture that will be taken for
spoil.

All these terrible scenes were placed before
the prophet’s mind by God himself; at pre-
sent, there was not the least appearance of
them. Nineveh was rich, and populous, and
strong; the fertile plains around were filled
with wheat, and the choicest of the fruits of
the earth. And yet, even while gazing at it,
the prophet said that it should be a. desolation,
and “ dry like the wilderness. Flocks shall lie —
down in the midst of her; desolation shall be
in the threshold: for he shall uncover the
cedar work.”

The fall of Nineveh took place early even in
Seripture history.

The first tribulation that happened was a
rebellion or conspiracy, which took place about
the time that Rome was founded. The luxury
of the city had reached its height, and the king,
who was then on the throne, gave himself up to
all kinds of pleasure. The people grew discon-
tented and disaffected. At first, their monarch
100 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

had built cities, and given promise of better
things ; but wealth and pleasure seem to have
corrupted him. His days were spent in feasting
and drinking, and the affairs of the kingdom
were neglected... Two persons made it their
business to stir up strife and discontent in the
city—Arbaces, a Mede, and Belesis, a priest of
Babylon. In the end they raised an army,
and there was a civil war between themselves
and their followers, and the king and his fol-
lowers.

The king, whose name was Sardanapalus,
roused himself to something of his ancient
courage. He even defeated the rebels in
several battles; but he could not restrain
his love of feasting and pleasure. Instead of
following up his victories, he set about prepar-
ing a grand banquet in honour of them. In
the midst of the banquet, while the army were
drunken and careless—according to the words
of the prophet—the enemy came up, hidden by
the darkness of the night. They fell on the
Assyrians and drove them, with great
slaughter, to their city. Once within these
strong walls, the king and the remnant of his
army were safe. And here, thanks to the
gates and towers, and means of defence, they
tlefied their enemies for two years.
‘THE HISTORY OF NINEVEH, 101

It seemed impossible by human means to
take Nineveh, and the king trusted in this
fact. There was said to be an old prophecy
which. declared that Nineveh should not be
taken, until the river became an enemy to the
city.

It happened, that after long rains and tor-
rents, the river did actually overflow its banks.
Indeed, there was such a great flood, that part
of the wall was swept away. Thus the river
itself made a breach for the enemy to come
through. This was the overrunning flood spoken
of by the prophet.

When this sad news was brought to the
king, and he heard the tumult in the streets,
and the shouts of the enemy, he iy said to have
given up all for lost. He shut himself up in
one of those great palaces I have been de-
scribing. Here, according to the story handed
down to us, he gathered iopeilier his treasures,
His gold and elves and costly stuffs, and

“pleasant furniture,’ and made a kind of
funeral pile. He and his household threw
themselves on the pile, and set fire to it.
Thus they all perished.

This was the first great blow to Nineveh;
and the final doom was very near at hand.

Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, father to Nebu-
102 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

chadnezzar the Great, of whom we hear so
much in the Bible, made war upon it. Baby-
lon had been a part of the Assyrian kingdom
until the reign of Sardanapalus. After the
death of that monarch, the two conspirators
divided the spoil, and Belesis had Babylon
for his share, and became king, instead of the
governor usually appointed by the Assyrians.
Babylon, in fact, rose in splendour, as Nineveh
declined.

A very short time after the siege we have
related, the King of Babylon marched. against
Nineveh. It was a second time taken, and
was now completely ruined. ‘The riches, and
pomp, and glory, that once belonged to it,
flowed into Babylon, and Nineveh was fallen
and desolate. It was rebuilt by the Persians,
or rather, a city was raised upon its ruins.
But this city was also destroyed about the
seventh century after Christ. And then began
the period of utter desertion and ruin. Nineveh
was blotted out from the face of the earth.
Until the late discoveries were made, people
searched in vain for the place where it stood.
Even now, the veil is but partially drawn. It
remains to be seen, what further openings can
be made, and how much of a history, dim and
remote, can be unfolded. :
' BABYLON THE GREAT.


CHAPTER V.
BABYLON THE GREAT.

y nz of the kings of Babylon acts a very
important part in Scripture history.
He was raised up by God, for a
= special purpose—that of punishing
=!2& the Jews for their idolatry. Their
Bee prophets foretold the coming of this
king, and that he should destroy their temple,
and carry them away captive into Babylon.
But the Jews turned a deaf ear to the warning
of their prophets, and continued their idolatrous
ways. Still every word spoken was literally
fulfilled.

