Historic note

Group Title: CFREC-Apopka research report - University of Florida Central Florida Research and Education Center ; RH-90-12
Title: A review of literature concerning the use of growth regulators to induce lateral or basal shoot production in ornamental tropical foliage plants
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065862/00001
 Material Information
Title: A review of literature concerning the use of growth regulators to induce lateral or basal shoot production in ornamental tropical foliage plants
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Henny, R. J
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1990
Subject: Foliage plants -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Growth regulators -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 6-7).
Statement of Responsibility: R.J. Henny.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065862
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70545204

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
        Page 1
        Page 2
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        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

A Review of Literature Concerning the Use of Growth Regulators to Induce
Lateral or Basal Shoot Production in Ornamental Tropical Foliage Plants

R.J. Henny1
University of Florida, IFAS
Central Florida Research and Education Center Apopka
CFREC-Apopka Research Report RH-90-12

' Introduction: An important characteristic of foliage plant cultivars is
production of enough lateral or basal shoots to give a full and compact
,'appearance. In some cases it may be necessary to treat nonbranching
cultivars with growth regulators that induce lateral or basal shoot
development to achieve this result. The most commonly used
branching-inducers are N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 6-benzylamino-9-
(tetrahydropyran 2-yl)-9H-purine (PBA) both are synthetic cytokinins that
have been shown to increase shoot number in a number of plant species.
This paper is a review of published research dealing with synthetic
branching agents and their effects on foliage plants.

Summary of Literature

Anthurium (ref. #9) Anthurium 'Southern Blush' treated with 250 or 500
ppm BA resulted in plants that had more basal shoots than control plants.
Treated plants were also shorter and had smaller leaves. In this study BA
was applied as a 10 ml soil drench at the base of rooted liners from tissue
culture growing in 4-inch pots.

(ref. #10) Mature Anthurium 'Ozake Red' plants in 6-inch pots were
sprayed to runoff with 0, 100, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm ethephon, PBA or BA.
Lateral buds longer than 1-inch were counted 4 months after treatment. The
2 best treatments were 1000 ppm BA (3.6 laterals per plant) and 1500 ppm
PBA (2.2 laterals). Ethephon was highly phytotoxic and resulted in
chlorotic foliage within 24 hours of treatment; these leaves eventually
senesced and abscised.

(ref. #11) Juvenile Anthurium 'Marian Seefurth' 4-6 inches in height
were given a foliar spray to runoff with gibberellic acid (GA3) at 0, 125,
250, 375 or 500 ppm. Both topped and untopped plants were treated. At 6
months after treatment a linear increase in number of shoots produced in
topped plants was evident with increasing GA, concentration. Conversely, a
slight linear decrease in shoots number occurred on untopped plants with
increasing GA3 concentration.

A second experiment involved Anthurium 'Mauna Kea' plants of similar
size to those in the first experiment. In this test GA, (500 ppm) and BA
(500 and 1000 ppm) were applied to topped and untopped plants. Topping
alone increased the average number of new shoots to 4.5 versus 1.8 for
intact plants. The number of new shoots increased linearly with increasing
BA concentration and was not affected by topping. GA, at 500 ppm increased
shoot number for both topped and intact plants.

1Professor of Plant Genetics, Central Florida Research and Education Center
Apopka, 2807 Binion Road, Apopka, FL 32703

Cordyline (ref. #13) BA at 0, 100, 250 or 500 ppm was applied weekly as a
foliar spray to runoff to Cordyline terminalis 'Celestine Queen' plants for
8 weeks. The mean number of axillary shoots was 0, 7, 25 and 35 at the 0,
100, 250 and 500 ppm BA rates respectively. The average length of
harvested shoots was smaller at the 500 ppm rate compared to the lower
BA rates. Rootability of cuttings was 100, 86 and 48% from the 100, 250
and 500 ppm BA treatments respectively.

Dieffenbachia (ref. #6) Foliar application of BA at 500, 1000 or 2000 ppm
to Dieffenbachia 'Welkeri' increased lateral shoot development. Plants
treated at all BA levels average approximately 6 lateral shoots compared to
2 for untreated plants. Plant height was unaffected by BA-treatment.

