Citation
Heads without hands, or, Stories of animal wisdom

Material Information

Title:
Heads without hands, or, Stories of animal wisdom animal stories for the young
Portion of title:
Stories of animal wisdom
Cover title:
Animal stories for the young
Creator:
Wm. Isbister, Limited ( Publisher )
Colston and Company ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Wm. Isbister,
Wm. Isbister
Manufacturer:
Colston and Company
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1889
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 130, [4] p. : ill. ; 17 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Animals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Animal behavior -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1889 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1889
Genre:
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Publisher's catalogue follows text.
Statement of Responsibility:
beautifully illustrated.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
ALH1769 ( NOTIS )
026808171 ( AlephBibNum )
70919633 ( OCLC )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text











ANIMAL STORIES FOR THE YOUNG |
Series I.







See Page 48.

MONKEYS AND. HERONS,

Frontispiece.



HEADS WITHOUT HANDS —

OR

Stories of Animal Wisden

ANIMAL STORIES FOR THE YOUNG

Series I.



BEAUTIFULLY ILLUSTRATED

LONDON
Wm. ISBISTER, Limitep
15 anp 16 TAVISTOCK STREET, COVENT GARDEN
1889








CONTENTS.



PAGE
CHAPTER I. .

ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS . . . . : 4
CHAPTER II.

ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS (continued) . . . ze
CHAPTER III.

_ ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES . : . . . . 68
CHAPTER IV.

ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS . A . 7 7 « €6
CHAPTER V.

ANIMALS AS TRICK-PLAYERS : : . . . 98

CHAPTER VI.
ANIMALS AND LANGUAGE, &e. . . : . : 123










LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

eo ee

- PAGE
Monkeys anp Herons . , ; . Frontispiece.
Ducks. . 2
Maeriz . : : : : : : : ; : 7
“Tp DRIED AGAIN AND AGAIN” , z . : » ii
Cats at rus Door-Larcu : : : A . a “AT
Sporrsman anp His Doe . : : : . » 21
Pusuine tHE TRADE ; : : : z . 25
Sway anp Nest. a ; 3 : : . 88
Water-Hunxn . : > 2 . ‘ : : - 87
‘Witp Ducks . . . ; : ; . : . 42
Fox anp Harz . . 7 - : . . 46
Tick-InresteD ELEPHANT ‘ i oe Fi - 49
Kerry Cows . 7 d : : . : : . 8
A Hare anp irs Reruce ‘ . 7 : ‘ - 60
Broxen Swartow’s Nest Fi : ; : : . 65
Swattows currine tHE Ferrers . : : . . 67
Tue pyine Goosz ann its Nest . ; : ‘ . 69
_Nezarine ‘tun Suytivets oO + oe ee TB

Monxery anp Cup . ‘ 7 7 2 Z » 81



Vill : LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS,

PAGE
Cockatoo. 7 A : : 7 ‘ . i - 88
Tur Doc THAT WOULD Not BE “DONE” : : . 88
Gresenuanp Dog Train . : : 7 : . - 97
Two Toy Terriers . ; 3 : 7 . - 100
Tue xNowine Ass . : , 7 . . : .« 102
Tue Trick wira tHe Bein . : : . ~. « 106
War Horses . ; . 7 - : , >» 119

CoLiiz on THE Watcr . : 7 « : : . 126































































































































































































































































































































































































































CHAPTER I.

ANIMALS. AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS.

E are sometimes told that animals have
instinct, but not reason. Instinct means a
feeling that’ prompts a living creature to perform
certain. actions without knowing why. Reason,
on the other hand, means the power men have to
consider first what they want to do, and then find
out the way to do it. It is certain that a great
many things done by animals are done without
the least idea of any reason for doing them.
Thus, when young ducklings just hatched run.
to the water, they have never considered at all
whether swimming is easier than walking, nor
4



2, ANIMAL STORIES,

have they been asking themselves what their’
webbed feet are for. They have an instinct for the.
water; that is all. But there are many actions ©







































































































































































































































































































































































































of animals which cannot be explained in this way.
Sometimes animals are found to consider first:
what they want to do, and then to find means to





ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 3

“do it. That is, they make use of expedients,
which show a conscious intention. In this and
the following chapter instances of the kind have
been collected from various sources. And these
stories may help to show, that though animal
intelligence cannot be compared to the human
mind,.yet God has given even to beasts some
spark of reason. _

M. Montrot (@ French traveller) speaks of
amusing scenes he has witnessed between the
monkey and the crocodile. ‘The latter will be
seen lying half-asleep on the bank of a river, and
is espied by acrowd of monkeys who inhabit the
trees on the bank. They seem to consult, to ap-
proach, to draw back, and at last to proceed to
overt acts of annoyance. Ifa convenient branch

-is within reach, a monkey will go along it, will
swing himself down by the end of it, hanging by |
a hand or a foot, till he can reach to deal the
crocodile a slap on the nose, instantly scrambling
up the branch, so as to be far out of the enraged
brute’s reach. Sometimes, if the branch be not
near enough, or sufficient, several monkeys will
hang to each other so as to form a chain, and
then, swinging backwards and forwards over the
crocodile’s head, the lowermost monkey will tor-



4 ANIMAL STORIES.

ment the creature to his heart’s content, Some.
times the crocodile is so far irritated as to open
its enormous jaws and make a snap at the
monkey,. just missing him. Then are heard
screams and chatterings of exultation among
the monkeys, and great gambols are executed
among the branches.”

Mr. Kenway, of Edgbaston, relates how he was
walking with his tather and a younger brother
many years since in the neighbourhood of Brid-
port, in Dorsetshire, his native town, through
fields leading to Hyde farm, where about thirty
or forty cows were at that time kept. A carriage
road led to the farm, and through a large field,
rather steep, to the field in which the cows grazed.

"As they passed through the large gate (like a turn-
pike-gate) at the bottom of this field, they ob-
served a bull at the top of the hill making his way
through the hedge at the top ; and fearing some
_ harm, their tather hurried them to a gate a little

- higher up, over which they climbed, and waited

on the safe side to watch what the gentleman was
after. To their great astonishment and delight, he
passed quietly by them to the bottom of the bill,
and with the greatest deliberation put his horns ©
under the bars of the gate, raised it off its hinges.



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 5

and carried it to the side of the road, where ha
laid it down, quite out of the way. Having done
this, he began to bellow with all his might, and in
a few minutes they saw first one cow come through
the gap that he had made in the hedge, and then
another, and another, until the whole herd were
passed through—all streaming down the hill in
the greatest excitement, kicking up their heels,
and throwing about their heads and tails in the
most ludicrous manner imaginable, to their great
- amusement. The gallant gentleman stood beside
the gate until he had introduced his friends into
a beautiful pasture, just ready for the scythe ; and
not until he had seen all fairly enjoying the sweet
repast did he attempt to partake of it himself.
Professor Bell says that a lady, a near relative
of his own, witnessed a cow feeding in a pasture,
the gate of which was open to the road, which
was much annoyed by a mischievous boy, who
amused himself by throwing stones at her. She
bore with the persecution for some time; but at.
last she went up to him, hooked her horns into
his clothes, and, lifting him from the ground,
earried him out of the field and laid him down

' in the road. She then returned quietly to her

pasture, leaving him suffitiently frightened.



6 ANIMAL STORIES.

While playing at cricket in a field belonging
to J. Hayton Ireland, Esq., Mr. Morris says he
was very much amused by watching a cow en-
gaged in slaking her thirst. As there is no
pond near,a pump had been placed in the field,
from which a stone basin below is usually kept
filled for the horses and cow. But she, being
nice in her taste, preferred to pump the water’
for herself, catching it, as it fell, with her tongue.
The shape of her horns bending downwards,
enabled her to work the pump with great
facility. He says he had often seen her do it.

A very ingenious expedient was resorted to
by a shepherd’s dog. The dog was employed
to take his master’s dinner to him, while em-
ployed out in the fields. He carried it in a tin
with a lid; and on one occasion was met by
another dog, who smelt the contents of the can.
They had a fight, and the intruder was driven
off. But in the scuffle the lid had been knocked
off the can. The shepherd’s dog did not know
how to get it on again, but he saw that the two
belonged to each other, so he adopted this ex-
pedient :—He carried the can in his mouth for
some distance, then he returned and brought the
lid, and carried it some way farther. He then



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. ; 7



THE MAGPIE.

returned to the can and carried that beyond the
lid: and so at last he got them both safely to
his master.

Mrs. Lee describes an artful trick which a
magpie, kept in the family of Mr. Ranson, was
observed to play. A toll-gate stood near, and
he was fond of watching the movements of the -
toll-keeper’s wife. When he observed her to



8 “ANIMAL STORIES.

be employed in making pastry, he would perch
upon the gate, and would suddenly cry out,
‘Gate ahoy!” If the husband were absent, as
was frequently the case, the wife would hurry
out to open the gate. Magpie would then slip .
in and snatch a bill-full of the pie-crust, chat-
tering over it, on the roof of the gate-house,
with the greatest glee.

Whilst walking on West Looe Quay, a corre-
spondent of the Animal World was attracted to
the actions of an Irish water-spaniel which was
coming towards him, when suddenly it jumped
into. the river, where it is about one hundred or
more yards in width. On looking across, he
saw that a sailor on board a vessel on the other
side was calling the dog; and, seeing it swim-
ming towards the vessel, he prepared to take
it on board by means of a rope which he threw
over the side, holding an end in each hand, thus
forming a loop reaching to the surface of the
water. The tide at the time was running in fast,
so that the dog was carried by it some consider-
able distance up, and had to swim against the
tide to reach the side of the vessel; when it
made an attempt to get its fore-legs over the
rope, but was unable to do so, the tide again



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS, 9

carrying it up the river. A second attempt failed
in the same manner. Again the dog swam up
to the side of the vessel, and passed it without
seeming to notice the rope, and, as he thought,
had given up any further attempt to be taken
on board. But no; having swum six or eight
yards beyond the vessel against the tide, the dog
deliberately turned round and swam with the
tide into the bight of the rope, got both fore-
legs over, the rope crossing the chest, the fore-
legs pressed back so as to prevent its slipping
off the chest; and so the dog was drawn up the
side of the vessel, about ten or twelve feet in.
height, and thus taken on board.

The narrator thinks there was more than
instinct displayed here. Instinct was shown by
the dog at first making two attempts to get on
board the nearest way, whilst swimming against
the tide, in which it failed, when reason stepped
in, as is shown by the dog taking the different
course of swimming with the tide to the rope, -
and by that means accomplishing its desired end.

A similar story is told of a dog which certain
thoughtless boys were preventing from landing |
on the stairs of a harbour pier. The dog having.
been thrown into the sea for a washing, the



19 ANIMAL STORIES.

owner had turned his back upon it, and was
returning home along the pier, expecting, as. a
matter of course, that his dog would soon be at
his heels ; and such would have been the case
but for the dangerous pelting to which it was
subjected. It tried again and again to dodge
the pelting boys, but always failing, it at length
turned round and quietly took possession of the
stern of a boat out of the reach of their throw,
where it waited. When after a time its enemies
were gone, it took the water again, reached the
pier stairs, and thus found its way home again.
The cruelty of the boys was in this case scarcely
more apparent than the sagacity of the poor
brute they persecuted.

One of the 17th Lancers gives an account of
a mare in his regiment that had a strong dislike
to drunkenness. Her rider would say, when he
had taken more drink than was good for him,
“Now, if Idon’t mind, that mare will get me
into the guard-house to night.” The fact was,
the mare could tell when her master was sober
and when he was not; and when he had been
indulging she would squeeze him against the
wall, or in some other way show her dislike to
it ; and this generally gave rise to a quarrel; a





































































































































































“1p TRIED AGAIN AND AGAIN,”






ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIEN1S. 13

row would ensue, and the tipsy man would soon
find himself in trouble.

_A couple who lived on the side of the Enner-
dale Hills, in Cumberland, often took their little
girl with them when they went into a neigh-
bouring wood to gather fuel. One evening, in
searching for wild flowers, she strayed out of
sight; and when twilight and darkness came
on, they searched for her in vain. At last they
went back to their cottage in the hope that the
child might have wandered back. Finding that
she was not there, they got torches and renewed
the search, but still without success. Tired
out, they went home again, and the mother
mechanically spread the supper-table, when their
dog jumped up, seized a lump of bread, and
rushed out of the cottage. The father said
“T never knew the dog to steal before.” Before
daylight the search was renewed, but still in
vain. When breakfast time came, the dog ap-
peared again, and repeated his extraordinary
conduct of the evening before. The wife, struck
with a thought which was full of hope, exclaimed,
“T’m sure he knows where the child is.” In-
stantly they both started forth and managed
to trace the dog, and found him on the edge



14 ANIMAL STORIES.

of the lake, and the child holding in her
hands the bread which he had just brought
her.

A. London physician gives an account of two of
his friend’s dogs which had a special attachment to
and understanding with each other. The one was
a Scotch terrier, gentle, and ready to fraternise
with all honest comers. The other looked like a
cross between a mastiff and a large rough stag-
hound. He was fierce, and it was wise to cultivate
_ his acquaintance before you took any liberties
with him. The little dog was gay and lively, the |
other was stern and thoughtful. These two dogs
were often observed to go toa certain point to-
gether, and then the small one remained behind,
at a corner of a large field, while the large dog
took a round by the side of the field, which ran
up hill for nearly a mile, and led to a wood on the
left... Game abounded in these districts, and the
nature of the plan of the two dogs was soon per-
ceived. The terrier would start a hare and chase
it up the hill towards the wood, where they would
arrive somewhat tired. Here the large dog, fresh
and in wind, darted after the animal, who was
easily captured. The two dogs then ate the hare
between them and quietly returned home. This



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. | 15

plan of operations had been going on for some
time before it was fully understood.

Tt is told of a gentleman in Dumfriesshire—
who, by the way, does not seem to have taken very
serious precautions against thieves—that -he had
a dog and. cat which were much attached to each
other, and both were great favourites in the house-
hold. The dog, however, was not meant to sleep
in the house, but was carefully turned out into the
yard every evening; and yet, strange to say, he
was always found in the morning lying before the
fire, with the cat by his side. One evening the
master of the dog heard a sort of rap at a back
door leading to the kitchen, and saw the cat
spring up and strike the latch, while the dog .
pushed open the door and entered without let
or hindrance. We have read, too, of one cat
helping another to accomplish the same thing.

A correspondent of the Animal World relates
that a few years ago a farmer, from near Dumfries,
walked to Penrith with his sheep and two dogs.
Having sold his sheep, he prepared to return
home; but “Fan” in the meantime had had
puppies, and was left in charge of a friend, who
made a bed for her in his parlour, and fed her.
“ After a few weeks, ou coming as usual to feed



16 ANIMAL STORIES.

her, neither she nor her puppies were to be seen
He looked for his hat: it had also disappeared |
‘Ah!’ thought he, ‘the thief has taken that too.’
After a diligent search, that proved useless—for
neither dog, puppies, nor hat had been seen or
heard of—the friend wrote to the Scotch farmer
to inform him of his loss. A few days after he
received the following reply: ‘Make no more
researches. “Fan” arrived here carly this morn-
ing, with her three puppies im your hat!’ Mark
the animal’s reasoning, we may callit. She had
seen the Penrith farmer put his head in the hat ;
‘Fan’ seized the idea, and placed her little dar.
lings in it—being no longer able to remain
away from her master, or to leave her young
behind.” |

A cat belonging to a correspondent of the
Animal World was in the constant habit of open-
ing the back door of his house, which had a
thumb-latch. Almost immediately after she was
brought to his house, eight years ago, she adopted |
this plan of letting herself in, to the no small
amazement and often alarm of strange servants.
When it is desired to keep her out, the door has ~
to be bolted ; and at one time when she found that
the case, she used to go to the scullery window,



ANIMALS AND THELR EXPEDLENI'S, 1G

a BATA
cn i,
ET)





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































CATS AT THE DOOR-LATCH,

jump up at that, and hang on to the upper part
until her weight pulled it down far enough to
admit her. The window sash at that time ran
down easily ; since new cords have been put in
she cannot do it; but the practice showed, he ~
thought, something akin to reason.

The same writer tells of another cat whose kit-

c



18 ANIMA]. STORIES.

tens, when she had any, he always used to go and
look at every day——the mother being very proud
of the attention. Once when she had one he hap-
pened to be very ill and confined to his room.
No doubt pussy missed the usual attention ; but
she was determined her child should not remain
unknown to him. The very first day he was able
to go down to the drawing-room sofa, pussy
brought her kitten in her mouth from the back-
kitchen, where its bed was, and laid it down at the
kitchen-door, while she asked, as plainly as pos-
sible, to have that door opened for her ; when this
was done she carried the kitten to the drawing-
“room door, returned to the kitchen, and asked
again for the other door to be opened; then
brought it to his feet, laid it down in triumph,
and looked at him. This process was repeated
every day till he was able to go about the house ;
and though the kitten was generally sent back to
its bed very soon, she never brought it a second
time on the same day; merely, he supposed,
thinking she ought to let him see it daily, if he
could not go to it.
Mr. Wood had a favourite cat which he had
brought up from infancy, and which was on terms
of the greatest familiarity with him. One day





ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 19

puss came to the door of the dining-room, mew-
ing piteously. Mr. Wood opened it; when the
cat went to the foot of the stairs, ran up two or
three of them, and looked round for Mr. Wood to
follow. When he did so, puss led the way to the
study-door, and going toa heap of books that lay
on the floor, began to push her paws under them.
Mr. Wood took up the books one by one, the cat
watching with looks of expectation ; and when
the last volume was taken up, forth darted a
mouse, which the cat seized and dispatched,
and then began to purr, as if asking for con.
gratulations and praise for its watchfulness.

At the barn-yards of Castle Forbes severd
floors open by means of the common thumb-
latch, and these a small grey cat had discovered
the means of opening for herself. At various times
pussy had been seen to spring from the ground,
a height of about four feet, fasten her left fore-
leg in the handle, and with her right paw press
the latch till she lifted the inside portion, when
the door swung round, and she dropped to the
floor at her own pleasure. One of the doors is a
heavy panelled outside one. On one occasion
she was observed to fail in opening it; but,
nothing daunted, she made a second attempt,



20 ANIMAL STORIES,

and crept up till she put her whole weight upon
it, and was rewarded with success. It is sup-
posed that her first inducement to attempt the
ingenious feat was for the purpose of visiting
her kittens when the door happened to be shut.

Another clever expedient is given in the fol-
lowing story of a dog, which is as pathetic as it is
instructive. A peasant had a sporting-dog who
was expecting pups in a few days, when he had
to leave for a fair in Dauphiné.

In going he noticed that the dog followed him
at a distance, and with difficulty. The poor
beast, after arriving at the inn, went to lie under ~
the manger in the stable, and there laid down
her precious burden—four pups.

“ Well,” said the master, “it is a good breed,
I must take them back in my neighbour's trap,”
and he went about his business. But when the
evening came and he was going to return home,
there was nothing under the manger—neither
mother nor pups. Thinking that he had been
robbed, he returned in a very bad humour.

Imagine his surprise to find his dog, wet, pant
ing, exhausted, and three of her pups lying undet
her to get warmth.

How did it happen ?





SPORTSMAN AND DOG.



a



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 23

The distance from Soucien to Saint-Symphorien
is about twelve miles, and the Rhéne had to be
passed, Well, this mother, uneasy as to the fate
of her offspring, had carried her pups, one after
the other, to her kennel. She had had her
strength to travel all that distance, and to swim
through the Rhéne seven times. You know
the strength and size of this river !

The peasant, coarse as he was, could not keep

back his tears. He called in a veterinary surgeon
to save this precious beast ; but all the care was
in vain—she died by the side of her three living
pups, which had been saved by her.

Mr. Banyard, having returned from a tour in
the West, tells how he put up at a small town near
the Alleghany Mountains, where, while he was
sitting watching the variegated hues produced by
the rays of the setting sun upon that wild, rough,
mountain scenery, he saw eight or nine large bag-
gage-waggons approaching, drawn by four, and
some of them by six horses. He found that the
tavern where he was stopping wasa regular lodg-
ing-place for those strong, coarse, mountain wag-

-goners. Near the place where he sat, in front of
the house, was a pump with a large trough, which
was used for watering horses. The handle of the



94 ANIMAL STORIES.

pump, he observed, always sprang up whenever
any one used it. Most pump-handles fall down,
but this one sprang up, so that those who used it
had no occasion to lift the handle; it always
raised itself When the string of waggons ap-
proached the tavern there was but little water in
the trough,—not nearly enough to supply the
horses. But you may imagine his surprise to see
one of the horses, as soon as he was unharnessed,
go to the pump, lay his head over the handle,
and press it down, so as to make the water come
out of the spout. Then he raised his head, and
the handle sprang up; then again he would press
it down, and send more water into the trough.
In this way that horse continued pumping, till
all the horses had had the water they wanted.
Then, last of all, he left the handle, walked
round to the trough, drank as much as he
wanted, and finished by walking into the stable
and taking his place in one of the stalls.

