Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Book I
 Book II
 A partial dictionary of proper...

Title: The geography of Strabo
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065780/00001
 Material Information
Title: The geography of Strabo
Series Title: Half-title The Loeb classical library. Greek authors
Physical Description: 8 v. : front. (map) ; 17 cm. --
Language: English
Creator: Jones, Horace Leonard, 1879- ( tr )
Sterrett, John Robert Sitlington, 1851-1914
Publisher: W. Heinemann;
W. Heinemann
G. P. Putnam's sons
Place of Publication: London
New York
Publication Date: 19171933
Copyright Date: 19171933
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: with an English translation by Horace Leonard Jones ... Based in part upon the unfinished version of John Robert Sitlington Sterrett ... --
General Note: Greek and English on opposite pages.
General Note: Bibliography: v. 1, p. xxix-xliii.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065780
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - ADD7916
alephbibnum - 000608778
lccn - 17013967

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
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        Page xii
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    Book I
        Page 1
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    Book II
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    A partial dictionary of proper names
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Full Text



PH.D., LL.D.








eminent scholar who was originally chosen by the
Editors of the Loeb Classical Library to prepare this
edition of Strabo, died suddenly on June 15, 1914.
His many friends and colleagues in the world of
scholarship were greatly disappointed that he was
thus prevented from bringing to a happy completion
a task which would have been a fitting consummation
of a long and notable career. In accordance with a
desire he expressed to me shortly before his death,
and at the invitation of the Editors, I have ventured,
not without misgivings, to carry on the work from
the point where his labours ceased.
The Introduction and the Bibliography remain
substantially as they were left by Professor Sterrett;
and the translation of the first two books, contained
in Volume I., not only is indebted to him for much of
its diction, but reveals in other elements of style
many traces of his individuality. Nevertheless the

17 6 u 2


present version, a fairly literal one perhaps, is so
remote from the free rendering of Professor Sterrett,
above all in the technical passages, that it would be
unjust to hold him responsible for any mistakes or
infelicities which the reader may now detect. The
Editors, it is true, at first requested me merely to
revise and see through the press the first two books
as Professor Sterrett had left them, and then to pro-
ceed independently with the remaining fifteen; yet
upon a closer examination of his work both they and
I decided that to revise it for publication would be
impossible without destroying its quality and aim, at
all events for a new translator of the whole. The
Editors then decided, in view of the purposes of the
Loeb Library and for the sake of unity in the work
as a whole, to proceed as the title-page indicates;
and hence, in order to avoid the danger of attributing
to Professor Sterrett a method of interpretation for
which he should not be held accountable, the pre-
sent translator has been forced to assume all the
responsibility from the beginning-for the first two
books as well as the rest.
In constituting the Greek text I have tried to
take into account the work that has been done by
scholars, not only since the appearance of Meineke's
edition, but prior to that edition as well. The map


of The Inhabited World according to Strabo (drawn
by Mr. L. A. Lawrence of Cornell University) is
adapted partly from the Orbis Terrarum secundum
Strabonem of C. Miller and partly from that of
W. Sieglin.
I wish to acknowledge my great indebtedness to
my colleagues, Professor Lane Cooper and Professor
Joseph Quincy Adams, of Cornell University, for
their criticism of the translation; and also to Pro-
fessor Ora M. Leland, for assistance in technical
problems related to astronomy. But above all, a
desire to record an incalculable debt of gratitude to
my lamented friend, Professor Sterrett, who, in the
relation first of teacher and later of colleague, was
to me, as to many others, an unfailing source of
inspiration and encouragement.
H. L. J..
April, 1916.



PREFACE ........ ... ... V

INTRODUCTION . . ... ... . ..... Xi

BIBLIOGRAPHY . .......... xxix

BOOK I .. .................. 1

BOOK II ...... ....... . . . ..... 251




WHAT is known about Strabo must be gleaned
from his own statements scattered up and down the
pages of his Geography ; this is true not merely of
his lineage, for we also learn much by inference
concerning his career and writings. Dorylaus, sur-
named Tacticus or the General, is the first of the
maternal ancestors of Strabo to be mentioned by him,
in connexion with his account of Cnossus (10. 4. 10).
This Dorylaus was one of the officers and friends of
Mithridates Euergetes, who sent him on frequent
journeys to Thrace and Greece to enlist mercenary
troops for the royal army. At that time the Romans
had not yet occupied Crete, and Dorylaus happened
to put in at Cnossus at the outbreak of a war
between Cnossus and Gortyna. His prestige as a
general caused him to be placed in command of the
Cnossian army ; his operations resulted in a sweeping
victory for Cnossus, and great honours were heaped
upon him in consequence. At that juncture Euergetes
was assassinated at Sinope, and as Dorylaus had
nothing to hope for from the widowed queen and
young children of the dead king, he cast in his lot
permanently with the Cnossians. He married at


Cnossus, where were born his one daughter and two
sons, Lagetas and Stratarchas. Their very names indi-
cate the martial proclivities of the family. Stratarchas
was already an aged man when Strabo saw him.
Mithridates, surnamed Eupator and the Great,
succeeded to the throne of Euergetes at the early
age of eleven years. He had been brought up with
another Dorylaus, who was the nephew of Dorylaus
the general. When Mithridates had become king,
he showed his affection for his playmate Dorylaus,
by showering honours upon him, and by making him
priest of Ma at Comana Pontica-a dignity which
caused Dorylaus to rank immediately after the king.
But not content with that, Mithridates was desirous
of conferring benefactions upon the other members
of his friend's family. Dorylaus, the general, was
dead, but Lagetas and Stratarchas, his sons, now
grown to manhood, were summoned to the court of
Mithridates. "The daughter of Lagetas was the
mother of my mother," says Strabo. As long as
fortune smiled on Dorylaus, Lagetas and Stratarchas
continued to fare well; but ambition led Dorylaus to
become a traitor to his royal master; he was con-
victed of plotting to surrender the kingdom to the
Romans, who, it seems, had agreed to make him
king in return for his treasonable service. The
details of the sequel are not known; for all that
Strabo thinks it worth while to say is that the two
men went down into obscurity and discredit along
with Dorylaus (10. 4. 10). These ancestors of Strabo


were Greeks, but Asiatic blood also flowed in his
veins. When Mithridates annexed Colchis, he
realized the importance of appointing as governors of
the province only his most faithful officials and
friends. One of these governors was Moaphernes,
the uncle of Strabo's mother on her father's side
(11. 2. 18). Moaphernes did not attain to this exalted
station until towards the close of the reign of
Mithridates, and he shared in the ruin of his royal
master. But other members of the family of Strabo
escaped that ruin; for they foresaw the downfall of
Mithridates, and sought cover from the impending
storm. One of them was Strabo's paternal grand-
father, Aeniates by name (if the conjecture of Ettore
Pais be accepted). Aeniates had private reasons for
hating Mithridates, and, besides that, Mithridates
had put to death Tibius, the nephew of Aeniates,
and Tibius' son Theophilus. Aeniates therefore
sought to avenge both them and himself; he treason-
ably surrendered fifteen fortresses to Lucullus, who
made him promises of great advancement in return
for this service to the Roman cause. But at this
juncture Lucullus was superseded by Pompey, who
hated Lucullus and regarded as his own personal
enemies all those who had rendered noteworthy
service to his predecessor. Pompey's hostility to
Aeniates was not confined to the persecution of him
in Asia Minor; for, when he had returned to Rome
after the termination of the war, he prevented the
Senate from conferring the honours promised by


Lucullus to certain men in Pontus, on the ground that
the spoils and honours should not be awarded by
Lucullus, but by himself, the real victor. And so it
came about that Strabo's grandfather failed of the
reward of his treason (12. 3. 13). A further proof of
the existence of Asiatic blood in the veins of Strabo
is the name of his kinsman Tibius; for, says Strabo,
the Athenians gave to their slaves the names of
the nations from which they came, or else the names
that were most current in the countries from which
they came; for instance, if the slave were a Paph-
lagonian, the Athenians would call him Tibius
(7. 3. 12). Thus it appears that Strabo was of
mixed lineage, and that he was descended from
illustrious Greeks and Asiatics who had served the
kings of Pontus as generals, satraps, and priests of
Ma. But by language and education he was
thoroughly Greek.
Strabo was born in Amasia in Pontus in 64 or 63
B.c. (the later date being the year of Cicero's
consulate). It is plain that his family had managed
to amass property, and Strabo must have inherited
considerable wealth; for his fortune was sufficient
to enable him to devote his life to scholarly pursuits
and to travel somewhat extensively. His education
was elaborate, and Greek in character. When he
was still a very young man he studied under Aristo-
demus in Nysa near Tralles in Caria (14. 1. 48).
His parents may have removed from Amasia to
Nysa in consequence of the embarrassing conditions


brought about by the victories of Pompey, the enemy
of their house; but the boy may have been sent to
study in Nysa before the overthrow of Mithridates
the Great; and, if so, he was probably sent thither
because one of his kinsmen held high office in the
neighboring Tralles. Ettore Pais points out that,
when Mithridates the Great ordered the killing of
the Roman citizens in Asia, Theophilus, a Captain in
service in Tralles, was employed by the Trallians to
do the killing. It seems probable that this Theo-
philus was the kinsman of Strabo, and the same
person who was afterwards executed by Mithridates,
an execution that caused Strabo's paternal grand-
father to betray the king and desert to Lucullus.
In 44 B.c. Strabo went to Rome by way of
Corinth. It was at Rome that he met Publius
Servilius, surnamed Isauricus, and that general died
in 44 B.c. (This was also the year of the death of
Caesar.) Strabo was nineteen or twenty years old
at the time of his first visit to Rome. In connexion
with his account of Amisus (12. 3.16) we read that
Strabo studied under Tyrannion. That instruction
must have been received at Rome; for in 66 B.c.
Lucullus had taken Tyrannion as a captive to Rome,
where he gave instruction, among others, to the two
sons of Cicero. It is Cicero (Ad Att. 2. 6. 1) who
tells us that Tyrannion was also a distinguished
geographer, and he may have guided Strabo into the
paths of geographical study. It was probably also
at Rome that Strabo had the good fortune to attend


the lectures of Xenarchus (14. 5. 4), the Peripatetic
philosopher; for he tells us that Xenarchus abandoned
Seleucia, his native place, and lived in Alexandria,
Athens, and Rome, where he followed the profession
of teacher. He also tells us that he Aristotelized "
along with Boethus (the Stoic philosopher of Sidon),
or, in other words, under Xenarchus in Rome
(16. 2. 24). Strabo knew Poseidonius (7. fr. 98,
quoted from Athenaeus 14. 75. p. 657), and it has
been argued from that statement that Poseidonius,
too, was one of Strabo's teachers. But in spite of
the fact that his teachers were Peripatetics, there
can be no doubt that he was himself an adherent of
Stoicism. He confesses himself a Stoic (7. 3. 4);
he speaks of "our Zeno" (1. 2. 34); again, he
says: "For in Poseidonius there is much inquiry
into causes and much imitating of Aristotle-pre-
cisely what our School avoids, on account of the ob-
scurity of the causes (2. 3. 8). Stephanus Byzantius
calls him "the Stoic philosopher." Strabo lets his
adherence to Stoicism appear on many occasions,
and he even contrasts the doctrines of Stoicism with
those of the Peripatetic School. What had brought
about his conversion cannot be ascertained. It may
have been due to Athenodorus; for in his account
of Petra he says that it is well-governed, and my
friend Athenodorus, the philosopher, has spoken to
me of that fact with admiration" (16. 4. 21). This
philosopher-friend was the Stoic Athenodorus, the
teacher and friend of Augustus. Strabo makes his


position in regard to the popular religion quite clear
in several passages; he insists that while such
religion is necessary in order to hold the illiterate in
check, it is unworthy of the scholar. "For in deal-
ing with a crowd of women, at least, or with any
promiscuous mob, a philosopher cannot influence
them by reason or exhort them to reverence, piety,
and faith; nay, there is need of religious fear also,
and this cannot be aroused without myths and
marvels. For thunderbolt, aegis, trident, torches,
snakes, thyrsus-lances,-arms of the gods-are myths,
and so is the entire ancient theology" (1. 2. 8). In
speaking of the supposed religiosity of the Getans
(7. 3. 4) he quotes Menander to the effect that the
observances of public worship are ruining the world
financially, and he gives a somewhat gleeful picture
of the absence of real religion behind those same
observances of public worship. Yet Strabo had
a religion, and even though he believed that causes
are past finding out, he nevertheless believed in
Providence as the great First Cause. He sets forth
the Stoic doctrine of conformity to nature" at
some length in speaking of Egypt (17. 1. 36), and he
also adverts to it in his account of the river-system
of France (4. 1. 14).
As for his political opinions, he seems to have
followed Polybius in his profound respect for the
Romans, with whom, apparently, he is in entire
sympathy; he never fails to show great admiration,
not only for the political grandeur of the Roman


Empire, but for its wise administration as well; he is
convinced of the necessity of a central monarchial
power: "The excellence of the government and of
the Roman Emperors has prevented Italy (which has
often been torn by civil war from the very time when
it became subject to Rome), and even Rome itself,
from proceeding further in the ways of error and
corruption. But it would be difficult for the Romans
to govern so vast an empire in any other way than
by entrusting it to one person-as it were, to a
father. And certainly at no other period have the
Romans and their allies enjoyed such perfect peace
and prosperity as that which the Emperor Augustus
gave them from the very moment when he was
clothed with autocratic power, a peace which
Tiberius, his son and successor, continues to give
them at the present moment; for he makes Augustus
the pattern in his policy and administration; and
Germanicus and Drusus, the sons of Tiberius, who
are now serving in the government of their father,
also make Augustus their pattern" (6. 4. 2). And
he constantly takes the Roman point of view. For
instance, in leading up to his account of the de-
struction of Corinth by Mummius, he tells us that
the Corinthians had perpetrated manifold outrages
on the Romans; he does indeed mention the feeling
of pity to which Polybius gave expression in telling
of the sack of Corinth, and says that Polybius was
horrified at the contempt shown by the Roman
soldiery for the sacred offerings and the masterpieces


of art; "for Polybius says he personally saw how
paintings had been thrown to the ground and saw
the soldiers playing dice on them." But Strabo gives
us to understand that his own private feeling is that
the Corinthians were merely paying for the many
insults they had heaped on the Romans (8. 6. 23).
He is equally dispassionate in telling of the Roman
conquest of his own native country (12. 3. 33). He
seems to be thoroughly Roman at heart; for the
Romans have united the world under one beneficent
administration (1. 1. 16); by the extinction of the
pirates the Roman peace has brought prosperity, tran-
quillity, security to commerce, and safety of travel
(3. 2. 5; 14. 3. 3; 16. 2. 20); a country becomes
prosperous just as soon as it comes under the Roman
sway (3. 3. 8), which opens up means of inter-
communication (2. 5. 26); friendship and alliance
with Rome mean prosperity to the people possessing
them (3. 1. 8; 4. 1. 5); so does the establishment of
a Roman colony in any place (6. 3. 4).
We have seen that Strabo went to Rome in 44 B.c.,
and that he was nineteen or twenty years old at that
time. He made several other journeys to Rome:
we find him there in 35 B.C. ; for that is the date of
the execution of Selurus (6. 2. 6), which Strabo
witnessed. He was then twenty-nine years old.
He was in Rome about 31 B.c.; for he saw the
painting of Dionysus by Aristeides (one of those
paintings seen by Polybius at the sack of Corinth) in
the temple of Ceres in Rome, and he adds: "But


recently the temple was destroyed by fire, and the
painting perished (8. 6. 23). It is known from
Dio Cassius (50. 10) that the temple of Ceres was
burned in 31 B.c. He was thirty-two or thirty-three
years old at that time. We know of still another
journey to Rome : "I landed on the island of Gyaros,
where I found a small village inhabited by fisher-
men; when we sailed from the island, we took on
board one of those fishermen who had been sent on
a mission to Augustus (who was then at Corinth,
on his way [from Egypt] to celebrate his triumph
after his victory at Actium). On the voyage we
questioned this fisherman, and he told us that he
had been sent to ask for a diminution of the tribute "
(10. 5. 3). Here we find Strabo journeying from
Asia Minor, by way of the island of Gyaros and
Corinth, and the clear inference is that he was on
his way to Rome at the time. This was in 29 B.c.,
and Strabo was thirty-four or thirty-five years old.
Augustus had just founded Nicopolis in honour of
his victory at Actium (7. 7. 6), and it is not un-
likely that Strabo visited the new city on that
voyage. In 25 and 24 B.c. he is in Egypt, and
accompanies Aelius Gallus up the Nile, proceeding
as far as Syene and the frontiers of Ethiopia (2. 5.
12). At that time he was thirty-nine years old. He
was still in Egypt when Augustus was in Samos in 20
i.c. (14. 1. 14). He was then forty-four years old.
Accordingly he lived for more than five years in
Alexandria, and we may infer thaL it was in the


Alexandrian library that he made from the works of
his predecessors those numerous excerpts with which
his book is filled. We find him again in Rome about
7 B.c. ; for in his description of Rome he mentions
buildings that were erected after 20 B.c., the last of
them being the portico of Livia, which was dedi-
cated in 7 B.c. (5. 3. 8). This was perhaps his final
visit to Rome, and he was then fifty-six or fifty-seven
years old. It seems that he lived to be eighty-four
years old, for he chronicles the death of Juba in
21 A.D., but the last twenty-six or twenty-seven
years of his life were spent far from Rome, and
probably in his native Amasia. His residence at this
remote place made it impossible for him to follow
the course of recent political events and to incor-
porate them in the revised edition of his book.
Strabo thought that lie had travelled much. He
says : Now I shall tell what part of the land and
sea I have myself visited and concerning what part I
have trusted to accounts given by others by word of
mouth or in writing. I have travelled westward from
Armenia as far as the coasts of Tyrrhenia opposite
Sardinia, and in the direction of the South I have
travelled from the Euxine Sea as far as the frontiers
of Ethiopia. And you could not find another person
among the writers on Geography who has travelled
over much more of the distances just mentioned
than I; indeed, those who have travelled more than
I in the western regions have not covered as much
ground in the east, and those who have travelled


more in the eastern countries are behind me in the
western countries; and the same holds true in re-
gard to the regions towards the South and North"
(2. 5. 11). And yet it cannot be said that he was a
great traveller; nor can it be said that he travelled
for the purpose of scientific research-the real reason
for his journeys will presently appear. He saw little
even of Italy, where he seems to have followed
without much deviation the roads Brindisi-Rome,
Rome-Naples-Puteoli, and Rome-Populonia. It does
not appear that he lived for any very long stretch
of time at Rome; and it cannot be maintained with
positiveness that in Greece he saw any place other
than Corinth-not even Athens, strange as this
may seem. In the South and the East his travels
were more extensive: in the South he visited the Nile
valley as far as the frontiers of Ethiopia ; he was at
Comana Aurea for some time; he saw the river
Pyramus, Hierapolis in Phrygia, Nysa in Caria, and
Ephesus; he was acquainted with Pontus; he visited
Sinope, Cyzicus, and Nicaea; lie travelled over Ci-
licia and much of Caria, visiting Mylasa, Alabanda,
Tralles, and probably also Synnada, Magnesia,
Smyrna, the shores of the Euxine, and Beirut in
Syria. Though we may not limit the places he saw to
the places actually mentioned as having been seen
by him, still it is clear that his journeys were not so
wide as we should have expected in the case of a
man who was travelling in the interest of science.
Ettore Pais seems to make good his contention that


the work of Strabo was not written by a man who
was travelling on his own account and for scientific
reasons, but by one who seized every occasion to
study what circumstances and the pleasure of others
gave him an opportunity of knowing. He contends,
further, that it was for the sake of others that
Strabo made his journeys; that he was instructor and
politician, travelling perhaps with, and certainly in
the interest of, persons of the most exalted rank;
that he was the teacher and guide of eminent men.
Strabo never fails to mention the famous scholars and
teachers who were born in the East-the list is a
long one; and we are fain to believe that he occu-
pied a similar social position. He insists that his
Geography is political: The greater part of Geo-
graphy subserves the uses of states and their rulers;
Geography as a whole is intimately connected with
the functions of persons in positions of political
leadership (1. 1. 16); Geography is particularly use-
ful in the conduct of great military undertakings
(1. 1. 17); it serves to regulate the conduct and
answer the needs of ruling princes (1. 1. 18). Pre-
sumably it was with just such people that he travelled.
But Pais joins issue with Niese and others in their
contention that the men with whom and in whose
interest he travelled were Romans, and he makes out
a good case when he argues that Strabo wrote his
Geography in the interest of Pythodoris, Queen of
Pontus. Even the great respect shown by Strabo
for Augustus, Rome, and Tiberius is to be explained