The name of the king of Babylon was Nebu-
chadnezzar the Great. He was the son of that
Nebuchadnezzar who besieged and took Nine-
veh; and was one of the mightiest monarchs
that ever reigned. He it was who raised


106 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

Babylon to the highest pitch of glory. Indeed,
he did so much to improve and beautify his
capital, that he might well be said to have built
it. He said of it—“Is not this great Babylon,
that I have built for the house of the king-
dom by the might of my power, and for the
honour of my majesty ??’*

After the destruction of Nineveh, a great
deal of the spoil was carried to Babylon ; and it
rose to a degree of splendour and luxury that
almost surpasses belief. It is called by the
prophet Isaiah “the golden city,” “the glory
of kingdoms,” “the praise of the whole earth,”
Isa, xiii. xiv. But, like the cities we have
been speaking of, it is now no more; its pomp
and its glory have departed. Like Memphis,
Thebes, and Nineveh, it is a buried city, a
thing of the past!

Let us attempt to picture to ourselves Baby-
_ lon, as it was in the days of its glory, when its
gigantic walls, and its brazen gates, were spoken
of through all lands, as the wonders of the
world ; when men of every nation thronged the
streets, when princes and nobles trod the now
forgotten palaces ; and when the harp, the viol,
and all kinds of music were heard in their feasts.

* Dan. iv. 380.
BABYLON THE GREAT. 107

Let us gaze a moment at the gigantic walls,
which seemed as if built to defy all time.
Nothing, in modern days, can be compared with
them in height or thickness. They were built
of bricks; were eighty-seven feet broad, and
rose, it is said, to the amazing height of three
hundred and fifty feet !

The city stood upon a level plain, but at
a distance its lofty walls gave it the appear-
ance of a mountain. It was built in the form
of a square, and on each of the four sides were
five-and-twenty gates. These were the gates
of solid brass we read about in ancient history.
And, as if still further to secure the city, a
deep ditch ran round it, and was kept full
of water. Nor must we forget the towers,
which were placed at intervals between the
gates. There were as many as two hundred
and fifty of these towers. Here the watchmen
kept their watch across the plain; and in time
of war, the armed men could fling their darts
and arrows at the enemy.

You would suppose that no mortal foe could
ever prevail against Babylon. She is described.
by the prophet Isaiah as saying, “I shall be a
lady for ever. Iam, and there is none beside
me.”
108 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

The river Euphrates ran through this won-
derful city, and was spanned by a bridge. At
each end of the bridge stood a palace.

The river had strong embankments, of |
brickwork, to prevent the possibility of a
flood.

‘While the embankment was being made, the
water was drawn off, from the river, into a
great. lake forty miles square. This great
lake, which was almost like a sea, had been
begun by’ a queen named Semiramis, whose
history is so mixed with fable that we can
hardly tell the true from the false. It was
finished by Nebuchadnezzar, and became use-
ful as a reservoir, out of which the country
could be irrigated.

The king also had a number of canals cut
all over the plain, so that in time of overflow
the water was carried to the Tigris before it
had time to reach the city.

Nebuchadnezzar also laid out the beautiful
hanging gardens, that are spoken of as one of
the curiosities of Babylon.

The intention of these wonderful gardens
was to give to the flat ground, on which they.
stood, the appearance of forests and mountains ;
and they were made to please the queen, who
BABYLON THE GREAT. 109

came from a mountainous country, and did not
admire the level plains of Chaldea.

Like all the other glories of Babylon, the
far-famed gardens have long since been swept
away. A stunted tree, that grows among the
desolate heaps of the buried city, is pointed out
as a relic of them. Be this as it may, the
gardens, when in their glory, must have been
worthy of the size and the magnificence of
Babylon. We can picture them to ourselves;
for an account has been left us how they were
made, and the effect they produced.

They were formed by a number of terraces,
raised one above the other, till they towered as
high as the city wall, and seemed to hang in
the air. A number of strong arches supported
them, built one upon another, and with a broad
wall to hold them up.

The. terraces themselves had first a layer of
flat stones. Then a layer of reeds mixed with
bitumen. Upon this were placed thick sheets
of lead; and on the lead a sufficient depth of
earth for the largest tree to growin. On the
highest terrace was an aqueduct supplied with
water from the river, and which kept the
whole well watered.