In this study ethephon and dikegulac were also tested at the same
rates as BA. Neither had any effect on lateral shoot development.

(ref. #18) A nonbranching Dieffenbachia hybrid was treated with
foliar sprays of BA at 0, 250, 500 or 750 ppm. Results showed that 3
foliar sprays, on consecutive days, stimulated more lateral shoot
development than one or two sprays. Treatment with 500 or 750 ppm yielded
more shoots than 250 ppm. New shoots were visible 4 weeks after treatment
and developed normally. Plants receiving 3 foliar sprays with 750 ppm BA
had an average of 9.8 basal shoots versus 0.0 for untreated plants.

Dracaena (ref. #1) Cutting production was studied in Dracaena marginata
'Tricolor' plants that were topped and the remaining foliage sprayed with
BA or PBA solutions at 100 and 250 ppm once a month for 4 months.
Significantly more cuttings were produced only from plants treated with 250
ppm PBA a mean of 3.7 versus 2.2 for controls.

There was a slight reduction in rooting of cuttings from
cytokinin-treated stock plants. However, differences were eliminated by
the use of rooting hormones.

Epipremnu (ref. #14) Golden pothos in 6-inch pots were treated weekly
for three weeks with a foliar spray of PBA at 0, 100, 200 or 300 ppm in an
attempt to stimulate lateral bud growth. PBA-treatment caused swelling of
some lateral buds but none grew out.

Hedera helix (ref. #12) Unpruned English ivy plants treated twice with a
300 ppm GA spray on alternate weeks averaged 8.3 primary breaks compared
to 0 for controls. However, new branches emerged only on growth occurring
from buds maturing after treatment. Pruned plants treated with GA
produced secondary shoot growth which did not occur on intact plants this
growth consisted of lateral bud break on primary lateral shoots.

In the same study treatment with PBA at rates up to 1000 ppm had no
effect on lateral shoot growth.

Hylocereus (ref. #15) Hylocereus trigonus is a rootstock used for many of
the colorful grafted cactus. This study showed that treatment of cuttings
with BA before rooting can increase the number of axillary shoots. A 3-cm
cm long apical portion of a 7-cm long cutting was soaked for 24 hours in BA
solutions of 0, 25, 50 or 100 ppm. Cuttings were then air dried for 3

hours before placement in a rooting medium. Data was recorded 80 days
later. Untreated cuttings usually had only 1 uppermost bud develop after
rooting. Among BA-treated cuttings, the first 6 uppermost buds were
induced to sprout at the same time although buds lower than the third
usually aborted. Optimum results indicated that shoot yield could be
increased from 1 to 3 by BA treatment.

The basal end of some cuttings was soaked in BA, however, this
treatment method was less effective than the apical treatment.

Pellionia pulchra (ref. #4) A single foliar spray with 200 ppm PBA
resulted in an average of 14.9 lateral shoots on treated plants versus 6.6
on untreated plants.

Peperomia (ref. #5) Peperomia obtusifolia growing in 5-inch pots were
sprayed to runoff with 0, 250, 500 or 1000 ppm BA. All treatments
increased the number of lateral branches compared to controls. The average
number of lateral shoots was 4.6, 7.4, 9.4 and 10.4 at 0, 250, 500 and 1000
ppm BA treatment levels. Treated plants were also shorter due to
decreasing internode length.

Pilea cadierei (ref. #4) A single foliar spray with 200 ppm PBA resulted
in an average of 11.6 lateral shoots per treated plant versus 7.7 for
untreated plants.

Schlumbergera truncata (ref. #3) Application of 100 ppm BA as a foliar
spray increased the number of flower buds by 40% when sprayed 2 weeks after
initiation of a short day treatment to stimulate flowering. The same
BA-treatment increased the number of phylloclades from an average of 2.1
for controls to 5.3 for plants treated under long day photoperiod.