A farmer who lives in the neighbourhood of
Bedford, and regularly attends the markets there, ~
was returning home one evening in 1828, and
having drank till he became sleepy, rolled off his
saddle into the middle of the road. His horse
stopped and waited some time, until, seeing no ~



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIBNTS. 25













































































































il tl ia i oo



















PUSHING THE TRADE.

disposition in its rider to remount, it took him -
by the collar and shook him. The farmer only
grumbled, and remained in slumber. The horse
then began to resort: to stronger measures—seiz-
ing hold of his master’s coat-laps, and dragging
at them to make him get up. After a while the
coat-lap gave way. While this was going on,
three more passengers came by, and these suc-
ceeded in awakening the farmer and inducing
him to remount. The torn coat-lap was care-
fully thrust into the pocket, and was long pre-



26 ANIMAL STORIES.

served by the farmer as a memorial of his
horse’s zeal and care.

An ingenious device is recorded of the dog of
a poor shoeblack, by which it sought to push its
master’s trade. At all dirty boots it barked ina
most excited manner, looking now and then away
from them to its master’s box and into their
wearer's face, It is far from unlikely that such
an appeal would prove very successful with good-
natured people. _

“During the winter,” says a writer in the
Animal World, “a large wide drain had been
made, and over this strong planks had been placed
for a cart-horse to pass over to his stable. It
had snowed during the night, and froze very hard
in the morning. How he passed over the planks
on going out to work I know not, but on being
turned loose from the cart at breakfast, he came
up to them, and I saw his fore-feet slip; he drew
back immediately, and seemed for a moment at a
loss how to get on. Close to these planks a cart-
load of sand had been placed ; he put his fore-feet
on this, and looked wistfully to the other side of
the drain. The boy who attends this horse, and
who had gone round by another path, seeing him
stand there, called him. The horse immediately



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 27

turned round, and set about scraping the sand
most vigorously, first with one foot, then the
other. The boy, perhaps wondering what he
would be at, waited to see. When the planks
were completely covered with sand, the horse
turned round again and unhesitatingly walked
over and trotted up to his stable and driver.”
Mr. Morris relates how a Norwegian pony
showed more than usual skill in trying to get into
the stable to a tempting feed of corn. If the
groom tied the door with a stout rope, she would
untie the knot with her teeth ; if he fastened ‘it
with a chain and staple and wooden peg, no
sooner was his back turned than the peg was drawn
and the door opened. At length, tired with being
so often beaten, he got a heavy rail, which he
placed right across the entrance. The pony was
puzzled, and the groom looked on with glee while
he saw her vain attempts to lift the rail, which
proved too heavy for her. He thought that the
victory was his when she seemed to give it up in
despair and trotted off to find her companion.
But not a little astonished was he to see her
return in a few minutes, and the other pony
with her. Together they put their necks under
the rail; and what was too heavy for one



28° _ ANIMAL STORIES.

yielded to the efforts of both : the rail was lifted
and thrown down, and the way to the corn was
again opened. On another occasion, when shut
up in a yard, which they did not at all approve,
all kinds of fastenings gave way to them, till at
last the groom, in despair, actually nailed up the
gate with some stout tenpenny nails !

Mr. East had once a donkey, which was a re-
markably docile and knowing animal. His
lodging-place at night was in ashed, from which
he had free access to a yard; but not, of course,
to the kitchen garden which adjoined it. This
garden was separated from the yard by a wall, in
which was a door, or gate, fastened securely by
two bolts and a latch. But soon Mr. East was
surprised to find that the door had been opened
in the night, and there were foot-prints of the
donkey on the walks and beds. How this could
be it was difficult to imagine, especially as the
upper bolt was fixed at a considerable height.
-So Mr. East watched at his window, and saw
master donkey reared up on his hind legs, un-
fastening the upper bolt with his mouth. He then
drew back the lower one, lifted the latch, and
walked quietly into the garden. In a few minutes
he returned, bringing a large bunch of carrots,



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 29

which he deposited in his shed, aiid then went
back to latch the gate, after which he leisurely
set about munching up his booty. Before Mr.
Hast put a stop to these proceedings, he gave
some of his neighbours, who were incredulous on
the subject, an opportunity of witnessing them. |
It should be added that master donkey never —
commenced his operations until after the light
had been extinguished at the bedroom window.

Mr. Smiles, in his “ Lives of Engineers,” says
that “the whole of the stone for Waterloo Bridge
(except the balustrades) was hewn in some fields
adjacent, on the Surrey side. It was then trans-
ported, stone by stone, upon trucks drawn along
railways, over temporary bridges of wood ; .and
nearly the whole was thus transported by one
horse, ‘Old Jack,’ a most sensible animal and a
great favourite. His driver was, on the whole, a
steady man, though rather too fond of his dram
before breakfast. The railway along which the
truck passed ran just in front of the door of a
public-house ; and here Tom, the driver, usually
pulled up for his ‘morning.’ On one occasion it
happened that Tom stopped longer than his usual
time, and ‘Old Jack’ grew impatient. So he
pushed his head against the public-house door,



30 ‘ ANIMAL STORTES.

got it inside, and finding his master standing at
the door, took the collar of his jacket between his
teeth and pulled him out of the place back to
his work again.”

“A friend of mine,” says Mr. Morris, “ was
riding home one night through a wood, and
owing to the darkness struck his head against the
branch of a tree and fell from his horse quite
stunned. The horse immediately returned to .
the house which he had just left—a mile or more
distant. He found the doors closed, and the
family retiring to rest. He pawed at the door
until one of the servants, hearing a noise, came
down and opened it; and saw, with surprise, the
horse which had so recently left them. But the
creature, so soon as he was recognised, turned
round, inviting the inmates to follow. They did
so, and the creature led them straight to the spot
where his rider still lay upon the ground stunned,
and scarcely able to rise.”

In Fiteshire, a carter at Strathmiglo had an
old horse who had long lived with him and was
intimate with all the family. When among the
children, he was always careful to do them no
injury—moving his feet with the greatest care.
On one occasion he was drawing a loaded cart



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 81

through a narrow lane, when he found a young
child playing there and liable to be crushed by
the cart-wheels. He took the child up by the
clothes with his teeth and carried it a little way,
till he saw a bank by the roadside on which he
could safely place it. Then, having thus put it out
of danger, he went on his way ; but not without
looking back to satisfy himself that the wheels
of the cart had cleared it.

A very similar story is told by Grant Tharbiitn,
who says he saw a horse in the neighbourhood
of New York dragging a load of coal in a cart.
The lane was very narrow; the driver was some
distance behind, conversing with a neighbour;
the horse, ona slow walk, came.up to a child sit-
ting in the middle of the road, playing with the
‘dust with his little hands. The horse stopped—-
he smelt at the child ; there was no room to turn
off. With his thick lips he gathered the frock
between his teeth, lifted the child, laid him gently
on the outside of the wheel track, and went on
his way.








CHAPTER, II.

ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS—(continued).

A GENTLEMAN, who a few years ago resided

at Bank House, Burnley, was in the habit
of feeding daily a well-known and favourite
robin. An envious sparrow, coming one day to
join in the good things provided, was driven away
by the robin ; and, not well pleased at the treat-
ment it had received, came again, attended by
superior numbers, so that now it was the red-
breast’s turn to be defeated. But Robin had a
resource. The next day, to the surprise of all, a
crow appeared with his red-breasted friend, and
kept at a distance all rivals and intruders. The
two then partook amicably together of whatever
was provided. This continued for several days,
and then, something having occurred, they came
no more.

D





34 ANIMAL STORIES.

Mr. Varrell, in his “ British Birds,” tells of a
swan that exhibited, eight or nine years ago, one
of the most remarkable instances of what we call
“instinct” that everwas recorded. Shewassitting
on four or five eggs, and was observed to be very
busy in collecting weeds, grasses, leaves, or what
not, to raise her nest, A farming: man was ordered
to take down half a load of haulm, with which
she most industriously raised her nest, some two —
feet and a half higher than usual. The next night
there came down a tremendous fall of rain, which
flooded all the lowlands, and did great damage.
Men had made no preparation; the bird had.
Her eggs were above, and only just above, the
water,

A sort of retriever, called “ Reves,” an old
favourite of a gentleman in Scotland, was in the
habit, says “Man and Beast,” of going for a walk _
before breakfast with his master. One morning it
so happened that his master did not intend to take
his usual walk. “ Reves” soon became very impa-
tient ; and seeing no signs of his master, he got
upon achair in the hall, took his master’s hat from
the peg, carried it up to his room, and scratched at
the door for admission. As soon as the door was
opened, in walked “ Reves,” laid the hat. at his





































































































































































































































































SWAN AND NEST,






ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS, 87







































































































































































WATER-HEN.

master’s feet, and pushed his nose into his hand.

The idea was entirely his own; he had never been —

taught to fetch a hat.
Bishop Stanley tells us that a water-hen,

observing a pheasant feed. out of one of those -

boxes which open when the bird stands on the
rail in front of the box, went and stood in the
same place as soon as the pheasant left it. Find-
ing that its weight was not sufficient to raise the
lid of the box, it kept jumping on the rail to give

additional impetus. But this not being sufficient ~

it presently flew away, and returned with another





38 ANIMAL STORIES.

bird of its own species. The weight of the two
proved sufficient, and they gained the reward of
their sagacity.

Dr. Carpenter pledges his word for the truth of
the following story. At a ladies’ school near ~
Bristol it was the rule, on every day of the week
but Sunday, for the girls to go into the play-
ground at twelve o’elock, and there to eat their
luncheon. The sparrows soon found out that the
girls dropped crumbs on the ground, and used to
gather in large numbers on the garden walls a
little before twelve, and wait there till the play-
ground was again empty of human beings.
Then down they came to feast upon the crumbs.
This used to happen as regularly as the clock
struck, except on Sundays. On Sunday the girls
attended public worship, and there was an early
dinner indoors, instead of a luncheon in the
playground. Those persons who happened to be
at home on Sunday mornings were greatly amused
to notice that the sparrows knew Sunday as well
as any young lady in the school. They never
came and twittered. about on the garden walls a
little before twelve on that day; for they had
found out that on it there was no feast of crumbs.
It seems that they had also their own way of



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 89

finding out when it wanted a few minutes to
twelve.

Cats are often kind to each other, sympathizing
under difficulties and helping their friends who
need assistance. One of Mr. Wood’s friends is a
great admirer of cats and their dispositions, and

has noted many of their ways. One of her cats was

rather a weakly animal, and was unable to carry
her kittens about after the manner of cats. So
’ when she wished to carry her kittens from one
place to another, she was accustomed to impress
a stronger cat into her service, she walking by
the side of her friend in order to act as guide.
Another of the cats, when oppressed with the
cares of a family, did exactly what a human
mother does when she can afford it. She em-
ployed a nursemaid, 4e. she fetched a half-
grown kitten and placed it in charge of her
young while she went for a ramble.

On one occasion when visiting the Zoological
Gardens in Regent’s Park, Mr. Morris observed
a little incident which may be worth mention. A
large white cockatoo and a much smaller green

parrot inhabited the same cage. When he gave -

them a nut, the parrot took it, but instead of
endeavouring to crack it, immediately handed



40 ANIMAL STORIES.

it over to the cockatoo, whose more powerful
mandibles at once mastered it, and the contents
were fairly divided between the two.

“One day in last April,” says a writer in the
Magazine of Natural History, “I observed a
young lamb entangled among briars. It had
struggled for liberty till it was nearly exhausted.
The mother then attempted to release it, both
with her head and her feet, but all in vain. Find-
ing the task too much for her, she turned round
and ran away, baa-ing withall her might. She
went across two or three fields, and through their
hedges, till she came to a flock of sheep. In about
five minutes she returned, bringing with her a
large ram, whose horns gave just the help that
was wanted. They went together to the poor
lamb, and the ram immediately set about the
work of releasing it, dragging away the briars
with his horns.”

A similar narrative is given by Cuvier, who
relates how a sheep applied, bleating, to a cow ;
and when the cow followed her, led her to a lamb
which had fallen into a ditch, and lay feet upper-
most, unable to release itself. The cow, by a
careful use of its horns, lifted the lamb out of its
hole, and placed it upon its feet again.



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS,. 41

The following well-known story is given by
Mr. Morris. “ Living in the City portion of the
metropolis, I observed, one afternoon, in the
aperture generally left for the cellar or kitchen
window, an unfledged house-sparrow, which had
fallen down into this underground place, across ~
which was laid, obliquely, an iron bar, whieh
extended within a foot of the surface. The
mother was at the top of the opening, looking
down with pity and alarm at the condition of
the child. Many and ingenious were the at- .
tempts of both mother and child to raise the
latter out of its perilous position, but all of them
proved unavailing. I looked on with anxiety,
lest the affair should end in the mother’s giving
up the attempt as hopeless, and deserting her
child ; but the event proved:that there was no
ground to fear any such desertion. Several
plans and attempts were ted, one after
the other; but at last the parent hit upon a new
one. Flying away for a few minutes, it at length
returned with a stout straw in its beak, and
rested with it for a minute on the edge. At
once the little nestling, called by its mother by
divers chirps, climbed up the iron bar, till it
reached the highest point, and there received






42, i ANIMAL STORIES,

one end of the straw in its beak, and was
raised, to my astonishment, by the mother, who
held fast the other, till it reached the level
ground.”

Mr. St. John says that he received from a
most reliable informant the followine story of

: a v ~~
2) >















“WILD DUCKS.

a fox. “Very early one morning he saw a fox
eyeing most wistfully a number of wild ducks
feeding on the rushy end of a Highland lake.
After due consideration, the fox, going to wind-
ward of the ducks, put afloat on the lake several
bunches of dead rushes, or grass, which floated



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. = 48

down among the ducks without causing the
least alarm. After watehing the effects of this
manceuvre for a short time, Reynard, taking a
good bunch of grass in his paws, launched
himself into the water as quietly as possible,
floating down, as the. preceding bunches had
done, towards the ducks. He took care to
leave nothing but the tip of his nose and ears
above water, and these were concealed among
the grass. In this way he drifted among the
ducks, and soon made booty of a fine mallard.
When we remember what numbers of wild ducks,
pigeons, hares, and other wild animals every fox
contrives to catch, for his own support and that
of his family, this story seems by no means in-
- credible.”

At Kilmorack, in Inverness-shire, the parish
minister was a man of great taste and much
hospitality. He kept a good stock of poultry ;
but, as foxes were numerous, it was needful to
provide the fowls with a house for greater safety.
A visitor found on the breakfast-table, not only
salmon fresh and salmon preserved, but new-laid
eggs in daily abundance. One morning the ser-
vant, whose duty it was to provide the latter,
’ took the key and the usual basket, and repaired



44, ANIMAL STORIES,

to the fowl-house to bring in the usual supply.
But when she opened the door, terrible was the
scene. Blood was here and there, and dead
hens lay on every side. In the midst lay a full-
grown fox, apparently as dead as the hens,
The servant stared, and wondered, and supposed
that the fox must have eaten himself to death.
After some exclamations and evil speaking, she
took the beast up by the tail and flung him
out of the window on to the dungheap outside.
But what was her astonishment to see the
creature, so soon as he alighted on the heap,
spring up, alive and vigorous, and scour away
for the neighbouring woods. .

Mr. St. John, in his “Sports of the High-
lands,” describes a fox whose manceuvres he
had himself watched :—

“Just after daylight I saw him come quietly
along. He looked with great care over the turf-
wall into the field, and seemed to long very much
to get hold of some of the hares which were feed-
ing within it ; but apparently knew that he had |
no chance of catching one by dint of running.
He seemed, therefore, to form a plan. With great
care and in silence he scraped a small hollow in
the ground, just where the walk seemed to be most.









































































































































































FOX AND HARE.





oF



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS 47

frequented ; he threw up the sand as a screen,
stopping often to take a view of the field. When
he had prepared. his ‘ rifle-pit, he laid himself
down, in the best position for springing on his |
prey, and remained quite motionless, except an
occasional look towards the feeding hares. When
the sun began to rise, the hares thought it time to
leave the field forthe plantation; and his ambush
was laid with a view to this. Three passed by
him, but he stirred not: they were scarcely
within his reach, Two more came directly
towards him; and now, with the quickness of
lightning, he had sprung upon one, and killed her
instantly. He took possession, and was carrying
her off, when my rifle-ball stopped his course.”
Mr. Jesse says that when a fox is troubled
with fleas he will go into the water—not sud-
denly, but at first to a small depth, the water
only covering the lower part of his body. The
fleas then creep upwards, and rise to his back.
_ Presently he will go deeper, till the water covers
his body, and only his head is above it. The
fleas are then driven forward, till they get to-
gether in a swarm on his head and nose. At last
he will lay in breath enough, and plunge his
whole head under water, washing the fleas en-



a8 ANIMAL STORIES.

tirely off. A friend told Mr. Jesse he saw & fox
doing this in a lake in Italy.

Mr. Garratt describes another instance of saga-
city. A farm servant was ploughing a small
field for wheat, in Ireland, and was surprised to
see a fox pacing slowly along in the furrow just
before the plough. Soon he heard the ery of the |
hounds ; but, turning round, he saw the whole
pack brought to a stand at the other end of the
field, just where the fox must have entered on
the land u der the plough. Somehow the animal
must have thought that newly-turned soil would
break the scent.

In Leicestershire, an old fox, often hunted,
was always lost at a particular place, after
coming to which the hounds always lost the.
scent. It.was at last discovered that he jumped
upon a close clipped-hedge, ran along the top of
it, and then crept into the hollow of an old pol-
lard-tree, where he lay snugly concealed till the
hounds were baffled and drawn off.

Monkeys, too, are full of expedients to secure
their victims. They will hide for hours in the
long grass on the route of those they count
enemies, a d on the near approach of the prey —
spring from their ambush.



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS, 49











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE TICK-INFESTED ELEPHANT.

‘During his Arctic voyages, Captain M’Clure
observed the craft of two ravens which were domi-
ciled on board his ship, Investigator, and teils
the following story :—Two ravens nowestablished
themselves as friends, living mainly by what little
scraps the men might have thrown away after
meal times. The ship’s dog, however, looked
upon these as. his especial perquisites, and ex-
hibited considerable energy in maintaining his
rights against the ravens, who, nevertheless, out-
witted him in a way which amused every one.
Observing that he appeared quite willing to make

E



50 ANIMAL STORIES,

a mouthful of their own sablé persons, they used
to throw themselves intentionally in his way, just
as the mess-tins were being cleaned out on the
dirt-heap, outside the ship. The dog would im-
mediately run at them, and they would just fly a
few yards; the dog then made another run, and
again they would appear to escape him but by an
inch, and so on, until they had tempted and pro-
voked him to the shore, a considerable distance
off. Then the ravens would make a direct flight
to the ship, and had generally done good exe-
cution before the mortified-looking dog detected
the imposition that had been practised upon
him, and rushed back again.

A species of tick and many other insects infest
‘the hides of elephants, and cause the animals
great annoyance. To rid themselves of these
they have recourse to a very ingenious and
effectual method. Seeking some half-dried pool,
the mud of which is still soft, they lie down and
roll in it, wallowing after the manner -of a pig
in a similar place. Having covered themselves
thoroughly with the sticky earth, they emerge
‘entirely of another colour according as the mud
-may be white, red, or black, and taking wp their -
position in the sun, remain motionless for hours,



ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 51

until their covering becomes dry and hard. Then,
by sudden muscular efforts, the mud is broken
and falls off the hide, carrying with it all the
- insects that were on the animal’s body, and

‘which had become embedded in the hardened
earth, and the sagacious animal moves off, freed
for a time of his minute tormentors.



































CHAPTER IIL

ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES.

‘poe two previous chapters have given many

instances to show that animals have some-
thing more than instinct, or, as we said at the
beginning of the book, that God has given them
some spark of reason. But this is not all) Some
of the stories already given would suggest to us
that animals are not without the feelings we call
emotions. The word emotion means simply a
movement. But it is applied especially to move-
ments of the heart. When a child feels unusual
trouble, there is a stirring at the heart followed by
words of sorrow or gladness, by tears or laughter.
Now animals cannot speak, and they cannot laugh.
Some of them do indeed shed tears, as a deer will





ANIMAL STORIES,

when it is wounded to death. But, for the most
part, they can only show their feelings by their
actions; and they do so often in a very touching
manner. If you have ever taken up a young
kitten recently born, you must have noticed with
what eagerness and anxiety the mother follows
you, looking up into your face. She cannot speak,
indeed, as we have said. But there is a pitiful
sound in her mew, which says as plainly as can be,
“Oh, please put it down again! You will hurt it,
I know you will; do put it down again!” The .
following stories have been collected in the hope
that our young readers may be led to think how
sensitive are the hearts of their dumb friends,
although the latter have no language but that
of gesture and looks to express their feelings.
The first is a pathetic little story told by
Bishop Stanley. Mr. H had a little Blen-
heim spaniel, called “Carina.” About ten months
ago (4.e. beginning of 1873), while the family
were from home, the gardener slept in the house
to take care of it. One night Carina, who had a
family of puppies about a fortnight old, came to
the man’s room, and scraped at the bed-clothes
until he awoke. Without striking a light or
examining the dog in any way, the man said,





ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES, 57

“Carina, go back to your puppies,” and the dog
accordingly went away. In a short time she
came again, and awoke the man in the same
way, She again received the same order, and
obeyed it as before. In the morning, when the
gardener went to look at the dogs, the puppies
were quite well and Carina was lying by their
side quite dead. Her puppies survived, and
were brought up on cow’s milk.

