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"-?) SIX ADJUVANTS SAFE FOR USE ON FOLIAGE PLANTS
A. R. Chase and L. S. Osborne CCh!.I Science
University of Florida, IFAS lii.-.:
Agricultural Research and Education Center Apopka
AREC-Apopka Research Report, RH-86-23 OCT 1 4 1987
Surfactants, spreaders and stickers are adjuvants which are commonly,
added to foliar pesticides to improve deposition, retention, and efficacy
of the pesticide. Spray adjuvants can be toxic to the target pest in their .
own right or they may interact with the pesticide to improve its level of
activity. Some of the pesticides used on foliage plants are formulated
with their own surfactant-spreader-sticker (Daconil 2787) and the addition
of an adjuvant frequently improves use of many other pesticides.
Phytotoxicity can occur when an adjuvant is added to one or more
pesticides. This can be due to the adjuvant alone or the combination of
adjuvant and pesticidess. The following report summarizes research
performed to evaluate safety of 6 adjuvants on 9 foliage plants with and
without a pesticide.
The following adjuvants were tested: Aqua-gro (surfactant); Triton
B-1956 (spreader-sticker); Leaf Act 80 (pH buffer-sticker); Nu-film
(sticker); Plyac (spreader-sticker); and Ortho X-77 (spreader). The
recommended rates were 4 oz/100 gallons (Plyac and Aqua-gro), 6 oz/100
gallons (Nu-film), 8 oz/100 gallons (Ortho X-77 and Triton B-1956), and 16
oz/100 gallons (Leaf Act 80). Applications were made with a 2-gallon hand
sprayer (25 psi) at 8:00 am three times on weekly intervals. The first
test employed the adjuvants at the x rate and subsequent tests with the 2x
and then 4x rates were performed. The final test employed the adjuvants at
the x rate in combination with Orthene 75S (0.66 lb/100 gallons) and
Benlate 50WP (1 lb/100 gallons). This combination spray was applied as
described above. Ten pots of each of the following plants were used for
each treatment in all four tests: Aglaonema commutatum 'Silver Queen',
Brassaia actinophylla (schefflera), Chamaedorea elegans (parlor palm),
Dieffenbachia maculata 'Perfection', Dracaena marginata, Epipremnum aureum
(pothos), Nephrolepis exaltata 'Compacta', Philodendron scandens oxycardium
(heart-leaf philodendron), and Spathiphyllum 'Mauna Loa'. Phytotoxic
response was evaluated one week after the final application in each test.
Visual ratings of damage were made from 1 (none) to 4 (severe) and fresh
weight of tops and height were sometimes recorded as well.
None of the adjuvants used at rates from the recommended rate to four
times the recommended rate caused any phytotoxicity (Table 1). In
addition, combinations of these adjuvants with Orthene and Benlate in a
foliar spray were also safe for use on these nine foliage plants. Plant
Associate Professor of Plant Pathology and Associate Professor of
Entomology, respectively, Agricultural Research and Education Center, 2807
Binion Road, Apopka, FL 32703.
This research was supported in part by a grant from the Florida Foliage
Association. Mention of a product does not constitute a recommendation by
the authors or the University of Florida. Read product labels before use.
appearance and growth were unaffected by the treatments applied.
Use of these adjuvants on nine foliage plants appears safe under our
test conditions. Applications were made in the morning since these tests
were run in August and September when greenhouse air temperatures could
reach 105"F by noon each day. Although these adjuvants were safely used in
combination with Orthene and Benlate, their safety with other pesticides
should be evaluated by each grower. Care should always be taken to
evaluate a new spray combination or standard sprays on a new crop. Further
information on safe and efficacious use of adjuvants can be obtained from
the articles listed below.
1. Crocker, R. L. 1979. Insect Research Update 1978-1979, Texas
Turfgrass Research 1978-1979. 22 pages.
2. Fowler, M. C., and R. W. Smiley. 1983. Preventative and curative
control of dollar spot. Dept. of Plant Pathology. Cornell University.
3. Knauss, J. F. 1977. Soil fungicides for tropical foliage plants-
efficacy and other considerations. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
4. Kucharek, T. A. 1983. The use and purpose of spray adjuvants for
foliar fungicides. Nurserymen's Digest (Dec. 1983):20-23.
5. Kunickis, E. J., and D. L. Caldwell. 1985. Compatibility trials with
spreader/sticker products and wettable powders. First Conference on
insect and mite management on ornamentals. Society of American
Florists. San Jose, California.
6. Niemczyk, H. D. 1975. The influence of two non-ionic wetting agents
on the penetration of diazinon and chlorpyrifos through turfgrass
thatch 1975. The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio.
7. Schwabe, W. F. S., and A. L. Jones. 1983. Apple scab control with
bitertanol as influenced by adjuvant addition. Plant Disease
8. Spotts, R. A. 1984. Effect of a surfactant on control of decay of
anjou pear with several fungicides. Plant Disease 68:860-862.
Table 1. Safety of some adjuvants on nine foliage plants.
Leaf Act 80 Nu-film Ortho X-77 Plyac Triton B-1956
Aglaonema 'Silver Queen' S S S S S
Brassaia actinophylla S S S S S
Chamaedorea elegans S S S S S
Dieffenbachia maculata S S S S S
Dracaena marginata S S S S S
Epipremnum aureum S S S S S
Nephrolepis exaltata S S S S S
Philodendron scandens S S S S S
Spathiphyllum 'Mauna Loa' S S S S S