Historic note

Title: Effect of fertilizer rate on susceptibility of Syngonium podophyllum 'White Butterfly' to Erwina chrysanthemi or Xanthomonas campestris
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065927/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effect of fertilizer rate on susceptibility of Syngonium podophyllum 'White Butterfly' to Erwina chrysanthemi or Xanthomonas campestris
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chase, A. R ( Ann Renee )
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1987
Subject: Foliage plants -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Foliage plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Xanthomonas diseases -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 2).
Statement of Responsibility: A.R. Chase
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065927
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70709239

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
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        Page 2
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Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

'- Effect of Fertilizer Rate on Susceptibility ofiyngo n,, lumr
'White Butterfly' to Erwinia chrysanthemi or Xanthomi tris

A. R. Chase
University of Florida, IFAS OCT 14 1987
Central Florida Research and Education Center Apopka
CFREC-Apopka Research Report, R-871-iversty of Florida

The effects of fertilizer rate or source on susceptibility of foliage
plants to bacterial diseases has been researched occasionally during the
past 15 years. Some of the research has shown that the balance of
nutrients is important, while other research has demonstrated that the
amount of a balanced fertilizer can reduce or increase severity of some
bacterial diseases. Since chemical control of bacterial diseases is often
unsatisfactory the ability to reduce host susceptibility through altering
the fertilizer applied to the host should be included in a disease control
program wherever possible. The following research was performed to
evaluate susceptibility of Syngonium podophyllum fertilized with different
levels of a slow release fertilizer (Osmocote 19:6:12) to either Erwinia
chrysanthemi or Xanthomonas campestris.

White Butterfly plants, 3 to 5 inches tall with 3-5 leaves, were
planted in a steam-treated potting medium consisting of Canadian peat and
pine bark (1:1 by volume). The potting medium was amended with dolomite (7
Ibs/cubic yard) and Micromax (1.5 Ibs/cubic yard). Plants were established
in 5-inch plastic pots and top-dressed with Osmocote@ 19-6-12 at various
rates. Maximum light level was 1500 ft-c and daily temperatures ranged
from 60 to 90F. Plants were irrigated by hand 2 or 3 times a week as
needed. Ten single pot replicates were included for each pathogen in each
of the following treatments: 0.8, 3.4, 5.9, 8.4, 10.9, 13.5, 15.9, and 18.4
g/5" pot. The recommended rate for S. podophyllum under these conditions
is approximately 2.8 g. Soluble salts were recorded monthly using a
leachate method where deionized water was added to the potting medium
surface of plants placed over a large beaker. Water was added to each pot
until 100 ml of the resulting leachate was collected in the beaker. The
following growth characteristics were recorded monthly: number of leaves,
height (level), and shoot quality. Shoot quality was determined visually
on the following scale: 1 = dead; 2 = poor, unsalable; 3 = moderate,
salable; 4 = good, salable; and 5 = excellent, salable. Final growth
ratings were recorded approximately 8 weeks after initial fertilization and
prior to inoculation.

Plants were inoculated with a suspension of the appropriate pathogen
(E. chrysanthemi or X. campestris) adjusted to 1 x 10 bacteria/ml. The
suspension was sprayed directly onto leaves without any wounding and plants
were placed in plastic bags for three days. One day before inoculation an
intermittent misting (5 sec/30 min for 12 hours/day) was initiated and
continued until test completion. The number of lesions (E. chrysanthemi)
or the percentage of the plant foliage with symptoms (X. campestris) was
recorded 2 weeks after inoculation. This test was performed between

Associate Professor of Plant Pathology, Central Florida Research and
Education Center, 2807 Binion Road, Apopka, FL 32703.

September and November, 1986 (X. campestris) and December, 1986 and
February, 1987 (E. chrysanthemT).

Since growth response of White Butterfly plants was similar in the two
tests, results are given for the second test only (Table 1). Plants height
and number of leaves were noted affected by fertilizer level applied
although, overall plant grade (quality) was affected with optimal quality
for plants fertilized with rates between 3.4 and 13.5 g/5 inch pot/3
months. Other research has also shown that White Butterfly plants are very
tolerant of a wide range of fertilizer rates. Soluble salts readings
corresponding to these rates were between 788 and 4875 umhos/cm.