by the circumstances in which he found himself; for
subject-princes had to be obsequious to Rome,
and as for Pythodoris, she owed her throne to
Augustus fully as much as to Polemon. It was good
business, therefore, that necessitated the retouching
of the book and the insertion in it of the many
compliments to Tiberius-all of which were added
after the accession of that prince, and for fear of
him, rather than out of respect for him.
The question as to when and where Strabo wrote
his geographical work has long been a burning
one in circles interested in Strabo criticism. Niese
seemed to settle the question, when lie maintained
that Strabo wrote his Historical Geography at Rome,
at the instigation of Roman friends who occupied ex-
alted positions in the political world of Rome ; and
that he acted as the companion of those friends,
accompanying one of them, Aelius Gallus, from
Rome to Egypt, and returning with him to Rome;
and further that it was at Rome that he wrote his
Geography, between the years 18 and 19 A.D. In the
main, scholars had accepted the views of Niese, until
Pais entered the field with his thesis that Strabo
wrote his work, not at the instigation of politicians at
Rome, but from the point of view of a Greek from
Asia Minor, and in the interest of Greeks of that
region; that the material for the Geography was
collected at Alexandria and Rome, but that the
actual writing of the book and the retouching of it at
a later period were done at Amasia, far from Rome-


a fact which accounts for his omissions of events,
his errors, his misstatements, his lack of information
concerning, and his failure to mention, occurrences
that would surely have found a place in his book if
it had been written in Rome; it accounts, too, for
the surprising fact that Strabo's Geography was not
known to the Romans-not even to Pliny-although
it was well-known in the East, for Josephus quotes
from it.
To go somewhat more minutely into this question,
it may be stated that Strabo mentions Tiberius
more than twenty times, but the events lie describes
are all connected with the civil wars that occurred
after the death of Caesar and with the period in
the life of Augustus that falls between the Battle
of Actium (in 31 B.c.) and 7 B.c. He rarely mentions
events in the life of Augustus between 6 B.C. and
14 A.D., and, as he takes every opportunity to praise
Augustus and Tiberius, such omissions could not be
accounted for if he wrote his Geography about 18
A.D. The conclusion reached by Pais is that Strabo
wrote the book before 5 B.c. and shortly after 9 B.c.,
or, in other words, about 7 B.C. Such matters as the
defeat of Varus and the triumph of Germanicus
were not contained in the original publication of the
work, and were inserted in the revised edition, which
was made about the year 18 A.D. The list of the
Roman provinces governed by the Roman Senate, on
the last page of the book, was written between 22 B.c.
and 11 n.C., and Strabo himself says that it was


antiquated; it was retouched about 7 u.c., not at
Rome, but far from Rome. The facts are similar in
the mention he makes of the liberality of Tiberius
to the cities of Asia Minor that had been destroyed
by earthquakes; in the case of the coronation
of Zeno as king of Armenia Major (18 A.D.), and in
the case of the death of Juba, which occurred not
later than 23 A.D., Strabo made no use of the map
of Agrippa-an omission with which he has been
reproached-for the very good reason that the map
of Agrippa had not been completed in 7 n.c.
If Strabo first published his Geography in 7 B.c.,
it appeared when he was fifty-six or fifty-seven years
old, at a time when he was still in full possession of
all his physical and mental powers. But if we say,
with Niese and his followers, that the work was
written between 18 and 19 A.D., we thereby maintain
that Strabo began to write his Geography when he
had passed the eighth decade of his life. He him-
self compares his book to a colossal statue, and it is
incredible that he could have carried out such a
stupendous work after having passed his eightieth
Strabo is so well-known as a geographer that it
is often forgotten that he was a historian before
he was a geographer. Indeed it may be believed
that he is a geographer because he had been a
historian, and that the material for his Geography
was collected along with that for his Historical
Sketches, which comprised forty-seven books (see


1. 1. 22-23, and 2. 1. 9, and footnotes). But his
Geography alone has come down to us. In this con-
nexion it will be useful to read Strabo's own account
of his Historical Sketches and his Geography: In
short, this book of mine should be generally useful
-useful alike to the statesman and to the public at
large-as was my work on History. In this work,
as in that, I mean by 'statesman,' not the man who
is wholly uneducated, but the man who has taken
the round of courses usual in the case of freemen
or of students of philosophy. For the man who
has given no thought to virtue and to practical
wisdom, and to what has been written about them,
would not be able even to form a valid opinion
either in censure or in praise ; nor yet to pass judg-
ment upon the matters of historical fact that are
worthy of being recorded in this treatise. And so,
after I had written my Historical Sketches, which
have been useful, I suppose, for moral and political
philosophy, I determined to write the present treatise
also ; for this work itself is based on the same plan,
and is addressed to the same class of readers, and
particularly to men of exalted stations in life.
Furthermore, just as in my Historical Sketches only
the incidents in the lives of distinguished men are
recorded, while deeds that are petty and ignoble are
omitted, so in this work also I must leave untouched
what is petty and inconspicuous, and devote my
attention to what is noble and great, and to what
contains the practically useful, or memorable, or


entertaining. Now just as in judging of the merits
of colossal statues we do not examine each individual
part with minute care, but rather consider the
general effect and endeavour to see it the statue as
a whole is pleasing, so should this book of mine be
judged. For it, too, is a colossal work, in that it
deals with the facts about large things only, and
wholes, except as some petty thing may stir the
interest of the studious or the practical man. I
have said thus much to show that the present work
is a serious one and one worthy of a philosopher"
(1. 1. 22-23).
The Geography of Strabo is far more than a
mere geography. It is an encyclopaedia of in-
formation concerning the various countries of the
Inhabited World as known at the beginning of the
Christian era; it is an historical geography; and,
as Dubois and Tozer point out, it is a philosophy of




A. Baumeister: In Fleckeisen's Jahrb. J: Philol. 1857, 347.
Th. Bergk : In Philologus, 1870, 679.
In Rhein. Mus. 1882, 298.
Emendat. Onomatolog. Halle, 1859.
In Neue Jahrbiicher, 1860, 416.
G. N. Bernadakis: Symbolae critical, cl censura Cobeli
emendationum in Strabonem. Leipzig, 1877.
G. N. Bernadakis : Zu Strabon. In Neue Jahrbiicher, 1876,
G. Bernhardy : Analecta in Geographos Graecorum minors.
Halle, 1850.
F. Biicheler: Conjectanea. In Neue Jahrbiicher, 1875, 305.
C. Bursian: Geographie von Griechenland. Leipzig, 1862-72.
P. Cascorbi: Observationes Strabonianae. Greifswald, 1879.
C. G. Cobet : Miscellanea critical quibus continentur observa-
tiones critical in scriptores Graecos praesertim Homerum
et Demosthenem. Ad Strabonem, pp. 104 ff., 169 ff.,
206 ff. Also in lnemosyne, 1876, 79 ff., 176 ff.
C. G. Cobet : Syllabus Errorum, in Mnemosyne, 1876, 213.
A. Corais: 2iApe itE ls els Ta .spd.wvor rewypatpKd. Paris,
E. Curtius: Peloponnesus. Gotha, 1851-52.
S In Zeitschrft f. Alterthumswissenschaft, 1852.
A. Dederich : In Fleckeisen's Jahrb. f. Philol. 1879, 66.
M. G. Demitsas: KptruKal A1opOd8rtae els -rpdlSwva. In
'AOivatov, 1879, 415.
L. Dindorf: In Neue Jahrbiicher, 1869, 11 and 124.
W. Dittenberger: On 'OS6pLKoi in the first article on Ethnica
und Verwandtes. In Hiermes, 1906, 87. On eOpq!cLd.
In Hermes, 1907, 195.
A. Forbiger: Strabo's Erdbesrhreiblng ihbersetzt und durch
Anmierkungen erliutert. Stuttgart, published at intervals
after 1856 (1905-1908).


C. Frick : Jahresbericht. In Bursian's Jahresbericht, 1880,
C. Frick: Zur troischen Fraye. In Nene Jahrbiicher, 1876,
289 ff.
J. Geffcken: Saturnia Tellu.s. In Hermes, 1892, 381.
C. G. Groskurd: Strabons Erdbeschreibung. 4 vols. Berlin
and Stettin, 1831.
P. F. J. Gosselin: The Notes signed G in the Translation
of de la Porte du Theil, Corais, and Letronne.
A. von Gutschmid : In Nee Jahrbiicher, 1861, 204, and
1873, 418.
F. Haase : Emendalioneslefaciles. Breslau, 1858.
R. Hercher: In Philoloyus, 1852, 553.
P. Hirschfeld : Die Abkunft des Mithridates von Pergamon
(on Strabo 625 C.). In Hermes, 1879, 474.
A. Jacob: Curae Strabonianae. In Revue de Philologie,
1912, 148. It also contains a Collation for Book IV. of
the Paris MSS. A C and s.
H. Kallenberg: Straboniana. Beitrdge zur Textkritik und
Erkliirung. In Rhein. Mus. 1912, 174.
L. Kayser: Reviewof Meineke's Edition and of his Vindiciae
Strabonianae, in Neue Jahrbiicher f. Philol. 1854, 258,
L. Kayser : Review of Cobet's Variae lectiones. In Neue
Jahrbhcher, 1856, 166.
A. Kirchhoff: In Hermes, 1866, 420.
C. Kontos: In Bull. de Corr. Hell. 1877, 60, and 1878, 236.
H. Kothe: In Neue Jahrbiicher, 1888, 826.
G. Kramer : Strabonis Geographica recensuit commentario
critic instruxit. 3 vols. Berlin, 1844.
G. L. Kriegk: Ueber die thessalische Ebene. In Neue
Jahrbiicher, 1859, 231 ff.
R. Kunze: Zu Griechischen Geographen. In Rhein. Mus.
1901, 333.
G. M. Lane: Smyrnaeorum res gestae et antiquitates.
(4Gttingen, 1851.
C. A. Lobeck: In KDnigsberger Ind. Lect. 1828.
M. Ltidecke: De fontibus quibus usus Arrianus Anabasin
composnit. In Leip.iger Studien, xi. 14 (on Strabo
70 C.).
I. N. Madvig : Adrersatria critical ad seriptore.l graecos. Ad
Strabonem : I., 520. Havn, 1871.


A. Meineke : Strabonis Geographica recognovit. 3 vols.
Leipzig, 1866. The Praefatio contains merely a state-
ment of the points in which his text differs from that of
A. Meineke: Vindiciarium Straboniarum liber. Berlin, 1852.
Contains much that Meineke did not insert in his text.
C. Meltzer: In Fleckeisen's Jahrb. f. Philol. 1873, 193.
L. Mercklin : Zi Strabo (v. 230). In Philologuts, 1863, 134.
E. Meyer: Forschungen zur alten Geschichte. Halle A/S,
E. Meyer: Nochmals der AOrO des Konigs Paisanias. In
Hermes, 1907, 134.
P. Meyer : Strabouiana. Grimma, 1889-1890.
A. Miller: Emendationum in Strabolis librumn I. specimen.
Bamberg, 1858.
A. Miller : In Eos, 1865, 25.
In BlRitter fib- bayr. Gymn. 1874, 145 and 1878,
A. Miller: Die Alexandergeschichte nach Strabo. I. Theil.
Wiirzburg, 1852.
C. Milller: Index variae lectionis to the Miiller-Diibner
C. Miller : In Philologus, 1876, 74; 1877, 78. In Philol.
Anzeiger, 1873, 507.
B. Niese : Emendationes Strabonianae. Marburg, 1878.
L. Pareti : Di un lucgo Straboniano su Regio. In Atene
e Roma, 1913, 14 ff.
L. Paul: Das Druidenthunm. In Neue Jahrbiicher, 1892,
N. Piccolos : In Philologus, 1860, 727.
L. Rademacher: Obserrationumi et leclionumn cariarum
specimen. In Jahrbiicher, 1895, 248.
M. Rostowzew: lnvO6aos (Strabo xvi. 4, 14 f.). In Archiv.f.
Philol. v. 1-2, 181.
L. Ross : Reisen auf denl Insela des griechischen Meeres.
Stuttgart and Halle, 1845-49-52.
L. Ross : Reisen im Peloponnesus. Berlin, 1841.
G. Rucca : Interpretcl:ioee di Vu logo di Strabole. Napoli,
L. Spengel : In .IMiimleher Gelihrle Inii.eiq, 1845, 633 and
1848, 145.
A. Schifer : In Philologit., 1872, 184.


H. Schrader: In Neue Jahrbilcher, 1868, 226.
G. Schultze: Varia. In Hermes, 1893, 31.
A. Tardieu : In his Translation of Strabo.
W. Tomaschek : Miscellen aus der alten Geographie. In
Zeitschriftf. 6sterr. Gymn. 1867, 691.
T. Tosi : In Studi italiani di flologia classic, 17, 463.
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Moralia. In Classical Quarterly, 1909, 99.
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Short selections from Strabo.
U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff: Parerga. In Hermes,
1878, 168.


Strabo was not much read in antiquity: in a sense he was
discovered in Byzantine times; copies of his work were rare,
and apparently at one time the only manuscript extant was
the so-called archetype, from which all the manuscripts now
extant are descended. This seems clear because all the
mistakes, the changes in the text, the transposed sentences,
all the gaps, particularly the great gap at the end of the
seventh book, are reproduced in all the manuscripts. The
modern editions, beginning with that of G. Kramer, are
based on the Paris manuscript No. 1397 for the first nine
books (it contains no more), while books 10 to 17 are based on
the Vatican manuscript No. 1329, on the Epitome Vaticana,
and on the Venetian manuscript No. 640. But the Epitome,
which goes back to the end of the tenth century, was based
on a manuscript which still contained the end of Book VII.

J. Groeger : Quaestiones Eustathianae. De codicibusStrabonis
Herodoli Arriani ab Eustathio in commentario ad
Dionysii periegesin usurpatis. Trebnitz, 1911.
G. Kramer: Commentatio critical de codicibus, qui Strabonis
yeographia continent, manu scripts. Berlin, 1845. And
also in the Preface to his large edition, pp. 10-83.


A. Jacob: Curae Strabonianae. In Revue de Philologie,
1912, 170.
E. Rollig: De codicibus Strabonianis qui libros I-IX
continent. Halle, 1885.

G. Cozza-Luzi : Dell' antico codice della geografa di Strabone
scoperto nei palinsesti della badia di Grottoferrata.
Rome, 1875.
G. Cozza-Luzi : Del piul antico testo della geografia di Strabone
nei frammenti scoperti in membrane palinseste. Rome,
G. Cozza-Luzi: Frammenti della geografia di Strabone.
In Studi in Italia, vii. 1.
D. Detlefsen : In Berl. philol. Wochenschrift, 1885, 1122.
R. Hansen: In Philologische Rundschau, v. 517.
G. Kramer : Fragmenta libri VII. e codd. prim. ed. Berlin,
G. Kramer: Zu Strabo. IHandschrift aus Grottoferrata.
In Hermes, 1876, 375.
R. Kunze : Strabobruchstiicke bei Eustathius und Stephanus
Byzantius. In Rhein. Mws. 1903, 126.
R. Kunze: Unbeachtete Strabofragmente. In Rhein. Mus.
1902, 437.
P. Otto : Strabonis 'IoTropLK v "'TroiviUdiaTav fragment conlegit
et enurracit adjectis quaestionibus Strabonianis. In
Leipziier Studien xi. Suppl. 1889, 1.
I. Partsch : In Deutsche Litteratur-Zeitung, 1885, 646.
V. Strazzula : Dopo le Strabone Vaticano del Cozza-Luzi.
Messina, 1901.
G. L. F. Tafel: Fragmenta nov. curis emend. et illustr.
Tiibingen, 1844.
A. Vogel : In Philologischer Anzeiger, 1886, 103.
Zu Strabo. In Hermes, 1884 (vol. 42), 539.
The Epitome is best found in C. Miller's Geographi Graeci
Minores, 88, 529.
O. Birke : Departicularum li1 et ob usu Polybiano D:onysiaco
Diodoreo Straboniano. Leipzig, 1907.


P. Cascorbi: Observationes Strabonianae. G6ttingen, 1879.
C. G. Cobet: Syllabus errorum. In Mnemosyne, 1876, 213.
H. Kallenberg: Straboniana, Beitrdge zur Textkritik und
Erkldrung. In Rhein. Mus. 1912, 174.
J. Keim: Sprichw6rter und par; miographische Ueberlieferung
bei Strabo. Tiibingen, 1909.
H. Schindler : De Diodori Siculi et Strabonis enuntiationum
relativarum attraction. Pars Prior: De admissa attrac-
tione. Frankenstein (Silesia), 1909.


G. Beloch: Le fontidi Strabone nelle descrizione della Cam-
pania. Rome, 1882.
H. Berger: Die geographischen Fragmente des Hipparch.
Leipzig, 1869.
H. Berger: Die geographischen Fragmente des Eratosthenes.
Leipzig, 1880.
H. Berger : Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der
Griechen. 1887-93.
G. Bernhardy : Eratosthenica. Berlin, 1822.
R. Daibritz: De Artemidoro Strabonis auctere capital tria.
Leipzig, 1905.
A. Dederich: Zu Strabon und Suetonius. In Neue Jahrb.
f. Philol. 1879, 66.
M. Dubois: Examen de la Geographie de Strabon. Paris, 1891.
S Strabon et Polybe. In Revue des Etudes Grecques,
1891, 343.
W. Fabricius: Theophanes aus Mytilene und Quintus Dellius
als Quelle der Geographie des Strabo. Strassburg, 1888.
J. Groeger : Quaestiones Eustathianae. De codicibus Herodoti
Arriani ab Eustathio in commentario ad Dionysii perie-
gesin usurpatis. Trebnitz, 1911.
A. H. L. Heeren: De fontibus Geographicorum Strabonis
commentationes duae. Gottingen, 1825.
F. Hennicke: De Strabonis Geographiae fide, ex fontium
unde hausit auctoritate aestimanda. Gittingen, 1791.
U. Hofer : Eine gemeinsame Quelle Strabons und des sog.
Skymnos. Saarbriicken, 1901.
G. Hunrath: Die Quellen Strabo's im sechsten Buche.
Cassel, 1879.


G. Hunrath: In Bursian's Jahresbericht, 1879, 311, and
1880, 93.
A. Klotz: Cae.wr4 tudien, nlbst einer Alnaly.e der strabon-
ischen BeschreibunLg on Gallien und Brittanien. Leipzig
and Berlin, 1910.
A. Miller: Strabo's Quellen iiber Gallien und Brittanien.
Regensburg, 1878.
K. J. Neumann : Strabous Quellen im elften Buche. I.
Kaukasien. Leipzig, 1881.
K. J. Neumann: Strabons Landeskunde von Kaukasien.
Eine Quellenuntersuchi g. Besondere Abdruck aus dem
dreizehnten Supplb. des Jahrb.f. class. Philol. Leipzig,
B. Niese : Apollodor's Commentar zum Schijfhkataloge als
Quelle Strabo's. In Rhein. J Ms. f. Philol. 1877, 267.
A. Oddo: Gl 'Hypomnemata Historica di Strabone come fonte
di Appiano. Palermo, 1901.
G. D. Ohling : Quaestiones Posidonianae ex Strabone conlectae.
Gottingen, 1908.
E. Pais: Straboniana. Contributo allo studio delle fonti
della storia e del/a amministrazione roman. In Rivista
di Philologia classic, 1887, 97.
E. Schweder: Beitrdige zur Kritik der Chorographie des
Augustus. Erster Theil. Kiel, 1878.
E. Schweder: Ueber die gemeinsame Quelle dergeographischen
Darstellung des Mela und Plinius. In Philologus, 1887,
F. Sollima: Le fonti di Strabone nella geografia della Sicilia.
Messina, 1897.
C. Steinbriick: Die Quellen des Strabo im fibnften Buche
seiner Erdbeschreibung. Halle, 1909.
A. Vogel : De fontibus quibus Strabo in libro quinto decimo
conscribendo usus sit. Gittingen, 1874.
A. Vogel: Strabons Quellen fir das IX. Buch. In Philo-
loqfus, 1884 (vol. 43), 405.
H. Wilkens: Quaestiones de Strabonis aliorntmque rerum
gallicarum auctorum fontibus. Marburg, 1886.
R. Zimmermann : Quibus auctoribus Strabo in libro tertio
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Prior. Halle, 1883.
R. Zimmermann: Posidonius und Strabo. In Hermes, 1888,


D. Bartolini: Pro Strabone. In Ateneo Veneto, March, 1884.
E. Beretta: Solution de probldmes historiques. Les Citds
Mysterieuses de Strabon dans la region Cavare (Comtat
Venaissin) l'Isaros et l'Isar. Lyons, 1907.
P. H. Bidder: De Strabonis studiis homericis capital select.
Gedani, 1889.
Bisciola, An Lib. XVII. geographiae Strabonis sint an
Stratonis. Cologne, 1618.
H. Bitger: Wohnsitze der Deutschen nach Strabo. Stuttgart,
H. Butzer: Ueber Strabos Geographica, insbesondere iiber
Plan und Ausfihrung des Werkes und Strabos Stellung
zu seinen Vorgingern. Frankfurt a. M., 1887.
A. Calogiera : Nuova raccolta d'opuscudi scientific e filologici.
On Strabo in Vol. 18. Venice, 1755.
E. Castorchis : nIpl Tirv bd NavnrhAi wravapxalwv Tirdiev al T rv
abirdet 6rb :rpdiwvos puvIovevoItvwv haavplvowv. In
'AOWvalov, 1879, 515.
E. Curtius : Strabo iiber den Seebund von Kalauria. In
HIermes, 1876, 385.
H. Diels : Herodot und Hecataios. In Hermes, 1887, 443.
W. DGrpfeld : Zum Elitischen Golf. In Hermes, 1911, 444.
A. Enmann: Geographische Homerstudien in Pausanias.
In Neue Jahrbiicher, 1884, 497.
L. Erhardt: Der Auszug der Cimbern bei Strabo. In
Philologus, 1893, 557.
H. Fischer: Ueber einige Gegensteinde der alien Geographie
bei Strabo, als Beitrag zur Geschichte der alien Geographie.
Erster Theil. Wernigerode, 1879. Zweiter Theil.
Wernigerode, 1892-93.
C. Frick : Der xwpoypaQicbs wrva, des Strabo. In Neue
Jahrbiicher, 1881, 650.
J. Geffcken: Die Griindung von Tarent. In Neue Jahr-
biicher, 1893, 177.
W. Gell: The Itinerary of Greece, with a Commentary on
Pausanias and Strabo. London, 1810.
P. Giovio (P. Jovius): Libellus de legatione Basilii Magni
Principis Moschoviae, etc. On the Rhipaean Mountains.
Rome, 1525.