It is evident that the poor little dog felt her
end approaching, and tried to make her last
farewell before she died. That she was not
understood was not the fault of the dog, but
of the man, who was too dull or too sleepy to
comprehend her meaning, though she could —
understand him.

Mr. Otway tells of his own experience :—

“TJ am in the habit every year of buying two
or three Kerry cows. They are the kindest little
creatures in the world, and I generally pick out
those I consider to have good countenances. Last
year I was lucky in the three I bought; they soon
became great pets. They met me every morning
at the gate of the pasture, expecting to be spoken
to. One in particular, a quaint little lassie, used
to put her nose into my pocket like a dog, te



58 ANIMAL STORIES.

look for a piece of bread or potato. Well, there
was a swing in this field; and my Kerry lass,
who was very curious, seeing the girls swinging,
thought, I suppose, that she should like a swing
herself. So one day, about noon, a great lowing
of cows was heard,and some one who was at home
went out to see what was the matter. When he
came to the gate, he saw two of the Kerry cows











Sa ON TST

KERRY CoWR8,

in a great state of agitation ; and they followed
him, lowing, to the further end of the field, where
he ‘found the third, entangled in the swing,
caught by her head and horns, and in danger of
being strangled by her efforts to get out of the
ropes. He soon extricated and set her at liberty,
and the alarm of the other cows at once ceased.”

Bishop Stanley gives us a story which may
explain how wild birds become domesticated :—



ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES. 50

« An officer, settled on a farm near the Mis-
souri, observed one day, when walking near the
banks of the river, a large eagle, which seemed
to be frequently darting down to the water and
then rising again. Drawing nearer, he perceived
that the object of attack was a wild goose, which
was floating on the water, and which dived
beneath whenever its enemy swooped. But the
goose was exhausted, after a time, by these efforts
to escape; andat lastit fled to the shore, where
two men were at work, to whom it surrendered
rather than fall into the talons of the eagle. It
found the protection it sought, and in two or three
days seemed quite reconciled to its new position.”

A similar story is told of a hare, which, in its
helpless distress, took refuge at the feet of a
passing boy. A fire broke out between two and
three o’clock in the morning in the house of
Mr. R, Handley, in Bermondsey. Mr. Handley
kept two small dogs in his house; and that
night, by some oversight he had left his bedroom
door ajar. Shortly before three o’clock he and
his wife were both awakened by the dogs scratch-
ing their faces. On getting up they found -
volumes of smoke pouring up the staircase, so
great as to prevent their escape that way.



60 ANIMAL STORIES,

Rousing the other inmates, they opened one of
the back windows, leaped out upon the leads
underneath, and escaped into the next house,
from which they got into the street with safety.
The fire was subdued in the course of an hour





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A HARE AND ITS REFUGE.

or two, but not until Mr. Handley’s premises
had been entirely destroyed.

“My friend Mr. E—— lately called at a
house,” writes Mr. Morris, “ where, as the master
was absent, he had to sit down and chat with the
mistress. After atime a dog came into the room,





ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES. 61

whining and looking very miserable. This was
soon accounted for by the mistress exclaiming,
‘Oh, dear! Mr. —-—— is coming home tipsy ; and
you will see that the poor dog, who is so fond of
him at other times, will not go near him now.’
This was soon confirmed, for the master of the
house came into the-room, and, after a few words,
began to coax his dog; but the creature quite
refused to go near him. This, the mistress after-
wards told me, was invariably the case under
‘similar circumstances; the dog would always
shrink from his master’s touch.”

T. Brown, residing near Hawick, travels the
country as higgler, or pedlar, having an ass for
the partner of his journeys. Weakened by a
touch of paralysis, he is in the habit of steady-
ing himself, while on the road, by keeping hold
of the crupper of the saddle or of the tail of the
ass. During a recent winter which was more
than usually severe, while on a journey near
Rule Water, the old man and the ass were sud-
denly immersed in a wreath of snow, which had
filled up a hollow in the road. There they lay,
far from help, and ready to perish; till at last
the poor ass, after some severe struggles, extri-
cated itself and got upon safe ground. But his



62 3 ANIMAL STORIES.

master was still in the snow; so, after con-
sidering the matter for a while, the creature
returned, forced his way to his master, and
then placed himself in such a position as to
give the poor pedlar a firm grasp of his tail.
The perishing man eagerly availed himself of
this help, grasped his ass’s tail, and was imme-
diately dragged out by the faithful beast till
they both reached a place of safety.

“An old mare belonging to a man in my
village” (says a writer in the Naturalist’s
Magazine), “ which looked as if it had hardly
sense to do its work, had a foal last summer ;
and, one day, the mother came galloping up the
village to its owner's, neighing and showing ~
great agitation. The man said, ‘Something must
be the matter, and he went out to her. She
at once trotted -off looking to see that he
- followed her ; and she led him to the mill-dam,
where he found her foal, who had slipped in,
and was in danger of being drowned.”

Mr. Otway also gives the eee remarkable
story :—

“At some flour-mills near Clonmel there
was a goose which by some accident was left
solitary, without mate or offspring. Soon after,



ANIMALS IN THE{R TROUBLES. - 63

the miller’s wife had put a number of duck’s
eggs under a hen, and, as usual, the ducklings
when hatched ran eagerly to the water; and
the hen, also as usual, stood clucking in great
alarm on the pond-side. Just then up came
the goose, and cried out, in goose-language,
‘Leave them to me; I'll take care of them.’
She swam up and down with them, and when
they were tired she brought them back to the ©
hen, their foster-mother. The next day down
ran the ducklings to the pond, and the hen after
them ; and there was the goose, ready to take
charge of them. Now, whether the goose sug-
gested the thought or not, so it was, that when
the ducklings took the water, and the goose lay
close by to receive them, the hen, full of anxiety
for their safety, jumped off the bank on to the
goose’s back, and there sat, the ducklings swim-.
ming, and the goose and hen following them up
and down the pond. And this, once begun, was
continued for weeks, until the young ducks
‘began to be independent both of the goose and
of their anxious foster-mother.”

In Mr. Forbes’s “Oriental Memoirs” we
read— —

“Qn a shooting party one of my friends



64 ANIMAL STORIES,

killed a female monkey, and carried it to his
tent, which was soon surrounded by forty or
fifty of the tribe, who made a great noise, and
advanced in a menacing manner. When he pre-
sented his fowling-piece they retreated ; but one
stood his ground, chattering and menacing in a
furious manner. At length he came nearer to
the tent-door, and finding that his threatenings
were of no avail, he began a lamentable moan-
ing, and by every expression of grief seemed to
beg for the body. It was given to him. He
took it up in his arms, eagerly pressed it to
him, and carn it off in a sort of eae to
his companions.”

A swallow’s nest, built in a corner of a
window facing the north, and containing a brood
of young ones, was so much softened by the
beating of the rain upon it, that it finally gave
way, fell, and was broken in the fall, leaving
the young ones exposed to the weather. The
owner of the house, compassionating the young
creatures, ordered a covering of some sort to be
thrown over them. As the storm subsided, ©
many other swallows, interesting themselves in
the parents’ trouble, gathered about the spot ;
and when at last they saw the covering re-



*

ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES. 65








Bees

‘ i ee.















a ia AYN! aM |

BROKEN SWALLOWS NEST.

moved, and the little ones safe, they showed
every sign of joy. While the parents fed their
young, the other swallows set to work, each
one collecting clay and other materials and
helping in the work, till they had built over
the brood a sort of arched canopy, and so shel-
tered them from the weather. From the time
it took the whole flock to perform this, it was
clear that the young ones must have perished
of cold and hunger before the parents could
have completed a fifth part of the undertaking.
E,



86 ANIMAL STORIES

Dr. Stanley tells us that a gentleman, walk-
ing over his fields in Yorkshire, saw a small
hawk attempting to fly off with some prey it
had captured, but which proved too heavy for
it. It was pursued by a hare, which, when-
ever she came within reach, struck at it, and at
last succeeded in knocking it down, when it
relinquished its prey. This proved to be a
young leveret, and the hare was its mother.
The little thing was wounded ; but the mother’s
care might revive it.

Mr. Wood tells of a pair of larks that had
built their nest in a grass field, where they
hatched a brood of young. Very soon after the
young birds were out of the eggs the owner of
the field was forced to set his mowers to work,
the state of the weather obliging him to cut
his grass sooner than usual. When the labourers
approached the nest the parent-birds took alarm, _
and at last the mother bird laid herself flat on
the ground, with outspread wings and tail,
while the male bird took one of the young out
of the nest, and, by dint of pushing and pulling,
got it on to its mother’s back. She then flew
away with it over the fields, and soon returned
for another. This time the father took his turn,



ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES. : 67

Sa
ni i
Te




















i laecll i
Ic h



















a














































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































| Rt

a eee is Mh

aa ey cl

ce i us Ny a se i
ell ih i

: Ce i i tn Q i : ( I 1 : | i































































SWALLOWS CUTTING THE FETTERS.

and carried one of the young ones, the mother
helping to get it on to his back; and so they
managed to remove the whole brood before the
mowers had reached their nest. .

Lord Brougham relates the following story,



68 ANIMAL STORIES.

which, he says, was told him by the eye-witness
of the affair :—

A swallow at Paris had entangled its foot
in a noose of a cord attached to a fountain in
the College des Quatres Nations, and it soon
found that its struggles to get free only drew
the cord tighter, so as to make its escape more
and more impossible. It fluttered and struggled
till its strength was exhausted, and it could then
do nothing but utter cries of distress and despair.
These cries, however, brought together a large
number of its companions—-indeed, it seemed as
if all the swallows of the Tuileries and Pont
Neuf were collected. together at the spot. For
a time they seemed to consult as to what could
be done. At last a plan was decided upon, and
they all began a rapid and continuous flight,
swallow after swallow, every one darting its beak
at the string which kept the foot in bondage.
This assault went on, unceasingly, for about half
an hour, and then the string gave way, having
sustained a thousand pecks, and the prisoner
in a moment found himself free; a loud chirp-
ing and chattering followed of joy and congra-
tulation, and then the assemblage ended, and
each bird betook himself to his own affairs.






Ff, fai

vj Ari fii iy “mY

li
Re an
Hufah, =
il i ee

pn























me















i a
el
Re ee

a

Hs ;

HSH

Sei





































=



























































































DYING GOOsE

AND ITS NEST.






" ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES. 91

_Mr. Brew, of Ennis, says :—

“ An old goose that had been sitting on her
eggs for a fortnight, in a farmer’s kitchen, was
perceived on a sudden to be taken violently ill.
She soon after left the nest, and repaired to an
outhouse where there wasa goose of the first
year, which she brought with her into the
kitchen. The young one immediately scrambled
into the old one’s nest, sat, hatched, and brought
up the brood. The old goose, so soon as the
young one had taken her place, sat down by the

_side of the nest, and shortly after died. As the
young goose had never been in the habit of
entering the kitchen before, I know no other
way of accounting for this fact but by suppos-
ing that the old bird had some way of commu-
nicating her wants, which the other was perfectly
able to understand.”

Mr. Graves says, in his “ British Birds,” that
he observed a pair of sparrows which had built
their nest in a wall close by his house. He
noticed that the old birds continued to bring
food to the nest some time after the young
brood had left it, and had the curiosity to place
a ladder against the wall and to look into the
nest, when, to his surprise, he found a full-



72 ANIMAL STORIES.

grown bird, which had got its leg entangled in
some thread which formed part of the nest in
such a manner as to prevent its getting out.
He observed that the parents continued sup-
plying it with food all the autumn and part of
the winter; but when the cold became severe
he thought it time to release it. It then flew
away with its parents,”












CHAPTER IV.

ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS.

« P\ISCIPLINARIAN ” is a long word ; but it
means simply a keeper of order. Men
found out long ago that there was no good to’
be done without order. For this reason they
made laws, and appointed rulers and officers to
see that the laws were kept. But is it possible
that animals know anything of the value of
order? Not much, perhaps. This is a matter
in which they are led rather by instinct than by
reason. If you watch a flock of sheep, you will
see that they generally feed with their heads all
pointing in one direction, and for the most part
the direction is against the wind.. This is a habit
that sheep have inherited from their wild



W6 ANIMAL STORIES,





































































































































































































NEARING THE SENTINELS.

ancestors. For when these were feeding, it was
necessary they should scent the first sign of
coming danger, and should all be on the alert
to, meet it. Now this was best secured by
feeding in the order we have described. All
animals that live together in large herds, as
elephants and antelopes, have arrangements of
a similar kind, and some’ even set sentinels to
keep watch. So when they are on the march
they move in a particular order, the strongest in
the front and rear, the females and the young



ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS, 77

in the middle. But order needs something more
than arrangement. It needs justice and fairness,
obedience and devotion. If in a ship’s company
every one insists on having his own way, there
can be no order. Thus, there are moral qualities
needed for such order as the best men love.
Do animals know anything of this kind of order?
The following anecdotes would seem to show
that they do. And, if so, it is probable that
reason, as well as instinct, has something to do
with it.

Mrs. Lee says: “On one occasion I saw a
cock pursue a hen round the poultry-yard, and
when he had caught her he took a worm from
her, and gave it to another hen, who stood by
waiting. I came, however, to the opinion that
the hen who was punished had stolen the worm
from the other, and that the cock was only
doing justice between them.”

“A friend of mine,” says “V. D.” in Land
and Water, “who would not have spared any
pains in teaching his sheepdogs their proper
lessons, had one dog who was in the habit of
doing his work in an unsatisfactory manner.
In a country full of hills and valleys, it was
often the duty of this dog to collect the flock



78 ANIMAL STORIES.

at the bottom and to drive them up the hill;
instead of which he would drive them half-way,
and then leave them to wander again. On the
opposite side of one of these hills lived a farmer
who had a dog of a more satisfactory kind,
both knowing its duty and performing it. On
some occasions it was observed that, when the
careless dog had failed in his task, the other
would pass over from its own land, take charge
of the flock, and drive them home. ~ But its
patience at last was exhausted; and one day,
when the flock had become dispersed, the
watchful creature first finished the work, drove -
the flock home, and then fell upon the careless
dog, which it severely punished: After this it
refused to interfere further in the matter. It
seemed to say, ‘You rascal! what right have
you to expect me to do your work?’”

“Dr. Edmonstone tells us that in Northern
Scotland extraordinary meetings of crows are
occasionally seen to occur. They collect in great
numbers as if they had been summoned for the
occasion. A few of them sit with drooping
heads, and others sit like judges, while others
are exceedingly active and noisy. In the course
of an hour or two they disperse; but it is not



ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS, _ 79

uncommon to find, when they are gone, that
one or two have been left dead on the place of
meeting. “Crows seem to come from all
quarters. When they have all assembled, a
general noise or conversation follows, and shortly
after the whole fall upon one or two of the
number, and put them to death. When this
has been done they quietly disperse.”

These observations are confirmed by the testi-
mony of Major Norgate, who had long been an
observer. He says—

“The crows hold meetings for some reason or
other. Two or three will begin cawing, and in
a minute or two forty or fifty others will come
flying to the place by twos and threes, from
every quarter. They then form a kind of ring
round one crow, who appears to have been an
offender against some of their rules, and they
remain still for some minutes, the culprit never
attempting to escape. Then, all of a sudden,
five or six of them will fall upon the prisoner,
pecking him, and striking him with their wings.
On one occasion I saw the crow left dead on
the spot, and on another its wing was broken.
Of course, the reason why these crows are

punished can only be a matter of surmise.”



80 ANIMAL STORIES,

~ Most persons have heard of these celebrated
rooks’ (or crows’) parliaments, though few have
seen them. Mr. Wood gives an account written
by a lady who was at the time in bad health,
and was reclining among some shawls behind a
window-curtain, where even the sharp-eyed
rooks did not detect her.

The account much resembles those that have
already been given by other writers, but intro-
duces one additional circumstance. The rooks
(called crows by the spectator) assembled in a
circle, and in the middle was one bird looking
very downcast and wretched. Two more rooks
took their places at its side, and then a vast
amount of chattering went on. At last the two
birds which seemed to act as accusers pecked
the central bird and flew off. All the others
then set on the condemned bird, pecked it nearly
to pieces, and went away, leaving the mangled
body on the ground. The lady who witnessed
this remarkable scene was much struck by the
variety of tones employed by the birds, and
their great expressiveness.

We read in an Indian paper of a Madrassee
who had a monkey which he was very fond
of. The man had occasion to go on a journey,



‘ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS. 8i

and took with him money and jewels, and his
chum, the monkey. Some rogues determined
to rob him of everything he had; accordingly
they lay in wait for him and murdered him.
Having secured the money and jewels, they













MONKEY AND CHILD.

threw the murdered man into a dry well, and

having covered the body with twigs and dry

leaves, they went home. The monkey, who was

on the top of a tree, saw the whole proceedings,

and when the murderers departed he came

down, and made his way to the tahsildar’s
G



82 ANIMAL STORIES.

house, and by his sighs and moans attracted the
attention of that functionary. Inviting the tah-
sildar by dumb signs to follow him, the monkey
went to the well and pointed downwards. The
tahsildar thereupon got men to go down, and,
of course, the body was discovered. The mon-
key then led the men to the place where the
jewels and money were buried. He next took
them to the bazaars, and as he caught sight of
one of the murderers he ran after him, bit him
in the leg, and would not let him go till he was
secured. In this.way all the murderers were
caught. The men, it is said, have confessed
their crime, and they now stand committed
for trial before the Tellicherry Court at the
* ensuing session. That monkey ought to be
made an inspector of police.

The Rev. Edward Spooner tells a story of a
large grey cockatoo belonging to a friend.
“Poll” is a most communicative bird, and a
great friend of the family. On a fine day she
generally passes several hours in the back-yard,
outside her cage; for, though unchained, she
rarely leaves the house. She is on good terms
with all the yard-dogs, the house cats, and the
poultry ; but if a strange dog or cat enters the



ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS. 83:



COCKATOO,

yard she flies at him at once with a tremendous
scream. At night she sleeps in the kitchen,
where her usual companions are three cats.
One morning the kitchen-maid went down-
stairs early, and before she entered the kitchen
she heard “ Poll” talking loudly. On opening
the door she found “ Poll” seated on the
dresser with a large piece of bread in her claw.
Round her, on the floor, were the three cats,



84 ANIMAL STORIES.

and a kitten which had lately taken refuge
there. With strict impartiality, the bird was
breaking off pieces of the bread, and dropping
them to her pensioners in turn, who received
the dole without squabbling, and with gratitude,
listening all the time to all the words in her
vocabulary, which were poured forth in rapid
succession.

Captain Brown tells us the following story of
a tame bird of this sort who had taken up
his abode for some years in the yard of the
College at Tubingen. Ona neighbouring house
was a nest where the storks that resorted to the
place used to hatch their eggs. One day in
autumn a young collegian fired a shot at this
nest. Probably he wounded the stork who was
then sitting. Still, at the usual time, all the
storks took their departure. Next spring a
stork appeared on the roof of the College, and
by clapping his wings seemed to invite the tame
stork to come to him. But the latter was
unable, as his wings were clipped. After a time.
the wild stork came down into the yard, and
the tame one went to meet him, clapping his
wings in- welcome; but the wild one attacked
him with the greatest fury. The people inter.



ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS. 85

fered and drove him away ; butall that summer
he came down into the yard, again and again,
to attack the other. The next spring, instead
of one stork, four of them came down into the
yard and attacked the tame one; seeing his
danger, the cocks, and ganders, and turkeys
rushed to help him, and managed to drive
the assailants away. Greater watch was now
kept ; but when the third spring came, twenty
storks or more descended into the yard at
‘once, and killed the poor bird before any help
could come to him. On both sides in this
contest the idea was “ Union is Strength.”

An example of a somewhat similar mode
of action was related by the Rev. I. O. Morris,
in the Naturalist :-— ~

“In the summer of 1849 a pair of martins
built their nests in an archway at the stables
of Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire, and ag goon as
they had completed building it, and had lined
it, a sparrow took possession of it, and although
the martins tried several times to eject him,
they were unsuccessful. But they, nothing
daunted, flew off to scour the neighbourhood
for help, and returned in a short space of time
with thirty or forty martins, who dragged the



86 ANIMAL STORIES.

unfortunate culprit out, took him to the grass
plot opposite, called “The Circle,” and then fell
on him and killed him.”

“A gentleman,” says Mr. Youatt, “near
Laggan, in Scotland, had a bull which was graz-
ing with the cows in the open meadows. As
fences were little known in those parts, a boy
was kept to watch lest the cattle should trespass
on the neighbouring fields and injure the corn.
The boy was idle and drowsy, and often fell
asleep ; then the cattle trespassed, and he was»
punished. In his turn he revenged himself
on the cows, whom he punished for their trans-
eressions with an unsparing hand. The bull
seemed to observe this, and to understand it.
He began to keep the cows within bounds, and
to punish them if they strayed over the boun-
dary. He himself never entered the forbidden
ground, and if he saw them approach it he
placed himself in the way in a threatening
attitude. At last his honesty and watchful-
ness became so obvious, that the boy was with-
drawn and set about other work, and the duty
was left wholly to the bull, who kept the rest
of the cattle in excellent order.”