The response of these plants to infection with the two bacterial
pathogens differed considerably. Plant susceptibility to E. chrysanthemi
did not alter as fertilizer rate was increased, while susceptibility to X.
campestris decreased as fertilizer rate increased (Table 1). Research has
shown a similar reduction in disease severity as fertilizer rate increased
for scheffleras with Pseudomonas (3) or Xanthomonas leaf spot (1), Ficus
lyrata with Pseudomonas leaf spot (2), Xanthomonas leaf spot of
Philodendron scandens oxycardium (6), and Philodendron selloum with Erwinia
leaf spot (5). In contrast, Pseudomonas leaf spot of chrysanthemum is more
severe as fertilizer level increases (5). Research on Erwinia stem rot of
chrysanthemum showed that response to fertilizer was affected by nitrogen
source as well as rate (7). Disease increased as amount of complete
fertilizer or ammonium sulfate increased but responded quadratically as
calcium nitrate or ammonium nitrate levels were increased (7). Clearly
ornamental plant susceptibility to bacterial pathogens can be influenced by
the amount or type of fertilizer applied to the plant but the nature of the
response is not the same for all plants or pathogens. Although Xanthomonas
blight of White Butterfly can be reduced by applications of greater than
recommended rates of fertilizer this treatment apparently does not affect
severity of Erwinia leaf spot.

Literature Cited

1. Chase, A. R. 1984. Effects of light level and fertilizer level on
Xanthomonas leaf spot of scheffleras. Foliage Digest 8(3):1-2.
2. Chase, A. R. 1987. Effect of fertilizer rate on growth of Ficus
lyrata and susceptibility to Pseudomonas cichorii. HortScience (In
Pre ss).
3. Chase, A. R., and J. B. Jones. 1986. Effect of host nutrition, leaf
age, and preinoculation light levels on severity of leaf spot of dwarf
schefflera caused by Pseudomonas cichorii. Plant Disease 70:561-563.
4. Harkness, R. W., and R. B. Marlatt. 1970. Effect of nitrogen,
phosphorous and potassium on growth and Xanthomonas disease of
Philodendron oxycardium. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 95:37-41.
5. Haygood, R. A., D. L. Strider, and P. V. Nelson. 1982. Influence of
nitrogen and potassium on growth and bacterial leaf blight of
Philodendron selloum. Plant Disease 66:728-730.
6. Jones, J. B., A.R. Chase, B. K. Harbaugh, and B. C. Raju. 1985.
Effect of leaf wetness, fertilizer rate, leaf age, and light intensity
before inoculation on bacterial leaf spot of Chrysanthemum. Plant
Disease 69:782-784.

7. McGovern, R. J., R. K. Horst, and R. S. Dickey. 1985. Effect of
plant nutrition on susceptibility of Chrysanthemum morifolium to
Erwinia chrysanthemi. Plant Disease 69:1086-1088.

Table 1. Growth and susceptibility of Syngonium podophyllum 'White
Butterfly' fertilized with rates of Osmocote and inoculated with
either Erwinia chrysanthemi or Xanthomonas campestris.

Osmocote Height Number Soluble Plant No. Percent leaf
g/5" pot (inches) of salts grade lesions area infected
leaves umhos/cm (Erwinia) (Xanthomonas)

0.8 5.2nsa 16ns 265** 2.4** 9ns 18**
3.4 5.7 21 788 3.4 8 19
5.9 6.1 21 2375 3.4 9 12
8.4 5.5 18 3550 3.0 8 13
10.9 5.5 21 3588 3.4 9 14
13.5 5.6 23 4875 3.6 7 6
15.9 5.4 18 5188 3.0 7 6
18.4 5.3 18 6438 2.8 13 6

at the 1%

effects are noted as ns (not significant) or ** (significant

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