A. Gronovius: Varia Geolraphica, containing Animadver-
siones in Strabonis libros nocem. Leiden, 1739.
A. Hiibler : Die Nord- und Westkiisten Hispaniens, ein Bei-
tray zur Gesrhichte der alten Geographie. Leipzig, 1886.
G. Hirschfeld : In Geogr. Jahrb. 1888, 253.
G. Hirschfeld : Die Abkmnft des Mithridatcs von Pergamon.
In Hermes, 1878, 474.
E. Hiibner: Egelesta. In Hermes, 1867, 456.
E. Huverstuhl: Die Lupia des Strabo. Antwerp, 1910.
(See H. Nothe in Wochens. f klass. Philol. 1911, 345.)
C. W. F. Jacobs: Was sind arKoAha fpya beim Strabo? Leip-
zig, 1834.
W. Judeic h: Caesar im Orient. Kritische Uebersieht der
EreiUnisse vorm 9 A ilgust 48 bis October 47. Leipzig, 1885.
F. Kililer: Strabos Bedeutuang fi'r die moderne Geographie.
Halle, 1900.
W. Dittenberger: Methana und Hypata. In Hermes, 1907,
B. Keil: Zur Pausaniasfrage. In Hermes, 1890, 317.
J. Keim : Sprichic6rter vnd par6miographische Ueberlieferung
bei Strabo. Tiibingen, 1909.
G. Knaack : Zur Sage ron Daidalos und Ikaros. In Hermes,
1902, 598.
U. Kihler: Der Areopag in Athen. (On 1. 4. 8.) In
Hermes, 1872, 92.
E. Kornemann : Die Diizesen der Provinz Hispania Citerior.
In Lehmann's Beitriige zur alten Geschichte, 1884, 323.
W. J. Law : Some Remarks on the Alpine Passes of Strabo.
London, 1846.
A. Linsmayer: Der Triumphzug des Germanicus. Miinchen,
B. de Luca : II Lago di Lesina in Strabone e Plinio. In
Rassegna Pugliese, 1900, No. 11.
G. H. L. Liinemann: Descriptio Caucasi, Gentiumque
Caucasiarum, ex Strabone. Leipzig, 1803.
G. Mair: navroia. (A). Pytheas' Fahrten in der Ostsee. (B).
HAeiuwv Oahd'aaos bei Strabo, ii. 104. Marburg, 1907.
E. Meyer: Forschungen zur alten Geschichte. Halle A/S,
E. Meyer: Nochmals der AOrO des Konigs Pausanias.
In Hermes, 1907, 134.
P. Meyer: Straboniana. Grimma, 1890.


F. Meyer: Botanische Erliduterungen. Knigsberg, 1852.
H. Middendorf : Ueber die Gegend der Varzsschlacht nach
Vellejus und Strabo, etc. Miinster, 1868.
A. Miller: Der Riickzug des Kraterus aus Indien. Eine
Strabonische Studie. Wiirzburg (no date).
A. Miller: Die Alexandergeschichte nach Strabo. I. Theil.
Wiirzburg, 1882.
B. Niese: Straboniana. Die Erwerbung der Kiisten des
Pontus durch Milhridates VI. Sonderabdruck aus dem
Rhein. Musf. Philol. 1887, 567.
K. J. Neumann: Gesammntrtheil iber die homerische
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K. J. Neumann: Strabons Landeskunde von Kaukasien.
Leipzig, 1883.
K. J. Neumann: Patrokles und der Oxos. In Hermes, 1884,
P. Otto: Quaestiones Strabonianae. In Leipziger Studien,
ii. Suppl. (vol. 12, 1889), 225.
L. Paul: Das Druidenthum. In Neue Jahrbiicher, 1892,
E. Petersen: Review of Benndorf's Forschungen in Ephesos.
In Neue Jahrbiicher, 1906, 713.
A. Philippson : Zur Geographie der unteren Kaikos-Ebene in
Kleinasien. In Hermes, 1911, 254.
A. J. Reinach: Delphes et les Bastarnes. In Bull. Corr.
Hell. 1910, 249.
H. Rid: Die Klimatologie in den Geographica Strabos. Ein
Beitrag zur physischen Geographie der Griechen. Kaisers-
tlutern, 1903.
H. Rid : Klimalehre der alten Griechen each den Geographica
Strabos. Kaisersliutern, 1904.
W. Ridgeway : Contributions to Strabo's Geography. In
Classical Review, 1888, 84.
C. Robert : A then Skiras und die Skirophorien. In Hermes,
1885, 349.
G. Ruge: Quaestiones Strabonianae. Leipzig, 1888.
A. Schulten : Polybius und Posidonius tiber Iberien und die
iberischen Kriege. In Hermes, 1911, 568.
A. Serbin: Bemerkungen fiber den Vulkanismus und Beschreib-
ung der den Griechen bekannten vulkanischen Gebiete.
Berlin, 1893.
F. M. Schroter : Bemerkungen zu Strabo. Leipzig, 1887.


E. Schweder: Beilriye zur Kritik der Chorographie des
Augvstus. Kiel, 1878.
E. Schweder: Ueber den Ursprung und die urspriingliche
Bestimmung des sogenannten Strassennetzes der Peutin-
gerschen Taf.l. In Philologus, 1903, 357.
J. Sitzler : Zu Kallinos und Tyrtaeus. In Neue Jahrbiicher,
1880, 358.
L. V. Svbel: Pausanias und Strabon. In Neue Jahrbiicher,
1885, 177.
J. Tipffer: Astakos. In Iermes, 1896, 124.
G. F. Unger : Friihlingsanfuny. In Neue Jahrbiicher, 1890,
E. Wendling: Zu Posidonius uad Varro. In Hermes, 1893,
U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff: Die Herkinft der Mlagnelen
am Maeander. In Hermes, 1895, 177.
U. Wilcken : Ein Theopompfragment in den neten Hellanika.
In Hermes, 1908, 475.
E. Ziebarth : Die Strabo-Scholion des Cyriacus von Ankona.
In Miittheil. des Athen. Instit. 1898, 196.

The editio princeps was published by Aldus in Venice in
1516, from a poor manuscript, Par. No. 1395. Then came
the folio editions of Basle in 1549 and 1571 by G. Xylander.
Xylander's work was revised and supplied with a com-
mentary by Isaac Casaubon in 15S7 (folio). In 1620
Casaubon replaced this with his own edition, which was
accompanied by Xylander's Latin translation and notes
by F. Morrellius. Casaubon's edition did much for the
text of the first three books, and Strabo is usually cited
by Casaubon's pages (C). Next came the Amsterdam
edition by T. J. van Almaloveen in 1707, in two folio
volumes. Strabo is sometimes cited by his pages (A). In
1763 Brequigny published the first three books (quarto) on
the basis of a Paris manuscript. In 1796 the Leipzig octavoo)
edition was begun : the first volume was revised by J. B.
Siebenkees; the five following volumes by C. H. Tzschucke;
the seventh volume by F. T. Friedmann. The first six volumes
give the text and a revision of Xylander's Latin translation,
and the seventh volume contains notes. In 1807 appeared at


Oxford the edition by T. Falconer in two folio volumes;
much criticised. Between the years 1815 and 1819 Corais
published the Greek text in three volumes, accompanied by
a fourth volume containing valuable notes in Modern Greek.

A. Corais: Irpdowvos recypapLtuv BSAhia 'ErTaEalSeiea.
4 vols. Paris, 1815.
G. Kramer: Strabonis Geographica recensuit, commentario
critic instruxit. 3 vols. Berlin, 1844.
A. Meineke: Strabonis Geographica recognorit. 3 vols.
Leipzig, 1852. Various stereotype reprints since.
C. Miiller-F. Diibner: Strabonis Geographica graece cum
version reficta accedit index variantis lectionis et tabula
rerum nominumque locuplctissima. Paris, 1853. Pars
C. Miiller-F. Diibner: Pars altera. Apparatus critic
indicibus rerum nominumque locupletissimis tabulis aeri
incisis quindecim instruxit Carolus Millerns. Paris, 1858.

M. Bouquet: Recneil des historians des Gaules. In vol. i.
Paris, 1738.
P. Carolides : reoypa~lPuav Tr arepl MIKpas 'ATrias erT& 17I.eL(-
aewv 'EpA7lvevPrUKT Athens, 1889.
E. Cougny : Extraits des auteurs grecs concernant la gdographie
et I'histoire des Gaules. Texte et traduction nouvelle.
Paris, 1878.
H. F. Tozer: Selections from Strabo, with an Introduction on
Strabo's Life and Works. Oxford, 1893.

The Latin translation by Guarinus Veronensis and Grego-
rius Tifernas appeared in Rome in 1472 (folio), more than forty
years before the publication of the Aldine Greek text. The
translation was made from better manuscripts than that used
in the Aldine edition, but these have since perished. The
first ten books were translated by Guarinus and the remainder
by Tifernas. This translation was revised by J. Andreas



(Venice 1480); edited and republished by A. Mancellinus
(Venice 1494); republished 1510 ; revised by C. Heresbach
(Basle 1523, folio); republished in Basle 1539 (folio); re-
published by M. Hopper in Lyons 1559 in two volumes;
republished in Amsterdam in 1652 in two volumes; and
the same translation appeared in the Basle edition of 1571
as revised by G. Xylander. The Latin of the translation
was so good that it supplanted, for a time, the Greek text,
but it has now been superseded by the Latin translation in
the Didot edition. The translation of the first six books is
by F. Diibner, and that of the other nine books by
C. Miiller. At the suggestion of Napoleon I. the
publication of a translation into French was undertaken
by the French Government with the advice of the Institut.
The first fifteen books are by A. Corais and Laporte du
Theil, the sixteenth and seventeenth books are by A.
Letronne ; the notes signed "G" are by Gosselin, and are
geographical in nature. The work was published in five
quarto volumes in Paris between the years 1805 and 1819.
The first German translation was made by A. J. Pcnzel,
Lemgo, 1775-1777. There is an Italian translation by
Ambrosoli, Milan 1834-1835 (I have not been able to
consult it).

TRANSLATIONS (used by the present translator)
The Latin Translation in the Miiller-Diibner edition.
A. Buonaccivoli : La geograqia di Strabone tradotta in volgare
Italiano. La prima part in Venetia, 1662. La second
parte in Ferrara, 1665.
E. Cougny: Extraits des auteurs grecs concernant la geo-
graphie et l'histoire des Gaules. Texte et traduction
nouvelle publi6s pour la Soci6ti de l'histoire de France.
Paris, 1878.
A. Forbiger: Strabo's Erdbeschreibung iibersetzt und durch
Anmerkungen erleiitert. 4 vols. Stuttgart, 1856-1860.
Stereotype reprints at intervals since (1905-1908).
C. G. Groskurd: Strabons Erdbeschreibung in siebenzehn
Biichern nach berichtigtem griechischen Texte ~c ter
Beyleitung kritischer erklirender Atnmerktungetn verdeutscht.
4 vols. Berlin and Stettin, 1831-1834.


H. C. Hamilton and W. Falconer: The Geography of Strabo,
literally translated. 3 vols. London (Bohn's Classical
Library. Reprint, 1892-93).
K. Kircher : Strabo's Geographie iibersetzt. Stuttgart, 1851.
E. Malgeri: II VI. libro della geografia (antica Italia, Sicilia,
lapigia) tradotto e commentator. Traduzione corredata
di una indice geografico. Palermo, 1897.
de la Porte du Theil, A. Coray, et A. Letronne : GOographie
de Strabon, traduite du grec en franuais. 5 vols. Paris,
G: Sottini : Geografia dell' Italia antica tradotta e corredata
di una introduzione e note per uso delle scuole classiche.
Pisa, 1882.
A. Tardieu : Gdographie de Strabon. Traduction nouvelle.
4 vols. Paris, 1909 (Third Edition).

E. H. Bunbury: History of Ancient Geography, 1883, ii.
A. Forbiger : In his Handbuch der alten Geographie, i. 302.
G. Fritz: De Strabone Stoicorum discipline addict.
Miinster, 1906.
A. Hibler: Hat Strabo seine Geographie in Rom verfasst?
In Hermes, 1884, 235.
J. Hasenmiller : De Strabonis geographic vita. Bonn, 1863.
E. Meyer: Geschichte des Kinigreichs Pontus. Leipzig,
P. Meyer: Quaestiones Strabonianae. In Leipziger Studien,
ii. 49.
Th. Mommsen : Res gestae dii Augusti. Berlin, 1883.
B. Niese: Beitrdige zur Biographie Strabos. In Hermes,
1878, 33.
E. Pais : The Time and Place in which Strabo composed his
Geography. In Ancient Italy (English translation).
London, 1908, 379.
E. Pais: Straboniana. In Rivista di Filologia, 1886, 97.
W. Passow : De Eratosthenis aetate. In Genethliacon
Gottingense, 1888, 122.
F. M. Schriter : De Strabonis itineribus. Leipzig, 1874.


G. Siebelis: De Strabonis patria, genere, aetate, operis insti-
tuto atque ratione qua vet. descripsit Graeciam. Bautzen,
E. Stemplinger: Strabons litterarhistorische Notizen. Miinchen,
H. F. Tozer : Selections from Strabo with an Introduction on
Strabo's Life and Works. Oxford, 1893.
C. H. Weller: The Evidence for Strabo's Travels in Greece.
In Classical Philology, 1906, 339; see also A.J.A. 1906,








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1. THE science of Geography, which I now propose
to investigate, is, I think, quite as much as any other
science, a concern of the philosopher; and the cor-
rectness of my view is clear for many reasons. In
the first place, those who in earliest times ventured
to treat the subject were, in their way, philosophers
-Homer, Anaximander of Miletus, and Anaximan-
der's fellow-citizen Hecataeus-just as Eratosthenes
has already said; philosophers, too, were Democritus,
Eudoxus, Dicaearchus, Ephorus, with several others of
their times; and further, their successors-Eratos-
thenes, Polybius, and Poseidonius-were philosophers.
In the second place, wide learning, which alone makes
it possible to undertake a work on geography, is pos-
sessed solely by the man who has investigated things
both human and divine-knowledge of which, they
say, constitutes philosophy. And so, too, the utility
of geography-and its utility is manifold, not only
as regards the activities of statesmen and comman-
ders but also as regards knowledge both of the
heavens and of things on land and sea, animals,
plants, fruits, and everything else to be seen in


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T6WV elpv'fliev( eTt /iauXXov. cKal 7rpjOTOV oTt p&w;
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7repi Ta; 7rpa~et9 rovSac-ev eicevoF, 05rwo) bot
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Wo-Trep Co-rTv, ai7re awe avT7jv eV7rTra B T
Xoyplwv Ta IJLv wvo/lta e, Ta o& r7virr17eTo retc6K7-
piot 7rtO-, At/3v'rv piv ,cal Aitorlav ical t ovi-
ov Kaica 'Epe/,po3o, obv edic? Xdyetv TpoyXoSo7a'
"Apa/3a,, pr2T7 Xe'yo), T70V9 7rpo 7Tat9 avaTo-
XaF9 Kal 80oeatv alvtT76Od1eVO de 70T 7T( oieav,
KXcXeraoOat. evTevcv 'yap avit-aXOvTa woToe T70

1 For Strabo's definition of Libya see 17. 3. 1.


various regions-the utility of geography, I say, pre-
supposes in the geographer the same philosopher,
the man who busies himself with the investigation of
the art of life, that is, of happiness.
2. But I must go back and consider each one of
these points in greater detail; and, first, I say that
both I and my predecessors, one of whom was Hip-
parchus himself, are right in regarding Homer as the
founder of the science of geography; for Homer has
surpassed all men, both of ancient and modern times,
not only in the excellence of his poetry, but also, I
might say, in his acquaintance with all that pertains
to public life. And this acquaintance made him
busy himself not only about public activities, to the
end that he might learn of as many of them as
possible and give an account of them to posterity,
but also about the geography both of the individual
countries and of the inhabited world at large, both
land and sea; for otherwise he would not have gone
to the uttermost bounds of the inhabited world,
encompassing the whole of it in his description.
3. In the first place, Homer declares that the
inhabited world is washed on all sides by Oceanus,
and this is true; and then he mentions some of
the countries by name, while he leaves us to infer
the other countries from hints; for instance, he
expressly mentions Libya,' Ethiopia, Sidonians, and
Erembians-and by Erembians he probably means
Arabian Troglodytes2-whereas he only indicates
in general terms the people who live in the far
east and the far west by saying that their countries
are washed by Oceanus. For he makes the sun to
2 "Cave-dwellers." They lived on the western shores of
the Red Sea.


?Xtov ical Svo6evov 6el Tr roDV, (4 8' a'TWO) ical Tr
e'w lo v 'n7re(Ta v ov 7rpoo-e3aXXev Apovpa,1
ef dicaXappelrao l3avppoov 'iceavowo.
(II. 7. 421)
ev 8' Treo-' 'QiceavP ,XapTrpv pdo t)eXloto,
fXKov vVKica /,QXatvav.2 (I1. 8. 485)
rial To'; ao-'Tepa? 813 XeXov/v ov? d e~iceavoi
Xdyetv. (II. 5. 6)
4. Tov 8' "c-7repIwv av8p6ov ical T-v ev8ati/oviav
egd avt eb Kal T',pv ev/cpatatav TroU 7rept'ovTO',
-7rervO-uPtvoV, ? eoriKC, TOY 'Ifr7pticKV 7rXhoov, e 6'
8v icat 'Hpac, o-rpEa'drevae ica l ol Dolvtice' vare-
pov, ot7rep dpX)yv' Kal c caT'o-ov 7TV rXE'i'TV
veaT 86' TaDra 'PTwuaiot. Evrav9a ryap al 0OV
C 3 Zef(ppov 7rvoal. Ev'ravOa 8 ical T 'HXo-tov
rotel reSlov o Trot7ir)q, el 7re yfOo-treaal (pnot
TV MeveXaov b7ro r 7T, e0 v"
aXXd a-' e' 'HXavo-tov 7reslov Kal 7relpaTa ryai7?
jOdvarot 7rE'Ci/rovo-wv o0is avOo' 'Pa8da.av0v';,
,7 7rep p ''r7 83tort TeXe
ov viter;, OVT' dp XEtlpwV roXi;,
aXX' alel Zer/vpoto Xt'yl trveaovro'5 A'ra?
'fI/cavob dvrv'it. (Od. 4. 563)
5. Kai at T-7v paKtcdpwOv 8 vr7oit 7rpo T7rj
Mavpovo-la; lca 7T^ eaXo-drTr? 7rp6o; Svc-tav, ica'
1 apoupas, the reading of B, for apo6pats.
2Meineke deletes both quotations; C. Miller, Cobet,
approving; A. Miller defends the quotations.
3 Be, Cobet inserts, after &aarcpas.


rise out of Oceanus and to set in Oceanus; and he
refers in the same way to the constellations: "Now
the sun was just beating on the fields as he climbed
heaven from the deep stream of gently-flowing
Oceanus." And the sun's bright light dropped
into Oceanus, drawing black night across the earth."
And he declares that the stars also rise from Oceanus
"after having bathed in Oceanus."
4. As for the people of the west, Homer makes
plain that they were prosperous and that they lived
in a temperate climate-doubtless having heard of
the wealth of Iberia,1 and how, in quest of that
wealth, Heracles invaded the country, and after him
the Phoenicians also, the people who in earliest
times became masters of most of the country (it
was at a later date that the Romans occupied it).
For in the west the breezes of Zephyrus blow; and
there it is that Homer places the Elysian Plain itself,
to which he declares Menelaus will be sent by the
gods: "But the deathless gods will convey thee to
the Elysian Plain and the ends of the earth, where
is Rhadamanthys of the fair hair, where life is easiest.
No snow is there, nor yet great storm; but always
Oceanus sendeth forth the breezes of the clear-
blowing 2 Zephyrus."
5. And, too, the Islands of the Blest3 lie to the
westward of most western Maurusia,4 that is, west
1 What is now Portugal and Spain.
2 See page 107.
SStrabo has in mind the Canary Islands.
4 That is, Morocco, approximately.

