Historic note

Group Title: ARC-A research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center-Apopka ; RH-76-3
Title: Potential yields from foliage stock plants
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065932/00001
 Material Information
Title: Potential yields from foliage stock plants
Series Title: ARC-A research report
Physical Description: 5, 1 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Agricultural Research Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka Fla
Publication Date: 1976
Subject: Foliage plants -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Charles A. Conover.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065932
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70912744

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
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Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

* (o ... ''

:, "V O
Charles A. Conover
Agricultural Research Center-Apopka
ARC-A Research Report RH-76-3

A major consideration that producers face in selecting foliage genera to grow are

potential yields and gross returns. Information in this area has been extremely limited,

and has resulted in inability of many producers to obtain loans for expansion. In general,

most people have underestimated yielding potential of foliage stock plants, resulting in

unfavorable decisions by lending institutions.

Information presented in this paper has been obtained from commercial sources and

research. Where information from both sources was available, data were cross checked and

found to be within 10% of agreement. Information presented in the table is based on

30,000 sq ft per acre planted to stock plants, with the remaining sq footage devoted to

isles and roads. Yields listed are for stock plants in full production, with the time

varying by species from six months to four years for stock to reach maximum potential.

Estimated establishment time for each plant as well as other factors that may influence

production are listed separately.

All data listed are from stock plants receiving recommended light and nutritional

regimes, as well as good pest control measures. Weeds were also kept under control and

did not compete with stock plants. Data are from tropical and subtropical locations

where yearly temperature minimums are 55 to 650? or where plants are heated to that

minimum level during winter months. Light intensities on clear days range from 10,000

ft-candles during winter to as high as 15,000 ft-candles during summer, but plants were

grown under recommended shade. Plants grown in ground beds were grown under poly-

propylene shade cloth and those in raised beds under fiberglass. Therefore, plants in

ground bed cloth shade structures were subjected to rainfall and those in raised beds

under fiberglass were not.

Yields listed should not be considered as maximum, but simply an average that can

be obtained by commercial operators following established production practices.

Production of plants listed in Table 1 may be subjected to several problems which may

limit achieving average yields shown in the table. The major problems are discussed


Aglaonema 'Fransher' -- No serious problems have been encountered with production of this

plant in raised benches. However, Pythium can be a problem in ground beds and tempera-

tures below 600F reduce yields. Stock will take 1 1/2 to 2 years to yield listed


Aglaonema modestum -- Pythium can be a limiting factor in production in raised benches,

but is often severe in ground beds and frequently prevents profitable production there.

-tock will take 1 1/2 to 2 years to yield listed amounts.

.ordyline terminalis -- Major problems in production include fluoride toxicity and

spider mite control. In addition, root-knot nematodes may be a problem unless control

measures are practiced. Stock will reach yields listed after 1 to 1 1/2 years.

Cordyline terminalis 'Baby Doll' -- Major problems in production include fluoride

toxicity and spider mite control. In addition, root-knot nematodes may be a problem

unless control measures are practiced. Growth on raised benches, however, is difficult

because of deep rooting, and height of plants. Stock will reach yields listed after 1

to 1 1/2 years.

Codiaeum variegatum 'Bravo' -- Growth of this large leaved croton and color of leaves

is governed by light intensity and temperature. Good color is obtained with 10,000

ft-candles and warm temperatures or 7000 ft-candles and cool nights. Spider mite

-ontrol is a major problem, which is intensified by high light and low humidity. Yields

sted will require 3 to 4 years to achieve.

'odiaeum 'Gold Dust' -- This croton will produce good growth and color under 5000 or

more ft-candles. Spider mites are also a serious pest of this plant and frequently

determine its profitability. Maximum yields will be reached in 1 to 2 years depending

on spacing.

Dieffenbachia picta 'Exotica' -- Major problems with this plant include Erwinia,

(bacterial cane rot), Phytophthora (stem rot) and spider mite control. Control of soil

borne diseases is very difficult in ground beds, so growth on raised benches is preferred.

Nearly 1 1/2 years are required for new stock beds to achieve maximum yields.

Dracaena godseffiana -- No serious pest of this plant exists, although care in the

nutritional program is necessary to control iron deficiencies. New stock'plantings take

2 1/2 to 3 years to become profitable and achieve maximum yields.

'acaena godseffiana 'Florida Beauty' -- Like the previous plant it has no serious pest

problems. However, this selection contains less chlorophyll and hence grows slower. New

stock plantings will take 3 years or more to achieve maximum yields.

Dracaena marginata -- Growth of this crop under shade increases problems of Fusarium

infections. Other production problems include nematodes and fluorine phytotoxicity

in full sun. Plants will take 3 to 5 years to reach full yields.

Dracaena fragrans 'Massangeana' -- Data provided in the table is for tip cutting

production; NOT CANE! Tip cutting production is accomplished in beds by using the

tips thrown away when harvesting cane. Tips are rooted, allowed to grow to about 2 to

3 ft high and topped. Sprouts are then harvested for tip cuttings. Fluoride toxicity

and Fusarium are the major production problems. Beds will yield at maximum after 1 year.

Dracaena sanderiana -- Major production problems include a bacterial leafspot caused by

?seudomonas, spider mites and iron chlorosis. Plantings will take 2 to 2 1/2 years to

attain maximum yield.

. aena deremensis 'Warneckii' -- This is one of the slowest growing dracaenas. The

major production problem is fluoride toxicity, but iron deficiency problems may also

occur. Stock beds will require 2 to 3 years to attain maximum yields.

Monstera deliciosa -- Low yield per square foot is the major problem with this plant.

Several diseases cause leaf spots, but these normally do not limit production. Stock

will take 1 1/2 to 2 years to achieve maximum yields.

Peperomia obtusifolia *- Major production problems include Phytophthora and Cercospora

control. In some areas, Phytophthora is so severe that stock must be renewed yearly.

Where plants are protected from rainfall, and good sanitation practiced, beds will last

for several years. Stock will reach its maximum yielding potential in 6 to 12 months.

Peperomia obtusifolia 'Variegata' -- Same problems as the green form listed above, but

grows much slower because it contains less chlorophyll. Stock usually takes at least

a year to become fully productive.

Pilea cadierei -- Root loss, usually caused by Rhizoctonia, is one of the major

production problems. Several insects and mites may also cause problems. Stock will

become fully productive in 6 to 9 months.

Philodendron oxycardium -- The major production problem is Xanthomonas which causes a

brown marginal necrosis, especially near leaf tips. Other problems include Phytophthora

leaf spot and root rot. Stock will take 6 to 12 months to reach maximum yield.

Philodendron hastatum 'Red Emerald' -- Bacterial leafspot caused by Erwinia and root

loss as the result of nematode infestations and other disease organisms are major

production problems. Growth on raised beds under fiberglass is suggested, but yield

data are not available. Stock will take about 1 year to become fully productive.

Aindapsus aureus -- The main limiting factor in production is a soil borne disease

caused by Pythiui. Stock beds can achieve maximum yields about 12 months after planting.


ocindapsus aureus 'Marble Queen' The main limiting factors in production are the

soil borne disease, Pythium, and reversion of stock back to the green form. Stock grows

slowly and will take 1 to 1 1/2 years for beds to become fully productive.

Sansevieria trifasciata -- The major limiting factor is root-knot nematodes. Depending

on whether stock is grown from leaves or offsets, it will take 1 to 2 years to attain

maximum production.

Table 1. Potential yields from foliage stock plants.

Ground Beds
io. cuttings Aveage
produced/30,000 cutting Gross
Plant species sq ft/yr value $/acre/yr

No. cuttings
sq ft/yr



Aglaonema 'Fransher'
Aglaonema modestum
Cordyline terminalis 'Baby Doll'
Cordyline terminalis
Codiaeum 'Bravo' (AL)
Codiaeum 'Gold Dust'
Dieffenbachia picta 'Exotica'
Dracaena godseffiana
Dracaena godseffiana 'Florida beauty'
Dracaena marginata
Dracaena fragrans 'Massangeana'
Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii'
Monstera deliciosa
Peperomia obtusifolia




Pepercmia obtusifolia 'Veriegata'
Piles cadierei 2,800,000
Philodendron oxycardium 3,500,000
Philodendron hastatum 'Red Emezald' (tips) 200,000
Scindapsus aureus 3,400,000
Scindapsus 'Marble Queen' 1,500,000
Sansevieria trifasciata 600,000




$ 75,000
$ 52,000

$ 96,000
$ 70,000
$ 60,000

$ 80,000
$ 75,000
$ 90,000



.30 $225,000
.30 $165,000


.08 $192,000
.12 $120,000
.05 $175,000
.035 $122,500
+ +
.04 $128,000
.05 $100,000
+ +

1Not recorrmended for production under these conditions.
Yield data not available.

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