I should tell you that flights of steps led
110 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

from one terrace to the other. And all kinds
of forest trees, and the choicest plants and
flowers, grew on the terraces. Here the queen
and her ladies would come and enjoy the cool
shade of the trees, and the fragrance of the
flowers. ,

In this vast city of Babylon were a multi-
tude of captives, carried from other countries ;
for the king was a great warrior, and con-
quered many nations. Babylon was a terror to
the world. It is called in the Bible “the
hammer of the whole earth,” “ proper to break
in pieces nations, and to destroy kingdoms.”

The king was not only a terror to other
nations, but he ruled with despotic sway over
his subjects. His word was law, and their
lives were in his hand. We glean many in-
stances of this from the sacred history. When
King Nebuchadnezzar set up the golden image
in the plains of Dura, he commanded all the
people to fall down and worship it; and if any
one refused, he was to be thrown into the
fiery furnace. And we read of persons who,
for some slight offence, were cut in pieces and
their houses made into dunghills, —

The. wealth and luxury of Babylon were as
great as those of Nineveh. Her merchants

s
THE WISH MEN OF BABYLON. iii

were found in the markets of Tyre. Herethey
exhibited their sumptuous wares, their silken
carpets embroidered with the figures of ani-
mals or flowers. Here also they brought their
wool and their cotton, their blue clothes and
embroidered work; “their Babylonish gar-
ments,” noted for their richuess even in the
days of Joshua.

It seems impossible that such a city as this
could ever become forsaken and in ruins,
That the prophecy could ever be fulfilled—.
“Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty
of the Chaldees’ excellency, shall be as when
God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah.’”’*

- THE WISE MEN OF BABYLON AND THEIR IDOLS.

THERE was a class of men in Babylon who
are spoken of as the Chaldeans, They were
taken from the principal families, and were the
priests. All matters relating to the idolatrous
worship of the nation were under their control.
They stood high in rank, and were about the
person of the king.

We read about them in the book of Daniel;

* Iseiah xiii, 19.
112 ~~ Lost CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

for Daniel, as you know, was at the court of
King Nebuchadnezzar, having been carried
captive from Jerusalem,

The Chaldeans were very learned in the
science of astronomy. They watched the
movements of the heavenly bodies, and made
observations upon them. But they also bowed
down and worshipped the sun, moon, and. stars,
and taught this worship to the people.

And they had another science, called as-
trology, that they pretended to study. We,
in these days, do not believe in such a science ;
we know that God has wisely hidden from us
the secrets of our future lives. But the Chal-
deans taught another doctrine; they declared
that by making certain calculations, with re-
gard to the stars, they could foretell future
events. They might therefore be called magi-
cians or diviners. In modern times we should
regard these men as impostors; but it was far
otherwise in the days of which we are speak-
ing. Their gifts and learning were held in
the highest esteem. When Daniel and the
captive youths were brought to Babylon, they
were placed in the king’s palace that they
might be taught the language and the, learning
of the Chaldeans.
THE WISE MEN OF BABYLON. 118

But Daniel and his companions had a better
teacher than the Chaldeans. We are told that
God gave them “knowledge and skill in all
learning and wisdom.” And when the king
came to inquire of them, he found them “ten
times better than all the magicians and astro-
logers that were in his realm.”

In those days, God was pleased to make
known his will in visions and dreams. On
one occasion, the Chaldeans were unable to -
interpret the king’s dream, because he-had
forgotten it. He ordered them to recall it to
his mind; but they said, “There is not a man
upon earth that can show the king this
matter.” Then the king was very furious,
and commanded. to oa all the wise men
in Babylon.

Daniel was included among the wise men,
and the officers were going to put him to
death; but he begged a respite, and when it
was granted, he and his companions “ prayed
to God to reveal to them the secret.” “Then
was the secret revealed unto Daniel, in a night
vision.” He was able to tell the king his
dream, and also to interpret it. Then Daniel
was made ruler of Babylon, and set above all
the wise men in the kingdom.

H
114 Lost CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

In Babylon, as in Egypt, we are in the land
of idols. The name of the principal deity,
worshipped by the Babylonians, is very familiar
tous. He was called Baal, and was, in fact,
the sun.