A gentleman of property, residing in a man-



ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS. 87

sion near Berlin, found that a pair of storks had
built a nest on one of the large chimneys of his
house. Curiosity led him to mount a ladder
and to inspect it; and when he found in the
nest one egg, in size much like that of the goose,
the idea struck him that he would exchange it
for one belonging to that bird. This was done,
and the birds seemed to take no notice of the
exchange. But when the egg, in due time, was
hatched, the male stork soon perceived the
difference, and flew round and round the nest,
making loud cries, and at last disappeared, and
did not return until two or three days had
elapsed. Then, however, about the fourth
morning, the people of the house were disturbed
by loud cries ; and, looking out, they perceived a
large assemblage of storks, which they estimated
at “five hundred.” These assembled in one
body, and an old bird seemed to be addressing
the rest with great earnestness. When he had
finished another followed, and then a third;
and, at last, the whole body simultaneously rose
in the air, uttering dismal cries.. The female all
this while had been sitting on the nest, shelter-
ing the young bird and showing signs of alarm.
All at once the whole body of storks poured



88 ANIMAL STORIES.

anh, snee p A Tt # so Pe

fi ke -——




oar







;
/
3 e=s|



























THE DOG THAT WOULD NOT BE “DONE.”

down upon her, knocked her out of the nest,
and soon left her dead, destroying also the poor
gosling, and leaving not a vestige of the nest
itself. They then separated and soon disap-
peared, and the'tragedy ended.

A writer in the “ Encyclopedia Britannica”
tells of a pair of crows that made their nest on a
tree, of which there were several round the





‘ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS, 89

_ garden, One result was a constant warfare
between them and a cat. One morning the
battle raged fiercely, till at last the cat gave
way, and took shelter under a hedge to look out
for some opportunity. The crows went on for
some time with threatening noises; but they
soon saw that noises went for nothing. Then,
after consideration, one of the crows took up a
stone from the middle of the garden, and waited
with it in her claws till the enemy should appear.
When the cat began to creep along the hedge
the crow accompanied her; and when at last
puss ventured forth, the crow, hovering over her
in the air, let fall on her the stone which she
held in her claws.

Arago, in his “Account of Ampére,” tells
an anecdote of a gentleman, driven by a storm
into a village public-house, who had a fowl
roasted for dinner. Old fashions then prevailed
in the south of France, and turnspits were still
employed in place of the modern jack. Neither
caresses, threats, nor blows could make the
dog act his part. The gentleman interposed.
“Poor dog, indeed !” said the landlord sharply ;
“he deserves none of your pity, for these scenes
take place every day. Do you know why this.



Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EFCIRBU6E_AG42XY INGEST_TIME 2014-05-07T23:27:29Z PACKAGE UF00065492_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES




ANIMAL STORIES FOR THE YOUNG |
Series I.




See Page 48.

MONKEYS AND. HERONS,

Frontispiece.
HEADS WITHOUT HANDS —

OR

Stories of Animal Wisden

ANIMAL STORIES FOR THE YOUNG

Series I.



BEAUTIFULLY ILLUSTRATED

LONDON
Wm. ISBISTER, Limitep
15 anp 16 TAVISTOCK STREET, COVENT GARDEN
1889


CONTENTS.



PAGE
CHAPTER I. .

ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS . . . . : 4
CHAPTER II.

ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS (continued) . . . ze
CHAPTER III.

_ ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES . : . . . . 68
CHAPTER IV.

ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS . A . 7 7 « €6
CHAPTER V.

ANIMALS AS TRICK-PLAYERS : : . . . 98

CHAPTER VI.
ANIMALS AND LANGUAGE, &e. . . : . : 123




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

eo ee

- PAGE
Monkeys anp Herons . , ; . Frontispiece.
Ducks. . 2
Maeriz . : : : : : : : ; : 7
“Tp DRIED AGAIN AND AGAIN” , z . : » ii
Cats at rus Door-Larcu : : : A . a “AT
Sporrsman anp His Doe . : : : . » 21
Pusuine tHE TRADE ; : : : z . 25
Sway anp Nest. a ; 3 : : . 88
Water-Hunxn . : > 2 . ‘ : : - 87
‘Witp Ducks . . . ; : ; . : . 42
Fox anp Harz . . 7 - : . . 46
Tick-InresteD ELEPHANT ‘ i oe Fi - 49
Kerry Cows . 7 d : : . : : . 8
A Hare anp irs Reruce ‘ . 7 : ‘ - 60
Broxen Swartow’s Nest Fi : ; : : . 65
Swattows currine tHE Ferrers . : : . . 67
Tue pyine Goosz ann its Nest . ; : ‘ . 69
_Nezarine ‘tun Suytivets oO + oe ee TB

Monxery anp Cup . ‘ 7 7 2 Z » 81
Vill : LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS,

PAGE
Cockatoo. 7 A : : 7 ‘ . i - 88
Tur Doc THAT WOULD Not BE “DONE” : : . 88
Gresenuanp Dog Train . : : 7 : . - 97
Two Toy Terriers . ; 3 : 7 . - 100
Tue xNowine Ass . : , 7 . . : .« 102
Tue Trick wira tHe Bein . : : . ~. « 106
War Horses . ; . 7 - : , >» 119

CoLiiz on THE Watcr . : 7 « : : . 126




























































































































































































































































































































































































































CHAPTER I.

ANIMALS. AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS.

E are sometimes told that animals have
instinct, but not reason. Instinct means a
feeling that’ prompts a living creature to perform
certain. actions without knowing why. Reason,
on the other hand, means the power men have to
consider first what they want to do, and then find
out the way to do it. It is certain that a great
many things done by animals are done without
the least idea of any reason for doing them.
Thus, when young ducklings just hatched run.
to the water, they have never considered at all
whether swimming is easier than walking, nor
4
2, ANIMAL STORIES,

have they been asking themselves what their’
webbed feet are for. They have an instinct for the.
water; that is all. But there are many actions ©







































































































































































































































































































































































































of animals which cannot be explained in this way.
Sometimes animals are found to consider first:
what they want to do, and then to find means to


ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 3

“do it. That is, they make use of expedients,
which show a conscious intention. In this and
the following chapter instances of the kind have
been collected from various sources. And these
stories may help to show, that though animal
intelligence cannot be compared to the human
mind,.yet God has given even to beasts some
spark of reason. _

M. Montrot (@ French traveller) speaks of
amusing scenes he has witnessed between the
monkey and the crocodile. ‘The latter will be
seen lying half-asleep on the bank of a river, and
is espied by acrowd of monkeys who inhabit the
trees on the bank. They seem to consult, to ap-
proach, to draw back, and at last to proceed to
overt acts of annoyance. Ifa convenient branch

-is within reach, a monkey will go along it, will
swing himself down by the end of it, hanging by |
a hand or a foot, till he can reach to deal the
crocodile a slap on the nose, instantly scrambling
up the branch, so as to be far out of the enraged
brute’s reach. Sometimes, if the branch be not
near enough, or sufficient, several monkeys will
hang to each other so as to form a chain, and
then, swinging backwards and forwards over the
crocodile’s head, the lowermost monkey will tor-
4 ANIMAL STORIES.

ment the creature to his heart’s content, Some.
times the crocodile is so far irritated as to open
its enormous jaws and make a snap at the
monkey,. just missing him. Then are heard
screams and chatterings of exultation among
the monkeys, and great gambols are executed
among the branches.”

Mr. Kenway, of Edgbaston, relates how he was
walking with his tather and a younger brother
many years since in the neighbourhood of Brid-
port, in Dorsetshire, his native town, through
fields leading to Hyde farm, where about thirty
or forty cows were at that time kept. A carriage
road led to the farm, and through a large field,
rather steep, to the field in which the cows grazed.

"As they passed through the large gate (like a turn-
pike-gate) at the bottom of this field, they ob-
served a bull at the top of the hill making his way
through the hedge at the top ; and fearing some
_ harm, their tather hurried them to a gate a little

- higher up, over which they climbed, and waited

on the safe side to watch what the gentleman was
after. To their great astonishment and delight, he
passed quietly by them to the bottom of the bill,
and with the greatest deliberation put his horns ©
under the bars of the gate, raised it off its hinges.
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 5

and carried it to the side of the road, where ha
laid it down, quite out of the way. Having done
this, he began to bellow with all his might, and in
a few minutes they saw first one cow come through
the gap that he had made in the hedge, and then
another, and another, until the whole herd were
passed through—all streaming down the hill in
the greatest excitement, kicking up their heels,
and throwing about their heads and tails in the
most ludicrous manner imaginable, to their great
- amusement. The gallant gentleman stood beside
the gate until he had introduced his friends into
a beautiful pasture, just ready for the scythe ; and
not until he had seen all fairly enjoying the sweet
repast did he attempt to partake of it himself.
Professor Bell says that a lady, a near relative
of his own, witnessed a cow feeding in a pasture,
the gate of which was open to the road, which
was much annoyed by a mischievous boy, who
amused himself by throwing stones at her. She
bore with the persecution for some time; but at.
last she went up to him, hooked her horns into
his clothes, and, lifting him from the ground,
earried him out of the field and laid him down

' in the road. She then returned quietly to her

pasture, leaving him suffitiently frightened.
6 ANIMAL STORIES.

While playing at cricket in a field belonging
to J. Hayton Ireland, Esq., Mr. Morris says he
was very much amused by watching a cow en-
gaged in slaking her thirst. As there is no
pond near,a pump had been placed in the field,
from which a stone basin below is usually kept
filled for the horses and cow. But she, being
nice in her taste, preferred to pump the water’
for herself, catching it, as it fell, with her tongue.
The shape of her horns bending downwards,
enabled her to work the pump with great
facility. He says he had often seen her do it.

A very ingenious expedient was resorted to
by a shepherd’s dog. The dog was employed
to take his master’s dinner to him, while em-
ployed out in the fields. He carried it in a tin
with a lid; and on one occasion was met by
another dog, who smelt the contents of the can.
They had a fight, and the intruder was driven
off. But in the scuffle the lid had been knocked
off the can. The shepherd’s dog did not know
how to get it on again, but he saw that the two
belonged to each other, so he adopted this ex-
pedient :—He carried the can in his mouth for
some distance, then he returned and brought the
lid, and carried it some way farther. He then
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. ; 7



THE MAGPIE.

returned to the can and carried that beyond the
lid: and so at last he got them both safely to
his master.

Mrs. Lee describes an artful trick which a
magpie, kept in the family of Mr. Ranson, was
observed to play. A toll-gate stood near, and
he was fond of watching the movements of the -
toll-keeper’s wife. When he observed her to
8 “ANIMAL STORIES.

be employed in making pastry, he would perch
upon the gate, and would suddenly cry out,
‘Gate ahoy!” If the husband were absent, as
was frequently the case, the wife would hurry
out to open the gate. Magpie would then slip .
in and snatch a bill-full of the pie-crust, chat-
tering over it, on the roof of the gate-house,
with the greatest glee.

Whilst walking on West Looe Quay, a corre-
spondent of the Animal World was attracted to
the actions of an Irish water-spaniel which was
coming towards him, when suddenly it jumped
into. the river, where it is about one hundred or
more yards in width. On looking across, he
saw that a sailor on board a vessel on the other
side was calling the dog; and, seeing it swim-
ming towards the vessel, he prepared to take
it on board by means of a rope which he threw
over the side, holding an end in each hand, thus
forming a loop reaching to the surface of the
water. The tide at the time was running in fast,
so that the dog was carried by it some consider-
able distance up, and had to swim against the
tide to reach the side of the vessel; when it
made an attempt to get its fore-legs over the
rope, but was unable to do so, the tide again
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS, 9

carrying it up the river. A second attempt failed
in the same manner. Again the dog swam up
to the side of the vessel, and passed it without
seeming to notice the rope, and, as he thought,
had given up any further attempt to be taken
on board. But no; having swum six or eight
yards beyond the vessel against the tide, the dog
deliberately turned round and swam with the
tide into the bight of the rope, got both fore-
legs over, the rope crossing the chest, the fore-
legs pressed back so as to prevent its slipping
off the chest; and so the dog was drawn up the
side of the vessel, about ten or twelve feet in.
height, and thus taken on board.

The narrator thinks there was more than
instinct displayed here. Instinct was shown by
the dog at first making two attempts to get on
board the nearest way, whilst swimming against
the tide, in which it failed, when reason stepped
in, as is shown by the dog taking the different
course of swimming with the tide to the rope, -
and by that means accomplishing its desired end.

A similar story is told of a dog which certain
thoughtless boys were preventing from landing |
on the stairs of a harbour pier. The dog having.
been thrown into the sea for a washing, the
19 ANIMAL STORIES.

owner had turned his back upon it, and was
returning home along the pier, expecting, as. a
matter of course, that his dog would soon be at
his heels ; and such would have been the case
but for the dangerous pelting to which it was
subjected. It tried again and again to dodge
the pelting boys, but always failing, it at length
turned round and quietly took possession of the
stern of a boat out of the reach of their throw,
where it waited. When after a time its enemies
were gone, it took the water again, reached the
pier stairs, and thus found its way home again.
The cruelty of the boys was in this case scarcely
more apparent than the sagacity of the poor
brute they persecuted.

One of the 17th Lancers gives an account of
a mare in his regiment that had a strong dislike
to drunkenness. Her rider would say, when he
had taken more drink than was good for him,
“Now, if Idon’t mind, that mare will get me
into the guard-house to night.” The fact was,
the mare could tell when her master was sober
and when he was not; and when he had been
indulging she would squeeze him against the
wall, or in some other way show her dislike to
it ; and this generally gave rise to a quarrel; a


































































































































































“1p TRIED AGAIN AND AGAIN,”
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIEN1S. 13

row would ensue, and the tipsy man would soon
find himself in trouble.

_A couple who lived on the side of the Enner-
dale Hills, in Cumberland, often took their little
girl with them when they went into a neigh-
bouring wood to gather fuel. One evening, in
searching for wild flowers, she strayed out of
sight; and when twilight and darkness came
on, they searched for her in vain. At last they
went back to their cottage in the hope that the
child might have wandered back. Finding that
she was not there, they got torches and renewed
the search, but still without success. Tired
out, they went home again, and the mother
mechanically spread the supper-table, when their
dog jumped up, seized a lump of bread, and
rushed out of the cottage. The father said
“T never knew the dog to steal before.” Before
daylight the search was renewed, but still in
vain. When breakfast time came, the dog ap-
peared again, and repeated his extraordinary
conduct of the evening before. The wife, struck
with a thought which was full of hope, exclaimed,
“T’m sure he knows where the child is.” In-
stantly they both started forth and managed
to trace the dog, and found him on the edge
14 ANIMAL STORIES.

of the lake, and the child holding in her
hands the bread which he had just brought
her.

A. London physician gives an account of two of
his friend’s dogs which had a special attachment to
and understanding with each other. The one was
a Scotch terrier, gentle, and ready to fraternise
with all honest comers. The other looked like a
cross between a mastiff and a large rough stag-
hound. He was fierce, and it was wise to cultivate
_ his acquaintance before you took any liberties
with him. The little dog was gay and lively, the |
other was stern and thoughtful. These two dogs
were often observed to go toa certain point to-
gether, and then the small one remained behind,
at a corner of a large field, while the large dog
took a round by the side of the field, which ran
up hill for nearly a mile, and led to a wood on the
left... Game abounded in these districts, and the
nature of the plan of the two dogs was soon per-
ceived. The terrier would start a hare and chase
it up the hill towards the wood, where they would
arrive somewhat tired. Here the large dog, fresh
and in wind, darted after the animal, who was
easily captured. The two dogs then ate the hare
between them and quietly returned home. This
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. | 15

plan of operations had been going on for some
time before it was fully understood.

Tt is told of a gentleman in Dumfriesshire—
who, by the way, does not seem to have taken very
serious precautions against thieves—that -he had
a dog and. cat which were much attached to each
other, and both were great favourites in the house-
hold. The dog, however, was not meant to sleep
in the house, but was carefully turned out into the
yard every evening; and yet, strange to say, he
was always found in the morning lying before the
fire, with the cat by his side. One evening the
master of the dog heard a sort of rap at a back
door leading to the kitchen, and saw the cat
spring up and strike the latch, while the dog .
pushed open the door and entered without let
or hindrance. We have read, too, of one cat
helping another to accomplish the same thing.

A correspondent of the Animal World relates
that a few years ago a farmer, from near Dumfries,
walked to Penrith with his sheep and two dogs.
Having sold his sheep, he prepared to return
home; but “Fan” in the meantime had had
puppies, and was left in charge of a friend, who
made a bed for her in his parlour, and fed her.
“ After a few weeks, ou coming as usual to feed
16 ANIMAL STORIES.

her, neither she nor her puppies were to be seen
He looked for his hat: it had also disappeared |
‘Ah!’ thought he, ‘the thief has taken that too.’
After a diligent search, that proved useless—for
neither dog, puppies, nor hat had been seen or
heard of—the friend wrote to the Scotch farmer
to inform him of his loss. A few days after he
received the following reply: ‘Make no more
researches. “Fan” arrived here carly this morn-
ing, with her three puppies im your hat!’ Mark
the animal’s reasoning, we may callit. She had
seen the Penrith farmer put his head in the hat ;
‘Fan’ seized the idea, and placed her little dar.
lings in it—being no longer able to remain
away from her master, or to leave her young
behind.” |

A cat belonging to a correspondent of the
Animal World was in the constant habit of open-
ing the back door of his house, which had a
thumb-latch. Almost immediately after she was
brought to his house, eight years ago, she adopted |
this plan of letting herself in, to the no small
amazement and often alarm of strange servants.
When it is desired to keep her out, the door has ~
to be bolted ; and at one time when she found that
the case, she used to go to the scullery window,
ANIMALS AND THELR EXPEDLENI'S, 1G

a BATA
cn i,
ET)





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































CATS AT THE DOOR-LATCH,

jump up at that, and hang on to the upper part
until her weight pulled it down far enough to
admit her. The window sash at that time ran
down easily ; since new cords have been put in
she cannot do it; but the practice showed, he ~
thought, something akin to reason.

The same writer tells of another cat whose kit-

c
18 ANIMA]. STORIES.

tens, when she had any, he always used to go and
look at every day——the mother being very proud
of the attention. Once when she had one he hap-
pened to be very ill and confined to his room.
No doubt pussy missed the usual attention ; but
she was determined her child should not remain
unknown to him. The very first day he was able
to go down to the drawing-room sofa, pussy
brought her kitten in her mouth from the back-
kitchen, where its bed was, and laid it down at the
kitchen-door, while she asked, as plainly as pos-
sible, to have that door opened for her ; when this
was done she carried the kitten to the drawing-
“room door, returned to the kitchen, and asked
again for the other door to be opened; then
brought it to his feet, laid it down in triumph,
and looked at him. This process was repeated
every day till he was able to go about the house ;
and though the kitten was generally sent back to
its bed very soon, she never brought it a second
time on the same day; merely, he supposed,
thinking she ought to let him see it daily, if he
could not go to it.
Mr. Wood had a favourite cat which he had
brought up from infancy, and which was on terms
of the greatest familiarity with him. One day


ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 19

puss came to the door of the dining-room, mew-
ing piteously. Mr. Wood opened it; when the
cat went to the foot of the stairs, ran up two or
three of them, and looked round for Mr. Wood to
follow. When he did so, puss led the way to the
study-door, and going toa heap of books that lay
on the floor, began to push her paws under them.
Mr. Wood took up the books one by one, the cat
watching with looks of expectation ; and when
the last volume was taken up, forth darted a
mouse, which the cat seized and dispatched,
and then began to purr, as if asking for con.
gratulations and praise for its watchfulness.

At the barn-yards of Castle Forbes severd
floors open by means of the common thumb-
latch, and these a small grey cat had discovered
the means of opening for herself. At various times
pussy had been seen to spring from the ground,
a height of about four feet, fasten her left fore-
leg in the handle, and with her right paw press
the latch till she lifted the inside portion, when
the door swung round, and she dropped to the
floor at her own pleasure. One of the doors is a
heavy panelled outside one. On one occasion
she was observed to fail in opening it; but,
nothing daunted, she made a second attempt,
20 ANIMAL STORIES,

and crept up till she put her whole weight upon
it, and was rewarded with success. It is sup-
posed that her first inducement to attempt the
ingenious feat was for the purpose of visiting
her kittens when the door happened to be shut.

Another clever expedient is given in the fol-
lowing story of a dog, which is as pathetic as it is
instructive. A peasant had a sporting-dog who
was expecting pups in a few days, when he had
to leave for a fair in Dauphiné.

In going he noticed that the dog followed him
at a distance, and with difficulty. The poor
beast, after arriving at the inn, went to lie under ~
the manger in the stable, and there laid down
her precious burden—four pups.

