| Material Information
||Effect of soil temperature on severity of Cylindrocladium root and petiole rot of Spathiphyllum
||AREC-Apopka research report
||3 p. : ; 28 cm.
||Chase, A. R ( Ann Renee )
Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Apopka, Fla.)
||University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research and Education Center-Apopka
||Place of Publication:
||Spathiphyllum -- Diseases and pests -- Florida ( lcsh )
Cylindrocladium -- Control -- Florida ( lcsh )
Soil temperature -- Florida ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||A.R. Chase and C.A. Conover.
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 70666306
The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Effect of Soil Temperature on Severity of yl inirSA i t nC
Root and Petiole Rot of Spathiph llum LIrary
A. R. Chase and C. A. Conover2 OCT 14 1987
University of Florida, IFAS1
Agricultural Research and Education Center -INAf it of Florida
AREC-Apopka Research Report, RH- 6-7
One of the most serious diseases of Spathiphyllum spp. is caused by
Cylindrocladium spathiphylli, a soil-borne plant pathogen. Increased
disease severity on spathiphyllum has been observed during summer months
when soil and air temperatures are high. With increased use of soil
heating by growers during cool seasons, concern evolved about the potential
for increased disease expression. Therefore, several experiments were
designed to evaluate effects of soil temperature and potting media on
severity of Cylindrocladium root and petiole rot of spathiphyllum during
Single Spathiphyllum 'Mauna Loa' seedlings were obtained from
commercial producers and planted into one of the following potting media:
Canadian peat sand (1:1, V:V), Canadian peat pine bark (1:1, V:V), and
Canadian peat vermiculite perlite (2:1:1, V:V:V). The steamed media
were amended with 10 Ibs Osmocote 19:6:12, 7 Ibs dolomite, and 1 lb
Micromax per cubic yard. Plants were placed in 4" pots on benches with
bottom heating set at one of the following temperature ranges: 65-70*F,
70-75*F, and 75-80*F. Plants were allowed to establish on these benches
for one week prior to inoculation with a conidial suspension of
Cylindrocladium spathiphylli added at the rate of 10 conidia/pot. Plants
were watered as needed to maintain moist conditions. This test was
performed twice each winter during 1984-85 and 1985-86. Disease severity
was rated as the percentage of plant foliage showing symptoms of
Cylindrocladium root and petiole rot. In tests 1 and 2, half of each
treatment (20 plants each) were inoculated with C. spathiphylli., while the
remainder were treated with water alone. In tesTs 2 and 4, all plants were
inoculated with C. spathiphylli. Disease severity was rated in the 3rd or
4th week following inoculation.
In general, potting medium type did not affect severity of
Cylindrocladium root and petiole rot of spathiphyllum (Table 1). In
contrast, soil temperature usually affected disease severity, with higher
soil temperatures causing greater disease development. In Test 2 where the
data were not significant, there was still a strong trend toward increased
disease severity with increasing temperature.
This research was supported in part by a grant-in-aid from the Foliage
Foundation, Apopka, FL.
Associate Professor of Plant Pathology and Professor and Center Director,
respectively, Agricultural Research and Education Center, 2807 Binion
Road, Apopka, FL 32703.
Growth of Cylindrocladium spathiphylli in culture plates was tested at
various temperatures ranging from 60 to 90F. Optimal growth of the
pathogen occurred between about 70 and 80*F, although cultures grew well
across the entire range of temperatures tested (Table 2).
These results indicate that disease severity of Cylindrocladium
spathiphylli on spathiphyllum is related to soil temperature. This
explains the increased severity of this disease during summer months, but
also presents potential problems for growers whose soil heat this crop
during winter. These results indicate that bottom heating of spathiphyllum
plants during the winter months is not advisable if plants are in danger of
C. spathiphylli infection.
Table 1. Effect of soil temperature and potting medium on growth and
susceptibility of Spathiphyllum 'Mauna Loa' to Cylindrocladium spathiphylli.
Mean percent diseased
Treatment Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4
Canadian peat-sand 41.2nsb 25.Ons 26.8** 48.2ns
Canadian peat-bark 40.8 35.7 19.6 53.8
Canadian peat-vermicu- 42.1 41.8 11.9 55.9
75 to 80*F 51.1** 41.2ns 27.1* 53.9
70 to 75F 45.4 35.0 18.1 64.7
65 to 70"F 20.0 25.0 13.2 39.2
Control 0 NTc 0 NT
Cylindrocladium 85.1 NT 38.9 NT
aMean percent diseased was analyzed using the arcsin of the square root of the
significance denoted as follows: ns = not significant, *P=0.05 and **P=0.01.
CNT = not tested.
Table 2. Effect of continuous culture medium and air temperature
on growth of Cylindrocladium spathiphylli in vitro.
Temperature "F Mean radial growth (in)a
aNumbers given represent the mean of 5