4 apX v, A. Miller transposes, from its position after rhv
rhsEariv, and makes it the adverb.
5 lb rvelovos, Sterrett, for Ahyyvvl ovras.


8 pipo aUVoTpeXet ixa'tl T 7)1 TI 'I3pliav TO b TraViT'r
7repa?" eKc 8 TOO oV o'a7 O 8 Xov, b"rt Kca\ -ravTa
vofPltrov ebdailvaslo v tAh r 'rXr~otaetv Too70L07
6. 'AXXa p~v "T L ye /cal ol ALOlowre dCrT TPr
otceava e-xaro, SlXO OIT 1 /jEP ecxarot,
AlOlovraF, 7TO SctXa Se&alaTaL, oe-xarot avSp6v,
(Od. 1. 23)
OV'8 TOD 8txsa 868alaTara avXwo oXeyo/,evov,
4 Setx r oa-erat vaorepov ob't 8' dTl 7ri /C eav& ,
ZeVf yap e 'fcKeavObv ter' dlTtvltovaF AlOtoTr a;
X0t ( ?',3 pe7 'rt Sal a. (II. 1. 423)
o"t Sc KcaU 7rpOv Tav adpIc'rot eaxarta rapo-
KiaviTri de'r-T, ob'TW yPvi;aTo elTrrIv reply r?7F
oL2 8' a'..i.op6". cor'T XoeTrpv 'fsceavoio.
(I1. 18. 489; Od. 5. 275)
8tah /ev yap T? ipKTIcrov ical T7q; a/iJ; Tov
picKTtIKcO 81XoT' o yap av ooaovTrOv daoTerpov ev
T6 avTr Xcpl' 7rept0Cepoe6v0 7V T a de etOavepw
olrv alitopov elr Xoerpv wKceavoto. wo-T' oic
e a7retplav aTroD IcaTaytvdwaKovor-v, 6q palav
Apicrov AdvT' 8velv et8'roTo ov yap elKcA jv 7ro
T7rv er'pav rjoTrpo06ero-0at, dX)' 14' ovf ol 1oL0-
vu ces o-y ir]etavTo icat eypviPro Trpo o Tov '7rouv,
wrapeX\eiv KcaL etl Trov; 'EXX7rah 7Tv\ 8taTafev
TaVrJTv, (Oc7rep KaC TOV BepevIC;? '7TXo/ca/LoV, ICat
rb Kvop3ov, EX6 Ial KCa rp rlv icaT(vo1.aO pevov
1 T1, Jones inserts.


of the region where the end of Maurusia runs close
to that of Iberia. And their name shows that
because those islands were near to blessed countries
they too were thought to be blessed abodes.
6. Furthermore, Homer assuredly makes it plain
that the Ethiopians live at the ends of the earth, on
the banks of Oceanus: that they live at the end of
the earth, when he speaks of the Ethiopians that
are sundered in twain, the farthermost of men (and
indeed the words "are sundered in twain" are not
carelessly used, as will be shown later on); and that
they live on the banks of Oceanus, when he says
"for Zeus went yesterday to Oceanus, unto the noble
Ethiopians for a feast." And he has left us to infer
that the farthest land in the north is also bounded
by Oceanus when he says of the Bear that "She
alone hath no part in the baths of Oceanus." That
is, by the terms "Bear" and Wain he means the
"arctic circle" 1; for otherwise he would not have
said of the Bear that She alone hath no part in the
baths of Oceanus," since so many stars complete
their diurnal revolutions in that same quarter of the
heavens which was always visible to him. So it is
not well for us to accuse him of ignorance on the
ground that he knew of but one Bear instead of two;
for it is likely that in the time of Homer the other
Bear had not yet been marked out as a constellation,
and that the star-group did not become known as
such to the Greeks until the Phoenicians so desig-
nated it and used it for purposes of navigation; the
same is true of Berenice's Hair and of Canopus, for
we know that these two constellations have received
1 For the meaning of the term "arctic circle" among the
ancients, see 2. 2. 2 and footnote.


ao-pv,1 'rroXXobv 8' e'T viP3v vyOWv ov'? vra;,
Icalarep ical "ApaTro' c crtv (Phaen. 146). o v&
KpdTrI? oZv pOOv 'ypd~Cet,

o0o6 8' appopdo e'o-t Xoerp&v
evyowv Tr I4 7 evU'Tad. /36XrTiv 8' 'HpaCXetTro
icat o ptLp7KJTepo, 6polbo'? dvTrt ro apicTrtcoD T7v
adpirov ovo/l7a0(w loDk ical Crerprp72 Tep/jaTa 17
apKTrov, Ical avr'ov r7, apIcrov ooipov altpiov
At6." 6 yap apxcrutct ~oTrt 8v'aew ial dtva-roXrj
C 4 5poo, ovX 7 aPKrTO?. 81ath v 8" T? dpcrcTOv, 7v
Kcal ciafav IcaXe ica'l TTv 'flplwva 8otcc'eiv 9frlo-
(Od. 5. 274), Trv dpicnTrdv 8Gi XoF Sth 8a 70 r
wceavoou Tr opl'ovTa, el Ov Ical 4 o 5 Ta 8v'rect
cat Ta? dva'roXa 7Troet.3 elirTv 8 aTrov o-rpe-
cea-Oa tal Ca ap/Jotpev ToD o/ceavo olbev 6Tt /card
anr1Ieov TO apKTlcucITarov roT opi tov'TO' yvierat 6
apicK 7 'c. dKcoXoV8ow 87 O To0yT 7rbTOLrtItcOV
idpoa-avTre ro7 LE'V O ptl'ovra oeltXol/ev SEXec9Oai
TOV eTrl Ti 7 yi olicelw' T# WIceava, TOv 8' apicTicov
T4F 'yjv arrTTorevov a pv A7rpoa ai'rof0o-v icaTa TO
ApicKTiKaraTO Trv oIcr6o ew0 oC aiefovp woore Kial
TOOTO TOb {/Ppo' T17j 7? i/CX4VOtr dv rTe wiceavi

1 fa v, A. Miller inserts; A. Vogel approving in part.
2 adp7is, Corais, for aredpas; Meineke following;
C. Miiller, Cobet, approving.
3 roo', A. Miller, for wroLeirai; A. Vogel approving.


their names quite recently, and that there are many
constellations still unnamed, just as Aratus says.
Therefore Crates is not correct, either, when, in
seeking to avoid what needs no avoidance, he alters
the text of Homer so as to make it read, And the
arctic circle alone hath no part in the baths of
Oceanus." Better and more Homeric is Heracleitus,
who likewise employs "the Bear" for "the arctic
circle": "The Bear forms limits of morning and
evening, and over against the Bear fair breezes blow
from fair skies 2; for the arctic circle, and not the
Bear, forms a boundary beyond which the stars neither
rise nor set. Accordingly, by "the Bear," which he
also calls "the Wain" and describes as keeping watch
upon Orion, Homer means the "arctic circle," and
by Oceanus he means the horizon into which he
makes the stars to set and from which he makes them
to rise. And when he says that the Bear makes its
revolution in that region without having a part in
Oceanus, he knows that the arctic circle touches the
most northerly point of the horizon. If we construe
the poet's verse in this way, then we should interpret
the terrestrial horizon as closely corresponding to
Oceanus, and the arctic circle as touching the earth
-if we may believe the evidence of our senses-at
its most northerly inhabited point. And so, in the
opinion of Homer, this part of the earth also is
1 Crates emended Homer's feminine form of the adjective
for "alone" (of?) to the masculine form (olos), so as to make
it agree with "'arctic circle" and not with Bear."
I Heracleitus, with his usual obscurity, divides the heavens
roughly into four quarters, viz. : the Bear (north), morning
(east), evening (west), and the region opposite the Bear
(south). Strabo's interpretation of Heracleitus as regards
the arctic circle" is altogether reasonable.


caT' avTov. Kcal roVS' avpBoTrovs S oZ8e Tro'
7Tpoo-a'pppov1 Xad to-ra, obf ovouaorT't ,uev ov
Slxoi (ovSe yatp vvv 7rov IcotVop aVro oPvola
KceTai 7Trao-t), T7j StaTy 8' (pd'et, vo/idSa abrobv
vroypdw0ov ical yavov's tnrrr 7poXyov'i yaXacro-
cdiyov; &1bov2 TE" (II. 13. 5, 6).
7. KaL taXX)ov e/jalvet rb i t KV' l reptbcKElo6at
T7y Yy v y &/cceavov, rTav OiTr0 f f "Hpa'
el~qL yap oh o/e'v? 7roXv o6p/3ov relpaTra yalby
'flKeavo T6 0evv yefeoatP. (II. 14. 200, cf. 301)
TO9 yap 7repao-t 7raci oU'vvjjat' Xydet Topv ce-
avov 7\ S\ TepaTa KVc61c 7rpelicKp at (II. 18. 607).
c re 7j, drXororod'a 7i? 'AXtXXeiO Ao-'rl8ov Ki VKcw
7reptri~Locr TO wcea i vov Tr- TVO ,
T7rj abTV'9 htoTrpayopoo-avy a'l T0b ga ayvoeiv Ta
7rept Ta7v rXyf/ifvplSag Toi waceavov ecal iTa a/p-
7rTwret, aroppdov 'Slceavoio" (I1. 18. 399) XV-
yovra* Ical
Tp 9 Iev 'yap 7 amvllo-tw e' /IjaTtr, Tp't 8'
avapot3Mef. (Od. 12. 105)
Ial yap eL Jl r7pl, aXXa 81i, TdaXa T7js lo-Topita
7raparaloarrLTo,5 2 T yeipa9rv 8tIpapTi-/?iv -v
dXX' 7 ye j7rpoalpEcLY' TOtavT?7. Kal T "T o d/ca-
XappesTao" (II. 7. 422) & S'et T ewh pJiao-'tel v
rXyq.p'UPO e'o0i o-jfT 7j v e'ri/3ao-v rpadeav Ical
1 rpoo'ldppovs, Meineke, for irporSopious; C. Miiller ap-
proving. 2 "ABioL is a proper name in Homer.
3 rtvviiOa, Madvig, for u0vip0 ); Cobet approving.
A4 Xyovra, editors before Kramer (who reads AAyovrt);
Meineke restores; C. Miiller approving.
6 TrapatraIfravros, Cobet, for 7rapawraedvros.

GEOGRAPHY, i. I. 6-7

washed by Oceanus. Furthermore, Homer knows
of the men who live farthest north; and while
he does not mention them by name-and even to
the present day there is no common term that will
embrace them all-he characterises them by their
mode of life, describing them as "nomads," and as
"proud mare-milkers, curd-eaters, and a resourceless
7. In other ways, too, Homer indicates that
Oceanus surrounds the earth, as when Hera says as
follows: "For I am going to visit the limits of the
bountiful earth, and Oceanus, father of the gods."
By these words he means that Oceanus touches all
the extremities of the earth; and these extremities
form a circle round the earth. Again, in the story of
the making of the arms of Achilles, Homer places
Oceanus in a circle round the outer edge of the
shield of Achilles. It is another proof of the same
eagerness for knowledge that Homer was not ignor-
ant about the ebb and flow of the tide of Oceanus; for
he speaks of Oceanus that floweth ever back upon
himself," and also says: "For thrice a day shell
spouts it forth, and thrice a day she sucks it down."
For even if it be "twice" and not "thrice "-it may
be that Homer really strayed from the fact on this
point, or else that there is a corruption in the text2
-the principle of his assertion remains the same.
And even the phrase "gently-flowing" contains a
reference to the flood-tide, which comes with a gentle

1 Homer here refers to Charybdis. Strabo himself seems
to be doing Homer an injustice by confusing the behaviour
of Charybdis with the tides of Oceanus.
2 See 1. 2. 16, where Polybius is referred to as making a
similar statement.


ob TeXkoew bodSry. IIoaetS6ovw Seo al E'l T70
arcoTreXov9 Xe'ew Tror JLPV Kalvrropevov9, orre
Se yv/ivov/EvowV, ical &K rO- 7roTa/0 o7 v 4dvat TOV
WKeavov elKcaet To pocSev azvroDv Tb Trepi Tar
rXwtfvplSa9q 4i avteo-a0at (II. 14. 245). To Ijcv
obv 7rpro)v ev, T6b 8~SevTpov obIC ge' Xoyov" ovre
yap 7roTa/L ( pevuart eotiKPv 7 7 TI9 T X7t rI/Uvpibo
ed7r/ao-e, 7roXl Se jiXXov j avaxopyrFo- ov
TOtavTr9. Tre TOD Kp~Tro9? XAyYo9 8 '8o-IKel 7
7rtOavPrepov. SaOv'ppovv Iev yAp ical d'oppov
(Od. 11. 13; 20. 65) Xe-ye, O~/olwoo9 S ca' 7roTap/lov
C 5 Tor 5Xov IKeavov" Xeyet 8 a cal iuepo9 70TD iceavo
TL troTa/.Lov icat roTratuoo poov, ov TroV Xov,
aXXa 70TO tpov,, OTav OVTO )T
avTap 7rel woTa/.Lolo XITrev poov 2 ceavoFo
vP7D9, dtlrO S' 'i/ceTo /cDpa OaXda'ro7ys evpvnropoto.
(Od. 12. 1)
ob 7ap TOv o"ov, aXha TOv dv 7 wiceavi To7
7roTa/uov fpoov pfpo9 ovTa ToD Woceavov, ov o(/)Tw 6
Kpa'drT avaXvtv riva ical Kihrrov eir' v OVrsoT
ro0Xov rb oD Xetttepteov TporTIKOV SLjcovPra.
TODrov yap 8vvaTr' av Trv 7 cXt7roiv ert elvat ev T~&
oKceavp" TOyV 6' 8ov deKXtrrdvTa er& elvas dev T
oXr, ov, otov re. "O/'1pov 8e ye OVeTW (or/ -)
'rOrapioo Xtrev poov, 71O o' I'Kcer Kvia
OaXdcia- ,"
T7 e oTtVK dt 7T1 eorTV, ? oa wKeavops. ytwerat
o av, eiv a'Xo\ v 8eX e'l/cAS eic Tr o ceavov, Xo0ev
ei TOVy CoKeavov. dha2 TraVra pv /alcpoTepaq
er71 Stair'l.


swell, and not with a violent current. Poseidonius
conjectures both from Homer's reference to the head-
lands as sometimes covered with the waves and some-
times bare, and from his calling Oceanus a river, that
by the current of Oceanus Homer is indicating the
flow of the tides. The first conjecture of Poseidonius is
correct, but the second is unreasonable. For the
swell of the tide is not like a stream of a river, and
still less so is the ebb. The explanation given by
Crates is more plausible. Homer speaks of the whole
of Oceanus as "deep-flowing and "back-flowing,"
and, likewise, as being a river; he also speaks of a
part of Oceanus as a river, or as a "river-stream" ;
and he is speaking of a part of Oceanus, and not
of the whole, when he says: "Now after the ship
had left the river-stream of Oceanus, and was come
to the wave of the wide sea." Not the whole, I
say, but the stream of the river, which stream is
in Oceanus, being therefore a part of it; and this
stream, Crates says, is a sort of estuary or gulf, which
stretches from the winter tropic1 in the direction of
the south pole. Indeed, one might leave this estuary
and still be in Oceanus; but it is not possible for
a man to leave the whole and still be in the whole.
At any rate Homer says: "The ship had left the
river-stream, and was come to the wave of the sea,"
where the sea is surely nothing other than Ocean-
us; if you interpret it otherwise, the assertion be-
comes: After Odysseus had gone out of Oceanus, he
came into Oceanus." But that is a matter to be
discussed at greater length.
1 Strabo placed the summer tropic" and "winter tropic"
respectively at 240 north and south of the equator. They
correspond, therefore, pretty closely to our Tropic of Cancer
and Tropic of Capricorn.


8. "OTC 8& c olcovfupJLvr vijo-ds 'or srpCrov J-Ev
dKc 7 T alora-o-ew ical Tri) ; repa9 Xr?7rrTov. wrav-
TaX'j yap, odrov7roTOVv ekbcTov rye'ryOlV av9pOP-
Wrot e7l T a eo'xara T7f; yi 7rpoeXfGev, evpla"Kerat
OdXa'rXa,, ')v 8\ KaXofiev wrceavov. icat orov 86
7rj alao-rjae Xa/peFv obX bwTrpev, 6 X0yo? Selbvva-.
Tb /1ev 'yap e(COvov 7rrevpov, TO KaTa row 'IvSou',
Ical TO o 0-irepO, TO Ka7Ta rob "I/3iipa Kcal TOvU
Mavpovolovv, reptrrXe>Trat 'irv r 'l 7roX\ Trot Te
voTrlov teipov icatl 70Ti opeLov T7b 8 XeLtwo.evov
a'rXovv p'k Xp vU v X, 79) cvl/.Lpu at Ir plm va9
abXiXoit9 T Tv adTtrrep7rlpe vTwov ov iroXv, el' Tt
avvTl0rlo sv edc TW v wapaXX 'Xov Staor-17dTdo)v7 TWV
eOfTiKTv )p JuF. oi c e16o\ o St L a'r'Tro eltvat 7T
'ieXayo TO\ 'ATArav'tKov, 10it*oPf SGiepyd ievov
OVT(0 O'TEvoiF TOF9 IKcAVovU o-)v repirXovv, dXXa
akXXov o-vppovv Kal oavvXe'y. ol' rTE yp ~6reprefiv
'eiTetepi-jaavTes',' elTa Avaa-Tpe'ravTeq, OvX 'To
'i-elpov TLVO'S aTv7ITIrTOda7r' ical KIcXvovorfY; TOV
ew7rcetva -\XovV avaicpovo-ipvat saaov, dAXXa bro
d7ropla9 Kcal depyplta, oboev ifr-rov "r7j Oaa'rTi]'
XOVO-7q TO robpov. Tot T'e 'dieora Toi tceavov
Tro9 7rep'i T'r d'7rrcA'ret6 a K\ a 'rwXwhjpvpiSaF
do/oXoye TO OTro fXXov 'rdav'Tf yyovv o aTOS\ TpO-
7rov T7~v2 /erTa3oX&v bTrdpXet Kalb T7C aio-ewv
1 hriXepiJaavrls, the reading of the MSS., is retained;
C. Miller approving. Diibner and Meineke read iyX'tp-
2 Te, A. Miller deletes, before eraESoA&rv.