“ Well,” said the master, “it is a good breed,
I must take them back in my neighbour's trap,”
and he went about his business. But when the
evening came and he was going to return home,
there was nothing under the manger—neither
mother nor pups. Thinking that he had been
robbed, he returned in a very bad humour.

Imagine his surprise to find his dog, wet, pant
ing, exhausted, and three of her pups lying undet
her to get warmth.

How did it happen ?


SPORTSMAN AND DOG.
a
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 23

The distance from Soucien to Saint-Symphorien
is about twelve miles, and the Rhéne had to be
passed, Well, this mother, uneasy as to the fate
of her offspring, had carried her pups, one after
the other, to her kennel. She had had her
strength to travel all that distance, and to swim
through the Rhéne seven times. You know
the strength and size of this river !

The peasant, coarse as he was, could not keep

back his tears. He called in a veterinary surgeon
to save this precious beast ; but all the care was
in vain—she died by the side of her three living
pups, which had been saved by her.

Mr. Banyard, having returned from a tour in
the West, tells how he put up at a small town near
the Alleghany Mountains, where, while he was
sitting watching the variegated hues produced by
the rays of the setting sun upon that wild, rough,
mountain scenery, he saw eight or nine large bag-
gage-waggons approaching, drawn by four, and
some of them by six horses. He found that the
tavern where he was stopping wasa regular lodg-
ing-place for those strong, coarse, mountain wag-

-goners. Near the place where he sat, in front of
the house, was a pump with a large trough, which
was used for watering horses. The handle of the
94 ANIMAL STORIES.

pump, he observed, always sprang up whenever
any one used it. Most pump-handles fall down,
but this one sprang up, so that those who used it
had no occasion to lift the handle; it always
raised itself When the string of waggons ap-
proached the tavern there was but little water in
the trough,—not nearly enough to supply the
horses. But you may imagine his surprise to see
one of the horses, as soon as he was unharnessed,
go to the pump, lay his head over the handle,
and press it down, so as to make the water come
out of the spout. Then he raised his head, and
the handle sprang up; then again he would press
it down, and send more water into the trough.
In this way that horse continued pumping, till
all the horses had had the water they wanted.
Then, last of all, he left the handle, walked
round to the trough, drank as much as he
wanted, and finished by walking into the stable
and taking his place in one of the stalls.

A farmer who lives in the neighbourhood of
Bedford, and regularly attends the markets there, ~
was returning home one evening in 1828, and
having drank till he became sleepy, rolled off his
saddle into the middle of the road. His horse
stopped and waited some time, until, seeing no ~
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIBNTS. 25













































































































il tl ia i oo



















PUSHING THE TRADE.

disposition in its rider to remount, it took him -
by the collar and shook him. The farmer only
grumbled, and remained in slumber. The horse
then began to resort: to stronger measures—seiz-
ing hold of his master’s coat-laps, and dragging
at them to make him get up. After a while the
coat-lap gave way. While this was going on,
three more passengers came by, and these suc-
ceeded in awakening the farmer and inducing
him to remount. The torn coat-lap was care-
fully thrust into the pocket, and was long pre-
26 ANIMAL STORIES.

served by the farmer as a memorial of his
horse’s zeal and care.

An ingenious device is recorded of the dog of
a poor shoeblack, by which it sought to push its
master’s trade. At all dirty boots it barked ina
most excited manner, looking now and then away
from them to its master’s box and into their
wearer's face, It is far from unlikely that such
an appeal would prove very successful with good-
natured people. _

“During the winter,” says a writer in the
Animal World, “a large wide drain had been
made, and over this strong planks had been placed
for a cart-horse to pass over to his stable. It
had snowed during the night, and froze very hard
in the morning. How he passed over the planks
on going out to work I know not, but on being
turned loose from the cart at breakfast, he came
up to them, and I saw his fore-feet slip; he drew
back immediately, and seemed for a moment at a
loss how to get on. Close to these planks a cart-
load of sand had been placed ; he put his fore-feet
on this, and looked wistfully to the other side of
the drain. The boy who attends this horse, and
who had gone round by another path, seeing him
stand there, called him. The horse immediately
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 27

turned round, and set about scraping the sand
most vigorously, first with one foot, then the
other. The boy, perhaps wondering what he
would be at, waited to see. When the planks
were completely covered with sand, the horse
turned round again and unhesitatingly walked
over and trotted up to his stable and driver.”
Mr. Morris relates how a Norwegian pony
showed more than usual skill in trying to get into
the stable to a tempting feed of corn. If the
groom tied the door with a stout rope, she would
untie the knot with her teeth ; if he fastened ‘it
with a chain and staple and wooden peg, no
sooner was his back turned than the peg was drawn
and the door opened. At length, tired with being
so often beaten, he got a heavy rail, which he
placed right across the entrance. The pony was
puzzled, and the groom looked on with glee while
he saw her vain attempts to lift the rail, which
proved too heavy for her. He thought that the
victory was his when she seemed to give it up in
despair and trotted off to find her companion.
But not a little astonished was he to see her
return in a few minutes, and the other pony
with her. Together they put their necks under
the rail; and what was too heavy for one
28° _ ANIMAL STORIES.

yielded to the efforts of both : the rail was lifted
and thrown down, and the way to the corn was
again opened. On another occasion, when shut
up in a yard, which they did not at all approve,
all kinds of fastenings gave way to them, till at
last the groom, in despair, actually nailed up the
gate with some stout tenpenny nails !

Mr. East had once a donkey, which was a re-
markably docile and knowing animal. His
lodging-place at night was in ashed, from which
he had free access to a yard; but not, of course,
to the kitchen garden which adjoined it. This
garden was separated from the yard by a wall, in
which was a door, or gate, fastened securely by
two bolts and a latch. But soon Mr. East was
surprised to find that the door had been opened
in the night, and there were foot-prints of the
donkey on the walks and beds. How this could
be it was difficult to imagine, especially as the
upper bolt was fixed at a considerable height.
-So Mr. East watched at his window, and saw
master donkey reared up on his hind legs, un-
fastening the upper bolt with his mouth. He then
drew back the lower one, lifted the latch, and
walked quietly into the garden. In a few minutes
he returned, bringing a large bunch of carrots,
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 29

which he deposited in his shed, aiid then went
back to latch the gate, after which he leisurely
set about munching up his booty. Before Mr.
Hast put a stop to these proceedings, he gave
some of his neighbours, who were incredulous on
the subject, an opportunity of witnessing them. |
It should be added that master donkey never —
commenced his operations until after the light
had been extinguished at the bedroom window.

Mr. Smiles, in his “ Lives of Engineers,” says
that “the whole of the stone for Waterloo Bridge
(except the balustrades) was hewn in some fields
adjacent, on the Surrey side. It was then trans-
ported, stone by stone, upon trucks drawn along
railways, over temporary bridges of wood ; .and
nearly the whole was thus transported by one
horse, ‘Old Jack,’ a most sensible animal and a
great favourite. His driver was, on the whole, a
steady man, though rather too fond of his dram
before breakfast. The railway along which the
truck passed ran just in front of the door of a
public-house ; and here Tom, the driver, usually
pulled up for his ‘morning.’ On one occasion it
happened that Tom stopped longer than his usual
time, and ‘Old Jack’ grew impatient. So he
pushed his head against the public-house door,
30 ‘ ANIMAL STORTES.

got it inside, and finding his master standing at
the door, took the collar of his jacket between his
teeth and pulled him out of the place back to
his work again.”

“A friend of mine,” says Mr. Morris, “ was
riding home one night through a wood, and
owing to the darkness struck his head against the
branch of a tree and fell from his horse quite
stunned. The horse immediately returned to .
the house which he had just left—a mile or more
distant. He found the doors closed, and the
family retiring to rest. He pawed at the door
until one of the servants, hearing a noise, came
down and opened it; and saw, with surprise, the
horse which had so recently left them. But the
creature, so soon as he was recognised, turned
round, inviting the inmates to follow. They did
so, and the creature led them straight to the spot
where his rider still lay upon the ground stunned,
and scarcely able to rise.”

In Fiteshire, a carter at Strathmiglo had an
old horse who had long lived with him and was
intimate with all the family. When among the
children, he was always careful to do them no
injury—moving his feet with the greatest care.
On one occasion he was drawing a loaded cart
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 81

through a narrow lane, when he found a young
child playing there and liable to be crushed by
the cart-wheels. He took the child up by the
clothes with his teeth and carried it a little way,
till he saw a bank by the roadside on which he
could safely place it. Then, having thus put it out
of danger, he went on his way ; but not without
looking back to satisfy himself that the wheels
of the cart had cleared it.

A very similar story is told by Grant Tharbiitn,
who says he saw a horse in the neighbourhood
of New York dragging a load of coal in a cart.
The lane was very narrow; the driver was some
distance behind, conversing with a neighbour;
the horse, ona slow walk, came.up to a child sit-
ting in the middle of the road, playing with the
‘dust with his little hands. The horse stopped—-
he smelt at the child ; there was no room to turn
off. With his thick lips he gathered the frock
between his teeth, lifted the child, laid him gently
on the outside of the wheel track, and went on
his way.


CHAPTER, II.

ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS—(continued).

A GENTLEMAN, who a few years ago resided

at Bank House, Burnley, was in the habit
of feeding daily a well-known and favourite
robin. An envious sparrow, coming one day to
join in the good things provided, was driven away
by the robin ; and, not well pleased at the treat-
ment it had received, came again, attended by
superior numbers, so that now it was the red-
breast’s turn to be defeated. But Robin had a
resource. The next day, to the surprise of all, a
crow appeared with his red-breasted friend, and
kept at a distance all rivals and intruders. The
two then partook amicably together of whatever
was provided. This continued for several days,
and then, something having occurred, they came
no more.

D


34 ANIMAL STORIES.

Mr. Varrell, in his “ British Birds,” tells of a
swan that exhibited, eight or nine years ago, one
of the most remarkable instances of what we call
“instinct” that everwas recorded. Shewassitting
on four or five eggs, and was observed to be very
busy in collecting weeds, grasses, leaves, or what
not, to raise her nest, A farming: man was ordered
to take down half a load of haulm, with which
she most industriously raised her nest, some two —
feet and a half higher than usual. The next night
there came down a tremendous fall of rain, which
flooded all the lowlands, and did great damage.
Men had made no preparation; the bird had.
Her eggs were above, and only just above, the
water,

A sort of retriever, called “ Reves,” an old
favourite of a gentleman in Scotland, was in the
habit, says “Man and Beast,” of going for a walk _
before breakfast with his master. One morning it
so happened that his master did not intend to take
his usual walk. “ Reves” soon became very impa-
tient ; and seeing no signs of his master, he got
upon achair in the hall, took his master’s hat from
the peg, carried it up to his room, and scratched at
the door for admission. As soon as the door was
opened, in walked “ Reves,” laid the hat. at his


































































































































































































































































SWAN AND NEST,
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS, 87







































































































































































WATER-HEN.

master’s feet, and pushed his nose into his hand.

The idea was entirely his own; he had never been —

taught to fetch a hat.
Bishop Stanley tells us that a water-hen,

observing a pheasant feed. out of one of those -

boxes which open when the bird stands on the
rail in front of the box, went and stood in the
same place as soon as the pheasant left it. Find-
ing that its weight was not sufficient to raise the
lid of the box, it kept jumping on the rail to give

additional impetus. But this not being sufficient ~

it presently flew away, and returned with another


38 ANIMAL STORIES.

bird of its own species. The weight of the two
proved sufficient, and they gained the reward of
their sagacity.

Dr. Carpenter pledges his word for the truth of
the following story. At a ladies’ school near ~
Bristol it was the rule, on every day of the week
but Sunday, for the girls to go into the play-
ground at twelve o’elock, and there to eat their
luncheon. The sparrows soon found out that the
girls dropped crumbs on the ground, and used to
gather in large numbers on the garden walls a
little before twelve, and wait there till the play-
ground was again empty of human beings.
Then down they came to feast upon the crumbs.
This used to happen as regularly as the clock
struck, except on Sundays. On Sunday the girls
attended public worship, and there was an early
dinner indoors, instead of a luncheon in the
playground. Those persons who happened to be
at home on Sunday mornings were greatly amused
to notice that the sparrows knew Sunday as well
as any young lady in the school. They never
came and twittered. about on the garden walls a
little before twelve on that day; for they had
found out that on it there was no feast of crumbs.
It seems that they had also their own way of
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 89

finding out when it wanted a few minutes to
twelve.

Cats are often kind to each other, sympathizing
under difficulties and helping their friends who
need assistance. One of Mr. Wood’s friends is a
great admirer of cats and their dispositions, and

has noted many of their ways. One of her cats was

rather a weakly animal, and was unable to carry
her kittens about after the manner of cats. So
’ when she wished to carry her kittens from one
place to another, she was accustomed to impress
a stronger cat into her service, she walking by
the side of her friend in order to act as guide.
Another of the cats, when oppressed with the
cares of a family, did exactly what a human
mother does when she can afford it. She em-
ployed a nursemaid, 4e. she fetched a half-
grown kitten and placed it in charge of her
young while she went for a ramble.

On one occasion when visiting the Zoological
Gardens in Regent’s Park, Mr. Morris observed
a little incident which may be worth mention. A
large white cockatoo and a much smaller green

parrot inhabited the same cage. When he gave -

them a nut, the parrot took it, but instead of
endeavouring to crack it, immediately handed
40 ANIMAL STORIES.

it over to the cockatoo, whose more powerful
mandibles at once mastered it, and the contents
were fairly divided between the two.

“One day in last April,” says a writer in the
Magazine of Natural History, “I observed a
young lamb entangled among briars. It had
struggled for liberty till it was nearly exhausted.
The mother then attempted to release it, both
with her head and her feet, but all in vain. Find-
ing the task too much for her, she turned round
and ran away, baa-ing withall her might. She
went across two or three fields, and through their
hedges, till she came to a flock of sheep. In about
five minutes she returned, bringing with her a
large ram, whose horns gave just the help that
was wanted. They went together to the poor
lamb, and the ram immediately set about the
work of releasing it, dragging away the briars
with his horns.”

A similar narrative is given by Cuvier, who
relates how a sheep applied, bleating, to a cow ;
and when the cow followed her, led her to a lamb
which had fallen into a ditch, and lay feet upper-
most, unable to release itself. The cow, by a
careful use of its horns, lifted the lamb out of its
hole, and placed it upon its feet again.
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS,. 41

The following well-known story is given by
Mr. Morris. “ Living in the City portion of the
metropolis, I observed, one afternoon, in the
aperture generally left for the cellar or kitchen
window, an unfledged house-sparrow, which had
fallen down into this underground place, across ~
which was laid, obliquely, an iron bar, whieh
extended within a foot of the surface. The
mother was at the top of the opening, looking
down with pity and alarm at the condition of
the child. Many and ingenious were the at- .
tempts of both mother and child to raise the
latter out of its perilous position, but all of them
proved unavailing. I looked on with anxiety,
lest the affair should end in the mother’s giving
up the attempt as hopeless, and deserting her
child ; but the event proved:that there was no
ground to fear any such desertion. Several
plans and attempts were ted, one after
the other; but at last the parent hit upon a new
one. Flying away for a few minutes, it at length
returned with a stout straw in its beak, and
rested with it for a minute on the edge. At
once the little nestling, called by its mother by
divers chirps, climbed up the iron bar, till it
reached the highest point, and there received



42, i ANIMAL STORIES,

one end of the straw in its beak, and was
raised, to my astonishment, by the mother, who
held fast the other, till it reached the level
ground.”

Mr. St. John says that he received from a
most reliable informant the followine story of

: a v ~~
2) >















“WILD DUCKS.

a fox. “Very early one morning he saw a fox
eyeing most wistfully a number of wild ducks
feeding on the rushy end of a Highland lake.
After due consideration, the fox, going to wind-
ward of the ducks, put afloat on the lake several
bunches of dead rushes, or grass, which floated
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. = 48

down among the ducks without causing the
least alarm. After watehing the effects of this
manceuvre for a short time, Reynard, taking a
good bunch of grass in his paws, launched
himself into the water as quietly as possible,
floating down, as the. preceding bunches had
done, towards the ducks. He took care to
leave nothing but the tip of his nose and ears
above water, and these were concealed among
the grass. In this way he drifted among the
ducks, and soon made booty of a fine mallard.
When we remember what numbers of wild ducks,
pigeons, hares, and other wild animals every fox
contrives to catch, for his own support and that
of his family, this story seems by no means in-
- credible.”

At Kilmorack, in Inverness-shire, the parish
minister was a man of great taste and much
hospitality. He kept a good stock of poultry ;
but, as foxes were numerous, it was needful to
provide the fowls with a house for greater safety.
A visitor found on the breakfast-table, not only
salmon fresh and salmon preserved, but new-laid
eggs in daily abundance. One morning the ser-
vant, whose duty it was to provide the latter,
’ took the key and the usual basket, and repaired
44, ANIMAL STORIES,

to the fowl-house to bring in the usual supply.
But when she opened the door, terrible was the
scene. Blood was here and there, and dead
hens lay on every side. In the midst lay a full-
grown fox, apparently as dead as the hens,
The servant stared, and wondered, and supposed
that the fox must have eaten himself to death.
After some exclamations and evil speaking, she
took the beast up by the tail and flung him
out of the window on to the dungheap outside.
But what was her astonishment to see the
creature, so soon as he alighted on the heap,
spring up, alive and vigorous, and scour away
for the neighbouring woods. .

Mr. St. John, in his “Sports of the High-
lands,” describes a fox whose manceuvres he
had himself watched :—

“Just after daylight I saw him come quietly
along. He looked with great care over the turf-
wall into the field, and seemed to long very much
to get hold of some of the hares which were feed-
ing within it ; but apparently knew that he had |
no chance of catching one by dint of running.
He seemed, therefore, to form a plan. With great
care and in silence he scraped a small hollow in
the ground, just where the walk seemed to be most.






































































































































































FOX AND HARE.


oF
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS 47

frequented ; he threw up the sand as a screen,
stopping often to take a view of the field. When
he had prepared. his ‘ rifle-pit, he laid himself
down, in the best position for springing on his |
prey, and remained quite motionless, except an
occasional look towards the feeding hares. When
the sun began to rise, the hares thought it time to
leave the field forthe plantation; and his ambush
was laid with a view to this. Three passed by
him, but he stirred not: they were scarcely
within his reach, Two more came directly
towards him; and now, with the quickness of
lightning, he had sprung upon one, and killed her
instantly. He took possession, and was carrying
her off, when my rifle-ball stopped his course.”
Mr. Jesse says that when a fox is troubled
with fleas he will go into the water—not sud-
denly, but at first to a small depth, the water
only covering the lower part of his body. The
fleas then creep upwards, and rise to his back.
_ Presently he will go deeper, till the water covers
his body, and only his head is above it. The
fleas are then driven forward, till they get to-
gether in a swarm on his head and nose. At last
he will lay in breath enough, and plunge his
whole head under water, washing the fleas en-
a8 ANIMAL STORIES.

tirely off. A friend told Mr. Jesse he saw & fox
doing this in a lake in Italy.

Mr. Garratt describes another instance of saga-
city. A farm servant was ploughing a small
field for wheat, in Ireland, and was surprised to
see a fox pacing slowly along in the furrow just
before the plough. Soon he heard the ery of the |
hounds ; but, turning round, he saw the whole
pack brought to a stand at the other end of the
field, just where the fox must have entered on
the land u der the plough. Somehow the animal
must have thought that newly-turned soil would
break the scent.

In Leicestershire, an old fox, often hunted,
was always lost at a particular place, after
coming to which the hounds always lost the.
scent. It.was at last discovered that he jumped
upon a close clipped-hedge, ran along the top of
it, and then crept into the hollow of an old pol-
lard-tree, where he lay snugly concealed till the
hounds were baffled and drawn off.

Monkeys, too, are full of expedients to secure
their victims. They will hide for hours in the
long grass on the route of those they count
enemies, a d on the near approach of the prey —
spring from their ambush.
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS, 49











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE TICK-INFESTED ELEPHANT.

‘During his Arctic voyages, Captain M’Clure
observed the craft of two ravens which were domi-
ciled on board his ship, Investigator, and teils
the following story :—Two ravens nowestablished
themselves as friends, living mainly by what little
scraps the men might have thrown away after
meal times. The ship’s dog, however, looked
upon these as. his especial perquisites, and ex-
hibited considerable energy in maintaining his
rights against the ravens, who, nevertheless, out-
witted him in a way which amused every one.
Observing that he appeared quite willing to make

E
50 ANIMAL STORIES,

a mouthful of their own sablé persons, they used
to throw themselves intentionally in his way, just
as the mess-tins were being cleaned out on the
dirt-heap, outside the ship. The dog would im-
mediately run at them, and they would just fly a
few yards; the dog then made another run, and
again they would appear to escape him but by an
inch, and so on, until they had tempted and pro-
voked him to the shore, a considerable distance
off. Then the ravens would make a direct flight
to the ship, and had generally done good exe-
cution before the mortified-looking dog detected
the imposition that had been practised upon
him, and rushed back again.