Spathiphyllum (ref. #2) Spathiphyllum 'Viscount' liners from tissue
culture, ranging in age from 16-32 weeks, were treated with 500 ppm BA.
The liners, growing in 72-celled plastic trays, received a 5 ml drench
applied at the plant base in each individual cell. Treatment of plants
that were 24-, 28- or 32-weeks-old resulted in more basal shoots than
plants treated at 16- or 20-weeks of age. BA-treated plants at 28- and 32-
weeks of age averaged almost double the number of basal shoots as untreated
plants the same age.

(ref. #7) In this study Spathiphyllum 'Tasson' growing in 4-inch
pots were treated with BA at 0, 250 or 500 ppm. Treatment consisted of a
foliar spray to runoff or a 10 ml drench applied at the base of each plant.
The soil drench treatment significantly increased the number of basal
shoots compared to untreated plants or plants treated with a foliar BA
spray. Newly developing basal shoots were clearly visible 4 weeks after
treatment; the largest increase in the number of shoots on drenched plants
occurred during the first 8 weeks following treatment.

Increase in height of drenched plants was less compared to untreated
or sprayed plants at 20 weeks after treatment. The fresh weight of the
main stems from sprayed and drenched plants (less roots) was less than
controls, whereas fresh weight of basal shoots was greater for treated
plants. However, the combined weights of the main shoot and basal shoots

for all sprayed and drenched plants were not significantly different from
the controls.

(ref. #8) This report compared the effects of 3 different cytokinins
on basal shoot development of Spathiphyllum 'Bennett'. BA, kinetin and 2iP
were each tested at 0, 125, 250 and 500 ppm; treatments were applied as a
10 ml drench per 4-inch pot. Identical experiments were conducted in the
fall and winter to test seasonal effects.

Kinetin and 2iP were not effective at stimulating basal shoot
development in this study. BA-treatment at 500 ppm resulted in 12.2 basal
shoots compared to 4.9 for untreated in the fall study and 8.2 versus 3.9
in the winter study. These results indicate that summer treatment may be
more effective than winter treatment.

Syngonium podophyllm 'White Butterfly' (ref. #16 and #17) BA was
applied as a foliar spray to 'White Butterfly' cuttings at rates of 0, 250,
500, 750, 1000 and 2000 ppm at the 1-, 3-, and 5-leaf stage. There was no
effect on lateral branching or growth of plants treated at the 1-leaf
stage. At the 3- and 5-leaf stage BA treatment induced earlier development
of basal lateral shoots and decreased elongation of the main shoot which
resulted in bushier plants. Plants treated at the 3- and 5-leaf stage
showed visible growth of the lateral buds within 1 week of treatment.
There was no subsequent effect on the size or number of leaves on the main
shoot which was desirable. At termination of the experiment total number
of lateral shoots was not increased by BA. However, lateral shoots were
larger in BA-treated plants because of the earlier initiation.

In a related study 4-cm long single-node 'White Butterfly' cuttings
were soaked for 5 minutes in 0, 400 or 800 ppm PBA. Cuttings were then
rooted under mist for 4 weeks and placed under 73% shade. Although initial
shoot development was promoted by PBA at both concentrations according to
measurements taken 2 weeks after treatment, later plant development was
substantially delayed. At the 800 ppm level PBA reduced leaf number to
half that of the control. Some PBA-treated cuttings did not root.


Table 1. A summary of growth
branching of foliage plants.

Botanical Growth
genus (ref No.) regulator

Anthurium (9) BA
(10) BA
S (10) PBA
(11) BA
S (11) GA3

Cordyline (13) BA

Dieffenbachia (18)

Dracaena (1)

Epipremnum (14)

Hedera helix (12)

Hylocereus (15)

Pellionia (4)

Peperomia (5)

Pilea (4)








regulators used to induce basal or lateral


250 ppm

1000 ppm
1500 ppm
1000 ppm
500 ppm

250 ppm

1000 ppm
750 ppm

250 ppm

1000 ppm





100 ppm













(8) BA

Syngonium (16, 17)