GEOGRAPHY, i. i. 8

8. We may learn both from the evidence of our
senses and from experience that the inhabited world
is an island; for wherever it has been possible for man
to reach the limits of the earth, sea has been found,
and this sea we call "Oceanus." And wherever we
have not been able to learn by the evidence of our
senses, there reason points the way. For example,
as to the eastern (Indian) side of the inhabited
earth, and the western (Iberian and Maurusian)
side, one may sail wholly around them and continue
the voyage for a considerable distance along the
northern and southern regions; and as for the rest
of the distance around the inhabited earth which
has not been visited by us up to the present time
(because of the fact that the navigators who sailed
in opposite directions towards each other never
met), it is not of very great extent, if we reckon from
the parallel distances that have been traversed by
us. It is unlikely that the Atlantic Ocean is divided
into two seas, thus being separated by isthmuses so
narrow and that prevent the circumnavigation; it is
more likely that it is one confluent and continuous sea.
For those who undertook circumnavigation, and turn-
ed back without having achieved their purpose, say
that they were made to turn back, not because of any
continent that stood in their way and hindered their
further advance, inasmuch as the sea still continued
open as before, but because of their destitution and
loneliness. This theory accords better, too, with the
behaviour of the ocean, that is, in respect of the ebb
and flow of the tides; everywhere, at all events, the
same principle, or else one that does not vary much,
accounts for the changes both of high tide and low



Kcal ,Ltf 'eulOw, 1 oi 7roXv' wapaXXadTTrm (, av &d'1
Voh WreX a'yovF 7T KVTiErj)ew& a7rotooteivo ; KIcat abro
/uLLa ar'tag.
9. "Ir'rapxop 8' ob r9tOavds derrtv dvrtXse'ywov 7
S6y ravTa r oi9' ototovraovvTroi To70 wceavov
C 6 rravreXsq, o r', el So80etlr roT7 aKOLovOoDVTro9
avcri Trov avppovv eZvat '7ray To icKt cX 7rIeXayoT
To 'ATXavTiKco, 7rpo0 TO 1r] ootoTalMevw ,LdprTVp
XPwlIevo9 Ieev)cfKw 7T BalpvXowvl. h/.ee 8S 70rb
tpY 7rXheiw XIyovr repi 7 T0O ;rc avov icai TW
7rXqvpt'8ov l et IfIoGet&8vtov ava/3aXX6eOa icai
'A0svod wpov, l/avw), 2tevicpvjaavra,2 TOv repL
Toidrwv Xo'ov- rpo' Se Tr vvv d'7rt roaorovTO Xevo-
pIev, on 7rpo re TrV]V d61LOtordaOeav ovirw ah7rtov
volioaat- Ta Te ovpavta oveCEvEX7 pe rov rKpETT Ta
evire0ev AvaOvpitdaea w, el 7rXeiov e T' vb ypov
7reptK6ev/.u vov.
10. fo-wrep ov Tra eo-Xaaa ical Ta KVKIX, 7T
oiKOVuLevrF oLte ical pdaet o-afow o 7dror)T)SF,
OVTW Kia Ta 7ra OaXaTrl7 T';F evTO's. 7reptE'et
yap Tav'rfv airo Tr7rXTv Ap~apaevots At,/3v '1re /cat
A'tyvT7rro Ical (otvwli, e~7F & 17 7repala3 7?'
KV&rpov, edTa oXv/or tca'0 Avctiot ical Kapes,
feTa oe TOVV TO /I fTra4v' MVKAcd77 Kca T7?
TpdSov 9 \wv4 Kcal al 7rpolKeflievat v70ot, 0wv

1 ?', Corais, for d7w; C. Miller approving.
2 tevKptviiravyTas, R. Hercher and Piccolos independently,
for 6baKpaT'aravas; C. Miiller and A. Vogel approving in
part. Corais reads a6priporTaaraas, C. Miiller approving;
Kramer BtatpaTivavras; Meineke SicpIti6uaravas (E. Stemp-
linger, L. Kayser, approving) or 8taaf(ptravTas; Madvig
3 wepala, Madvig, for wripi. 4' c6v, Meineke, for f iv.

GEOGRAPHY, i. i. 8-1o

tide,1 as would be the case if their movements were
produced by one sea and were the result of one
9. Hipparchus is not convincing when lie con-
tradicts this view on the ground, first, that the ocean
does not behave uniformly throughout, and, secondly,
that, even if this be granted, it does not follow that
the Atlantic Ocean runs round the earth in one un-
broken circle. In support of his opinion that the
ocean does not behave uniformly he appeals to the
authority of Seleucus of Babylon. But for a further
discussion of the ocean and its tides I refer the reader
to Poseidonius and Athenodorus, who have examined
the argument on this subject with thoroughness. For
my present purpose I merely add that it is better to
accept this view of the uniform behaviour of the
ocean; and that the farther the mass of water may
extend around the earth, the better the heavenly
bodies will be held together by the vapours that arise
10. Homer, then, knows and clearly describes the
remote ends of the inhabited earth and what surrounds
it; and lie is just as familiar with the regions of the
Mediterranean Sea. For if you begin at the Pillars
of Heracles,3 you will find that the Mediterranean
Sea is bounded by Libya, Egypt, and Phoenicia, and
further on by the part of the continent lying over
against Cyprus ; then by the territory of the Solymi,
by Lycia, and by Caria, and next by the seaboard
between Mycale and the Troad, together with the
islands adjacent thereto; and all these lands are

SSee 1. 3. 7. and 1. 3. 12. 2 A doctrine of the Stoics.
3 See 3. 5. 5 for the different conceptions of what the
Pillars were.


adrav7wT v tEl ivElTat Kal 4 T&W weE TW p
Ilpo7rovT'a Kal TOV Eb1elvov2 t4cXpt KoXxlot
Kal T I; 'aIovoy aTpaTELa;. Kal 7Lv Kal Toy
Kqtept~ep /3c ) aTropov olSe, Trov KtL .epplov elSi;
ob 87Trov T\ 1tv 0ovolpa Tr;v Ktl,&Iepip v6 el&o,
avbov S6e ayvowv, o? KaT' avTov /uLtcpov 7rpo
avToDv /I XpL- 'Iwvlas e'7repa/ov 'TV 7ly/ T77V eIC
joo-7ropov wraoav. alvt'inera yovv vcal T70 cXKiLa
T-r Xipa, aT7owv 'ok&fSe<' 6v, ical cs 0rciiv,
ept ICaL VaSl eX7 K eKaXvIJLyivor ob0e '?OT aboTo
'H'Xto paef'Oov eTrtiSepKeTat,3
jXX' '71r vvb dXo TrEaTatra. (Od. 11. 15, 19)
yVpLet & icaU 7V) "lo-rpov, fIe\/jIivevos0 ye4 Mv-
aov, 'Ovovv Opa ciov 7rapotKovTro 7-rv "ICrpov.
cKat Lbv ical Tra v 'li 'rapaXlav ol8e, Opaicav
oi3av, peLXpt IITvetoD, lialovd'- Te vo iOdawv Kal
"A0o Klal 'Atorv Kcal 7a wpo0cetKf.va; TOVwv
vra0ov9. erj IrtLV r TV4 'EXXvwv rapaXla
/IeXpt Oe-TrpoTwrMAv, 4 dac'7rdar' /i/pUlrV7at. ical upv
Kal 7a TijF 'ITaXaq aiIcpa ol6e, Tc1L&EOn- IC KaXov
cal tlcelXodi,5 Kal Tca rT7 'I3?7pla atcKpa Kal T7v
e'Saqrovlav avIrov, 4)v apnriw ekai ev. el 8~ Trva
Ev TOt? f6era; 8taXefLaaTa calveorat, ovy'yol[7
rTt av* Kai yap 6 yeoypabwv oVTO W roXXah rap-
Io- rt T(4v I- ipeL. o-vyyvol 8' av, ical el bLvOdrl?
Twva Tpoo'rke~twas To \eyo/ievots loxTopucicKs
-tva 7rpo0r6rn7rXe cTaL 70TE XE(YO/L9VO(T I'-oPLICtI
1 and'rwv, Casaubon, for &raacrv; Kramer, Groskurd,
Forbiger, Tardieu, Meineke, following.
2 Td, Meineke deletes, before tiXptp; C. Miiller approving.
3 t*iEPKCra, C. Miiller restores, for the usual reading
icaraSperTat, from the MSS. of the Odyssey.


mentioned by Homer, as well as those farther on,
about the Propontis and the Euxine Sea as far as
Colchis and the limits of Jason's expedition; more
than that, he knows the Cimmerian Bosporus, because
he knows the Cimmerians-for surely, if he knows
the name of the Cimmerians, lie is not ignorant of
the people themselves-the Cimmerians who, in
Homer's own time or shortly before his time, over-
ran the whole country from the Bosporus to Ionia.
At least he intimates that the very climate of their
country is gloomy, and the Cimmerians, as he says, are
"shrouded in mist and in cloud, and never does the
shining sun look upon them, but deadly night is spread
o'er them." Homer also knows of the River Ister,1
since he mentions Mysians, a Thracian tribe that
lives on the Ister. More than that, he knows the
sea-board next to the Ister, on the Thracian side, as
far as the Peneus2 River; for he speaks of Paeonians,
of Athos and Axius,3 and of their neighboring
islands. And next comes the sea-board of Greece, as
far as Thesprotia, which he mentions in its entirety.
And yet more, he knows the promontories of Italy
also, for he speaks of Temesa and of Sicily; he also
knows about the headland capes of Iberia, and of the
wealth of Iberia, as I have stated above. If between
these countries there are some countries which he
leaves out, one might pardon him; for the professed
geographer himself omits many details. And we
might pardon the poet even if he has inserted things
SDanube. 2 Salambria. The River Vardar.

4 T before Mvivnr, Kramer deletes; Meineke following.
5 Reference is made to Od. 1. 184, but that Temesa is in


ical St aricaXtK c Kal o SeW tepacor-at. oab.
C 7 ytp AXaOe' e'o-'tv, b' ~o-qv 'EpaToo-9~va, bT"r
7ro0l1lT 7ravl aTod3eETa arvxayw yiaF, ov Sta-
o-Kacalaq TavavrIa yap oL OpovtLwraTroI TMWV repl
7rotoyrtK 9 Tr c0 yapeaevwv Trp(.rvV TWva Xeyovo-t
iotXoaoiav Trv 'n-otrjicKv. aXXa 7rpo? 'EpaTo-
arOevr pEv avS 3i 4povptev Sta 7rXetoovw, Ev ol iaKa
replt T0 o7T0 oD 27rot7 oi y iTa Xroyov.
11. Nvv't 86' b'T pv "OPjipo-s T'r yew oypa0la?
7p!ev, apiceiTW TO Xe\X eVTa. Oavepol 8 i Kca ol
e'ataKcoov6r)aavTes abyrm avpe'; tlX0oyot ical
oliceLdot ,LXoooKlar v 7T;o 'rprovF /1e,' "Opalpov
8vo nrlrtv 'EpaTrooe'V'-?, 'Ava4/tfavSp6v re, OaXoi
ryyovoTa yvmptipov Kal '7roXTirv, icaL 'Ecaaraiov
'TO MtXoatov*" rov pLEv obv eicoovvat irp&rov
yew ypatKto v*ir6'vaca, Ty ov 'E/carawov icaa-
XM6reV ypai/pta, 7rtaTovoevov eKelvov elvat etc T7i;
A1XX'i7 avroD ypaoiF.
12. 'AXXa pipv OTt ye Se^ 7rrpho TaVra 7roXv-
paelaaF eipicao-t avXvoi- ev 8e Kcal "I'rrapXoc
v TOL 'rpo7- 'Epa-roaBOevl S6 c dace, Obrt wavTr, icaL
1StL'iy ical 7i tXo/JaOoDvvTI, Trjs yewypaoatic?
t-rTopiar 7rpoa(lcoalKo6f dvaTov periaXap3ev
dvev T7i T7W oVpavitv Eialt Ti; i-v T IcXeKi'rTticv
Trp ojrfev erKpitoaew olov 'AXeadvopetav T'v
7rpbs AlyvTrriT, rrToepov ApPCTtiKwepa Ba[3vX~ voq
n voTtLOipa, Xa/etv obX olov re, obS' e4' O6roaov
BtaLd'-Tfa, XWPIP? Ti 81h a TIV icXt.tadr' erTrticE-
1 peTrahaue5v, Capps, for AaBeIv.
1 Strabo discusses the point more fully in 1. 2. 3.
2 Hipparchus took as a basis of calculation for latitudes
and longitudes a principal parallel of latitude through the
Pillars of Heracles and the Gulf of Issus, and a principal
meridian through Alexandria. He then drew parallels of

GEOGRAPHY, i. i. 10-12

of a mythical nature in his historical and didactic
narrative. That deserves no censure; for Eratos-
thenes is wrong in his contention that the aim of
every poet is to entertain, not to instruct; indeed
the wisest of the writers on poetry say, on the con-
trary, that poetry is a kind of elementary philosophy.1
But later on I shall refute Eratosthenes at greater
length, when I come to speak of Homer again.
11. For the moment what I have already said is
sufficient, I hope, to show that Homer was the first
geographer. And, as every one knows, the successors
of Homer in geography were also notable men and
familiar with philosophy. Eratosthenes declares that
the first two successors of Homer were Anaximander,
a pupil and fellow-citizen of Thales, and Hecataeus
of Miletus; that Anaximander was the first to pub-
lish a geographical map, and that Hecataeus left
behind him a work on geography, a work believed to
be his by reason of its similarity to his other writings.
12. Assuredly, however, there is need of encyclo-
paedic learning for the study of geography, as many
men have already stated; and Hipparchus, too, in his
treatise Against Eratosthenes, correctly shows that it is
impossible for any man, whether layman or scholar,
to attain to the requisite knowledge of geography
without the determination of the heavenly bodies and
of the eclipses which have been observed; for
instance, it is impossible to determine whether
Alexandria in Egypt is north or south of Babylon, or
how much north or south of Babylon it is, without in-
vestigation through the means of the climatea." 2 In
latitude through various well-known places, and thus formed
belts of latitude which he called climatea." By means of
the solstitial day he determined the width of each "clima,"
differences of latitude, and so on. But Strabo uses the term
primarily in reference to the parallels of latitude themselves.


*ljremo" jOtoilc rah '7rpb w 7rpoa-ceyXwprfP cvlia 1
1rpov Svtvy r XXov Kal TTOv O bIt C AV Ivo" TL
icpi13yw&, 7rX'jv 6e2 Sla T6V K/CXeerr7TIcv jXIov
xa' EXk eXiv oUy, cpyiEoemoV. o to se S TavTri

13. "ArravTeC 8s3 o aot oTrwv iSt181 raq X4eyewv
rineipovo-v olieliO -7rpoa'7rrTovTai KCa6 T7v ob-
pavitv /cal yewmTerpiav, a-Xiyiara Kal fteyeB7y Kal
a'coo'T7riara Kali K lptaa S lXOoVTeV alt Odarry
Kal 'xi xal a'trXi 1 TrV TOi) 7repteyOVTO'ro cI~ov.
wrt ael Kaal o aov Iracedawv oltKoS6to 7raTa av
'frpoop(r0o Kal 'r6\Xv cKTIrwV apXLT'rcKT7 pr 71i ye
Xr7P e7r-Koirev TjV OlicoVuQLEV?7 avrip- roXv yap
TOvry -rpoorjce7t iuaXXov. e ,~vI yap TOE~ uuicpoti
Xwp(iI)OL TO irpio; pKICTOVS i7 7 pO VOTOV KecKlXtoat
7rapaXXay\v ob 'roXXIv 6'ei, ev 8 7 rawaV
KVicKW, 7r oloovtflev<,; T o 7rpo, apicTOv IV "IteyXPI
TjV vboraTrw e0Tt T7F' YK$vOlaF A 7, T KeXTrtIcI,
ELXPL 8se T7v vaoTaTvy AlOidrw Tav 7rpo; Vw0ov
TODro 8se rap/b.r6XXhlv 6eye Stafopdv. 4tolo,? U
Kal Tb 'rap' 'Iv8oF olKeiv ) rpap' "IS7pa-wv v
C 8 TOvc; /tY ovq /ZdXi-Tra, roUe 8 6 r0-p7lovv,
Tpodrov 8' TWva Kal Advrbio8a. ? AXXXosqrj 'oaev.
14. lari 8E T'\ otoOTOv dc Tv 70Gro ?Xov Kcal
TOv )V XX v AO'pwv Kctvjaoew' TVv 'pynov O al

1 rporKe wpULtcvias, Corais, for wpowapaKeXWpulKtfas.
2 ei, Corais, for 4, after rX6v ; Meineke following.
3 Se, Casanbon inserts, after 9ararnvs.
r wpbs dp ',ov Tfv, Corais, for rpbs &pwroov pr v *d.

GEOGRAPHY, I. I. 12-14

like manner, we cannot accurately fix points that lie
at varying distances from us, whether to the east or
the west, except by a comparison of the eclipses of
the sun and the moon.1 That, then, is what Hippar-
chus says on the subject.
13. All those who undertake to describe the
distinguishing features of countries devote special
attention to astronomy and geometry, in explaining
matters of shape, of size, of distances between points,
and of climate," as well as matters of heat and cold,
and, in general, the peculiarities of the atmosphere.
Indeed, an architect in constructing a house, or an
engineer in founding a city, would make provision for
all these conditions; and all the more would they be
considered by the man whose purview embraced the
whole inhabited world; for they concern him more
than anyone else. Within the area of small countries
it involves no very great discrepancy if a given place
be situated more towards the north, or more towards
the south; but when the area is that of the whole
round of the inhabited world, the north extends to
the remote confines of Scythia and Celtica,2 and the
south to the remote confines of Ethiopia, and the
difference between these two extremes is very great.
The same thing holds true also as regards a man's
living in India or Iberia; the one country is in the far
east, and the other is in the far west; indeed, they
are, in a sense, the antipodes of each other, as we
14. Everything of this kind, since it is caused by
the movement of the sun and the other stars as well

1 That is, by a comparison of the observations of the same
eclipse, made from the different points of observation.
SFrance, approximately.


eTtL r-, E7r' To oeaov oopaii, avaO3eretv Avaylc tct
7rpo? Tov oipavbv /cal rp'q Ta' fatv6teva 7rap
ed/aOroV? FjUov rWc;v ovpavIovi v 8 ToVrovF 4'aX-
Xdae6 opp&vTat 7ra~ceydOe V T V oicIo-eaOv. Tt7
&v oiv S&a/opah TOdTrv icmigetevo KcaXki /Ical
ticav,; 8dtSoacoL, p/ 1' povTraa ToTOv JfYS ev's
p rS' e'7tl .tKcpov; cal yap el u' SwvaT'v Kca' r v
iVroOeo-iv TrV rotavTrv avwrT a "icpt,8ovv 8ta Tb
elvat 7roXttKticwTpav, TO ye r Troo-oirov, e'
o'Uov ical T 7roXrrtuI 7rapaicoXov0etv vva'v,
7rpo-iKcoI av eticoTO)?.
15. '0 8' ojr-T /erTeCoptraa 8j1 r v T Stdvolav
oiS' Tij o, >X,? a7re'xeTra( ri?. faliveTra yap ye-
XoEov, el TV oiLovieviv vyXtXo'eevoq uaas 4feet-
7rEv rTov /J1v ovpavtwv E'ToX/Iier &'racaas tcal
XpljraoTOat 7rpo? Tr2v &sao-icaXtav, Trv 8' ) 7ifv
yv, js /epos i1 oicovufbv, 4r]0' rTroo-i, u4r0'
o7rola T V, ~uj' O71OV K6t. Vr TO70o vjravros lcO-
or-pov, IaJrBv1 ep6vrta'e* tr8', ei KcaO' Pv p 'po,
olbelrat pOvov TO 'caO' j1ia9, itcara rXelo, cal2
roca- c s avTor) al 'To Orbaolicov aLT.Fv 'roaov
tal trotov t cal h 7i eotcev ov IeTeL7 po-
Xoyticg, TtIVt 7rpay/.aTela ical yemo/eTpi/crp eavvFc Oat
To T'V yewOypatlaq eltov, Ta de7tlyea Trol o;pa-

x 'ntlev, Corais, for i iOdY'; Meineke following; C. Miiller
2 1, Corais deletes before Kal rdaa, Meineke following.