A species of tick and many other insects infest
‘the hides of elephants, and cause the animals
great annoyance. To rid themselves of these
they have recourse to a very ingenious and
effectual method. Seeking some half-dried pool,
the mud of which is still soft, they lie down and
roll in it, wallowing after the manner -of a pig
in a similar place. Having covered themselves
thoroughly with the sticky earth, they emerge
‘entirely of another colour according as the mud
-may be white, red, or black, and taking wp their -
position in the sun, remain motionless for hours,
ANIMALS AND THEIR EXPEDIENTS. 51

until their covering becomes dry and hard. Then,
by sudden muscular efforts, the mud is broken
and falls off the hide, carrying with it all the
- insects that were on the animal’s body, and

‘which had become embedded in the hardened
earth, and the sagacious animal moves off, freed
for a time of his minute tormentors.























CHAPTER IIL

ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES.

‘poe two previous chapters have given many

instances to show that animals have some-
thing more than instinct, or, as we said at the
beginning of the book, that God has given them
some spark of reason. But this is not all) Some
of the stories already given would suggest to us
that animals are not without the feelings we call
emotions. The word emotion means simply a
movement. But it is applied especially to move-
ments of the heart. When a child feels unusual
trouble, there is a stirring at the heart followed by
words of sorrow or gladness, by tears or laughter.
Now animals cannot speak, and they cannot laugh.
Some of them do indeed shed tears, as a deer will


ANIMAL STORIES,

when it is wounded to death. But, for the most
part, they can only show their feelings by their
actions; and they do so often in a very touching
manner. If you have ever taken up a young
kitten recently born, you must have noticed with
what eagerness and anxiety the mother follows
you, looking up into your face. She cannot speak,
indeed, as we have said. But there is a pitiful
sound in her mew, which says as plainly as can be,
“Oh, please put it down again! You will hurt it,
I know you will; do put it down again!” The .
following stories have been collected in the hope
that our young readers may be led to think how
sensitive are the hearts of their dumb friends,
although the latter have no language but that
of gesture and looks to express their feelings.
The first is a pathetic little story told by
Bishop Stanley. Mr. H had a little Blen-
heim spaniel, called “Carina.” About ten months
ago (4.e. beginning of 1873), while the family
were from home, the gardener slept in the house
to take care of it. One night Carina, who had a
family of puppies about a fortnight old, came to
the man’s room, and scraped at the bed-clothes
until he awoke. Without striking a light or
examining the dog in any way, the man said,


ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES, 57

“Carina, go back to your puppies,” and the dog
accordingly went away. In a short time she
came again, and awoke the man in the same
way, She again received the same order, and
obeyed it as before. In the morning, when the
gardener went to look at the dogs, the puppies
were quite well and Carina was lying by their
side quite dead. Her puppies survived, and
were brought up on cow’s milk.

It is evident that the poor little dog felt her
end approaching, and tried to make her last
farewell before she died. That she was not
understood was not the fault of the dog, but
of the man, who was too dull or too sleepy to
comprehend her meaning, though she could —
understand him.

Mr. Otway tells of his own experience :—

“TJ am in the habit every year of buying two
or three Kerry cows. They are the kindest little
creatures in the world, and I generally pick out
those I consider to have good countenances. Last
year I was lucky in the three I bought; they soon
became great pets. They met me every morning
at the gate of the pasture, expecting to be spoken
to. One in particular, a quaint little lassie, used
to put her nose into my pocket like a dog, te
58 ANIMAL STORIES.

look for a piece of bread or potato. Well, there
was a swing in this field; and my Kerry lass,
who was very curious, seeing the girls swinging,
thought, I suppose, that she should like a swing
herself. So one day, about noon, a great lowing
of cows was heard,and some one who was at home
went out to see what was the matter. When he
came to the gate, he saw two of the Kerry cows











Sa ON TST

KERRY CoWR8,

in a great state of agitation ; and they followed
him, lowing, to the further end of the field, where
he ‘found the third, entangled in the swing,
caught by her head and horns, and in danger of
being strangled by her efforts to get out of the
ropes. He soon extricated and set her at liberty,
and the alarm of the other cows at once ceased.”

Bishop Stanley gives us a story which may
explain how wild birds become domesticated :—
ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES. 50

« An officer, settled on a farm near the Mis-
souri, observed one day, when walking near the
banks of the river, a large eagle, which seemed
to be frequently darting down to the water and
then rising again. Drawing nearer, he perceived
that the object of attack was a wild goose, which
was floating on the water, and which dived
beneath whenever its enemy swooped. But the
goose was exhausted, after a time, by these efforts
to escape; andat lastit fled to the shore, where
two men were at work, to whom it surrendered
rather than fall into the talons of the eagle. It
found the protection it sought, and in two or three
days seemed quite reconciled to its new position.”

A similar story is told of a hare, which, in its
helpless distress, took refuge at the feet of a
passing boy. A fire broke out between two and
three o’clock in the morning in the house of
Mr. R, Handley, in Bermondsey. Mr. Handley
kept two small dogs in his house; and that
night, by some oversight he had left his bedroom
door ajar. Shortly before three o’clock he and
his wife were both awakened by the dogs scratch-
ing their faces. On getting up they found -
volumes of smoke pouring up the staircase, so
great as to prevent their escape that way.
60 ANIMAL STORIES,

Rousing the other inmates, they opened one of
the back windows, leaped out upon the leads
underneath, and escaped into the next house,
from which they got into the street with safety.
The fire was subdued in the course of an hour





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A HARE AND ITS REFUGE.

or two, but not until Mr. Handley’s premises
had been entirely destroyed.

“My friend Mr. E—— lately called at a
house,” writes Mr. Morris, “ where, as the master
was absent, he had to sit down and chat with the
mistress. After atime a dog came into the room,


ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES. 61

whining and looking very miserable. This was
soon accounted for by the mistress exclaiming,
‘Oh, dear! Mr. —-—— is coming home tipsy ; and
you will see that the poor dog, who is so fond of
him at other times, will not go near him now.’
This was soon confirmed, for the master of the
house came into the-room, and, after a few words,
began to coax his dog; but the creature quite
refused to go near him. This, the mistress after-
wards told me, was invariably the case under
‘similar circumstances; the dog would always
shrink from his master’s touch.”

T. Brown, residing near Hawick, travels the
country as higgler, or pedlar, having an ass for
the partner of his journeys. Weakened by a
touch of paralysis, he is in the habit of steady-
ing himself, while on the road, by keeping hold
of the crupper of the saddle or of the tail of the
ass. During a recent winter which was more
than usually severe, while on a journey near
Rule Water, the old man and the ass were sud-
denly immersed in a wreath of snow, which had
filled up a hollow in the road. There they lay,
far from help, and ready to perish; till at last
the poor ass, after some severe struggles, extri-
cated itself and got upon safe ground. But his
62 3 ANIMAL STORIES.

master was still in the snow; so, after con-
sidering the matter for a while, the creature
returned, forced his way to his master, and
then placed himself in such a position as to
give the poor pedlar a firm grasp of his tail.
The perishing man eagerly availed himself of
this help, grasped his ass’s tail, and was imme-
diately dragged out by the faithful beast till
they both reached a place of safety.

“An old mare belonging to a man in my
village” (says a writer in the Naturalist’s
Magazine), “ which looked as if it had hardly
sense to do its work, had a foal last summer ;
and, one day, the mother came galloping up the
village to its owner's, neighing and showing ~
great agitation. The man said, ‘Something must
be the matter, and he went out to her. She
at once trotted -off looking to see that he
- followed her ; and she led him to the mill-dam,
where he found her foal, who had slipped in,
and was in danger of being drowned.”

Mr. Otway also gives the eee remarkable
story :—

“At some flour-mills near Clonmel there
was a goose which by some accident was left
solitary, without mate or offspring. Soon after,
ANIMALS IN THE{R TROUBLES. - 63

the miller’s wife had put a number of duck’s
eggs under a hen, and, as usual, the ducklings
when hatched ran eagerly to the water; and
the hen, also as usual, stood clucking in great
alarm on the pond-side. Just then up came
the goose, and cried out, in goose-language,
‘Leave them to me; I'll take care of them.’
She swam up and down with them, and when
they were tired she brought them back to the ©
hen, their foster-mother. The next day down
ran the ducklings to the pond, and the hen after
them ; and there was the goose, ready to take
charge of them. Now, whether the goose sug-
gested the thought or not, so it was, that when
the ducklings took the water, and the goose lay
close by to receive them, the hen, full of anxiety
for their safety, jumped off the bank on to the
goose’s back, and there sat, the ducklings swim-.
ming, and the goose and hen following them up
and down the pond. And this, once begun, was
continued for weeks, until the young ducks
‘began to be independent both of the goose and
of their anxious foster-mother.”

In Mr. Forbes’s “Oriental Memoirs” we
read— —

“Qn a shooting party one of my friends
64 ANIMAL STORIES,

killed a female monkey, and carried it to his
tent, which was soon surrounded by forty or
fifty of the tribe, who made a great noise, and
advanced in a menacing manner. When he pre-
sented his fowling-piece they retreated ; but one
stood his ground, chattering and menacing in a
furious manner. At length he came nearer to
the tent-door, and finding that his threatenings
were of no avail, he began a lamentable moan-
ing, and by every expression of grief seemed to
beg for the body. It was given to him. He
took it up in his arms, eagerly pressed it to
him, and carn it off in a sort of eae to
his companions.”

A swallow’s nest, built in a corner of a
window facing the north, and containing a brood
of young ones, was so much softened by the
beating of the rain upon it, that it finally gave
way, fell, and was broken in the fall, leaving
the young ones exposed to the weather. The
owner of the house, compassionating the young
creatures, ordered a covering of some sort to be
thrown over them. As the storm subsided, ©
many other swallows, interesting themselves in
the parents’ trouble, gathered about the spot ;
and when at last they saw the covering re-
*

ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES. 65








Bees

‘ i ee.















a ia AYN! aM |

BROKEN SWALLOWS NEST.

moved, and the little ones safe, they showed
every sign of joy. While the parents fed their
young, the other swallows set to work, each
one collecting clay and other materials and
helping in the work, till they had built over
the brood a sort of arched canopy, and so shel-
tered them from the weather. From the time
it took the whole flock to perform this, it was
clear that the young ones must have perished
of cold and hunger before the parents could
have completed a fifth part of the undertaking.
E,
86 ANIMAL STORIES

Dr. Stanley tells us that a gentleman, walk-
ing over his fields in Yorkshire, saw a small
hawk attempting to fly off with some prey it
had captured, but which proved too heavy for
it. It was pursued by a hare, which, when-
ever she came within reach, struck at it, and at
last succeeded in knocking it down, when it
relinquished its prey. This proved to be a
young leveret, and the hare was its mother.
The little thing was wounded ; but the mother’s
care might revive it.

Mr. Wood tells of a pair of larks that had
built their nest in a grass field, where they
hatched a brood of young. Very soon after the
young birds were out of the eggs the owner of
the field was forced to set his mowers to work,
the state of the weather obliging him to cut
his grass sooner than usual. When the labourers
approached the nest the parent-birds took alarm, _
and at last the mother bird laid herself flat on
the ground, with outspread wings and tail,
while the male bird took one of the young out
of the nest, and, by dint of pushing and pulling,
got it on to its mother’s back. She then flew
away with it over the fields, and soon returned
for another. This time the father took his turn,
ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES. : 67

Sa
ni i
Te




















i laecll i
Ic h



















a














































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































| Rt

a eee is Mh

aa ey cl

ce i us Ny a se i
ell ih i

: Ce i i tn Q i : ( I 1 : | i































































SWALLOWS CUTTING THE FETTERS.

and carried one of the young ones, the mother
helping to get it on to his back; and so they
managed to remove the whole brood before the
mowers had reached their nest. .

Lord Brougham relates the following story,
68 ANIMAL STORIES.

which, he says, was told him by the eye-witness
of the affair :—

A swallow at Paris had entangled its foot
in a noose of a cord attached to a fountain in
the College des Quatres Nations, and it soon
found that its struggles to get free only drew
the cord tighter, so as to make its escape more
and more impossible. It fluttered and struggled
till its strength was exhausted, and it could then
do nothing but utter cries of distress and despair.
These cries, however, brought together a large
number of its companions—-indeed, it seemed as
if all the swallows of the Tuileries and Pont
Neuf were collected. together at the spot. For
a time they seemed to consult as to what could
be done. At last a plan was decided upon, and
they all began a rapid and continuous flight,
swallow after swallow, every one darting its beak
at the string which kept the foot in bondage.
This assault went on, unceasingly, for about half
an hour, and then the string gave way, having
sustained a thousand pecks, and the prisoner
in a moment found himself free; a loud chirp-
ing and chattering followed of joy and congra-
tulation, and then the assemblage ended, and
each bird betook himself to his own affairs.



Ff, fai

vj Ari fii iy “mY

li
Re an
Hufah, =
il i ee

pn























me















i a
el
Re ee

a

Hs ;

HSH

Sei





































=



























































































DYING GOOsE

AND ITS NEST.
" ANIMALS IN THEIR TROUBLES. 91

_Mr. Brew, of Ennis, says :—

“ An old goose that had been sitting on her
eggs for a fortnight, in a farmer’s kitchen, was
perceived on a sudden to be taken violently ill.
She soon after left the nest, and repaired to an
outhouse where there wasa goose of the first
year, which she brought with her into the
kitchen. The young one immediately scrambled
into the old one’s nest, sat, hatched, and brought
up the brood. The old goose, so soon as the
young one had taken her place, sat down by the

_side of the nest, and shortly after died. As the
young goose had never been in the habit of
entering the kitchen before, I know no other
way of accounting for this fact but by suppos-
ing that the old bird had some way of commu-
nicating her wants, which the other was perfectly
able to understand.”

Mr. Graves says, in his “ British Birds,” that
he observed a pair of sparrows which had built
their nest in a wall close by his house. He
noticed that the old birds continued to bring
food to the nest some time after the young
brood had left it, and had the curiosity to place
a ladder against the wall and to look into the
nest, when, to his surprise, he found a full-
72 ANIMAL STORIES.

grown bird, which had got its leg entangled in
some thread which formed part of the nest in
such a manner as to prevent its getting out.
He observed that the parents continued sup-
plying it with food all the autumn and part of
the winter; but when the cold became severe
he thought it time to release it. It then flew
away with its parents,”



CHAPTER IV.

ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS.

« P\ISCIPLINARIAN ” is a long word ; but it
means simply a keeper of order. Men
found out long ago that there was no good to’
be done without order. For this reason they
made laws, and appointed rulers and officers to
see that the laws were kept. But is it possible
that animals know anything of the value of
order? Not much, perhaps. This is a matter
in which they are led rather by instinct than by
reason. If you watch a flock of sheep, you will
see that they generally feed with their heads all
pointing in one direction, and for the most part
the direction is against the wind.. This is a habit
that sheep have inherited from their wild
W6 ANIMAL STORIES,





































































































































































































NEARING THE SENTINELS.

ancestors. For when these were feeding, it was
necessary they should scent the first sign of
coming danger, and should all be on the alert
to, meet it. Now this was best secured by
feeding in the order we have described. All
animals that live together in large herds, as
elephants and antelopes, have arrangements of
a similar kind, and some’ even set sentinels to
keep watch. So when they are on the march
they move in a particular order, the strongest in
the front and rear, the females and the young
ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS, 77

in the middle. But order needs something more
than arrangement. It needs justice and fairness,
obedience and devotion. If in a ship’s company
every one insists on having his own way, there
can be no order. Thus, there are moral qualities
needed for such order as the best men love.
Do animals know anything of this kind of order?
The following anecdotes would seem to show
that they do. And, if so, it is probable that
reason, as well as instinct, has something to do
with it.

Mrs. Lee says: “On one occasion I saw a
cock pursue a hen round the poultry-yard, and
when he had caught her he took a worm from
her, and gave it to another hen, who stood by
waiting. I came, however, to the opinion that
the hen who was punished had stolen the worm
from the other, and that the cock was only
doing justice between them.”

“A friend of mine,” says “V. D.” in Land
and Water, “who would not have spared any
pains in teaching his sheepdogs their proper
lessons, had one dog who was in the habit of
doing his work in an unsatisfactory manner.
In a country full of hills and valleys, it was
often the duty of this dog to collect the flock
78 ANIMAL STORIES.

at the bottom and to drive them up the hill;
instead of which he would drive them half-way,
and then leave them to wander again. On the
opposite side of one of these hills lived a farmer
who had a dog of a more satisfactory kind,
both knowing its duty and performing it. On
some occasions it was observed that, when the
careless dog had failed in his task, the other
would pass over from its own land, take charge
of the flock, and drive them home. ~ But its
patience at last was exhausted; and one day,
when the flock had become dispersed, the
watchful creature first finished the work, drove -
the flock home, and then fell upon the careless
dog, which it severely punished: After this it
refused to interfere further in the matter. It
seemed to say, ‘You rascal! what right have
you to expect me to do your work?’”

“Dr. Edmonstone tells us that in Northern
Scotland extraordinary meetings of crows are
occasionally seen to occur. They collect in great
numbers as if they had been summoned for the
occasion. A few of them sit with drooping
heads, and others sit like judges, while others
are exceedingly active and noisy. In the course
of an hour or two they disperse; but it is not
ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS, _ 79

uncommon to find, when they are gone, that
one or two have been left dead on the place of
meeting. “Crows seem to come from all
quarters. When they have all assembled, a
general noise or conversation follows, and shortly
after the whole fall upon one or two of the
number, and put them to death. When this
has been done they quietly disperse.”

These observations are confirmed by the testi-
mony of Major Norgate, who had long been an
observer. He says—

“The crows hold meetings for some reason or
other. Two or three will begin cawing, and in
a minute or two forty or fifty others will come
flying to the place by twos and threes, from
every quarter. They then form a kind of ring
round one crow, who appears to have been an
offender against some of their rules, and they
remain still for some minutes, the culprit never
attempting to escape. Then, all of a sudden,
five or six of them will fall upon the prisoner,
pecking him, and striking him with their wings.
On one occasion I saw the crow left dead on
the spot, and on another its wing was broken.
Of course, the reason why these crows are

punished can only be a matter of surmise.”
80 ANIMAL STORIES,

~ Most persons have heard of these celebrated
rooks’ (or crows’) parliaments, though few have
seen them. Mr. Wood gives an account written
by a lady who was at the time in bad health,
and was reclining among some shawls behind a
window-curtain, where even the sharp-eyed
rooks did not detect her.

The account much resembles those that have
already been given by other writers, but intro-
duces one additional circumstance. The rooks
(called crows by the spectator) assembled in a
circle, and in the middle was one bird looking
very downcast and wretched. Two more rooks
took their places at its side, and then a vast
amount of chattering went on. At last the two
birds which seemed to act as accusers pecked
the central bird and flew off. All the others
then set on the condemned bird, pecked it nearly
to pieces, and went away, leaving the mangled
body on the ground. The lady who witnessed
this remarkable scene was much struck by the
variety of tones employed by the birds, and
their great expressiveness.

We read in an Indian paper of a Madrassee
who had a monkey which he was very fond
of. The man had occasion to go on a journey,
‘ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS. 8i

and took with him money and jewels, and his
chum, the monkey. Some rogues determined
to rob him of everything he had; accordingly
they lay in wait for him and murdered him.
Having secured the money and jewels, they













MONKEY AND CHILD.

threw the murdered man into a dry well, and

having covered the body with twigs and dry

leaves, they went home. The monkey, who was

on the top of a tree, saw the whole proceedings,

and when the murderers departed he came

down, and made his way to the tahsildar’s
G
82 ANIMAL STORIES.

house, and by his sighs and moans attracted the
attention of that functionary. Inviting the tah-
sildar by dumb signs to follow him, the monkey
went to the well and pointed downwards. The
tahsildar thereupon got men to go down, and,
of course, the body was discovered. The mon-
key then led the men to the place where the
jewels and money were buried. He next took
them to the bazaars, and as he caught sight of
one of the murderers he ran after him, bit him
in the leg, and would not let him go till he was
secured. In this.way all the murderers were
caught. The men, it is said, have confessed
their crime, and they now stand committed
for trial before the Tellicherry Court at the
* ensuing session. That monkey ought to be
made an inspector of police.

The Rev. Edward Spooner tells a story of a
large grey cockatoo belonging to a friend.
“Poll” is a most communicative bird, and a
great friend of the family. On a fine day she
generally passes several hours in the back-yard,
outside her cage; for, though unchained, she
rarely leaves the house. She is on good terms
with all the yard-dogs, the house cats, and the
poultry ; but if a strange dog or cat enters the
ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS. 83:



COCKATOO,

yard she flies at him at once with a tremendous
scream. At night she sleeps in the kitchen,
where her usual companions are three cats.
One morning the kitchen-maid went down-
stairs early, and before she entered the kitchen
she heard “ Poll” talking loudly. On opening
the door she found “ Poll” seated on the
dresser with a large piece of bread in her claw.
Round her, on the floor, were the three cats,
84 ANIMAL STORIES.

and a kitten which had lately taken refuge
there. With strict impartiality, the bird was
breaking off pieces of the bread, and dropping
them to her pensioners in turn, who received
the dole without squabbling, and with gratitude,
listening all the time to all the words in her
vocabulary, which were poured forth in rapid
succession.