500 ppm

1000 ppm

Method of

10ml soil drench at base of
each plant
single foliar spray to runoff
single foliar spray to runoff
single foliar spray to runoff
single foliar spray to runoff

8 foliar sprays to runoff
applied weekly

single foliar spray to runoff
3 foliar sprays to runoff
on consecutive days

4 foliar sprays to runoff
applied monthly

3 foliar sprays to runoff
applied weekly

2 foliar sprays to runoff
applied on alternate weeks
2 foliar sprays to runoff
applied on alternate weeks

24-hour soak of apical
cutting tip

single foliar spray to runoff

single foliar spray to runoff

single foliar spray to runoff

single foliar spray to runoff

5 ml soil drench to base of
each plant
10 ml soil drench to base of
each plant

10 ml soil drench to base of
each plant

single foliar spray to runoff

- -----

Literature Cited

1. Criley, R.A. 1980. Stimulating lateral bud break on Dracaena. Plant
Propagator 26(2):3-5.

2. Fooshee, W.C. and R.J. Henny. 1986. BA-induced basal shoot production
in Spathiphyllum 'Viscount' affected by plant age. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 99:240-241.

3. Heins, R.D., A.M. Armitage and W.H. Carlson. 1981. Influence of
temperature, water stress and BA on vegetative and reproductive growth
of Schlumbergera truncata. HortScience 16(5):679-680.

4. Henley, R.W. and R.T. Poole. 1974. Influence of growth regulators on
tropical foliage plants. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 87:435-438.

5. Henny, R.J. 1985. BA induces lateral branching of Peperomia
obtusifolia. HortScience 20(1):115-116.

6. Henny, R.J. 1986. Increasing basal shoot production in a nonbranching
Dieffenbachia hybrid with BA. HortScience 21(6):1386-1388.

7. Henny, R.J. and W.C. Fooshee. 1985. Induction of basal shoots in
Spathiphyllum 'Tasson' following treatment with BA. HortScience

8. Henny, R.J. and W.C. Fooshee. 1986. Comparison of BA, Kinetin and 2iP
for inducing basal shoot production in Spathiphyllum 'Bennett'.
CFREC-Apopka Research Report RH-86-13. 4pp.

9. Henny, R.J. and W.C. Fooshee. 1989. BA-treatment stimulates basal
shoot production in Anthurium X 'Southern Blush'. CFREC-Apopka
Research Report RH-89-16. 3pp.

10. Higaki, T. and H.P. Rasmussen. 1979. Chemical induction of
adventitious shoots in Anthurium. HortScience 14(1):64-65.

11. Imamura, J.S. and T. Higaki. 1988. Effect of GA3 and BA on lateral
shoot production on Anthurium. HortScience 23(2):353-354.

12. Lewnes, M.A. and B.C. Moser. 1976. Growth regulator effects on apical
dominance of English ivy. HortScience 11(5):484-485.

13. Maene, L.J. and P.C. Debergh. 1982. Stimulation of axillary shoot
development of Cordyline terminalis 'Celestine Queen' by foliar sprays
of 6-benzylamino purine. HortScience 17(3):344-345.

14. McConnell, D.B. and R.T. Poole. 1972. Vegetative growth modification
of Scindapsus aureus by ancymidol and PBA. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.

15. Shimomura, T. and K. Fujihara. 1980. Stimulation of axillary shoot
formation of cuttings of Hylocereus trigonus (Cactaceae) by pre-soaking
in benzyladenine solution. Scientia Horticulturae 13:289-296.

16. Wang, Y.T. 1988. Branching agents. Greenhouse Manager. 7:136-141.

17. Wang, Y.T. and C.A. Boogher. 1987. Effect of stock plant shading,
developmental stage and cytokinin on growth and lateral branching of
Syngonium 'White Butterfly'. Scientia Horticulturae 33:137-145.

18. Wilson, M.R. and T.A. Nell. 1983. Foliar applications of BA increase
branching of 'Welkeri' Dieffenbachia. HortScience 18(4):447-448.

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