GEOGRAPHY, I. I. 14-15

as by their tendency towards the centre,1 compels
us to look to the vault of heaven, and to observe the
phenomena of the heavenly bodies peculiar to our
individual positions ; and in these phenomena we see
very great variations in the positions of inhabited
places. So, if one is about to treat of the differences
between countries, how can he discuss his subject
correctly and adequately if he has paid no attention,
even superficially, to any of these matters ? For even
if it be impossible in a treatise of this nature, because
of its having a greater bearing on affairs of state, to
make everything scientifically accurate, it will natur-
ally be appropriate to do so, at least in so far as the
man in public life is able to follow the thought.
15. Moreover, the man who has once thus lifted
his thoughts to the heavens will surely not hold aloof
from the earth as a whole; for it is obviously absurd,
if a man who desired to give a clear exposition of
the inhabited world had ventured to lay hold of
the celestial bodies and to use them for the purposes
of instruction, and yet had paid no attention to the
earth as a whole, of which the inhabited world is but
a part-neither as to its size, nor its character, nor its
position in the universe, nor even whether the world
is inhabited only in the one part in which we live, or
in a number of parts, and if so, how many such parts
there are; and likewise how large the uninhabited
part is, what its nature is, and why it is uninhabited.
It seems, then, that the special branch of geography
represents a union of meteorology2 and geometry,
since it unites terrestrial and celestial phenomena as
1 See 20 (following), and footnote.
2 The Greek word here includes our science of astronomy
as well as our science of meteorology.


vlois ovvwdITov elC fV, O de~Y/yVTaT OVTa, a~Aa
/Z' S&tea-TTa TOoDrTOv,
oa-ov obpavo &o' 4OT o yal i. (II. 8. 16)
16. ~pe'e 8 7r To-aVTr7y 7rolXvl)a0eIa rpoa-O-
L 7ev T-7v ErrlyCetov itToplav, olov owv cal ca vrwv
xal r7v XXowv, oba Xpr'st/aa SXplra-Ta ce'pet
7r re 6al OdA aa-orao olaat yap evapyef av yeve-
o-0at maXXov 8 Xe'y trdava yap TA Tota7va 7rapa-
o-cevat rTve el' OporvjLatv peydaXat1 Tr paOewv
S T7r4 X 'paq T'r2y v ifcxav t ~ewv ica urVTV
ISac 7Trpoaro-eva Se KIcal Ta- 7a 0aXLdaTT1'
Afi ib/3s o yap rporov TI .evtva 1 icat oK b ti/uXXov
Xepo-aLot OaXiTTLOLt.' 'rt S /cal TOb oceXo?
f1y7a WravT T6 7 rapaXa/S6vT TrV Totavr17v tao-
plav, eKt e TE rq 7raXatai rvrjr] 8lXov Kal t c
TO7 Xdryov. ola yoiv 7rotg7lral 0povIJTwrdrov9 T7cv
7pcwv tOarocabtvovo-t TOvW A7roSy>ojo-avTaq 'roXXa-
Xy o at 7rXavrl8evrTa' ev ,/eyaXp yap ri0evat
TO 7roXXjv avOpo7nrtv 16eiv daTeea Kalt voov
yvrwvat" (Od. 1. 3), ical 6 NEd-Top t-e/Uvfeat, SBOrT
TOE, AaTriOat' jlhdljcXev, eAO\Bv /.eTa7Crre/7ro9
TlXd9ev d aTrjrly 'yatq v Kaxcr-avTro yap aVrol.
(II. 1. 270)
Ial MeveXaos? roavrT;o,
Kirpov owtvictrv re Kal Altyv'rl'ovv 7raXy elt
AlOoTrd's 0' icKOhtev Kal sQeoov ov al 'Epe1,kov?
ICa AtJv, (Od. 4. 83)
1 Piccolos reads and punctuates pj.ydhAa- -ir paaO8ev e Tir
Xydpas Tv briv OKal K wv Kai vurerv I 6as wrporOeival ~c Kal T7

GEOGRAPHY, .. i. 15-16

being very closely related, and in no sense separated
from each other "as heaven is high above the
16. Well, then, to this encyclopaedic knowledge let
us add terrestrial history-that is, the history of
animals and plants and everything useful or harmful
that is produced by land or sea (this definition will, I
think, make clear what I mean by "terrestrial his-
tory "). In fact all such studies are important as
preliminary helps toward complete understanding.
And to this knowledge of the nature of the land, and
of the species of animals and plants, we must add a
knowledge of all that pertains to the sea; for in a
sense we are amphibious, and belong no more to the
land than to the sea. That the benefit is great to
anyone who has become possessed of information of
this character, is evident both from ancient traditions
and from reason. At any rate, the poets declare that
the wisest heroes were those who visited many places
and roamed over the world; for the poets regard it as
a great achievement to have seen the cities and
known the minds of many men." Nestor boasts of
having lived among the Lapithae, to whom he had
gone as an invited guest, from a distant land afar-
for of themselves they summoned me." Menelaus,
too, makes a similar boast, when he says: I roamed
over Cyprus and Phoenicia and Egypt, and came to
Ethiopians and Sidonians and Erembians and Libya "

T TS oaxnTT7s, for pEydxat n4 T aBEv a0 TS Xc4pas nr'v j ,6iov ,al
OWYv sal UnI vT I6'as. rpo9E&ivai be Kal T'r TnS BaAnTT7is;
C. Milller, Sterrett, approving.
2 A. Miller transposes the words wivra y&p Th... OaahdTTo
to this place from a position before Kca l b 'HpaKAea (line 9,
p. 30); A. Vogel, Sterrett, approving.


7rpoa8eI9 cal TO 1r81wa 71Ti9 XWpag,1
tva 7' apvev ai0ap Kepaol TeXeovautr
C 9 7pls yap Ti/CTet /j,7Xa TeXo-reaopov el v etavov.
d' il & CWV AlY'wrnlOv Oqr/3cv
(Tr 'wXheio-a f- pet elSopoq dpovpa- (Od. 4. 229)

a' 6' bKcacr-,vXo eloat, 8tOLrcoaoto 8 a' ve doCrTfv
avepe9 eFoqtvevia o aov i'wrotwUt Kcal oxeoadv.
(II. 9. 383)
Kcal Trv 'HpaKtca elic dtnr\ T7~9 vroXXWj9 d/retplac
Te tcal loTopla e XeXjvat
/IpeydwXv 'dwrraopa 'pywv. (Od. 21. 26)
'/c 72 r87 TiS79 raXata 1i vrj'ulfg ical ec Tro Xoyov
/JapTvpefTat T XeXa Oeva dv dpxa F b' ,/a&Wv.
StacfepdvTW9s 8' erdyeao-at 8OKeF /ot rpob TA
vViv Ceitvo' 6 X6yog, 8dTIT 7'r9 ewyp7pa'ia Tb
WrXeov eaO' 'rpoq Ta9 XppeaF Ta 7ToXtu tac. XyWpa
'yap T V 7rpa4eoyv eOrTt 9y ical3 9OaXaTa, 7'v
oicOV/Perv TWlO /jkV pevICpV /u/cpav T&v 86 Pey6dwv
Je'ydaXrl)' e'yl/'T7I 8' 8 j avTraoa, vTrep 18i1w
KaXov/iev ol/covutevv, CToTC 7cV pey6IlaTwv 'rpd-
ewov abTv av eftq Xowpa. /,aytaT0ro1 T(OV oTpaTq-
Xa'&v, bo-ot S'vavTat y79 /cal OaXCdTT771F apxew,
eOvl ical 7rXhet a vvdyovrTe el9 ,rav e'ovulav
Kal t8toliCaitv 7roXcrtticjv. SiXov oiv, Obrt ; yew-
rypactict rmiraa e7Trl Tar wpSaetv avadyeTrat Ta9
A Miller transposes the words wpoeaOs Kal Tb lSiw/oa ~ris
Xwbpas to this place from a position after T hOovut ; Sterrett

GEOGRAPHY, i. 1. 16

-and at this point he added the distinctive peculiarity
of the country-" where lambs are horned from the
birth ; for there the ewes yean thrice within the full
circle of a year." And in speaking of Thebes in Egypt,
he says that Egypt is the country where earth the
grain-giver yields herbs in plenty "; and again lie
says: "Thebes of the hundred gates, whence sally
forth two hundred warriors through each, with horses
and chariots." And doubtless it was because of Her-
acles' wide experience and information that Homer
speaks of him as the man who "had knowledge of
great adventures." And my contention, made at the
outset, is supported by reason as well as by ancient
tradition. And that other argument, it seems to me,
is adduced with especial force in reference to present-
day conditions, namely, that the greater part of geo-
graphy subserves the needs of states; for the scene of
the activities of states is land and sea, the dwelling-
place of man. The scene is small when the activities
are of small importance, and large when they are of
large importance; and the largest is the scene that em-
braces all the rest (which we call by the special name
of "the inhabited world"), and this, therefore, would
be the scene of activities of the largest importance.
Moreover, the greatest generals are without exception
men who are able to hold sway over land and sea, and
to unite nations and cities under one government and
political administration. It is therefore plain that
geography as a whole has a direct bearing upon the
activities of commanders; for it describes continents

2 fc re, Meineke, for 6 ti.
3 Corais deletes, before Odhaaa; Meineke following;
C. Miiller approving.


j/yeLpovmtar 8aTtreZaoa 'waelpovq cal WreXd'y Ta
i/Pv evr7O, Ta 8B e'CTO T7 v aO-vwdro-?, olicovuplevq.
7Trpb TOVTOvU e 7' 8SideaEL, 0ol StaJeOpeL rav'Ta
Xyewv ovT'ro ErTP(w9, Ka yvpcoptta elvat l Arl
yvwptlia. /4XTtov yap av 8taXetpiotev L caTara,
elS -2s Tv Xowpav 07rroa' Ttr Kal 7rcw? Ketl
TvyXavels ca i Tva' Staopa' 'o-xovoa, Ta? Tr ev
T(O 7TepteXovT Kal aL7F dev aVTry. aXXhv 8e Kcar'
a'Xa tepi7 8vvaaTrevOwVT)V cal 7Tr a'XXil eaorTaT
Kcal apX9iy Tar 7rpietg wrpoXetptbo/tevwo v Kacl erec-
TetIVOVTv 7~ T'rj 'ytepLovLia /pUyeOo9, oVc Tr' L't'
8vvarTOv oU' eKceilot aTravra 7yVopt~et ovTr T70
yewaopaovaftv- daXXa T .XXoV t LaTrov Ial roX \
Ev atUJoTdpoev Ica0oparat TOL'TOLS. /O6Xt9 yap av
TO d7r' 7o 7TrarT' etvat a avepa o-vp,8 arl T7ra r-v-
iraa -l ol/cov/Jevr) v7ro pi av apyxv ial oiroXLTeIav
vrr)yLevy aXW' o01' ovTws, aXXa Ta eyyrIVTEpc
piXXov Av yIv vpitoTo. Ical 7poo-a'co'1 Tavra 8o
wrXeto6vv e/avleLv, I)' el? yvwpipLa' TavTa yap
Kal 7rj XpeLa? EyvTrE/TeptI e-0i. (O-' ovt av ei]
Oavplaoarov, ovi' el aXXo o p.v 'Ivo0E 7rpoar4icot
,wopoypdd o,, AXXo~ 8 AlOio~tv, aXXo? eB
EXXotu /cal 'PyaloLto. Tt yap av rpoo-27cot
C 10 T6 7rap' 'Irvov yew'ypdo Kaal Ta Kcara Boto-
Trov OV'rTW padLetv, Cs "OpqApov"
o '' Tpbv evevrovro Ocal AXi' a 7erpieor'av
YXO~~v Te i8cKioXv re' (II. 2. 496)
f)i/v 86 rpoo-aieLr Ta 8e\ rap' 'Iv8o? o'TC) Kcal
Ta KaI' geKao'a ovIceTi. ov8e yap 7 Xpela
1 rpooi+or, C. Miiller, on MSS. authority.

GEOGRAPHY, i. i. 16

and seas-not only the seas inside the limits of the
whole inhabited world, but also those outside these
limits. And the description which geography gives
is of importance to these men who are concerned as to
whether this or that is so or otherwise, and whether
known or unknown. For thus they can manage their
various affairs in a more satisfactory manner, if they
know how large a country is, how it lies, and what
are its peculiarities either of sky or soil. But be-
cause different kings rule in different quarters of the
world, and carry on their activities from different
centres and starting-points, and keep extending the
borders of their empires, it is impossible either for
them or for geographers to be equally familiar
with all parts of the world; nay, the phrase "more
or less" is a fault much in evidence in kings
and geographers. For even if the whole inhabited
world formed one empire or state, it would hardly
follow that all parts of that empire would be equally
well known ; nay, it would not be true even in that
case, but the nearer regions would be better known.
And it would be quite proper to describe these re-
gions in greater detail, in order to make them
known, for they are also nearer to the needs of the
State. (Therefore it would not be remarkable even
if one person were a proper choreographer for the
Indians, another for the Ethiopians, and still another
for the Greeks and Romans. For example, wherein
would it be proper for the Indian geographer to add
details about Boeotia such as Homer gives: These
were they that dwelt in Hyria and rocky Aulis and
Schoenus and Scolus ? For me these details are pro-
per; but when I come to treat India it is no longer
proper to add such details ; and, in fact, utility does



'aTrye7aat /IerpoV S' ai' fl pIaXtora ri rotavT?71s
17. Kal TiroT caKal v ,uICpoLF CvBSXov1 ~orTv,
\ A
oov & To,?lcov Kryeao-Iot;. alcEtvov yap av 6t]pevaced
7t 8 el~8o Trv OvivX oTrola T7L Kal \ Oa'r] Ical
arpa0rore8e6e-aaL /e KaX6o jv X9 plx y rTOD elt1oro
EaT t KCa eve8pevo'at Kca o'Sev at. LLX' Ev TOL9 fe-
ydXhot E ar 77- T avyEaCrepov, ornTrep cal Ta c 8Xa
IeIe6u T7 T eJtre l a pi cal T'a o-o .Ua'ra Ta c/1
7T d'Arerpla9. 6 pevTro 'A yaelue vovo9 o- oXho9 Trv
Muvlav (i Tov Tpqd)a ropOiv drakXtv8p'Jpoev
ala)xpi. HIIpuat Se Kcal ALI3ve9, 7Tov0? op00pobv
vbrovooj'avTeE etvat TuivXOb9 o-TeVYw7rov, e IY
pelv Ox0ov Kivlvwv Ue-yaXwov, 7rp7rata 8\ T71
avota?2 KcaTe't7rov ol p~v 7Tv To70V aXyavewo
Tai0V 7rpo? 71 Ef;pir r 7T XaXl/c(tc 70To abay-
VrTO L T Wrov IlTepa(wv ( icaOo8r7yyaaLvro 70 av-
Xo c a7ro MaXth'wv eTri'b Trv Eupt'rrov" TorbV a'ovw
ol 7b 70 TO IleX'pov twvja, Ital TO~'rV Sta0oap-
EVTO; Ka'ra 7 7v 6LLolav antTav- 7rXip?] Te vavayaowv
e 'EXXA,; brrTpe KcarT Tvv Epo V 7TparEav,
Kal 71 7C v AioXe'wv 8 ical 17 T7v 'Icovwv dArotLia
7'oXXah Totaira 7Traloiaara -rapa(Seuoicev. O/Loio
6 KIcal Ica7op& LaTa, o7rov r Kaop9To919vat
avvev/317 rapa iTrv eretprfLpa v T rWV TOTOv" caOawTep
Ev TOL9 reply Oepiporr'has 1-revolS 6 'EptldXT 1?

1 6vbXov, Madvig, for p'v i3Aov.
2 &voIas, the MSS. reading is restored, for Casaubon's
ayvolas; C. Miiller approving.

GEOGRAPHY, r. I. 16-17

not urge it-and utility above all things is our stan-
dard in empirical matters of this kind.
17. The utility of geography in matters of small
concern, also, is quite evident; for instance, in
hunting. A hunter will be more successful in the
chase if lie knows the character and extent of the
forest; and again, only one who knows a region can
advantageously pitch camp there, or set an ambush,
or direct a march. The utility of geography is more
conspicuous, however, in great undertakings, in
proportion as the prizes of knowledge and the
disasters that result from ignorance are greater.
Thus Agamemnon and his fleet ravaged Mysia in the
belief that it was Troy-land, and came back home
in disgrace. And, too, the Persians and the Libyans,
surmising that the straits were blind alleys, not only
came near great perils, but they left behind them
memorials of their folly, for the Persians raised the
tomb on the Euripus near Chalcis in honour of
Salganeus, whom they executed in the belief that he
had treacherously conducted their fleet from the Gulf
of Malis1 to the Euripus, and the Libyans erected the
monument in honour of Pelorus, whom they put to
death for a similar reason 2; and Greece was covered
with wrecks of vessels on the occasion of the ex-
pedition of Xerxes; and again, the colonies sent out
by the Aeolians and by the Ionians have furnished
many examples of similar blunders. There have also
been cases of success, in which success was due to
acquaintance with the regions involved ; for instance,
at the pass of Thermopylae it is said that Ephialtes,

3 Lamia. See 9. 2. 9.
2 Pelorus tried to conduct the Carthaginians through the
Strait of Messina.
D 2


Xe"yerat SeIag T'7 8th T7&v op&v ATpa7Tov T70O
n~epracq vTroXeLplovq avToCi Wrot)o-at TOVW Wepi
Aeovl8av Kcal 8eacr0at TroV /3ap/3pov etoaw
HvyXv. e'aav 8e Ta' raXaad, Tr7 Pv v Pwalaowv
o-Tpa'reav drL HapOvalovv licavoYv 7jyov0pa TOVTWV
TEIcIyAptov c4 S av"oY 7ryv E7r' Feptpavobv Kal
KeXTo1k, Ev efXEoL cal Spv1.oET cA/3a'TO( epj/udatq
Te TroToItLaXovvTwOAv 7Tv aapl3apwOv Kal Ta E77v
7roppW '7roovvTrwv 70LE aYVoovD't Kcal Ta? 06o80b
e'irtIpv7Tro1.kevwv ical Ta'r evropla' Tpo(fdfl rTe ica'
Tr(Ov aXXwv.
18. To /ev 8 7TrXeov, weArep elp'iTrat, 7repG1 7o
lGyfIovMKov /3tiov M c Kal T'a' xpera ear7Lv eOa t2 8
ical 7T7F KtOicrJ OXoo-o 'iag ical rrOXttAi(cq9 70
jr-Xov rITepit ro o 'yep/.oVTicKOw 3ovw. 7oEioV 6eO
T ya yAp T(Ov 'roXTiret Staoopf a 7(O T yV reYo-
vLWv 8taKplvotiev, aXXflv /1iv '7yeloviav T7LOVTre
C 11TI 7Tv ovapXiav, 7v cal /3aro-iXeav KaXovoDev, aXXiv
86 T17V apa7rocpa7tav, *TppTrv 8 7Tv Sryp77olKcpa7iav.
roaaiTa 8 ic al Ta TroXtL7eia voTlqdo jiev, o/.(-
VVItog KcaXoV6Bqre av ar' eceivwv Trv aeXv
eovo-as T7s elboTrotday aXXoots3 70yp vo0Os 70 T OV
/3acxrtaA6s 7rpoo-aypa a, aXXot?3 o TO T7W aplo-Twv,
1 2repp, Cobet, for wpds.
2 Tas Xpelas d~ar. -Ti 8e icai, Meineke, for T&S Xpelas rTI
aE Kal; Cobet independently, C. Miiller approving.
3 &AAois, Madvig, for &Axos; A. Vogel approving.
1 Under Augustus and Tiberius no Roman army invaded
Parthia, apparently. Strabo must be thinking of the cam-
paign of Crassus or of that of Antony-or of both campaigns.
2 The campaign of Drusus, apparently, which he carried on
till his death in 9 B.c. But if Niese's theory be accepted as
to the time when Strabo wrote (see Introduction, pp. xxiv ff.),

GEOGRAPHY, 1. I. 17-18

by showing the Persians the pathway across the
mountains, put Leonidas and his troops at their
mercy, and brought the Persians south of Thermo-
pylae. But leaving antiquity, I believe that the
modern campaign of the Romans against the Par-
thians1 is a sufficient proof of what I say, and
likewise that against the Germans and the Celts,
for in the latter case the barbarians carried on a
guerilla warfare in swamps, in pathless forests, and
in deserts 2; and they made the ignorant Romans
believe to be far away what was really near at
hand, and kept them in ignorance of the roads and
of the facilities for procuring provisions and other
18. Now just as the greater part of geography, as
I have said, has a bearing on the life and the needs
of rulers, so also does the greater part of the theory
of ethics and the theory of politics have a bearing
on the life of rulers. And the proof of this is the
fact that we distinguish the differences between the
constitutions of states by the sovereignties in those
states, in that we call one sovereignty the monarchy
or kingship, another the aristocracy, and still
another the democracy. And we have a correspond-
ing number of constitutions of states, which we
designate by the names of the sovereignties, because
it is from these that they derive the fundamental
principle of their specific nature; for in one country
the will of the king is law, in another the will of
those of highest rank, and in another the will of the

or if the above reference was inserted in a revised edition
about 18 A.D. (p. xxv), then we might assume that allusion
is made to the destruction of the Roman legions under Varus
in 9 A.D.-to which Strabo refers in 7. 1. 4.


taa To TO oij 81iov. T7rO'i 8e Ial aXqjota wroXtTrLa
6 vdofo. 8tah 'OTO Se Ical Tb S lKatov elnrov Ttves
TO To- IcpeiTTovo9y TvZjI)epov. edrep obv 21 7roXL-
Titc tXoa-o la 7rep TOV; Foyeunovaf To AXEov
rTlv, eo-t 8' Ktal I1 yewoypatla 7repi Taf 1, e-
tiovticaq Xpelay, Xot ~'v Te TrXeoveKtcTr a tcal avT?
7rapa TOVTO. aXX O TOOTO LE To 7rXeoveiKT'rILa
'npb9 TrAs wrpiaetq.
19. "EXet 8E6 Ttva Kcal Oewplav ob 4av krv 77
7rpay JLaT'a, T7?v ILv Te'XVtiKcv Te ical IaOAIfaTirtiv
ical cvaTcrI, T7V 86 \e l oTopLa icalt tivOot CEIEpevir)V,
OU;8v oValt rp0o Ta 'w pdcaeit olov Et' TL; XYO1 Ta
7rep TV I '08ua-e'w9 ?rXivrv /cal MeveXaov ical
'Ido-ovov, el, pdvopiv tvcv obov OV aV vXXa/l.lt vetv
867etev, 'v rp'TpdTTrwv Trel, 7TrXi v el KcaTa/.clayo
Kcai Te V yevoPftevv avaycalwv Tra 7rapa8ely/IaTa
Xpo-atp.a' 8tayw'yrv 8' 'Op O T voptgot alv obc dAve-
Lev'epov TOO 6'7rt)3dXovTt, e7rit TOW'-' TOI7ToVg TOVl;
Xeepov 7 g P hXovTT terl 'rov worovi robs
wTapaax'YrTaq r7v ptvotrodaav. tcal yap TOTO 77-
TOVo't ol trpadTTOVTreq 8t TOb eVOOV Kl cal TOb 16,
dXX' obtc errl~ 7roXv- ptd ov yap a'rovd-vova-tv, 49
dlicik, 'repl Ta Xypat/ja. o7dTrep ical 7 oyeOypd w
TOVTWV 1PaXXov 7 e6clveiv .. leTLeXi7Teov. 4o 8'
aVTW9 eXCet cal 7rept T 79 to-TopLa9 ical trep, TWOV
1pa6rlliaTwrv ical yap TOVTWV To Xpo2o-1pov ade
fIAdov Xn7rTTov icat TO 7rtO'rTrepov.

1 The definition ascribed to Thrasymachus, Plato's Re-
public, 1. 12.
2 Strabo has in mind his theory (which he often takes
occasion to uphold) as to the comparative mythical and
historical elements in Homer and other poets.

GEOGRAPHY, I. I. 18-i9

people. It is the law that gives the type and the
form of the constitution. And for that reason some
have defined "justice" as "the interest of the more
powerful." If, then, political philosophy deals
chiefly with the rulers, and if geography supplies
the needs of those rulers, then geography would
seem to have some advantage over political science.
This advantage, however, has to do with practice.
19. And yet, a work on geography also involves
theory of no mean value, the theory of the arts, of
mathematics, and of natural science, as well as the
theory which lies in the fields of history and myths 2
-though myths have nothing to do with practice ;
for instance, if a man should tell the story of the
wanderings of Odysseus or Menelaus or Jason, it
would not be thought that he was making any
contribution to the practical wisdom of his hearers-
and that is what the man of affairs demands-unless
he should insert the useful lessons to be drawn from
the hardships those heroes underwent; still, he
would be providing no mean entertainment for the
hearer who takes an interest in the regions which
furnished the scenes of the myths. Men of affairs
are fond of just such entertainment, because the
localities are famous and the myths are charming;
but they care for no great amount of it, since they
are more interested in what is useful, and it is quite
natural that they should be. For that reason the
geographer, also, should direct his attention to -the
useful rather than to what is famous and charming.
The same principle holds good in regard to history
and the mathematical sciences; for in these branches,
also, that which is useful and more trustworthy should
always be given precedence.


20. MXitr-'ra Se Solce, /caO7rep e''p,-rat, 'yew/.e-
Tpta, re ial ca'Tpovo/jia Se' 7v rT Totay I 'roOe-
e-e. Kai Se atL v ; a Xrf7q&OF o-Xsl0- aara 7ap Ical
KXVliaTa Ica'l ieye '7 KaL T' a'fXXa ra TOrTOt? Olicela
o;X0 otdv Te Xa/pev /caX&i? davev 7Tr TOLtavrT2
pe6OOov. aXX' dwa7rep Ta rTrepi Trv ava/.ieTp'r7rv
7r9 8OX, 71? dev AxXot ?eucvvovatv, evraOva 86
biroOe9'9at SeM al K Toreaat 7t e TO ice9 9E t eX lo-tv,
bTro9~Oata Se1' Katl oaatpoetS8i /.ev rtO Iatov,
aoatpoet8f] 8e Kai Tr2V e7rtidavetav Tr 7 7n/r, T SeT
TOVTW)V 7rrpepvTEOV T7)V e7T TO\ J-ov 7TW aTwo/aTp r
fopadv avTob Uovov, el Tt2 Ti7p alo(Tjae(w 'F T rV
CKOvwv evotOiv eyyU 9 ? faT, ed Apa, 6ertorjLpivad-
tuevot erri KceoaXalap tZCpd' oov O TI7 OI y a(at-
poetS 49, eK PEi V T77 '7rl TO' /1-ov opctV 7TrppwOev
27 V7rojlPv7-cvr Kal T70V eKcaTOVr a-a ETl TO avTov
appripaa vemvev, e'c 8 rTaV KaTa rreXdy) Icaal TOV
C 12 opavov vovv ~avova)ov wnyOe ical y7ap 9 al -Osco-t
Etrrtiap7vpelt SvvaTat aial r ico o evr vota. (ave-
po ,yap e7rt7rpoaoCG TO9 7rX eovoa-V 2 KvprTOTr1) T?79
aXad7TrrT oare /1\ 7rpoo~pl3XXev TO9 rropp7 w y-
yeata TOt D ''ioaov efp~loevotI3 Tj ostet. EapBevra
yotv 7rXeov 7r< o6fr*ews edcarl7, IcalTO 7rXEov cdro-
1 Se7, Groskurd, for ae. 2 fris, Madvig, for dri.
t3 ppvots, Meineke, for ep4'ppivots.
1 See footnote 2, page 22.
2 Strabo uses the word in its literal sense of sphere-
shaped," and not in its geometrical sense. The spheroidicity
of the earth was apparently not suspected until the seven-
teenth century. See 2. 5. 5.


20. Most of all, it seems to me, we need, as I
have said, geometry and astronomy for a subject like
geography; and the need of them is real indeed; for
without such methods as they offer it is not possible
accurately to determine our geometrical figures,
" climate "1, dimensions, and the other cognate
things; but just as these sciences prove for us in
other treatises all that has to do with the measure-
ment of the earth as a whole and as I must in this
treatise take for granted and accept the propositions
proved there, so I must take for granted that the
universe is spheroidal,2 and also that the earth's sur-
face is spheroidal, and, what is more, I must take for
granted the law that is prior to these two principles,
namely that the bodies tend toward the centre 3;
and I need only indicate, in a brief and summary
way, whether a proposition comes-if it really does
-within the range of sense-perception or of intuitive
knowledge. Take, for example, the proposition that
the earth is spheroidal: whereas the suggestion of this
proposition comes to us mediately from the law that
bodies tend toward the centre and that each body in-
clines toward its own centre of gravity, the suggestion
comes immediately from the phenomena observed at
sea and in the heavens; for our sense-perception and
also our intuition can bear testimony in the latter
case. For instance, it is obviously the curvature of
the sea that prevents sailors from seeing distant lights
that are placed on a level with their eyes. At any
rate, if the lights are elevated above the level of the
eyes, they become visible, even though they be at a
3 Strabo here means all the heavenly bodies. According
to his conception, the earth was stationary and all the
heavenly bodies revolved about the earth from east to west,
the heavens having the same centre as the earth.


a-xOvra av7T' r opol A Kcal avrlT7 /IETEWpiaetoa
eI8e Ta' KceKpvfIpIa 7TpoTepov. o7rep SrlXoi Kal 6
r777-oTrT rotoiVrov yap eai KIca TO
o6v ,ctda 7rpoiMtv, /eydaXov vTro KIlv/aTro
apoeis. (Od. 5. 393)
cal 7ro0i rpoO7rTXovr a 8E ade Kaitl iaXXov Trro-
yvpo.voi7ra Ta rrpoaoyeta ItEp', Kcai Tah avevra Ev
aipXa Trarewa ra alperat iiiXXov. 7~o Tjo ovpavt-
Wv 77 'repUfopa evapyj' eOarrT KaNl aXX) Kal E' 7 TV
'vYWtoovtIcGv "ic 8' TOVTw(V evOv 7 roreivet Ixal 7)
evvota, Ort Eppl.EvqF e7r' a~retpov 7Tql y? oVic
av r Totav7rT TreptLopa avv~TU atUv. ICa Ta 7repi
T7& KXIttdrwT( 8E bev TOL's rrepl TW7 olcj)-e)ov
21. Nvv' 8 '; &ToCltov uSed Xaaelv vta, Kal
TavO' o-a T7 7 TOXIT7K /al T7 o-7paT'qXadTr Xp)7-
a0-a. oVTe hyp OVTi e8 i Ayvoelv Ta 7rept 70v
ovpavov Kal 7-7v OEftiv rT71 I77F, ,WOT, e7etSae v
yev~yTrat Ka7a rT7dovU, Kca0' ob e XaKTair Tta va
T7oV 0atvoi ovwv Tols 7TroXXOo iv 7(7 ovpavc,
rapdaoacO- al K a Totavra Xeyetv/
SjIoi, ob )ydp 7' ''/e 8orrw' 6 dov, oW8' 01y7

ob8' 'rry iX)to, aealo/3poTro ela-' b7ro yalav,
ov8' 07rT dAveETati (Od. 10. 190)
o;0' OVTO) aKptf3Lov, w-are TAr 7rravoraX o(vvava-
ToXad re Kal a'vyycarTa8v-es Ical a-v1L eoovpavrj-

1 irp--r'y-S-wp--p, Sterrett, for 'bOr-b-r7--bir---bwn.

GEOGRAPHY, 1. I. 20-21

greater distance from the eyes; and similarly if the
eyes themselves are elevated, they see what was
before invisible. This fact is noted by Homer, also,
for such is the meaning of the words: With a
quick glance ahead, being upborne on a great wave,
[he saw the land very near]." So, also, when
sailors are approaching land, the different parts of
the shore become revealed progressively, more and
more, and what at first appeared to be low-lying land
grows gradually higher and higher. Again, the
revolution of the heavenly bodies is evident on
many grounds, but it is particularly evident from the
phenomena of the sun-dial; and from these
phenomena our intuitive judgment itself suggests
that no such revolution could take place if the earth
were rooted to an infinite depth. 1 As regards the
" climate 2, they are treated in our discussion of
the Inhabited Districts.
21. But at this point we must assume off-hand a
knowledge of some matters, and particularly of all
that is useful for the statesman a and the general to
know. For one should not, on the one hand, be so
ignorant of the heavens and the position of the
earth as to be alarmed when he comes to countries
in which some of the celestial phenomena that are
familiar to everybody have changed, and to exclaim:
My friends, lo, now we know not where is the place
of darkness, nor of dawning, nor where the sun,
that gives light to men, goes beneath the earth, nor,
where lie rises ; nor, on the other hand, need one
have such scientifically accurate knowledge as to
know what constellations rise and set and pass the
1 This was the doctrine of Xenophanes and Anaximenes.
See footnote 2, page 22.


o-uet icatl dppara 7r6rhov cal Ta KIcaTN IopvO'v
o-rrtiea cal o oa aXXa TotaDra icaTrd Tr /-era-
7TTro-'et T7j)V opt6TdVr aa /cal 7 O tdpICTticvy
8tafEpovTa a7rarTa, Ta /1EV 7rpks To\v B'tf, Ta 4a
Ial T7 (;icEL, ryVOpil4eL ivTara Ta XXh' 7a phev
/ ~8S' Xw1, )poVTri et, rrXv el Oa, tbXoa'6o6v
Xydpv, TOFV Sc 7TrIarTewt, icav /IL1 EXr T 7 8h r
Kal yap TOUTO TO) LotXoro(o-VvTO; ,1iov, 7T S
7rOX7tTtI/C yXOX; 0o TOfavT7 oeTECOTVL, OvC aet.
ov /JLV o6S' OV'OrF, v7rdpretv a7rhXoDv Se TOP ErTVy-
dvovTra 7 paf T raVTy7 Kal JpyoV, ia-Tre P178
C 13 rbaipav 1'elv, /LfSoe KK\.XOv ev avTj, TOUV pCv
7rapaXX7jov-, TO's o' opiovs 7rp 7s TOVTOUV, TOV7
8& Xo4o'v"' /jt8S Tpo'irtlncy e ial laorupeptwoiv a't
owtaKco Berav, St' o0 0epof/evog iXios 7Tpe'rTai
Katl &aT (O"f- 1 Sta(opa KX.L iCLdTOPV rE cal ivepmv.
TaDya yap cal r Ta rrep, Tov opioVTas Krat TO'al
apctrtCOvs; cal o0-a daXXa KaTa T7p7 7p(OTflV aryo7v
VP Els? Ta /paljiara -rapaSlaor Kacaravor-ava
TVL EXXO~s rto SPaTat 7rapacoXov0o9e TOt,
Xeyou/evots &evTav0a. o SE 1Iw8' e6BeOav ypaltiPv
I 7Treptcfep), AL18fb KVK'Xov del&, /-f7$ Ee o-apptil
6-ieridveiav 4 edTrrl Tov, /Al8y' delv obpavy /1786
TOV E7rTa T7s 7 /j e'aXydl dapK~Tov dao-rpas icara-
/taOw&v, /tWS' dXXo Tt TIoJ TLOUTO)V /y78e'o, i obI av

1 Tairdoaci, Madvig, for WtSd'ict.


meridian at the same time everywhere; or as to
know the elevations of the poles, the constellations
that are in the zenith, and all other such changing
phenomena as meet one according as he changes
his horizons and arctic circles,1 whether those changes
be merely visual, or actual as well. Nay, he should
pay no attention at all to some of these things,
unless it be in order to view them as a philosopher.
But he should take some other things on faith,
even if he does not see a reason for them; for the
question of causes belongs to the student of
philosophy alone, whereas the statesman does not
have adequate leisure for research, or at least not
always. However, the reader of this book should
not be so simple-minded or indifferent as not to have
observed a globe, or the circles drawn upon it, some
of which are parallel, others drawn at right angles
to the parallels, and still others oblique to them;
or, again, so simple as not to have observed the
position of tropics, equator, and zodiac-the region
through which the sun is borne in his course and by
his turning determines the different zones and winds.
For if one have learned, even in a superficial way,
about these matters, and about the horizons and
the arctic circles and all the other matters taught
in the elementary courses of mathematics, he will
be able to follow what is said in this book. If,
however, a man does not know even what a straight
line is, or a curve, or a circle, nor the difference
between a spherical and a plane surface, and if, in
the heavens, he have not learned even the seven
stars of the Great Bear, or anything else of that
kind, either he will have no use for this book, or else
1 See 2. 2. 2, and footnote.


SootTo T7 s' 7rpay/aT eLas TraVTU z OVX~ vbU, axX'
eIce IotV ePTvywxUV poepov, woy Xwptv ovKc av eErl
yewypa/laF olketov. OVTwtO Se Kca ot TOv" XtEvas'
iKal 7 TO 'repl7TrovL KaXov/iev'ovU 7rpayp aTevUevTeV
dTCeX rT)v Tir[ao-KcetLr oto7vrat, pNt 7rpoTtOIur'evT
oaa Kc TV /,tas7)/rdTwo cal d/e T(ov obpavift
ovvPwarTev 7poo-tT)7ce.
22. 'A7rX@&s 8 I cowtV evat To a-vyypaIpIa roVro
Se Kal oXtrcow icat Sypoe..eXEs opt.ols', Ao7rep
T7iP T;1? lt-Toplas yparljv. K I cK 86 7TOXLtKZtw
XCyopLer ov0 Toy 7ravTar atr ata rat&SeTo, ('XXa
TOV pCeTaaxo-vTa 7T;? Te C'yCvicXlov Kcal avviO0ovq
IywCoy~ 7 TOtE eXevU9pots ical TOFs OtXroOooDoaiv"
ovSe y/tp av ob re 'ye L 86watro IcaX&o' OUT
eTraetvd, ob8v Kprlvev o-aa p/UrjL ? al ta Toi 7y6o-
vPr7v, OreT jrBvp effi?70-ev ppeTij7 ical Opovjoews;
KaL T(WV els 7avTa XAoywV.
23. Atowrep ~iLet' TreTrotlKOTeT6 vTroU/vlp7aTaa
taToptica XpljatIta, a) b7roXa/)jd/3vofev, els T7?
)OuIctfv KaC 7rotTlcl7Pv KaXoo'olap, gywptaev p1pouo-
Oeivat ical Trjv- e Tjv a0-vuTatw od/xoetP 'ya'p Kcal
avrJn, Kcai 7Trpo' Trov aTvroV9 dvpas, Kat ttAttX -Ta
TOvs ev rait vrepoxat'. 'en T TO6 a6vro Trpoov,
oV7Trp eKce TOa Irep TOV' E7Ttiraveit~ auipaw Kai
/3ovs Trvyxdvet ptViri', Ta\ S& uciKPa ical rSooa
1 The words oUTw s Kal ... a-uvadvre w pociipt are trans-
posed to this place from the end of 22 by Meineke, follow-
ing the suggestion of Corais; C. Miller approving. Siebenkees
deletes the h before auvdirrerw; Corais, Meineke, following;
C. Miller approving.
SStrabo refers to his historical work (now lost) as his
Historical Sketches and also as his History. The work con-
tained both of these, and comprised forty-seven books, cover-

GEOGRAPHY, I. I. 21-23

not at present-in fact, not until he has studied
those topics without which he cannot be familiar
with geography. And so those who have written
the treatises entitled Harbours and Coasting V voyages
leave their investigations incomplete, if they have
failed to add all the mathematical and astronomical
information which properly belonged in their books.
22. In short, this book of mine should be generally
useful-useful alike to the statesman and to the
public at large-as was my work on History.1 In
this work, as in that, I mean by statesman," not
the man who is wholly uneducated, but the man who
has taken the round of courses usual in the case of
freemen or of students of philosophy. For the
man who has given no thought to virtue and to
practical wisdom, and to what has been written about
them, would not be able even to form a valid opinion
either in censure or in praise ; nor yet to pass judg-
ment upon the matters of historical fact that are
worthy of being recorded in this treatise.
23. And so, after I had written my Historical
Sketches,1 which have been useful, I suppose, for
moral and political philosophy, I determined to write
the present treatise also; for this work itself is
based on the same plan, and is addressed to the
same class of readers, and particularly to men of
exalted stations in life. Furthermore, just as in my
Historical Sketches only the incidents in the lives of
distinguished men are recorded, while deeds that
are petty and ignoble are omitted, so in this work
ing the course of events prior to the opening and subsequent
to the close of the History of Polybius. The first part was
merely an outline of historical events, while the latter part
presented a complete history from 146 n.c. to the time of the


7rapaXel~TrlTa, KavTraD0a iet T7 pricpah cal Ta
acfavil 7rapa7re4Tretv, dv 86 Tro, dvd'otv Kcal Ueyd-
Xot( ical ev oq Tob 7TpaylFarTtiKv Kal e~znVrtov6evrov
Ka'l ?6 Si&arppetv. KcaO8lrep re1 /ca'l ev roE-
coXoo-ticoIK 6'pyotV o To caO' eicao-ov atKpicpt
TrofTviev, UXha TroEVc Kica ov 7rpoa7'Xoiev FuaXov,
ei KcaX(i9 Tob o"ov OfUTrO Kcdav rorot SeZ ioroteao-at
C 14 7Tiv plKaw. IKooaacovpyia /yap Trv ical aVTi, Ta
,edyaxa pdaova-a 7r T e'Xy t al Th obXa, 7rXlv e'
rt Kicvev 3vPaTarat a Tr& p.rivpI v r7v IXfetS1ijova
Kcat TOV rpaI//a7C IKo. OT y~LV OvP a'rrovSawiov TO
TrpoKei1erOv ep'yov Kal choo-6dO) 7rp7rrov, TaVTa


1. El 8 7wroXXov 7rpoetTrO VTWv e7TrXEIpoD/I.V Kal
avTrol Xyetv 7r-ept T^Vw avzv&, OVi TTW UfeprTTov, av
Sc Kal TOv avTOv Tpo6rOv 8 tXeeXOJYLev dKeivoL9
airavra Xeyov'rTe. v7roXa/~p/3vo/ev aXAov
aXXo Trt caropOao-dvTrTv aXXo 7roXV peIpoI eT roD
epyov XelTracr"a 7Tpro s o;v av Kal p~.rcpO\ 7poo--
Xa/3ew Svvi)A0fLev, icav\v Sed Tie0at0a wrpo6oac-
T7? e7rtXieItp G'jE e cal yapp y 7roXV TL roTlF vjv
r' TV 'Pfojiailov nritcpdrata Kal T IT HapOvalov
Tv, roTtavrrv r'rTTretplav 7rpoc-e&o.e' KCaaT7rrp TOl
7rpooT'povt /iya Tt i' 'AXe!dv8pov eTpareta,2 6o
~rnT 'EparoO-e'rvqF. 6 JLV Iyap Trj 'Ao-la
ST, Meineke, for ye.
t KaBarep ro7s wporepois piya rIt 1 'AX efdvpovu orparT[a,
C. Miiller, for KaOdrvp To7s mETr Tr V 'AAhfE dpou TTpardaiy.

GEOGRAPHY, i. I. 23-2. I

also I must leave untouched what is petty and in-
conspicuous, and devote my attention to what is
noble and great, and to what contains the practically
useful, or memorable, or entertaining. Now just as
in judging of the merits of colossal statues we do
not examine each individual part with minute care,
but rather consider the general effect and endeavour
to see if the statue as a whole is pleasing, so should
this book of mine be judged. For it, too, is a
colossal work, in that it deals with the facts about
large things only, and wholes, except as some petty
thing may stir the interest of the studious or the
practical man. I have said thus much to show that
the present work is a serious one, and one worthy of
a philosopher.


1. IF I, too, undertake to write upon a subject that
has been treated by many others before me, I should
not be blamed therefore, unless 1 prove to have dis-
cussed the subject in every respect as have my
predecessors. Although various predecessors have
done excellent work in various fields of geography,
yet I assume that a large portion of the work still
remains to be done; and if I shall be able to make
even small additions to what they have said, that
must be regarded as a sufficient excuse for my under-
taking. Indeed, the spread of the empires of the
Romans and of the Parthians has presented to
geographers of to-day a considerable addition to our
empirical knowledge of geography, just as did the
campaign of Alexander to geographers of earlier
times, as Eratosthenes points out. For Alexander

OL.. I.


7roXX;Yv ipveKdXvrev pjj i2v Kal TWV Iopetwo T'r
EbpLrry ? di'rravTa teXpt ToD "IcrTpov" ol ~B 'Po-
piaio Ta a' rwepta 'rj Eubpo)rlr av'rava peXpt 1
"AX/3to? 7roTa/oiD Tr 7o Tv Feppaviav S xa Stas-
poDvTo70, Tr Te 7repav "I'-Tpov th pLXpt Ttpa
7roTafoD* Ta 8 e7ridcetva tLeXpt MatorwT6v Kal T7
els KdoXovU TrEXevrT(Lo-) 'rapaXla9 MLtptSdTrTj; 6
KXy79eL9 EvTrdrCop ~7Tol0o-e 'voptLfa cal ot Eiceivov
T'rpa'r-,yo" 01 8B HapOvaiot 7Th 7repi T'rv 'Tpica-
viav tcal 'r BaItcTrpavv cal TOV70? V3p TOVTOW
SIcvo0a yvowpIqu Epovo ~djiv E7roir7-av, '7nToT
yVoplo40/f Eov; 7Ovj TV p7Trpo 0rpov" wore OL'xtII
lv Ti XyetfL 7rXe'ov T6wV 7rpo 9fpSv. 6pav 8' ao'rat
TOVTO fJULadktoa Ev 7ot0 Xoyot? To70? 7rpo TOV'; WrpO
(3/)jv, TTO770 ) fv TOV70 7radXat, ~tiaXXov 8 T70V7' /eT'
'EpaToaOe-0'V ica avrTOv iceTvov ov elto9G o'o-Wrep
roXvLa0Bea'oepot TWV wroXXk(v yey dovao, TOoTOVT(
8vo-e\e'yIrOTepov, elvat To0L9 VO-Tpov, av 7T rX'/p-
/eXS) X/yoowat. ei 8' dvaytcaa-qo-m'1ite6d 7rov T7ol
ab7ro09 aVTIXc'yetV, l09 /daXtL-ra eTratcoXoovOoptev
tcarTa Taha," Se a-vyyvwlv 6'xetv. ov 'yap
7rpotKETal 7rpo0 aravnav AvLXeLyew, ALXa To70
ptev roXXob? day, oZF pi7& ticoXovEOdv dto -
detcevove & 8Statria, obv dv TO7r 7TrXe7ro1te /caTWp-
0tKO'7ra; 'lo-ev. w7rel ovoe 7rpo,? arTav7ai OiXo-
1 yiXP', Meineke, for peXptis.
2 Kara T&rAAa, Cobet, for Kai' &AAa.
I Danube. 2 Elbe. 3 Dniester.
SSea of Azov. 5 Southern Caucasia.


opened up for us geographers a great part of Asia
and all the northern part of Europe as far as the
Ister 1 River; the Romans have made known all the
western part of Europe as far as the River Albis 2
(which divides Germany into two parts), and the
regions beyond the Ister as far as the Tyras
River; and Mithridates, surnamed Eupator, and his
generals have made known the regions beyond the
Tyras as far as Lake Maeotis 4 and the line of coast
that ends at Colchis 5; and, again, the Parthians have
increased our knowledge in regard to Hyrcania and
Bactriana, and in regard to the Scythians who live
north of Hyrcania and Bactriana, all of which
countries were but imperfectly known to the earlier
geographers. I therefore may have something more
to say than my predecessors. This will become
particularly apparent in what I shall have to say in
criticism of my predecessors, but my criticism has
less to do with the earliest geographers than with
the successors of Eratosthenes and Eratosthenes
himself. For it stands to reason that because
Eratosthenes and his successors have had wider
knowledge than most geographers, it will be corres-
pondingly more difficult for a later geographer to
expose their errors if they say anything amiss. And
if I shall, on occasion, be compelled to contradict
the very men whom in all other respects I follow
most closely, I beg to be pardoned ; for it is not my
purpose to contradict every individual geographer,
but rather to leave the most of them out of
consideration-men whose arguments it is unseemly
even to follow-and to pass upon the opinion of
those men whom we recognize to have been correct
in most cases. Indeed, to engage in philosophical


crooet al;tov, w'rpb' 'EpaTrooaOevr 8e ia 'I7TrapXov
Kal Ilooret vtov1 Ical Hox gr/3tov Kal lXXovq
C 15 2. IIpwTrov 8' irtoiceTTov 'EpaTrofOev, 7rapa-
rTtevTa,' aliea cal Trv 'Ip7rdppyov 7rpov avTov
uvTtXoylav. ~er-t 8' 'EpaToaOfevrC o039' 3 o0 T
evKaTaTpo6aaaor;o, wa-re pI' 'A04va' a6T;ov ISetv
adaicev, 07rep IloXE/iowv deTri pet SeteKvvat oViT'
7ri T70oror TO 7ro-TO', ooov 7rapeSe!avTO rve' ,
KcaLrep wrXeIrTot? eCvrvXwv, Cw eidpicev avroT,
Atyaloi Av~pd'crov. EyevovTO ryp, dOyo-ti, 0) ob-
8e'roTe, KaTa TroOTv TOy Katpov v v' va 7repli/oXov
Kcal jlav 'TrnoXt 0o4 Kar 'Apl rTwva Kat 'Apce-
aiXaov avO1ojavTE ,iXLo-o ot. obX icavov p '
ol/.a TODTO, dXXah TO icplvew KaXko, ol~ piaXXov
'retiaeov. 6 8o 'ApicoeaRXaov cal 'Apl~-r va Tov
Kca0' av'Tv av(o-vrmavT cov Kpv altovv rtlcr7w,
'ATreXXMj re abrT 7roXlv' deat cal Blov, 6v brqlat
7rprTov dAvOtvBa 7rept/3aXefv tXoiooofiav, AXX' bo/'w
7TOXXuKLkt edTrev v TLva jr' aVTOV Tro7ro
otlqv ie paKicev 6 Blov. (Od. 18. 74)

jv atlraF, yAp T7ai daroofdo'crt Tavat'v IKavrv
aoeeLav ea Talvet T1,( eavroV yV(I/p"' 7?0 TOV
Z'jvtvoI ;7TO KtLte'O yvUptiEov yevoyevo? 'AOvyort

1 "IrrapXov Kial floreatSLLo, Spengel, for IlrtT &Svlov IOal
I7rrapxo ; Meineke following.
2 rp@irov, Spengel, for rpdT&rpov; Meineke following.
3 of', Meineke, for obX.
4 Kai, Xylander deletes, after of; Meineke following.
6 wrEtiov, the correction of the prima manus, Spengel,
A. Vogel, prefer, for rFpoOrtiov.

GEOGRAPHY, i. 2. I-2

discussion with everybody is unseemly, but it is
honourable to do so with Eratosthenes, Hipparchus,
Poseidonius, Polybius, and others of their type.
2. First, 1 must consider Eratosthenes, at the
same time setting forth the objections which
Hipparchus urges against the statements of
Eratosthenes. Now Eratosthenes is not so open
to attack as to warrant my saying that he never
saw even Athens, as Polemon undertakes to prove;
nor, on the other hand, is he so trustworthy as some
have been taught to believe that he is-notwith-
standing the fact that he had been associated with
many eminent men, as he himself tells us. For,"
says he, "philosophers gathered together at this
particular time, as never before within one wall or
one city ; I refer to those who flourished in the time
of Ariston and Arcesilaus." But I do not think that
sufficient; what we need is a clear-cut judgment as
to what teachers we should choose to follow. But
he places Arcesilaus and Ariston at the head of the
scholars who flourished in his day and generation;
and Apelles is much in evidence with him, and so is
Bion, of whom he says: "Bion was the first to drape
philosophy in embroidered finery"; and yet he states
that people frequently applied to Bion the words:
" Such a [thigh] as Bion shewss] from out his rags." '
Indeed, in these very statements Eratosthenes re-
veals a serious infirmity in his own judgment; and
because of this infirmity, although he himself
studied in Athens under Zeno of Citium, he makes
1 The original allusion is to "the old man" Odysseus,
Od. 18. 74.


TWV IJEv eKceivov 8ta&efaj.ovwv obvevof /.iLviP7rTai,
TOV 8S' icevKl'V StEVef9evT7a iKcatl wv 8ta&oxy obve-
pla o-6re'at, Tov 0V vf (?crai 'r-t caT Kar Tr V
catpov eiceIvov. 8XoZ Se icall 17 rep TrCov atya9Ov
c&SoOeaa '7vrr avToVu 7payWaTela cal peXETa ical
e t a XXTO OUTO T v aTV Oyw'yv avTroD- 8t EL .oro;
7v TO7 Te /ovXotke'vov 0tXoo-o4ev ical TroD j
OappovvTro9 dyXetpltew Eavov elT T7V Vr1aaXeCrIv
T7avT'q, (XXa /Povov ILExpt ToV Soicev 7rpOioVTro, 77
ical wapd/3aav rtva TavT'v aTdr Ti V aXXtov TWov
eyKcvKXtov Wre'nopia~Tevov 7rpo S 8tayoyrv A7 Ital
7rat8tv Tpo rpov 86 T-wa icatl ev ToE; aXXot 'o-e
TOtoDVro. LXXa deceiva eldtawo- 7rp.1 ? 8e T\ vPv
riXeipTrEov, o-a 8ovatTr av, e7ravopoovv T\iv
yecoypa lav, ical 7rporov oTrep aptwIs vjrepe-
3. Iloct'riv /yap 'qr1 IrdrvTa arToxd a fCat vYx-
ayo)ylaa, ob Stao-caXlaa. rTovavrwov 8' otl raXator
Icxoa'o0Iav Ttva XEyoviOt 7Trp(T'r7v T7jv 7rTOI7TICtjV,
etoalyova-av e; TOV 3!ov 3 'o a; 4tc vewK v J Kal Sdaa-
Icovo-av jf ictal raCiy ical a rppdetr fLE0' (iovfj'"
ol 8' fi/eTepot icatl lovov 7rotI1 Lv 'aaav elvat
TOY aCo)6v. 81t TODTO ical TOb; 7raEt8a al TWV
'EX.'jvwv 7rdXet 7 rpTPTtrTa 81th T?7 7rolT7TtIic'
7rat8riovatv, ob *rvXayoylaq Xadptv 84rrovOev
C 16 *tAXr dXX\ ao~povro-aoGo lo ov TOye ica ol /tov-
crtcol yrfXewv ical Xvpi~etv ical abeFXv St8aoicovPTe
1 eldafw, Cobet, for ?iasw.

SThe Greek word here used is significant. The parabasis
formed a part of the Old Comedy, and was wholly incidental
to the main action of the play.

GEOGRAPHY, i. 2. 2-3

no mention of any of Zeno's successors, but speaks
of those men who dissented from the teachings of
Zeno and who failed to establish a school that lived
after them as "flourishing at that particular time.
His treatise entitled On the Good, also, and his Studies
in Declamation, and whatever else he wrote of this
nature, go to show his tendency, namely, that of the
man who is constantly vacillating between his desire
to be a philosopher and his reluctance to devote
himself entirely to this profession, and who therefore
succeeds in advancing only far enough to have the
appearance of being a philosopher; or of the man
who has provided himself with this as a diversion'
from his regular work, either for his pastime or even
amusement; and in a sense Eratosthenes displays
this tendency in his other writings, too. But let
this pass; for my present purpose I must correct
Eratosthenes' geography as far as possible; and first,
on the point which I deferred a while ago.2
3. As I was saying, Eratosthenes contends that
the aim of every poet is to entertain, not to instruct.
The ancients assert, on the contrary, that poetry is a
kind of elementary philosophy, which, taking us in
our very boyhood, introduces us to the art of life
and instructs us, with pleasure to ourselves, in
character, emotions, and actions. And our School 3
goes still further and contends that the wise man
alone is a poet. That is the reason why in Greece
the various states educate the young, at the very
beginning of their education, by means of poetry;
not for the mere sake of entertainment, of course,
but for the sake of moral discipline. Why, even the
musicians, when they give instruction in singing, in
2Page 23. 3 See Introduction, page xvi.


peTarrotoDvTat Ti- apeT7 ra T7r 7ratSev7rtol
yap lvaI fcaa Kcal eTravopOfiKcol T7v I0wOv.
ravTa 8' ob povov 7rapa TyV HV0ayopeELiw aKcoveY
earr Xe'y6vTovr dXXa Kal 'AptcreTO7vo ouVT01 adro-
atalveTat. cal "Ojrlpov SE 7rov aotioyv a-ooopo-
VtO-TaL e'tprlce, KaOdnrep rTv Tr,? KXvTatpvIvo-rpas
rrhdX:' dr' Ee
C 7roXX E7TeXXev
'ATped tS TpolivSe KtovI edpvaoOat aKicoLV,
(Od. 3. 267)
rTO re A'yto-Oov ob 7rTpoTpv avfi; replleveo-Oat,
7rptv 77
TO eV aOto &S aycov eq vI orjdOr epj)iv
Trv S' t9eEXov OE'ovaav av+rayev ovS'e Solov8e.
(Od. 3. 270)
YUpl; 8c TOVdTWV 'EpaToCa0'vf eavTO, taXeTat"
tLXKpoV 'yap 7rpo Tr 7 XCXeCUel~T a7rotco-ew dvap-
XOIPevov TOV 7rept 7Tl? yewypabla XAoyov pio-'iv
rravra vg ca' ipXag tX OTtoLWq 'EXELiV eL' 'TO /7Ia OV
EpEtv TIJ V vTrp TV TOIOv'TW Iro-Toplav. "O)JUlpov
yoirv brrp re T'OV AlOoirr v ob'a iWrEuTO Kaca-
Xwpl'at el T 'i roijoTw ical 7rept Tr& icar' A'''yv-
rrrov Ial Ait 3rqv, Ta e 8\ Kara Trv 'EXXd'a Kcal
ToV ao -veyyvY rTrov'T ical Xav rrpept'pyo 'fevrlvo-
x'vat, roXvorpipwva LEPv T7; v Olt-/iv XeyovTa
(II. 2. 502), 'AlXaprov 8 7rrotevera (ib. 503),
deaxarowcav 8e 'AvO76d va (ib. 508), AiXatav Se
7rsyfi,? br'7 Ky o-o-oo (ib. 523), Kal oveflav
7TpoaOriKiV Kevojv daroppilrrretv. VrOepov oiv 0
7roUiv Tar7a *vXaywywovT, eolCev StSdaKiOVTit;


lyre-playing, or in flute-playing, lay claim to this
virtue, for they maintain that these studies tend to
discipline and correct the character. You may hear
this contention made not merely by the Pythagoreans,
but Aristoxenus also declares the same thing. And
Homer, too, has spoken of the bards as disciplinarians
in morality, as when he says of the guardian of
Clytaemnestra: Whom the son of Atreus as he
went to Troy strictly charged to keep watch over his
wife "; and he adds that Aegisthus was unable to
prevail over Clytaemnestra until "he carried the
bard to a lonely isle and left him there-while as for
her, he led her to his house, a willing lady with a
willing lover." But, even apart from this, Eratos-
thenes contradicts himself; for shortly before the
pronouncement above-mentioned, and at the very
beginning of his treatise on geography, he says that
from the earliest times all the poets have been eager
to display their knowledge of geography; that
Homer, for instance, made a place in his poems for
everything that he had learned about the Ethiopians
and the inhabitants of Egypt and Libya, and that he
has gone into superfluous detail in regard to Greece
and the neighboring countries, speaking of Thisbe
as the "haunt of doves," Haliartus as "grassy,
Anthedon as on the uttermost borders," Lilaea as
"by the springs of Cephisus"; and he adds that
Homer never lets fall an inappropriate epithet.
Well then, I ask, is the poet who makes use of these
epithets like a person engaged in entertaining, or in


v7 Ala, aXXa Tava a peV Ov"T(O EIprflc, P T S' e~'I
T v; alaO~Of0oCe Kalt oro KIal a XXo TepaToXoyila;
pLVOiCv 7reTrXpwcKaowV. obicovV EXp v oivTrw0
dTreiv, ",ST 7rolrT7q ,ra9 Tar Ievh fr vxay-opyia, xdaprv
Jovov eKcpepeI, Tae Ba 8esaaoaXla" 6o e Trrvericev,
O6t "*vxayOwytaF Jdivov, tSaoaicaXla 8S' oui. ical
rrpoo-n~aprepyd6al Te,' 7rvvuav ervoq 7b ovy#41-
7rpoo-7reptepyaeTaa Te,1 7rvv-av6p vo' ri auv/,3dX-
Xerat 7rpos aper V 7rot0L)'iv roXXwov n dp~at Td-
7rTw ejfirespov 7r crTpaTryta'? a ye / apya 7 prTopticrj;
j4 ola 8 7reptroielv abrr Tves pj3ovXrlocrav; TO
i ev o av aTravra 'TreLP 'iepvroteLt aVT 7Trpoeic-
7rtlrTOVTO? av Tit Oei L 7T,7 LXOTt/L, a, (09 aiv et Ttr,
#(awy 6 "ITrTrapXov, 'ATTI/'c elpeat-cwvry IcaTap-
7r 2 Ical a /t7 v SPaTat 0peeLv /Lp a Kal oy/Xva,
OVTOB EICceiCvo rv Tv 8y~d a ical 'iraroav TrXVr.
TOVDO p/E S' 3pOp1F av Xe'yots, O 'Eparo'na-eve r
dcewva 8' obc 6p0os, taiapovdivoe ab'Tov'' rrv
TooaavT7V 7roXv/ldletav ical 7b v 7rot'qTLKcv 7padiwr
yivOoXoylav a7roai'vwv, y 8'eoTat 7radTTrtv, 01?,3
C 17 avv aT^y Laaivr7Tai vxaytyla' olicelov. apa
'Yap ovME To'i a/cpoW OCpvotq 7(v TrOLiot]r ovSEy
ov.i3dXXeTati rrp0s ApeTrTv; XeywO 8 TOb 7roXX&v
7Trdpa at TO7v 'O e etrpov 1 o-rpaTrY'l'a; 7 1yewpyiav'
ri pI7ToptiKc9, airep 17 dicpdao-va k el1cod?, 7reptroiet.
1 7rpor eplepyd'(Eral Te, Toup, for rpoaerEpyd'(era ye (rpor-
ETEpyderal ye) ; Meineke (Vind. 239) approving, but not
2 caapr yn, Madvig, for KcarTyopoi ; A. Vogel approving.
3 p's, Groskurd, for ipfaiv; Forbiger following.

1 The eiresione" was an olive (or laurel) branch adorned
with the first-fruits of a given land and carried around to
the accompaniment of a song of thanksgiving and prayer.


instructing? "The latter, of course," you reply;
" but while these epithets have been used by him
for purposes of instruction, everything beyond the
range of observation has been filled, not only by
Homer but by others also, with mythical marvels."
Eratosthenes, then, should have said that every
poet writes' partly for purposes of mere entertain-
ment and partly for instruction" ; but his words
were "mere entertainment and not instruction."
And Eratosthenes gives himself quite unnecessary
pains when he asks how it adds to the excellence of
the poet for him to be an expert in geography, or in
generalship, or in agriculture, or in rhetoric, or in any
kind of special knowledge with which some people
have wished to invest him. Now the desire to
endow Homer with all knowledge might be regarded
as characteristic of a man whose zeal exceeds the
proper limit, just as would be the case if a man-to
use a comparison of Hipparchus-should hang
apples and pears, or anything else that it cannot
bear, on an Attic "eiresione"1; so absurd would it be
to endow Homer with all knowledge and with every
art. You may be right, Eratosthenes, on that point,
but you are wrong when you deny to Homer the
possession of vast learning, and go on to declare that
poetry is a fable-prating old wife, who has been
permitted to "invent" (as you call it) whatever she
deems suitable for purposes of entertainment.
What, then ? Is no contribution made, either, to the
excellence of him who hears the poets recited-
I again refer to the poet's being an expert in
geography, or generalship, or agriculture, or rhetoric,
in which subjects one's hearing of poetry naturally
invests the poet with special knowledge ?

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