Captain Brown tells us the following story of
a tame bird of this sort who had taken up
his abode for some years in the yard of the
College at Tubingen. Ona neighbouring house
was a nest where the storks that resorted to the
place used to hatch their eggs. One day in
autumn a young collegian fired a shot at this
nest. Probably he wounded the stork who was
then sitting. Still, at the usual time, all the
storks took their departure. Next spring a
stork appeared on the roof of the College, and
by clapping his wings seemed to invite the tame
stork to come to him. But the latter was
unable, as his wings were clipped. After a time.
the wild stork came down into the yard, and
the tame one went to meet him, clapping his
wings in- welcome; but the wild one attacked
him with the greatest fury. The people inter.
ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS. 85

fered and drove him away ; butall that summer
he came down into the yard, again and again,
to attack the other. The next spring, instead
of one stork, four of them came down into the
yard and attacked the tame one; seeing his
danger, the cocks, and ganders, and turkeys
rushed to help him, and managed to drive
the assailants away. Greater watch was now
kept ; but when the third spring came, twenty
storks or more descended into the yard at
‘once, and killed the poor bird before any help
could come to him. On both sides in this
contest the idea was “ Union is Strength.”

An example of a somewhat similar mode
of action was related by the Rev. I. O. Morris,
in the Naturalist :-— ~

“In the summer of 1849 a pair of martins
built their nests in an archway at the stables
of Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire, and ag goon as
they had completed building it, and had lined
it, a sparrow took possession of it, and although
the martins tried several times to eject him,
they were unsuccessful. But they, nothing
daunted, flew off to scour the neighbourhood
for help, and returned in a short space of time
with thirty or forty martins, who dragged the
86 ANIMAL STORIES.

unfortunate culprit out, took him to the grass
plot opposite, called “The Circle,” and then fell
on him and killed him.”

“A gentleman,” says Mr. Youatt, “near
Laggan, in Scotland, had a bull which was graz-
ing with the cows in the open meadows. As
fences were little known in those parts, a boy
was kept to watch lest the cattle should trespass
on the neighbouring fields and injure the corn.
The boy was idle and drowsy, and often fell
asleep ; then the cattle trespassed, and he was»
punished. In his turn he revenged himself
on the cows, whom he punished for their trans-
eressions with an unsparing hand. The bull
seemed to observe this, and to understand it.
He began to keep the cows within bounds, and
to punish them if they strayed over the boun-
dary. He himself never entered the forbidden
ground, and if he saw them approach it he
placed himself in the way in a threatening
attitude. At last his honesty and watchful-
ness became so obvious, that the boy was with-
drawn and set about other work, and the duty
was left wholly to the bull, who kept the rest
of the cattle in excellent order.”

A gentleman of property, residing in a man-
ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS. 87

sion near Berlin, found that a pair of storks had
built a nest on one of the large chimneys of his
house. Curiosity led him to mount a ladder
and to inspect it; and when he found in the
nest one egg, in size much like that of the goose,
the idea struck him that he would exchange it
for one belonging to that bird. This was done,
and the birds seemed to take no notice of the
exchange. But when the egg, in due time, was
hatched, the male stork soon perceived the
difference, and flew round and round the nest,
making loud cries, and at last disappeared, and
did not return until two or three days had
elapsed. Then, however, about the fourth
morning, the people of the house were disturbed
by loud cries ; and, looking out, they perceived a
large assemblage of storks, which they estimated
at “five hundred.” These assembled in one
body, and an old bird seemed to be addressing
the rest with great earnestness. When he had
finished another followed, and then a third;
and, at last, the whole body simultaneously rose
in the air, uttering dismal cries.. The female all
this while had been sitting on the nest, shelter-
ing the young bird and showing signs of alarm.
All at once the whole body of storks poured
88 ANIMAL STORIES.

anh, snee p A Tt # so Pe

fi ke -——




oar







;
/
3 e=s|



























THE DOG THAT WOULD NOT BE “DONE.”

down upon her, knocked her out of the nest,
and soon left her dead, destroying also the poor
gosling, and leaving not a vestige of the nest
itself. They then separated and soon disap-
peared, and the'tragedy ended.

A writer in the “ Encyclopedia Britannica”
tells of a pair of crows that made their nest on a
tree, of which there were several round the


‘ANIMALS AS DISCIPLINARIANS, 89

_ garden, One result was a constant warfare
between them and a cat. One morning the
battle raged fiercely, till at last the cat gave
way, and took shelter under a hedge to look out
for some opportunity. The crows went on for
some time with threatening noises; but they
soon saw that noises went for nothing. Then,
after consideration, one of the crows took up a
stone from the middle of the garden, and waited
with it in her claws till the enemy should appear.
When the cat began to creep along the hedge
the crow accompanied her; and when at last
puss ventured forth, the crow, hovering over her
in the air, let fall on her the stone which she
held in her claws.

Arago, in his “Account of Ampére,” tells
an anecdote of a gentleman, driven by a storm
into a village public-house, who had a fowl
roasted for dinner. Old fashions then prevailed
in the south of France, and turnspits were still
employed in place of the modern jack. Neither
caresses, threats, nor blows could make the
dog act his part. The gentleman interposed.
“Poor dog, indeed !” said the landlord sharply ;
“he deserves none of your pity, for these scenes
take place every day. Do you know why this.
90 ANIMAL STORIES.

pretty fellow refuses to work the spit? It is
because he has taken it into his head that he
and his partner are to share alike, and it is not
his turn. Ampére’s informant begged that a
servant might be sent to find the other dog,
who made no difficulty about performing his
task. He was taken out after a while and
his refractory partner put in, who began, now
his sense of justice was satisfied, to work with
thorough goodwill, like a squirrel in a cage.

































CHAPTER V.

ANIMALS AS TRICK-PLAYERS.

LTHOUGH, as we have said before in a
previous chapter, animals cannot laugh,
their tricks often show a spirit of fun, The
writer of these words has a little dog which
shows its delight at its master’s return home
by racing round and round the dining-room
table as hard as it can run. The longer the
absence of its master has been, the wilder is
its speed, and its action often causes a good
deal of laughter. This seems to give great
satisfaction to the little dog, as a proof of its
power to amuse ; and after jumping up to lick
its master’s hands or face, it sets off again with
renewed energy. But tricks are sometimes
94 ANIMAL STORIES.

played for mischief as well as for fun, as chil-
dren know without our telling them. And some
tricks of animals appear to be played from pure
pleasure in mischief rather than from any other
reason. It is well known that all young puppies
are very much given to tearing up anything
that their teeth can lay hold of, though it is
impossible to say what satisfaction it can give
them, except the joy of destruction. But other
tricks of animals show a merry sort of cunning,
which, like many other things related in this
“book, show that our dumb friends have more
mind than we sometimes give them credit for.
Concerning all such tricks, it may be said that
they seem to spring from the brimming fulness
of life, which comes of health and kindly care
and affection. If your dog, or your cat, or your
pony plays no tricks, it is to be feared that
there is something wrong. You, perhaps, do-
not care enough for them to make them feel
full of happiness. Of course, as all living
things grow older they become more sober, and
less given to tricks. But if you have young
animals under your care, and they play no
tricks, we fear they are not well cared for.

A curious and rather ludicrous instance of
ANIMALS AS TRICK-PLAYERS. 95

trickery on the part of the dog is given by a
gentleman who has three little black-and-tan
terriers, father, mother, and daughter. They are
great pets, and consider the house as their own
property. Like most pet dogs, they have their
favourite spots by way of couches; and as they
all three generally take a fancy to the same spot,
there is occasionally a difference of opinion and
a slight loss of temper. The one pet spot of all
is a soft cushion at the head of a sofa. Now the
cushion had accommodated easily the father and
the mother ; but when the daughter came, and
in course of time wanted her share of the couch,
it was found that the quarters were rather too
limited for comfort, especially as the daughter
persisted in growing until she reached the size
of her parents.

‘One day the father and daughter had got into
the room first, and according to custom made
straightway for the cushion, on which they
established themselves comfortably, occupying
the whole of its surface. Presently the mother
came in, and also went to the cushion. She
tried to take her place on it, but her husband
was too selfish and her daughter too undutiful
to move, and in consequence she had to retire.
96 ANIMAL STORIES.

Presently she went to the farthest corner of
the room, and suddenly began to scratch,
violently barking, growling, and sniffing as if
she were digging out a rat. Up jumped the
others all blazing with excitement, and anxious
to have their share of the sport. As soon as
they had got their noses well down in the
corner, the mother ran to the sofa at full speed,
jumped on the cushion, curled herself round,
and was happy. However, she was generous in
victory, and made room for her husband and
daughter as they came back to. the sofa, crest-
fallen and humiliated. :

Here is an anecdote of “ Barbekark,” esse
Hall’s dog, during the Captain’s-passage across
from Greenland. -

“One day in feeding the dogs, I called the
whole of them round me, and gave to each in
turn a capelin, or small dried fish. To do this
fairly, I used to make all the dogs encircle me,
until every one had received ten of the capelins
apiece.

“Now Barbekark, a very young and shrewd
dog, took it into his head that he would play a
white man’s trick. So every time that he
received his fish he would back square out,
































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































GREENLAND DOG TRAIN.
ANIMALS AS TRIOK-PLAYERS, 99

move a distance of two or three dogs, and force
himself in line again, thus receiving double the
share of every other dog. But this joke of
Barbekark’s bespoke too much of the game that
many men play upon their fellow-beings, and
as I noticed it, I determined to check his
doggish propensities. Still the cunning and the
singular way in which he evidently watched me
induced a moment’s pause in my intentions.
“Each dog thankfully took his capelin as
his turn came round ; but Barbekark finding his
share come twice as often as his companions,
appeared to shake his tail twice as thankfully
as the others. A twinkle in his eyes, as they
caught mine, seemed to say, ‘Keep dark; these
ignorant fellows don’t know the game I am
playmg: I am confoundedly hungry.’ Seeing
my face smiling at his trick, he now com-
menced making another change, thus getting
three portions to each of the others’ one. This
was enough, and it was now time for me to
reverse the order of Barbekark’s game by play-
ing a trick upon him. Accordingly every time
I came to him he got no fish; and although
he changed his position three times yet he got
nothing. Then, if ever there was a picture of
100 "ANIMAL STORIES.

disappointed plans, of envy at others’ fortune ©
and sorrow at a sad misfortune, it was to be
found on that dog’s countenance as he watched



























































































































































































































































TWO TOY TERRIERS

his companions receiving their allowance. Find-
ing he could not succeed by any change of his
position, he withdrew from the circle to where
I was, and came to me, crowding his way

*
ANIMALS AS TRICK-PLAYERS, 101

between my legs, and looked up in my face as
if to say, ‘I have been a very bad dog; forgive
me, and Barbekark will cheat: his brother dogs no
more. Please, sir, give me my share of capelins.’
I went the rounds three times more and let him
have the fish, as he had shown himself so saga-
cious, and so much like a repentant precier
~ dog.”

A friend of the Rev. J. G. Wood’s had a
couple of little toy terrier dogs. As is usually
the case in such instances, though very fond of
each other, they were horribly jealous with
regard to their master, and neither could
endure to see the other caressed. It so hap-
pened that one of them broke its leg, and was
in consequence much petted. Its companion,
seeing the attention that was paid to the injured
animal, pretended to be lame itself, and came
limping to its master, holding up the corre-
sponding leg, and trying to look as if it were in
great pain.

A similar anecdote is told of a Skye terrier -
named “Monte.” This dog had at one time a
very sore leg, and during his illness he got a
great deal of sympathy and petting. Ever since,
when he has been in any mischief, he comes
102 ANIMAL STORIES.

running on three legs, holding up the one which
was once sore, but is now quite well. In his



































































THE KNOWING ASS.

own way, he is quite as arrant an impostor as
the well-known begging “sailor” with one leg
tied up to look as if he had lost it.
ANIMALS AS TRICK-PLAYERS. . 103

We are often accustomed to use the name
of ass as a synonym for stupidity, whereas it
is one of the best trick-players in the world.
The Rev. C. Otway has the following remarks
on the subject :-— :

“T assert that if you were to make yourself
acquainted with asses, you would find them
clever enough. I once purchased an ass for the
amusement of my children. I did not allow
him to be cudgelled, and he got something better
to graze upon than thistles.s Why, I found
him more knave than fool; his very cleverness
was my plague. My ass, like the king’s fool,
proved the ablest animal about the place, and,
like others having more wit than good manners,
he was for ever, not only going, but leading
other cattle into mischief. There was not a gate
about the place but he would open it; there
was not a fence that he would not climb. Too
often he awoke me of a summer’s morning
braying with sheer wantonness in the middle of
my field of wheat. I was obliged to part with
him and get a pony, merely because he was too
cunning to be kept.”

A correspondent of Land and Water gives an
interesting account of a similar mode of proceed-
104 ANIMAL STORIES.

ing on the part of two long-horned cows. Tho
door of the hay-chamber opened outwards, and
was fastened by a latch lifted by the finger thrust
through a hole in the door. The cows had seen
this done, and, if left alone, would invariably
open the door by inserting the tip of a horn
into the finger-hole, lifting the latch, and then
drawing the door towards them.

The mule, like the ass, is popularly thought
to be a stupid and stubborn creature, and yet
there are few animals more intelligent in their
way. Mr. Wood gives one or two capital anec-
dotes, which are told by J. Froebel in his work
on “South America.” The mule, it appears, is
a most difficult animal to manage on account of
its cunning. Forceis of no use, and the Mexican
mule-drivers pride themselves on their skill in
managing the animals. At the end of the day’s
journey the mules are unharnessed and allowed
to go free, and are captured by the lasso when
they are to be again harnessed. Some mules
are so cunning, however, that even the expe-
rienced muleteers can scarcely capture them,
Some of them assemble in a compact circle,
with their heads all pressed together, so as to
prevent the noose from settling on their necks
ANIMALS AS TRICK-PLAYERS. 105 —

while others push their heads under the wag-
gons or between the wheels. Others, still more
cunning, stand still, and as the lasso rushes
towards them, merely step aside and let it pass.

One mule, a white one, succeeded in-bafiling
the attempts of the drivers throughout the whole
of a long journey. As soon as the harness-
time approached, it ran off for half a mile, and
there stood until the whole train of waggons
was in motion, when it quietly joined its com-
panions. On one or two occasions it was captured
by a couple of men on horseback; but it led
them such a chase, wasted so much time, and
fatigued the horses so much, that it got its own
way, and had a mere journey of pleasure, while
all its companions were hard at; work.

Another mule, which belonged to a convent,
was equally averse to work. There were six
mules, each being worked on one day of the
week in regular order. This mule knew its
own day perfectly well, and on that morning ig:
always tried to keep the servants out of the
_ yard by backing against the door.

“Man and Beast” tells of a cow which could
not be kept in the field, because she was in the
habit-of lifting the latch with her horn and then
106 = - ANIMAL STORIES.

pushing the gate open. The same authority
mentions a horse which was accustomed to
pump water for himself. The pump was in a





rill
£ SLs,

se
ene











ie f cS
aS SSS

ee

ae













































































THE TRICK WITH THE BELL.

corner of the horse-box in which the horse was
shut for the night, and the coachman used to
be puzzled at the fact that when he came in the
morning the end of the stable was always an
ANIMALS AS TRICK-PLAYERS. 107

inch or so deep in water. At last he suspected
that the horse might have been the delinquent,
and so fastened him up without giving him
any water, and watched him unobserved when
let loose in the morning. The animal went at
once to the pump, took the handle in his teeth,
worked it up and down, and, when the water
was in full flow, placed his mouth under the
spout to drink. He could not endure being
watched while pumping, and if he saw any one
observing him, would rush at him with open
mouth in order to scare him away.

It is told of a cunning French dog that when
he wanted to steal meat he would go to the
front door, ring the bell, and thus having
emptied the kitchen of the maid, would quickly
slip round to the open window and satisfy his
wants, taking care to be out again before the
maid’s return.

A fox, partly tamed, was kept fastened by a
chain to a post in a court-yard, and was
chiefly fed on boiled potatoes. Many fowls also
were kept in the same yard, but they had sense
enough to keep out of reach of the fox. He
was, however, too cunning for them at last.
He bruised and scattered some of the potatoes
108 ANIMAL STORIES,

given him for dinner as far to the extremity of
his éircle as the chain would allow, and then,
retiring in an opposite direction, he laid him-
self down and feigned to be fast asleep. After
a while his stratagem succeeded ; some of the
fowls, seeing their enemy entirely dormant,
ventured near, and began to pick up pieces
of the potatoes. But the fox was silently watch-
ing them, and when he saw one of them within
his reach he made a spring, and instantly got
a fowl for his dinner.

The author of “Man and Beast” gives the
following account of a horse, on the authority
of a clergyman :—

“A neighbour possessed a young foal, which,
with his mother, used to pass our house daily,
early in the morning, during our breakfast-
time, and had a habit of straying upon a piece
of waste ground which then lay in front,
but has since been enclosed and formed into a
front garden. My daughter, who is extremely
partial to horses, used to run out and offer the
little animal a piece of bread. This went on
regularly, until at last, when he was between
two and three years old, he would not wait for
the bread, but used to go to the door, plant his
ANIMALS AS TRICK-PLAYERS. 109

fore-feet on the steps so as to gain sufficient
elevation, and then lift the knocker with
his noge, afterwards waiting for the expected —
morsel,”

The following account of a cat belonging to
Lady E— is from the same. It evidently felt
surprised that such a thing as an empty plate
should be allowed upon a breakfast-table, and
so, in its own way, showed her mistress how a
plate ought to be filled. “Our breakfast-room
had bow windows, and the houses were very near
each other. One morning, when the windows
of both houses were open, our younger cat,
Tiny, disappeared into our neighbour's window,
and a few minutes after rushed back into our
room, and leaping upon the breakfast-table with
a lobster in her mouth, held it over an empty
plate. She evidently only wished us to see it, |
as she would not allow any one to touch it, and
darting out of the window again with the lobster
still in her mouth, she replaced it upon the table
without taking any, and came back to our room.
The lobster was returned so carefully that our
neighbours assured us they should not have
known it had been touched.” The same lady
sent several anecdotes of this same cat and her
110 ANIMAL STORIES.

mother, “ Rosie,” all of which are interesting,
and which Mr. Wood thinks serve admir-
ably to illustrate higher mental qualities than
are usually supposed to belong to the lower
creation. :










f Y



YH
Wy

.








CHAPTER VI.

ANIMALS AND LANGUAGE,

iz is very difficult to tell how far animals

may understand human language. Of
course no one supposes that even the most
stately elephant with his great brain can under-
‘stand a set speech. But no one can watch a
clever shepherd-dog with its master among the
sheep on the hills, without being sure that the
creature understands a great deal of what is
said. The writer has sometimes been astonished
at the manner in which a Highland shepherd
can direct his dog by mere word of mouth,
Amongst the mountain solitudes the voice
carries to a wonderful distance. And some-
times a man may be seen directing the work of

qf
114 _ ANIMAL STORIES.

a dog which is so far away that it can scarcely
beseen. Yet, according to the words uttered by
the man, the creature will go up hill or down,
round this rock or that, collecting or dividing
sheep, just as it is told. In such a case,
there can be no doubt that the words spoken,
convey distinct ideas to the dog as to the direc-
_tion in which it is to go and the work it has to
do. But some of the stories that follow in this
chapter would seem to show that animals may
sometimes catch the general bearing of a con-
versation, especially when it concerns themselves.
The first we give is a very well-known one, and
will bear different interpretations. Dogs will
sometimes, for reasons only known to them-
selves, take a strong dislike to certain persons,
and be constantly on the watch against them.
It is quite possible, then, that the dog in the
following story may have been seized with dis-
like to the robbers, and through sheer uneasiness
persisted in seeking his master’s company.
Still it is possible that the reason for the action
was the understanding of human language.
Any way, this is the story. It is. related by
the late Rev. Cassar Otway.
“A gentleman of prey a had a mastiff of
ANIMALS AND LANGUAGE. 115

great size, very watchful, and altogether a fine
intelligent animal. Though often let out to
range about, he was in general chained up during
the day.

“On a certain day, when he was let out, he
was observed to attach himself particularly to
his master. When the servant came, as usual,
to fasten him up, he clung so determinately to
his master’s feet, showed such anger when they
attempted to force him away, and altogether was
so peculiar in his manner, that the gentleman
desired him to be left as he was.

“With him the dog continued the whole day;
and when night came on, still he stayed; and
on going towards his bedroom the dog reso-
lutely, and for the first time in his life, went
up with him, and, rushing into the room, took
refuge under the bed, whence neither blows nor
caresses could draw him.

“In the midst of the night a man burst into
the room, and, with dagger in hand, attempted
to stab the sleeper. But the dog started at
the robber’s neck, fastened his fangs in him,

and so kept him down that his master had time
~ to eall for assistance and secure the ruffian, who
turned out to be the coachman. He afterwards
116 ANIMAL . STORIES.

confessed that, seeing his master receive a large
sum of money, he and the groom conspired
together to rob and murder him, and that they
plotted the whole scheme leaning over the roof
of the dog’s kennel.” +

The dog, it would appear, understood human
language enough to gather from the conversation
of the men that they intended to injure his
master.

