Group Title: ARC-A research report - Agricultural Research Center-Apopka ; RH-81-18
Title: Considerations toward safe and successful chemical use
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 Material Information
Title: Considerations toward safe and successful chemical use
Series Title: ARC-A research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chase, A. R ( Ann Renee )
Agricultural Research Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: IFAS, University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka Fla
Publication Date: 1981
Subject: Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants -- Effect of chemicals on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pesticides -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: A.R. Chase.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065942
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70915910

Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida


H-UMTh L !Y A. R. Chase
IFAS, University of Florida
S': '3 A ricultural Research Center-Apopka
ARC-A Research Report RH-81-18
.F.A.S. Un of Frda
Disease control can be accomplished best by using a combination of

methods available to growers. Each method involves one of three areas,

including the host, the environment, and the pathogen. The most

commonly employed approach to disease control has been chemical spraying

which is based generally upon therapeutic applications of pesticides

following the recognition of a serious disease outbreak. Pesticides are
not as easy to use as they first appear. There are several important

steps which must be taken to insure the safe and successful use of


The first and most important step to pesticide use is diagnosis of

the problem. In the absence of accurate diagnosis, an inappropriate
chemical may be selected and disease control fails. Prior to any

application of costly chemicals the problem must be diagnosed either

through previous grower experience with the problem or preferably through

consulting personnel trained to diagnose plant disease. In many cases

the problem is not a disease and could be worsened if pesticides were

applied by phytotoxicity damage to the crop. In others, two similar

appearing diseases can be caused by widely differing organisms. Root rot

of foliage plant seedlings may be caused by Rhizoctonia, Pythium, or
Phytophthora spp. Benomyl controls Rhizoctonia but has no discernable

effect on the other two fungi. Similarly, ethazol or metalaxyl aid in

Presented at the Gold Coast Short Course, Oct. 29, 1981, Boca Raton, Fla.


control of Pythium and Phytophthora spp. but show no activity

against Rhizoctonia spp. If an accurate diagnosis is not made,

this disease may not be controlled due to selection of the wrong


The second step toward disease control involves the selection

of the most efficacious chemical, This can be accomplished by using

pesticide labels or the recommendations published through the state

extension service for pest control which are listed at the end of this

article. Once the disease is known, the proper chemical used on each

crop can be chosen.

It is at this point that a grower should determine whether or not

a pesticide will be safe for use on his crop. If the pesticide is

newly registered or has not been used by the grower previously, a

phytotoxicity test should precede broadscale use. Procedures for

performing a phytotoxicity test have been covered in a previous report

and will not be discussed in depth here. Some important points are

listed below.

1. Choose the right chemical.
2. Read the label.
3. Wear protective clothing.
4. Avoid high temperatures.
5. Apply the accurate rate of the pesticide.
6. Apply several times at labeled intervals,
7. Test under the conditions you would normally apply the pesticide.
8. Test each type of plant you would like to treat with the pesticide,
9. Test the chemicals prior to a serious disease outbreak.

The last point is especially important since once a problem has become

serious it is unlikely that a grower will have time to perform a

phytotoxicity test.

Prior to use of the chemical on your crop a reexamination of the

label will confirm the rate of use of the pesticide, the interval

of use and the method of application. It is very important to know

whether or not the pesticide should be applied to the foliage of the

plant or to the soil, and therefore, the plant roots. Diseases such

as Cylindrocladium root rot of Spathiphyllum sp, cannot be controlled

through foliar sprays of benomyl. Although this pesticide is systemic,

the concentration of benomyl in the roots will not be sufficient to

control the disease. Only application of a soil drench will result in

enough pesticide to affect the development of this root rot disease.

Similarly, application of fungicides to the roots of a plant will have

little effect on a leafspot. In general, root rot diseases must be

treated through soil drenching and leafspot diseases through foliar

sprays. In cases in which the pathogen lives in the soil and then

progresses into the leaves of the plant, a combination of the two

methods will be necessary, An example of this type of disease is

Rhizoctonia aerial blight of many foliage plants.

Finally, the most important method of disease control is avoiding

disease. Use a combination of control methods designed toward

maintaining healthy plants and be prepared to use chemicals wisely and

safely if a problem occurs, This involves planning ahead and testing

new chemicals on your crops before serious problem arises. It is

costly to apply pesticides and especially undesirable if their

application does not result in control, Therefore, it will save you

money if you are prepared and follow these basic steps.

1. Avoid outbreaks of pests.
2. Develop contingency plans for potential problems,

3. Get an accurate diagnosis of the problem,
4. Choose the most efficacious chemical for that problem.
5. Perform a phytotoxicity test prior to broadscale use
(preferably prior to an outbreak).
6. Follow the label for rate and interval of application.
7. Apply the pesticide to the correct area of the plant.
8. Follow safety precautions to protect yourself and your
workers from poisoning.


Chase, A. R., T. J. Armstrong, and L. S. Osborne. 1981. Why should

you test pesticides on your plants? ARC-Apopka Research Report


Dunn, R. A., R. W. Henley, and D. G. Burch. 1981. Nematode control of

Florida commercial foliage crops 1981. Foliage Digest 4(5):12-14,16.

Henley, R. W., L. S. Osborne, and A. R. Chase. 1981. How safe are the

pesticides you use? Foliage Digest 4:3-4.

Short, D. E., and R. W. Henley. 1980. Insect, mite, and related pest

control on commercial foliage crops 1980. Foliage Digest 3(3):10-14.

Simone, G. W. 1980. Disease control pesticides for foliage production -

1980. Foliage Digest 3(10):3-12.

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