The moon was worshipped under the name
of Ashtoreth, or “Queen of Heaven.” The
Jews were reproved for burning incense and
pouring out drink. offerings to the queen of
heaven. ‘The children gather wood, and the
fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead
their dough, to make cakes to the queen of
heaven.” *

In the great temple of Belus, which is but
another name for Baal, we come face to face
with both these idols. This temple was one of
the public works carried out by Nebuchadnez-
zar. Before his time, it had been small and
insignificant. It was said to be founded on
the ruins of the tower of Babel, and was a flat
base, from which seven towers rose one above
another. Nebuchadnezzar enlarged and beauti-
fied it, until it covered a space of more than
two miles, and it exceeded in grandeur even
the famous temple of Solomon at Jerusalem.

The statue of Baal was of solid gold, and

* Jeremiah vii, 18.
THE WISE MEN OF BABYLON. 1ld

forty feet in height. The god is represented
in the act of walking, with one foot forward.
There was also a golden throne; and all the
riches of Babylon seemed heaped up here.
When, years after, the temple was plundered
by the Greeks, the spoil was almost more than
could be counted.

One of the most lucrative trades in the city
was, as you may think, the making of idols.
Many allusions to this trade are found in the
Old Testament. ‘He seeketh unto him a
cunning workman to prepare a graven image.”
The idol was prepared according to the wealth
of the worshipper. If he were rich enough to
afford it, the idol was of gold or of silver. But
in many instances it was merely of wood, with
a coating of the precious metal. “The gold-
smith spreadeth it over with gold, and casteth
silver chains.” The chains were of use to
fasten the idol in its place.

And sometimes, the idol would have a star of
gold or silver upon its head. We read of the
“star of your god Remphan,” and in another
place, “the star of your god which ye have
made to yourselves.” The greatest contempt
is poured upon the idol maker and his god by
the sacred writers :
116 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

‘¢ He planteth an ash, and the rain doth nourish it...
He roasteth meat, and is satisfied :
Yea, he warmeth himself. . .
And the residue thereof he maketh a god. .
He falleth down, and worshippeth it, —
And prayeth unto it.”

And you will remember the poetical des-
cription of the idols themselves, in the book of
Psalms:

“They have mouths, but they speak not :

Eyes have they, but they see not:

They have ears, but they hear not:

Noses have they, but they smell not:

They have hands, but they handle not:

Feet have they, but they waik not :

Neither speak they through their throat.

They that make them are like unto them; so is every
one that trusteth in them.”

How true it-is that “the gods of the
heathen are vanity.’ “But the Lord made
the heavens.”

THE FALL OF BABYLON.

Even while the prophets spoke of the cap-
tivity of the Jews in Babylon, they dwelt, in
poetical strains, on the fall of Babylon herself.
They foretold that the mighty city—the “ham-
THE FALL OF BABYLON. 117

mer of the earth ”’—would. be broken in pieces ;
that the broad walls would be overthrown, and
her palaces made heaps of ruins.

The people of Babylon, secure within their
strong walls, might havé smiled at these
threats. What army could ever scale their
ramparts, or break down their gates of brass ?
They had taken and destroyed many cities ;
Jerusalem had been pillaged, and her beautiful
temple burned. This had happened in the
reign of Nebuchadnezzar, who, as we said, was
an instrument in the hands of God to punish
the idolatry of his chosen people. ‘The golden
vessels of the temple, sacred to the worship of
the Most High, had been carried away, and
placed in the tempie of Belus.

By the waters of Babylon, the Jews mourned
their captivity, and said, ‘How can we sing
the Lord’s song in a strange land?” . And in
the bitterness of his anguish, the Hebrew poet
exclaims, “O daughter of Babylon, who art to
be destroyed ; happy shall he be who rewardeth
thee as thou hast served us.”

The splendid reign of Nebuchadnezzar had
been brought to a close. Many events, con-
nected with it, are related in the book of Daniel ;
for Daniel continued high in favour with the
118 Lost cIfrEs BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

king, and explained the meaning of the
dreains and visions sent to him by the Most
High.

Nebuchadnezzar himself acknowledged the
power and the supremacy of Jehovah. He
forbade his subjects, on pain of death, to speak
anything amiss against the God of Shadrach,
Meshach, and Abednego ; for he had beheld. the
three Hebrew youths, walking unhurt, amid the
fiery furnace; and he confessed that “there is
no other God that can deliver after this sort.”

But soon after,a king reigned in Babylon
who did not walk in the steps of his great pre-
decessor.

He ig called in ancient history “ Nabona-
dius,” but in the book of Daniel we know him
by the name of Belshazzar. He gave himself
up to all the idolatry of the times in which he
lived. Ancient books relate his history, and
the doom that befell himself and his kingdom ;
and we find that, in every particular, it agrees
with the words spoken many years before by
the prophets.

In the book of Daniel, the fall of Babylon
is told in a single chapter. Belshazzar, the
king, held a banquet in his palace, with a thou-
sand of his lords, at the very time an armed
THE FALL OF BABYLON. 119

host were laying siege to the city. The host
was composed of Medes and Persians, and was
under the command of Cyrus, the Persian, and
Darius, the Mede. For two years, the army
of the Medes and Persians had shut up the
Babylonians within their walls; but the city
showed no sign of yielding. There were pro-
visions within it for twenty years; and long ere
this period of time should have elapsed, the
enemy would bewearied. out, and forced to retire. ©

But Cyrus was an instrument in the hands
of God, as Nebuchadnezzar had been. The
Almighty determined to punish Babylon, and
to set free his chosen people from the yoke of
bondage. Cyrus is mentioned, by name, in the
sacred pages more than a hundred years before
his birth; and itis promised to him, “T will go
before thee, and make the crooked place
straight: I will break in pieces the gates of
brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron.” *

The life of Cyrus is one of the most interest-
ing that history furnishes. At that time, Media
and. Persia were separate kingdoms. The Per-
sians were hardy and brave, and simple in their
habits, and they were despised by the rich and
luxurious Medes. ~ Cyrus was a Persian ; and



* Isaiah xlv. 2,
120 - LosT CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT

although he was brought up at the court of
Media, he retained all his simple and hardy
habits. There is a very interesting account
of the early days of Cyrus, and his visit to
his grandfather, the King of Media. It is
written by the Greek historian Kenophon, and
shows the goodness and the wisdom of Cyrus
even in his boyhood.

It had been foretold that Cyrus should take
the city of Babylon, and “prepare the nations
against her.”

The truth of this puapheey ! is very striking.
When Cyrus grew to manhood, he became a
great warrior, and conquered many nations,
and added their soldiers to his army. He did
this as much by kindness as by force, and con-
trived to make them as faithful to him as his
own followers were. Thus “a standard was
set up against Babylon in many a land.” The
conquests of Cyrus extended over the whole of
Asia, and formed, in the end, one great kingdom
—the Persian kingdom. Do you remember
King Nebuchadnezzar’s dream of the great
image with its head of gold, and its breast and
arms of silver? The golden head was the
kingdom of Babylon, with its treasures of
gold; and the breast of silver was this very
THE FALL OF BABYLON. . 121,

Persian kingdom of which we are speaking,
and that was destined to destroy Babylon, and
spoil her treasures.

The night of Belshazzar’s fatal banquet, the
doom was near at hand. Cyrus had laid a plot
for taking the city, which was on the eve of
being carried out. It is true, the walls could
never be scaled, or the gates forced open; but
away of entrance might be obtained along the
bed of the river itself.

Oyrus contrived the daring project of drain-
ing off the water, from the bed of the river, so
that his soldiers might march along it dry-shod.

He had. already caused trenches to be dug, in
order that the lake might be drained away ;
and now, in the darkness, a body of soldiers
were directed to break down the embankment
between. the river and the lake. Then, the river
began to pour into the lake, and the lake to
empty itself into the trenches. Thus, in time,
the bed of the river was left dry, so that the
army could get along it.

The Babylonians seemed to be too much
occupied with their feasting and revels to
notice what Cyrus was about. Nothing was
more dangerous than his position when in
the bed of the river. He might have been
122 Losr crries BROUGHT To LIGHT.

taken as in a trap, or his army cut to pieces;
but the whole city was full of noise and
tumult. The guards on the walls were
drunken, and the brazen gate, that opened
towards the river, was left unfastened.

Oyrus placed one body of his troops at the
spot where the river enters the city; and he
posted another part of his host at the spot
where it leaves the city, and flows onward.
. through the country.

The prophet, who gives a minute description
of the event, long before it took place, speaks of
the drying up of the river, and says, ‘One
post shall run to meet another, and one mes-
senger to meet another, to show the King of
Babylon that his city is taken at one end, and
that the passages are stopped.”

So vast was the size of the city, that the
inhabitants of the outer part were taken pri-
soners before the alarm reached the palace.
Meanwhile, the banquet was going on with the
utmost riot and profanity. The king had sent
to the temple of Belus for the cups and vessels
of gold, that had been carried away from, Jeru-
salem, and that were sacred to the worship of
the Most High God. “ And they drank wine”
from these vessels, “and praised the gods of


THE FALL OF BABYLON, 128

gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood,
and. of stone.’’ *

This impious act seemed to reach the limit
of the Divine forbearance.

Suddenly, there “came forth fingers of a
man’s hand, and wrote over against the candle-
stick upon the plaister of the wall.” The king
was alarmed, so that his “knees smote one
against another.” He called for the wise men,
the Chaldeans of whom ‘we have spoken, and
commanded them to read the writing, and show
him the interpretation. But this they were
unable to do. And “the king was greatly
troubled, and his lords were astonied.”

The queen mother was a wise and good
woman, and had done her utmost to preserve
the kingdom during the weak reign of her son.
She heard the noise, and the tumult of voices,
and came into the banqueting-house to see what
was the matter. Her advice was, to send for
Daniel; and-she reminded her son, that Daniel,
because of his skill in interpreting dreams, had
been made master over all the wise men in
Babylon.

Youremember the rest of the here: and how
Daniel read in the ears of the king, and his
nobles, the meaning of the fatal words—

* Dan, v. 4
124 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

‘God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it.

“Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found
wanting. /

“Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and
Persians.”

On that very night, it might be while the
words were being read, the enemy was in the
streets of the city. Tho guards, before the
palace gates, were drunken and revelling. All
at once, a body of the Persian soldiers fell
furiously upon them.

The shrieks, and cries, and tumult that
ensued, reached the ears of the king. He
did not suspect what had occurred; but he
sent a messenger to inquire the reason of the
uproar. No sooner did the messenger open
the palace gate, than in rushed the Persian
host. The king came out, sword in hand,
but was slain on the spot.

Thus were the words of the prophet fulfilled.
The Babylonian empire might be said, that
very night, to come to an end.

“ And Darius the-Mede took the kingdom.”

It is difficult to realise the fact, that not a
trace of Babylon is left; that the fertile plain
between the rivers, once blooming with beauty,
and producing more than.a hundredfold, is a
THE FALL OF BABYLON. 128

desert, full of buried cities, and scattered over
with ruins!

It was foretold that Chaldea should be
spoiled, and wasted, and desolate. And no-
thing has been more literally fulfilled than
this prophecy.

For centuries, Babylon, and the fair country
round, was wasted by successive spoilers.
Nations and people seemed to come, from afar,
to pillage her treasures.

Tt is true, that, for a short time, during the
reign of Cyrus, the city was unhurt. But this
brief respite was soon past. It was again taken
by the Persians; for the Babylonians had made
an unsuccessful attempt to free themselves from
the foreign yoke.

Then began a history of wars and devasta-
tions, far beyond the limits of our volume.
Gradually, the city was wasted, and destroyed,
and desolated. At one time, it became an
enclosure for wild animals, that were kept by
the hunters within its walls.

Greek, Roman, and Saracen alike turned
their arms against Babylon. It became blotted
out from the history of nations. All that is
left of it, are some mounds and ruins, near the
Euphrates. The river, that once glided through
126 LOST CITIES BROUGHT TO LIGHT.

the brilliant and gladsome city, now wanders

by its deserted ruins. The embankments, made

with such care, have long since been broken

down, and there was no hand to repair them.
The river floods the plain at times, and renders

ita kind of marsh. By day, the Arab will feed

his flock there, but he fears the night, and will

not remain amid the ruins after dusk. Wild

beasts infest the spot; and “ doleful creatures”

haunt the forsaken and decayed palaces.

As we linger to recall the bygone glories
of this lonely place—the mighty temple, the
palaces, the gardens, the treasures of gold, the
pomp of kings—we ask why such a doom
should have befallen Babylon?

And why should the cities, we have described,
have likewise gone down and perished? ‘The
answer is simple enough. Because of their
wickedness and their idolatry. When once
the anger of God was kindled against them,
and the word had gone forth, their doom was
fixed. Their learning, profound as it was,
could not save them; nor could their riches, or
their power.

There is but one principle that can keep
alive a nation. It is the worship of the true
God, through Jesus Christ, as taught us in the
THE FALL OF BABYLON, 127

Bible. If we keep fast by this, our kingdom
will stand, even though Thebes, and Memphis,
‘Tyre, and Babylon, have passed away.

“ Righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is
a reproach to any people” (Hosea xi. 1).





LONDON : BURT AND CO., PRINTERS,


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