Mr. Wood tells another anecdote to the same
point :—

A gentleman who possessed a very intelligent
retriever dog was going from home for some
time, and arranged that the dog should be sent
to the house of a friend during his absence. On
the day fixed for his departure the dog went
on his own account to the house, and there
remained until his master’s return.

When his master did come back the dog was
overjoyed to see him, but became uneasy at the
long call which was being made. He evidently
took it into his head that his master was medi-
tating another absence, and, every time that he
heard the hall-door shut, he rushed up-stairs to
make sure. that his master was in the house.
At last, losing patience, he took his master’s hat
ANIMALS AND LANGUAGE. 117

out of the hall and carried it up-stairs to him,
as a broad hint that he had better go home.

The following quaint anecdote was told by
the late Charles Dickens, and illustrates the
capacity of the dog not only for understanding
language, but also for conveying ideas to human
beings.

Mr. Dickens says, “I must close with an odd
story of a Newfoundland dog—an immense,
black, good-humoured, Newfoundland dog.

“He came from Oxford, and had lived all
his life at a brewery. Instructions were given
with him that, if he were let out every morning
alone, he would immediately find out the river,
regularly take a swim, and gravely come home
_again. This he did with the greatest punc-
tuality, but after a little while was observed
to smell of beer. His lady owner was so sure
that he smelt of beer that she resolved to
watch him.

“Accordingly he was seen to come back
from his swim round the usual corner and
to go up a flight of steps into a beershop.
Being instantly followed, the beershop keeper
was seen to take down a pewter pot, and was
heard to say, ‘Well, old chap! Come for
118 ANIMAL STORIES,

your beer, as usual, have you?’ Upon which
he drew a pint and put it down, and the dog
drank it. Being required to explain how this
came to pass, the man said, ‘Yes, ma’am; I
know he’s your dog, ma’am, but I didn’t when
he first come. He looked in, ma’am, as a brick-
maker might, and then he come in, as a brick-
maker might, and he wagged his tail at the pots,
and he giv’ a sniff round, and conveyed to me as
he was used to beer. So I drawed him a drop,
and he drank it up. Next morning he come
again by the clock, and I drawed him a pint,
‘and ever since he has took his pint regular.’ ”

The war-horse is well known to understand
the word of command as truly as the soldiers

themselves, and is as obedient to it in the
- face of all dangers.

The “German Post” has a story, of the
Franco-Prussian War, of war-horses at Vionville,
after the battle there in August, 1870. On
the evening call being sounded by the Ist
regiment of Dragoons of the Guard, six hundred
and two riderless horses answered to the sum-
mons, jaded, and in many cases maimed. They
well knew this language of the battle-field, and
promptly obeyed it.
















































































































































WAR HORSES.
ANIMALS AND LANGUAGE. 121

Southey, in his “ Peninsular War,” says that

on the embarkation of the Spanish division, ,

under the command of the celebrated Marquis
de la Romana, two of the regiments which had
been quartered in Funen were cavalry, mounted
on the fine black long-tailed Andalusian horses.
It was impracticable to bring off these horses,
about eleven hundred in number; and Romana
was not a man who could order them to be
destroyed lest they should fall into the hands
of the French. He was fond of horses himself,
and knew that every man was attached to the
beast which had carried him so far and so
faithfully. Their bridles, therefore, were taken
off, and they were turned loose upon the beach;
but serious grounds of quarrel arose, and a scene
ensued such as probably never before was
witnessed,

The Spanish horses were sensible they were
no longer under any restraint of human power :
a general conflict ensued, in which, retaining
the discipline that they had learned, they
charged each other in squadrons of ten or
twenty together; then closely engaged, strik-
ing with their fore feet, and biting and
tearing each other with the most ferocious


122 ANIMAL STORIES.

rage, yet in the most approved military
order.

The following anecdotes sent by a Scotch
gentleman to Mr. Wood shows that the dog, a
collie, not only comprehended the general mean-
ing but.the actual signification of words :—

“For several years within the last half-
century a deceased friend of mine was exten-
sively engaged in the wool trade, and was a
considerable buyer. in Dumfriesshire. In one
of these journeys, and after a forty miles’ drive
in his gig, he reached the house of a hill-farmer
in that county, arriving just at the close of the
day. The farmer told him that his samples of
wool were at some distance from the house, and
that he would submit them for inspection on
the following morning. My friend met with a
hospitable reception, and as the hours of evening
glided on, the conversation turned on the
management of sheep and cattle, and especially
on # fine breed of shepherd dogs possessed by
the farmer.

“ Harly in the morning all were astir, and the
farmer and his visitor left the house for the
purpose of examining the different kinds of woul
But great was the astonishment of my friend
ANIMALS AND LANGUAGE. 123

when they reached a level patch of ground
between high hills where there was nothing to
be seen but a shepherd and two dogs, and to
be told that this was the place for inspecting
the wool.

“He was asked which kind of wool he
~would look at first, and, having named the
kind, the shepherd called one of the dogs, and —
directed him to turn the sheep upon one of the ©
hills, and bring them to him. The wise animal
bounded off, and in a very short time the sheep
were seen descending the hill by an easy path-
way. The wool was examined, and the sheep
driven back to the hill by another road. In
the meanwhile the second dog was sent to bring
forward another breed of sheep from a differ-
ent place, and so on until all was finished,
and without the least confusion. This plan
was followed by the worthy farmer because
he had not been able to find time to clip his
sheep.”

The following anecdote is told of a dog
“ Moss,” a collie :—

“ His master and the arephord were employed
in moving sheep from one part of the farm to
another. On reaching a certain point they fell
124 ANIMAL STORIES.

into a dispute about the number of the sheep,
the shepherd saying that they had the proper
number, while the farmer thought that there
ought to be one more. Not being able to decide,
they jokingly appealed to ‘Moss.’ The dog at
once started off, and presently returned, driving
before him the missing sheep, which he had
brought from a spot quite out of sight, and a
considerable distance on the opposite side of a
hill.”

A very truthful and worthy boy, says Mr.
Wood, at a farm in Berwickshire, had charge of
the cattle on it, and in the discharge of his
duties was accompanied by a very intelligent
collie dog, called “ Watch.”

“The farm is bounded on the west by the
river Whiteadder. Its stream is comparatively
trifing in dry weather; but, owing to the
drainage of the high lands on its banks, when-
ever rain falls in any quantity hundreds of little
rills pour into the channel of the river, so that
ina very short time it overflows its banks. For
the same reason it diminishes rapidly when the
rain ceases.

“ On one occasion, the day being stormy and
cold, he went into one of the cottages to warm
ANIMALS AND LANGUAGE. 125



and on








coming out
he observed
that. one of the
‘kyloes’ had
strayed from the rest.
On looking about, he
saw the missing animal grazing
among some cattle belonging to -
another farm on the opposite side
of the river. During his absence in the cottage
a rain-storm had come on, and the river had
risen into a flood, so that he found it impossible
to cross it and bring back the strayed beast.
“Not knowing what to do, and without any
expectation that he would be understood, he
said to the dog, ‘ Watch, I canna gang through
126 ANIMAL STORIES.

to fetch the kyloe; yell hae to gang!’ The
intelligent animal immediately plunged into the
rapid rolling water, and reached the opposite
bank. He went straight to the animal which
belonged to his master, paying no regard to the
others which were grazing with it, and brought
the beast safely across, both animals being
obliged to swim.

“By so doing he helped his master out
of a scrape; for the kyloe could not. have
strayed if he had not neglected his duty by
staying in the hut long enough to allow the
river to rise.

“The same boy, when engaged on another
farm, had a collie dog to help him. One day,
after the cattle had been driven into the sheds,
he found that he must remain for some time
longer in order to fodder them. He turned to
the dog, and said that he ‘Didna need him any
mair that night, and he had better gang hame
noo. The dog perfectly understood him, and
went home at once.”

Another story is narrated by a gentleman who
had an old dog, which was so weighed down —
with the many infirmities of age, that his
master thought that the kindest treatment was
ANIMALS AND LANGUAGE. 127

to put him to death instead of leaving him to
linger.

Accordingly, he asked a medical friend to
bring some poison. This he did, and laying it
on the table, said, without mentioning the dog’s
name, “That is the stuff which will do his
business.” The dog was at the time in the
room, but soon afterwards his master noticed
his absence, and inquired about him. No one
had seen the dog, and no one did see him again.
In some mysterious way he had conjectured the
object of the visitor, and had withdrawn him-
self, probably to die in some hidden spot, as
is the way of all animals when they feel that
the thread of life is being loosened.

“Ben was a very fine collie, belonging to a
farmer. One day, as Ben’s master was pre-
paring to go to a village at some miles’ distance,
his wife asked whether he meant to take Ben
with him. He answered that he should not do
so, and told her to lock up the dog until he
came back. Ben, hearing this, slipped out of
the house unperceived ; and when his master
reached the village he found Ben waiting for
him.”

Two other stories from the “ Animal World”
128 ANIMAL STORIES.

illustrate the same point :—“Mr. G. of CG, an
extensive sheep farmer in Berwickshire, had a _
collie dog, ‘Sweep,’ one of the very best of his
kind. When, on account of old age, he became
unfit for his ordinary, work, he was used for |
taking out and bringing in the cattle from the
parks. He generally lay before the kitchen fire,
and, when milking-time came, all that was re-
quired was to say, ‘Sweep, go for the cows,’
when he would at once get up and go for
them, bringing them up to the byre without any
assistance whatever.

“It sometimes happened that he would
leave a cow behind in the field; but whenever
he was told so, he would again start off, pick
out the cow from amongst the young cattle, and
take her to the byre with the rest.”

Some time about the beginning of the century
there lived on Clint’s farm a man of the name
of “Baldie Tait,’ a noted sheep-stealer. He
had a, collie, as accomplished a thief as himself ;
and there are those still alive who have known
him to direct this dog to go to Heriot Muir, a
distance of several miles, to pick out the best
sheep he could find, take them to Hangingshaw,
a wayside public-house on the high-road to
ANIMALS AND LANGUAGE. 129

Edinburgh, and remain with them till Baldie
should come, when they were driven to Edin-
burgh and sold.

An American paper, the Fontana Press,
relates the following story :—

“A short time ago a female Newfoundland
dog made the acquaintance of a lady of the
city, who would often throw it a piece of meat
or a bone, until at length it became quite a
matter of course every day for the Newfoundland
to appear, and for the lady to have something
ready for her. The appearance of the animal
changed, and the lady began to understand that
there must be puppies in the creature’s home.
So one day she said, while feeding her, ‘Why
don’t you bring me one of your puppies?’
repeating the question several times, the
creature looking in her face with evident intel-
ligence. The next day, to the lady’s astonish-
ment, the Newfoundland came, bringing with
her a little puppy. The lady fed them both,
and then took up the puppy into the window, ”
at which the mother seemed well satisfied, and
quitted the place quietly, not appearing again
for three days. Then she came back again, and
after feeding her, the lady said, ‘Next time

K
180 ANIMAL STORIES.

bring all your puppies; I want to see them.’
Sure enough, the following day, the mother
returned, bringing with her three little puppies.
Several of the neighbours witnessed the whole
transaction, and declared that it was about the
most wonderful proof of the power of animals
to understand human language that they had
ever witnessed.”

THE END.

COLSTON AND COMPANY, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH. -




Ispisters’ Prize and Gurr Booxs
FOR YOUNG READERS.



“ Oharming prize books. If anything can make the children of
the present day take kindly to useful information, it will be such
books as these, full of excellent illustrations, and in easy as well —
as interesting language.”—GUARDIAN.





ONE SHILLING VOLUMES.

Animal Stories for the Young.
In Three handsome little Volumes full of Illustrations.

1. HEADS WITHOUT HANDS ;
Or, Stories of Animal Wisdom.

2. HEARTS WITHOUT HANDS;
Or, Fine Feeling among Brutes.

38, SENSE WITHOUT SPEECH ;
Or, Animal Notions of Right and Wrong.

Mou-Setse.

A Negro Hero, By L. T. Meape.
With Illustrations. Small 8vo.

15 anp 16 TAVISTOCK STREET, CovENT GARDEN, LONDON.
ISBISTERS’ PRIZE AND GIFT BOOKS

FOR YOUNG READERS.





HALF-CROWN VOLUMES.
Profusely Illustrated. Crown 8vo, cloth extra, gilt edges,

A Band of Three.

By L. T. Mzapeg, Author of “ Scamp and I,” ete,
Illustrated by R. BARNES.

‘ An exquisite little tale. Since the days of ‘Little Meg’s Children’
there has been no sketch approaching the pathos of child-lifein ‘A Band
of Three.” ”— Christian Leader.

My Back-Yard Zoo.
A Course of Natural History. By Rev. J. G. Woop, M.A.
With Seventy Illustrations.

“A book that will delight young people. It is well illustrated and
thoroughly reliable."—Morning Post.
‘“ Really a complete course of Natural History.”—Times.

From the Equator to the Pole.

In tHe Heart or Arnica. By JosupH THomson.
CLIMBING THE Hinranayas. By W. W. Grazam.
On THE RoaD T0 THE Potz. By Captain A. H. Marguan.

With Forty-five Illustrations.

“A more delightful prize or present for boys than this it would be hard
to find.”—Record.

Faithful Friends.
Stories of Struggle and Victory. By L. T. Muapz and

others.
With Twenty Illustrations by Frencu, Barnus, etc.
“A carefully illustrated little book. . . . With truth and pathos.”
: Daily News.
“Capital reading for young folks. . . . All brisk and wholesome.”
Scotsman.

Three Little Heroes.

Wii Harpy.—Lirriz Rainsow.—JEAN Baptiste. By
Mrs CuarLes GARNETT.

With Thirty Illustrations.

“Touching and graceful sketches.”—Lilerary World.
“Drawn from life we should say. . . So vivid and natural in
colouring.’—Chureh Bells.

15 AND 16 Tavistock STREET, CovVENT GARDEN, LONDON.
ISBISTERS’ PRIZE AND GIFT BOOKS

FOR YOUNG READERS.



HALF-CROWN VOLUMES.
Profusely Illustrated. Crown 8vo, cloth extra, gilt edges.

Heroes and Martyrs of Science.
Edited by Hznry C. Ewart,

With Thirty Illustrations,

“Tt is an admirable book of its order full of the inspiration of great
lives.”—School Board Chronicle.

King Frost.
The Wonders of Snow and Ice. By Mrs Tuorps.
With Seventy Illustrations.

“Exceedingly able, and without an unattractive page. »_ School Board
Chronicle.

“Full of charming little pictures, and instructive descriptions of the
phenomena which attend the presence of the Ice King.”—Christian World.

Up the Nile.
A. Book for Boys and Girls. By H. Magor, B.Sc.
With Forty Illustrations,
“Must be placed amongst the best of the books for boys and girls which

have been issued this season. Nottingham Guardian.

The Strength of Her Youth.
A Story for Girls. By Saran Doupyey.
With Twenty Illustrations.

“The story is simple enough, but Miss Doudney handles it well.”
Spectator,

“Sound and healthy in tone, yet not without movement and variety.
Carefully illustrated and tastefully bound.”—Daily News.

Nobody’s Neighbours.
By L. T. Mzapz, Author of “Daddy's Boy,” ete.
With Forty Mlustrations,
“In every respect entitled to a place among the best reward books

the season.”-—Schoolmaster.

15 anp 16 Tavistock Strert, Covent Garpen, Lonpon.
ISBISTERS’ PRIZE AND GIFT BOOKS

FOR YOUNG READERS.



HALF-CROWN VOLUMES.
Profusely Illustrated. Crown 8vo, cloth extra.

Dinah Mite.

A Temperance Story for To-day. By Brenpa, Author of
“Froggy’s Little Brother,” etc. :

With Illustrations. Third Thousand. Crown 8vo,

“ A more touching and instructive page has never been taken from the
Annals of the Poor.”—Spectator,
“A touching and deeply interesting story.”—Nonconformist.

Mother Herring’s Chicken.
An East-end Story. By L. T, Mzanzg.
Illustrated by R. Barnes. Crown 8vo. -

“One of the most pleasing little tales which was ever written for young
people; ay, and even for old people.” —Newcastle Chronicle,

A Dweller in Tents.
By L. T. Mzaps. With Illustrations. Crown 8vo.

“Tt surprises us with a study of human character of no ordinary merit
and intensity.”—Pall Mall Gazette,

Andrew Harvey’s Wife.
By L. T. Mzapse. With Illustrations. Crown 8vo.
“ The characters are well drawn, and the story well developed.”
Literary World.
“ Decidedly strong and well wrought out.”—Scofsman.
In Prison and Out.
By Hespa Srrevron, Author of “ Jessica’s First Prayer,” ete,
Illustrated by R. Barnes. 10th Thousand. Crown 8vo.

“Told with all the pathos and captivating interest of the authoress of
‘ Jessica’s First Prayer ’”—@uardian.

15 anp 16 Tavistock Srreet, Covent GARDEN, Lonpon.
ISBISTERS’ PRIZE AND GIFT BOOKS

FOR YOUNG READERS.



THREE-AND-SIXPHNNY VOLUMES.
Profusely Illustrated. Crown 8vo, cloth, gilt extra.

True and Noble Women.

Brief Biographies. Edited by Hzunry CO. Ewart.
With Seventy Illustrations.

Contents :—Queen Victoria—Princess Alice—Sister Dora
—Mrs Fry —Sarah Martin — Mary Carpenter — Mary
Moffatt—Mrs Chisholm—Mrs Sewell—Mrs Carlyle—
Baroness Bunsen, etc.

“The lives of women whose noble deeds haye won for them love,
honour, and renown. . . . Will make a capital present for our girls.”
Methodist Times.

The Romance of Animal Life.

Chapters in Natural History. By Rev. J. G. Woon, M.A.
With One Hundred Illustrations.

“A brightly written series of chapters on the marvels and curiosities
of the animal world. The hundred illustrations are exceedingly life-like.”

Times.
“This is a capital hook.”—British Weekly.

Round the Globe.
Through Greater Britain. Edited by W. C. Procrsr,
With Highty Illustrations.
Contents :—Westward to Niagara—By Rail fo the Pacific

—In the Fiji Islands—New Zealand and Australia—
India and Ceylon—South Africa—Gibraltar, etc.

“An interesting and instructive volume, the outcome of a capital idea,
which is admirably carried out.’—Manchester Examiner.

“Gives a great deal of information, and will go far to stimulate a
desire for more.’—Literary Churchman.

Britta; .
A Story of Life in the Shetland Isles. By Grorcu Tumpte,
Author of “Lancelot Ward, M.P.,” ete.

With Illustrations by Lockuarr Boers,

“We can bestow high praise on it.”—Saturday Review,
‘A delightful story. . . . The writer has Shetland by heart.”
Scotsman.

15 anp 16 Tavistock Street, Covent GarbEN, Lonpon.











|
|
{
ISBISTERS’ PRIZE AND GIFT BOOKS

FOR YOUNG READERS.



THREE-AND-SIXPENN Y VOLUMES.
Profusely Illustrated. Crown 8vo, cloth, gilt extra,

Leaders Upward and Onward.

Biographies of Noble Workers. Edited by Hunry C. Ewart.
With Highty Illustrations.

Contznts :—Charles Kingsley—Dean Stanley—Frederick
Denison Maurice—Archbishop Tait—Bishop Fraser—Dr
Arnold—Norman Macleod—Thomas Guthrie—Principal
Tulloch, etc.

“Tt is a sterling good book fora reward; and, fora thoughiful boy, no

detter could be found.”—Schoolmaster.
‘‘A thoroughly good boy's book.”—Scoisman.

The British Hive;
And its Working Bees. By H. C. Miatt Surru, B.A. .
With One Hundred. Illustrations. /

Contents :—The Harvest of the Sea—Floating Castles—
Light and Leading on the Sea—Roads in the Air—Labour
on the Land—Toiling in the Fens—Forestry—Lancashire
Mills—Yorkshire Factories—Hides and Leather—Iron
and Steel—Black Diamonds—Pots and Porcelain—Glass
Work—Match Making—Money Making, ete.

* Altogether a most readable and instructive volume.”—Spectator.
“We have seldom seen 4 book which we could commend more unre-
servedly.”— Record.

Thy Heart’s Desire;
A. Story of Girls’ Lives. By Saran Dovupnuy, Author of
“The Strength of Her Youth,” etc.
With Twenty-four Illustrations,

‘tA well-written story. The truths are carefully worked out, and will
find an echo in every heart. The book should be in every Sunday-school
library.”’—Schoolmaster.

Rambles in Europe;
A Round of Travels. Edited by Hmnry OC. Ewart.
With One Hundred Ilustrations. [Zn the Press,

COMPLETE CATALOGUES FREE BY POST,

15 anp 16 Tavistock Srruut, Covent Garpen, Lonpon,







xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E1SY1KG1M_76W161 INGEST_TIME 2011-07-01T14:22:26Z PACKAGE UF00065492_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES