Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Animals and their expedients
 Animals and their expedients...
 Animals in their troubles
 Animals as disciplinarians
 Animals as trick-players
 Animals and language
 Back Cover

Group Title: Heads without hands, or, Stories of animal wisdom. : animal stories for the young
Title: Heads without hands, or, Stories of animal wisdom
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065492/00001
 Material Information
Title: Heads without hands, or, Stories of animal wisdom animal stories for the young
Alternate Title: Stories of animal wisdom
Animal stories for the young
Physical Description: viii, 130, 4 p. : ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wm. Isbister, Limited ( Publisher )
Colston and Company ( Printer )
Publisher: Wm. Isbister,
Wm. Isbister
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Colston and Company
Publication Date: 1889
Copyright Date: 1889
Subject: Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animal behavior -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1889   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1889
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Statement of Responsibility: beautifully illustrated.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065492
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - ALH1769
alephbibnum - 002231393
oclc - 70919633

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Animals and their expedients
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Animals and their expedients (continued)
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Animals in their troubles
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Animals as disciplinarians
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Animals as trick-players
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Animals and language
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Back Cover
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
Full Text

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W E are sometimes told that animals have
instinct, but not reason. Instinct means a
feeling that prompts a living creature to perform
certain actions without knowing why. Reason,
on the -other hand, means the power men have to
consider first what they want to do, and then find
out the way to do it. It is certain that a great
many things done by animals are done without
the least idea of any reason for doing them.
Thus, when young ducklings just hatched run
to the water, they have never considered at all
whether swimming is easier than walking, nor


have they been kig themselves what their,
webbed feet are for. ThUp i% vh : an instinct for the
water ; that is all. But there are many actions


of animals which cannot be explained in this way.
Sometimes animals are found to consider first-
what they want to do, and then to find means to


do it. That is, they make use of expedients,
which show a conscious intention. In this and
the following chapter instances of the kind have
been collected from various sources. And these
stories may help to show, that though animal
intelligence cannot be compared to the human
mind, yet God has given even to beasts some
spark of reason.
M. Montrot (a French traveller) speaks of
amusing scenes he has witnessed between the
monkey and the crocodile. The latter will be
seen lying half-asleep on the bank of a river, and
is espied by a crowd of monkeys who inhabit the
-trees on the bank. They seem to consult, to ap-
proach, to draw back, and at last to proceed to
overt acts of annoyance. If a convenient branch
is within reach, a monkey will go along it, will
swing himself down by the end of it, hanging by
a hand or a foot, till he can reach to deal the
crocodile a slap on the nose, instantly scrambling
up the branch, so as to be far out of the enraged
brute's reach. Sometimes, if the branch be not
near enough, or sufficient, several monkeys will
hang to each other so as to form a chain, and
then, swinging backwards and. forwards over the
crocodile's head, the lowermost monkey will tor-


ment the creature to his heart's content. Some-
times the crocodile is so far irritated as to'open
its enormous jaws and make a snap at the
monkey,. just missing him. Then are heard
screams and chatterings of exultation among
the monkeys, and great gambols are executed
among the branches."
Mr. Kenway, of Edgbas ton, relates ho'w he was
walking with his father and a younger brother
many years since in the neighbourhood of Brid-
port, in Dorsetshire, his native town, through
fields leading to Hyde farm, where about thirty
or forty cows were at that time kept. A carriage
road led to the farm, and through a large field,
rather steep, to the field in which the cows grazed.
As they passed through the large gate (like a turn-
pike-gate) at the bottom of this field, they ob-
served a bull at the top of the hill making his way
through the hedge at the top; and fearing some
harm, their father hurried them to a gate a little
higher up, over which they climbed, and waited
on the safe side to watch what the gentleman was
after. To their great astonishment and delight, he
passed quietly by them to the bottom of the hill,
and with the greatest deliberation put his horns
under the bars of the gate, raised it off its hinges.


and carried it to the side of the road, where he
laid it down, quite out of the way. Having done
this, he began to bellow with all his might, and in
a few minutes they saw first one cow come through
the gap that he had made in the hedge, and then
another, and another, until the whole herd were
passed through-all streaming down the hill in
the greatest excitement, kicking up their heels,
and throwing about their heads and tails in the
most ludicrous manner imaginable, to their great
amusement. The gallant gentleman stood beside
the gate until he had introduced his friends into
a beautiful pasture, just ready for the scythe; and
not until he had seen all fairly enjoying the sweet
repast did he attempt to partake of it himself.
Professor Bell says that a lady, a near relative
of his own, witnessed a cow feeding in a pasture,
the gate of which was open to the road, which
was much annoyed by a mischievous boy, who
amused himself by throwing stones at her. She
bore with the persecution for some time; but at
last she went up to him, hooked her horns into
his clothes, and, lifting him from the ground,
carried him out of the field and laid him down
in the road. She then returned quietly to her
pasture, leaving him suffi ,iently frightened.


While playing at cricket in a field belonging
to J. Hayton Ireland, Esq., Mr. Morris says he
was very much amused by watching a cow en-
gaged in slaking her thirst. As there is no
pond near, a pump had been placed in the field,
from which a stone basin below is usually kept
filled for the horses and cow. But she, being
nice in her taste, preferred to pump the water
for herself, catching it, as it fell, with her tongue.
The shape of her horns bending downwards,
enabled her to work the pump with great
facility. He says he had often seen her do it.
A very ingenious expedient was resorted to
by a shepherd's dog. The dog was employed
to take his master's dinner to him, while em-
ployed out in the fields. He carried it in a tin
with a lid; and on one occasion was met by
another dog, who smelt the contents, of the can.
They had a fight, and the intruder was driven
off. But in the scuffle the lid had been knocked
off the can. The shepherd's dog did not know
how to get it on again, but he saw that the two
belonged to each other, so he adopted this ex-
pedient :-He carried the can in his mouth for
some distance, then he returned and brought the
lid, and carried it some way farther. He then


\'~ -:



returned to the can and carried that beyond the
lid : and so at last he got them both safely to
his master.
Mrs. Lee describes an artful trick which a
magpie, kept in the family of Mr. Ranson, was
observed to play. A toll-gate stood near, and
he was fond of watching the movements of the
toll-keeper's wife. When he observed her to


be employed in making pastry, he would perch
upon the gate, and would suddenly cry out,
' Gate ahoy If the husband were absent, as
was frequently the case, the wife would hurry
out to open the gate. Magpie would then slip
in and snatch a bill-full of the pie-crust, chat-
tering over it, on the roof of the gate-house,
with the greatest glee.
Whilst walking on West Looe Quay, a corre-
spondent of the Animal World was attracted to
the actions of an Irish water-spaniel which was
coming towards him, when suddenly it jumped
into the river, where it is about one hundred or
more yards in width. On looking across, he
saw that a sailor on board a vessel on the other
side was calling the dog; and, seeing it swim-
ming towards the vessel, he prepared to take
it on board by means of a rope which he threw
over the side, holding an end in each hand, thus
forming a loop reaching to the surface of the
water. The tide at the time was running in fast,
so that the dog was carried by it some consider-
able distance up, and had to swim against the
tide to reach the side of the vessel; when it
made an attempt to get its fore-legs over the
rope, but was unable to do so, the tide again


carrying it up the river. A second attempt failed
in the same manner. Again the dog swam up
to the side of the vessel, and passed it without
seeming to notice the rope, and, as he thought,
had given up any further attempt to be taken
on board. But no; having swum six or eight
yards beyond the vessel against the tide, the dog
deliberately turned round and swam with the
tide into the bight of the rope, got both fore-
legs over, the rope crossing the chest, the fore-
legs pressed back so as to prevent its slipping
off the chest; and so the dog was drawn up the
side of the vessel, about ten or twelve feet in
height, and thus taken on board.
The narrator thinks there was more than
instinct displayed here. Instinct was shown by
the dog at first making two attempts to get on
board the nearest way, whilst swimming against
the tide, in which it failed, when reason stepped
in, as is shown by the dog taking the different
course of swimming with the tide to the rope,
and by that means accomplishing its desired end.
A similar story is told of a dog which certain
thoughtless boys were preventing from landing
on the stairs of a harbour pier. The dog having.
been thrown into the sea for a washing, the


owner had turned his back upon it, and was
returning home along the pier, expecting, as a
matter of course, that his dog would soon be at
his heels; and such would have been the case
but for the dangerous pelting to which it was
subjected. It tried again and again to dodge
the pelting boys, but always failing, it at length
turned round and quietly took possession of the
stern of a boat out of the reach of their throw,
where it waited. When after a time its enemies
were gone, it took the water again, reached the
pier stairs, and thus found its way home again.
The cruelty of the boys was in this case scarcely
more apparent than the sagacity of the poor
brute they persecuted.
One of the 17th Lancers gives an account of
a mare in his regiment that had a strong dislike
to drunkenness. Her rider would say, when he
had taken more drink than was good for him,
" Now, if I don't mind, that mare will get me
into the guard-house to night." The fact was,
the mare could tell when her master was sober
and when he was not; and when he had been
indulging she would squeeze him against the
wall, or in some other way show her dislike to
it; and this generally gave rise to a quarrel; a

- -1 P --- - - . !,




row would ensue, and the tipsy man would soon
find himself in trouble.
A couple who lived on the side of the Enner-
dale Hills, in Cumberland, often took their little
girl with them when they went into a neigh-
bouring wood to gather fuel. One evening, in
searching for wild flowers, she strayed out of
sight; and when twilight and darkness came
on, they searched for her in vain. At last they
went back to their cottage in the hope that the
child might have wandered back. Finding that
she was not there, they got torches and renewed
the search, but still without success. Tired
out, they went home again, and the mother
mechanically spread the supper-table, when their
dog jumped up, seized a lump of bread, and
rushed out of the cottage. The father said
" I never knew the dog to steal before." Before
daylight the search was renewed, but still in
vain. When breakfast time came, the dog ap-
peared again, and repeated his extraordinary
conduct of the evening before. The wife, struck
with a thought which was full of hope, exclaimed,
" I'm sure he knows where the child is." In-
stantly they both started forth and managed
to trace the dog, and found him on the edge


of the lake, and the child holding in her
hands the bread which he had just brought
A London physician gives an account of two of
his friend's dogs which had a special attachment to
and understanding with each other. The one was
a Scotch terrier, gentle, and ready to fraternise
with all honest comers. The other looked like a
cross between a mastiff and a large rough stag-
hound. He was fierce, and it was wise to cultivate
his acquaintance before you took any liberties
with him. The little dog was gay and lively, the
other was stern and thoughtful. These two dogs
were often observed to go to -a certain point to-
gether, and then the small one remained behind,
at a corner of a large field, while the large dog
took a round by the side of the field, which ran
up hill for nearly a mile, and led to a wood on the
left. Game abounded in these districts, and the
nature of the plan of the two dogs was soon per-
ceived. The terrier would start a hare and chase
it up the hill towards the wood, where they would
arrive somewhat tired. Here the large dog, fresh
and in wind, darted after the animal, who was
easily captured. The two dogs then ate the hare
between them and quietly returned home. This


plan of operations had been going on for some
time before it was fully understood.
It is told of a gentleman in Dumfriesshire-
who, by the way, does not seem to have taken very
serious precautions against thieves-that he had
a dog and cat which were much attached to each
other, and both were great favourites in the house-
hold. The dog, however, was not meant to sleep
in the house, but was carefully turned out into the
yard every evening; and yet, strange to say, he
was always found in the morning lying :before the
fire, with the cat by his side. One evening the
master of the dog heard a sort of rap at a back
door leading to the kitchen, and saw the cat
spring up and strike the latch, while the dog
pushed open the door and entered without let
or hindrance. We have read, too, of one cat
helping another to accomplish the same thing.
A correspondent of the Animal World relates
that a few years ago a farmer, from near Dumfries,
walked to Penrith with his sheep and two dogs.
Having sold his sheep, he prepared to return
home; but Fan" in the meantime had had
puppies, and was left in charge of a friend, who
made a bed for her in his parlor, and fed her.
"After a few weeks, on coming as usual to feed


her, neither she nor her puppies were to be seen
He looked for his hat: it had also disappeared !
' Ah !' thought he, the thief has taken that too.'
After a diligent search, that proved useless-for
neither dog, puppies, nor hat had been seen or
heard of-the friend wrote to the Scotch farmer
to inform him of his loss. A few days after he
received the following reply: Make no more
researches. "Fan" arrived here early this morn-
ing, with her three puppies in your hat!' Mark
the animal's reasoning, we may call it. She had
seen the Penrith farmer put his head in the hat;
' Fan' seized the idea, and placed her little dar-
lings in it-being no longer able to remain
away from her master, or to leave her young
A cat belonging to a correspondent of the
Animal World was in the constant habit of open-
ing the back door of his house, which had a
thumb-latch. Almost immediately after she was
brought to his house, eight years ago, she adopted
this plan of letting herself in, to the no small
amazement and often alarm of strange servants.
When it is desired to keep her out, the door has
to be bolted ; and at one time when she found that
the case, she used to go to the scullery window,


jump up at that, and hang on to the upper part
until her weight pulled it down far enough to
admit her. The window sash at that time ran
down easily; since new cords have been put in
she cannot do it; but the practice showed, he
thought, something akin to reason.
The same writer tells of another cat whose kit-


tens, when she had any, he always used to go and
look at every day-the mother being very proud
of the attention. Once when she had one he hap-
pened to be very ill and confined to his room.
No doubt pussy missed the usual attention; but
she was determined her child should not remain
unknown to him. The very first day he was able
to go down to the drawing-room sofa, pussy
brought her kitten in her mouth from the back-
kitchen, where its bed was, and laid it down at the
kitchen-door, while she asked, as plainly as pos-
sible, to have that door opened for her; when this
was done she carried the kitten to the drawing-
room door, returned to the kitchen, and asked
again for the other door to be opened; then
brought it to his feet, laid it down in triumph,
and looked at him. This process was repeated
every day till he was able to go about the house ;
and though the kitten was generally sent back to
its bed very soon, she never brought it a second
time on the same day; merely, he supposed,
thinking she ought to let him see it daily, if he
could not go to it.
Mr. Wood had a favourite cat which he had
brought up from infancy, and which was on terms
of the greatest familiarity with him. One day


puss came to the door of the dining-room, mew-
ing piteously. Mr. Wood opened it, when the
cat went to the foot of the stairs, ran up two or
three of them, and looked round for Mr. Wood to
follow. When he did so, puss led the way to the
study-door, and going to a heap of books that lay
on the floor, began to push her paws under them.
Mr. Wood took up the books one by one, the cat
watching with looks of expectation; and when
the last volume was taken up, forth darted a
mouse, which the cat seized and dispatched,
and then began to purr, as if asking for con-
gratulations and praise for its watchfulness.
At the barn-yards of Castle Forbes severe
doors open by means of the common thumb-
latch, and these a small grey cat had discovered
the means of opening for herself. At various times
pussy had been seen to spring from the ground,
a height of about four feet, fasten her left fore-
leg in the handle, and with her right paw press
the latch till she lifted the inside portion, when
the door swung round, and she dropped to the
floor at her own pleasure. One of the doors is a
heavy panelled outside one. On one occasion
she was observed to fail in opening it; but,
nothing daunted, she made a secondd attempt,


and cdept up till she put her whole weight upon
it, and was rewarded 'with success. It is sup-
posed that her first inducement to attempt the
ingenion feat was for the purpose of visiting
her kittens when the door happened to be shut.
Another clever expedient is given in the fol-
lowing story of a dog, which is as pathetic as it is
instructive. A peasant had a sporting-dog who
was expecting pups in a few days, when he had
to leave for a fair in Dauphin6.
In going he noticed that the dog followed him
at a distance, and with difficulty. The poor
beast, after arriving at the inn, went to lie under
the manger in the stable, and there laid down
her precious burden-four pups.
Well," said the master, it is a good breed,
I must take them back in my neighbour's trap,"
and he went about his business. But when the
evening came and he was going to return home,
there was nothing under the manger-neither
mother nor pups. Thinking that he had been
robbed, he returned in a very bad humour.
Imagine his surprise to find his dog, wet, pant-
ing, exhausted, and three of her pups lying under
her to get warmth.
How did it happen ?


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The distance fromSoucien to Saint-Symphorien
is about twelve miles, and the Rh6ne had to be
passed. Well, this mother, uneasy as to the fate
of her offspring, had carried her pups, one after
the other, to her kennel. She had had her
strength to travel all that distance, and to swim
through the Rh6ne seven times. You know
the strength and size of this river !
The peasant, coarse as he was, could not keep
back his tears. He called in a veterinary surgeon
to sa-e this precious beast ; but all the care was
in main-she died by the side of her three living
pups, which had been saved by her.
Mr. Banyard, having returned from a tour in
the West, tells how he put up at a small town near
the Alleghany Mountains, where, while he was
sitting watching the variegated hues produced by
the rays of the setting sun upon that wild, rough,
mountain scenery, he saw eight or nine large bag-
gage-waggons approaching, drawn by four, and
some of them by six horses. He found that the
tavern where he was stopping was a regular lodg-
ing-place for those strong, coarse, mountain wag-
goners. Near the place where he sat, in front of
the house, was a pump with a large trough, which
was used for watering horses. The handle of the


pump, he observed, always sprang up whenever
any one used it. Most pump-handles fall down,
but this one sprang up, so that those who used it
had no occasion to lift the handle; it always
raised itself. When the string of waggons ap-
proached the tavern there was but little water in
the trough,-not nearly enough to supply the
horses. But you may imagine his surprise to see
one of the horses, as soon as he was unharnessed,
go to the pump, lay his head over the handle,
and press it down, so as to make the water come
out of the spout. Then he raised his head, and
the handle sprang up; then again he would press
it' down, and send more water into the trough.
In this way that horse continued pumping, till
all the horses had had the water they wanted.
Then, last of all, he left the handle, walked
round to the trough, drank as much as he
wanted, and finished by walking into the stable
and taking his place in one of the stalls.
A farmer who lives in the neighbourhood of
Bedford, and regularly attends the markets there,
was returning home one evening in 1828, and
having drank till he became sleepy, rolled off his
saddle into the middle of the road. His horse
stopped and waited some time, until, seeing no



disposition in its rider to remount, it took him
by the collar and shook him. The farmer only
grumbled, and remained in slumber. The horse
then began to resort to stronger measures-seiz-
ing hold of his master's coat-laps, and dragging
at them to make him get up. After a while the
coat-lap gave way. While this was going on,
three more passengers came by, and these suc-
ceeded in awakening the farmer and inducing
him to remount. The torn coat-lap was care-
fully thrust into the pocket, and was long pre-


served by the farmer as a memorial of his
horse's zeal and care.
An ingenious device is recorded of the dog of
a poor shoeblack, by which it sought to push its
master's trade. At all dirty boots it barked in a
most excited manner, looking now and then away
from them to its master's box and into their
wearer's face. It is far from unlikely that such
an appeal would prove very successful with good-
natured people.
"During the winter," says a writer in the
Animal World, "a large wide drain had been
made, and over this strong planks had been placed
for a cart-horse to pass over to his stable. It
had snowed during the night, and froze very hard
in the morning. How he passed over the planks
on going out to work I know not, but on being
turned loose from the cart at breakfast, he came
up to them, and I saw his fore-feet slip; he drew
back immediately, and seemed for a moment at a
loss how to get on. Close to these planks a cart-
load of sand had been placed; he put his fore-feet
on this, and looked wistfully to the other side of
the drain. The boy who attends this horse, and
who had gone round by another path, seeing him
stand there, called him. The horse immediately


turned round, and set about scraping the sand
most vigorously, first with one foot, then the
other. The boy, perhaps wondering what he
would be at, waited to see. When the planks
were completely covered with sand, the horse
turned round again and unhesitatingly walked
over and trotted up to his stable and driver."
Mr. Morris relates how a Norwegian pony
showed more than usual skill in trying to get into
the stable to a tempting feed of corn. If the
groom tied the door with a stout rope, she would
untie the knot with her teeth ; if he fastened it
with a chain and staple and wooden peg, no
sooner was his back turned than the peg was drawn
and the door opened. At length, tired with being
so often beaten, he got a heavy rail, which he
placed right across the entrance. The pony was
puzzled, and the groom looked on with glee while
he saw her vain attempts to lift the rail, which
proved too heavy for her. He thought that the
victory was his when she seemed to give it up in
despair and trotted off to find her companion.
But not a little astonished was he to see her
return in a few minutes, and the other pony
with her. Together they put their necks under
the rail; and what was too heavy for one


yielded to the efforts of both : the rail was lifted
and thrown down, and the way to the corn was
again opened. On another occasion, when shut
up in a yard, which they did not at all approve,
all kinds of fastenings gave way to them, till at
last the groom, in despair, actually nailed up the
gate with some stout tenpenny nails !
Mr. East had once a donkey, which was a re-
markably docile and knowing animal. His
lodging-place at night was in a shed, from which
he had free access to a yard; but not, of course,
to the kitchen garden which adjoined it. This
garden was separated from the yard by a wall, in
which was a door, or gate, fastened securely by
two bolts and a latch. But soon Mr. East was
surprised to find that the,door had been opened
in the night, and there were foot-prints of the
donkey on the walks and beds. How this could
be it was difficult to imagine, especially as the
upper bolt was fixed at a considerable height.
So Mr. East watched at his window, and saw
master donkey reared up on his hind legs, un-
fastening the upper bolt with his mouth. He then
drew back the lower one, lifted the latch, and
walked quietly into the garden. In a few minutes
he returned, bringing a large bunch of carrots,


which he deposited in his shed, and then went
back to latch the gate, after which he leisurely
set about munching up his booty. Before Mr.
East put a stop to these proceedings, he gave
some of his neighbours, who were incredulous on
the subject, an opportunity of witnessing them.
It should be added that master donkey never
commenced his operations until after the light
had been extinguished at the bedroom window.
Mr. Smiles, in his Lives of Engineers," says
that the whole of the stone for Waterloo Bridge
(except the balustrades) was hewn in some fields
adjacent, on the Surrey side. It was then trans-
ported, stone by stone, upon trucks drawn along
railways, over temporary bridges of wood; and
nearly the whole was thus transported by one
horse, Old Jack,' a most sensible animal and a
great favourite. His driver was, on the whole, a
steady man, though rather too fond of his dram
before breakfast. The railway along which the
truck passed ran just in front of the door of a
public-house ; and here Tom, the driver, usually
pulled up for his morning.' On one occasion it
happened that Tom stopped longer than his usual
time, and Old Jack' grew impatient. So he
pushed his head against the public-house door,

got it inside, and finding his master standing at
the door, took the collar of his jacket between his
teeth and pulled him out of the place back to
his work again."
"A friend of mine," says Mr. Morris, "was
riding home one night through a wood, and
owing to the darkness struck his head against the
branch of a tree and fell from his horse quite
stunned. The horse immediately returned to
the house which he had just left-a mile or more
distant. He found the doors closed, and the
family retiring to rest. He pawed at the door
until one of the servants, hearing a noise, came
down and opened it; and saw, with surprise, the
horse which had so recently left them. But the
creature, so soon as he was recognized, turned
round, inviting the inmates to follow. They did
so, and the creature led them straight to the spot
where his rider still lay upon the ground stunned,
and scarcely able to rise."
In Fifeshire, a carter at Strathmiglo had an
old horse who had long lived with him and was
intimate with all the family. When among the
children, he was always careful to do them no
injury-moving his feet with the greatest care.
On one occasion he was drawing a loaded cart


through a narrow lane, when he found a young
child playing there and liable to be crushed by
the cart-wheels. He took the child up by the
clothes with his teeth and carried it a little way,
till he saw a bank by the roadside on which he
could safely place it. Then, having thus put it out
of danger, he went on his way; but not without
looking back to satisfy himself that the wheels
of the cart had cleared it.
A very similar story is told by Grant Thorburn,
who says he saw a horse in the neighbourhood
of New York dragging a load of coal in a cart.
The lane was very narrow; the driver was some
distance behind, conversing with a neighbour;
the horse, on a slow walk, came up to a child sit-
ting in the middle of the road, playing with the
dust with his little hands. The horse stopped--
he smelt at the child ; there was no room to turn
off. With his thick lips he gathered the frock
between his teeth, lifted the child, laid him gently
on the outside of the wheel track, and went on
his way.


A GENTLEMAN, who a few years ago resided
at Bank House, Burnley, was in the habit
of feeding daily a well-known and favourite
robin. An envious sparrow, coming one day to
join in the good things provided, was driven away
by the robin; and, not well pleased at the treat-
ment it had received, came again, attended by
superior numbers, so that now it was the red-
breast's turn to be defeated. But Robin had a
resource. The next day, to the surprise of all, a
crow appeared with his red-breasted friend, and
kept at a distance all rivals and intruders. The
two then partook amicably together of whatever
was provided. This continued for several days,
and then, something having occurred, they came
no more.


Mr. Yarrell, in his British Birds," tells of a
swan that exhibited, eight or nine years ago, one
of the most remarkable instances of what we call
"instinct" that everwas recorded. She was sitting
on four or five eggs, and was observed to be very
busy in collecting weeds, grasses, leaves, or what
not, to raise her nest. A farming- man was ordered
to take down half a load of haulm, with which
she most industriously raised her nest, some two
feet and a half higher than usual. The next night
there came down a tremendous fall of rain, which
flooded all the lowlands, and did great damage.
Men had made no preparation; the bird had.
Her eggs were above, and only just above, the
A sort of retriever, called Reves," an old
favourite of a gentleman in Scotland, was in the
habit, says Man and Beast," of going for a walk
before breakfast with his master. One morning it
so happened that his master did not intend to take
his usual walk. Reves soon became very impa-
tient ; and seeing no signs of his master, he got
upon chair in the hall, took his master's hat from
the peg, carried it up to his room, and scratched at
the door for admission. As soon as the door was
opened, in walked Reves," laid the hat. at his




master's feet, and pushed his nose into his hand.
The idea was entirely his own; he had never been
taught to fetch a hat.
Bishop Stanley tells us that a water-hen,
observing a pheasant feed out of one of those
boxes which open when the bird stands on the
rail in front of the box, went and stood in the
same place as soon as the pheasant left it. Find-
ing that its weight was not sufficient to raise the
lid of the box, it kept jumping on the rail to give
additional impetus. But this not being sufficient
it presently flew away, and returned with another


bird of its own species. The weight of the two
proved sufficient, and they gained the reward of
their sagacity.
Dr. Carpenter pledges his word for the truth of
the following story. At a ladies' school near
Bristol it was the rule, on every day of the week
but Sunday, for the girls to go into the play-
ground at twelve o'clock, and there to eat their
luncheon. The sparrows soon found out that the
girls dropped crumbs on the ground, and used to
gather in large numbers on the garden walls a
little before twelve, and wait there till the play-
ground was again empty of human beings.
Then down they came to feast upon the crumbs.
This used to happen as regularly as the clock
struck, except on Sundays. On Sunday the girls
attended public worship, and there was an early
dinner indoors, instead of a luncheon in the
playground. Those persons who happened to be
at home on Sunday mornings were greatly amused
to notice that the sparrows knew Sunday as well
as any young lady in the school. They never
came and twittered about on the garden walls a
little before twelve on that day; for they had
found out that on it there was no feast of crumbs.
It seems that they had also their own way of


finding out when it wanted a few minutes to
Cats are often kind to each other, sympathizing
under difficulties and helping their friends who
need assistance. One of Mr. Wood's friends is a
great admirer of cats and their dispositions, and
has noted many of their ways. One of her cats was
rather a weakly animal, and was unable to carry
her kittens about after the manner of cats. So
when she wished to carry her kittens from one
place to another, she was accustomed to impress
a stronger cat into her service, she walking by
the side of her friend in order to act as guide.
Another of the cats, when oppressed with the
cares of a family, did exactly what a human
mother does when she can afford it. She em-
ployed a nursemaid, i.e. she fetched a half-
grown kitten and placed it in charge of her
young while she went for a ramble.
On one occasion when visiting the Zoological
Gardens in Regent's Park, Mr. Morris observed
a little incident which may be worth mention. A
large white cockatoo and a much smaller green
parrot inhabited the same cage. When he gave
them a nut, the parrot took it, but instead of
endeavouring to crack it, immediately handed


it over to the cockatoo, whose more powerful
mandibles at once mastered it, and the contents
were fairly divided between the two.
One day in last April," says a writer in the
Magazine of Natural History, I observed a
young lamb entangled among briars. It had
struggled for liberty till it was nearly exhausted.
The mother then attempted to release it, both
with her head and her feet, but all in vain. Find-
ing the task too much for her, she turned round
and ran away, baa-ing with all her might. She
went across two or three fields, and through their
hedges, till she came to a flock of sheep. In about
five minutes she returned, bringing with her a
large ram, whose horns gave just the help that
was wanted. They went together to the poor
lamb, and the ram immediately set about the
work of releasing it, dragging away the briars
with his horns."
A similar narrative is given by Cuvier, who
relates how a sheep applied, bleating, to a cow ;
and when the cow followed her, led her to a lamb
which had fallen into a ditch, and lay feet upper-
most, unable to release itself. The cow, by a
careful use of its horns, lifted the lamb out of its
hole, and placed it upon its feet again.


The following well-known story is given by
Mr. Morris. Living in the City portion of the
metropolis, I observed, one afternoon, in the
aperture generally left for the cellar or kitchen
window, an unfledged house-sparrow, which had
fallen down into this underground place, across
which was laid, obliquely, an iron bar, whieh
extended within a foot of the surface. The
mother was at the top of the opening, looking
down with pity and alarm at the condition of
the child. Many and ingenious were the at-
tempts of both mother and child to raise the
latter out of its perilous position, but all of them
proved unavailing. I looked on with anxiety,
lest the affair should end in the mother's giving
up the attempt as hopeless, and deserting her
child; but the even: proved that there was no
ground to fear any such desertion. Several
plans and attempts w-r'e frustrat.-d, one after
the other; but atlast the parent hirt upon a new
one. Flying away for a few minutes, it at length
returned with a stout straw in its beak, and
rested with it for a minute on the edge. At
once the little nestling, called by its mother by
divers chirps, climbed up the iron bar, till it
reached the highest point, and there received


one end of the straw in its beak, and. was
raised, to my astonishment, by the mother, who
held fast the other, till it reached the level
Mr. St. John says that he received from a
most reliable informant the following story of

itO L i.i.) .i .
a fox. Very early one morning he saw a fox
eyeing most wistfully a number of wild ducks
feeding on the rushy end of a Highland lake.
After due consideration, the fox, going to wind-
ward of the ducks, put afloat on the lake several
bunches of dead rushes, or grass, which floated


down among the ducks without causing the
least alarm. After watching the effects of this
manoeuvre for a short time, Reynard, taking a
good bunch of grass in his paws, launched
himself into the water as quietly as possible,
floating down, as the preceding bunches had
done, towards the ducks. He took care to
leave nothing but the tip of his nose and ears
above water, and these were concealed among
the grass. In this way he drifted among the
ducks, and soon made booty of a fine mallard.
When we remember what numbers of wild ducks,
pigeons, hares, and other wild animals every fox
contrives to catch, for his own support and that
of his family, this story seems by no means in-
At Kilmorack, in Inverness-shire, the parish
minister was a man of great taste and much
hospitality. He kept a good stock of poultry ;
but, as foxes were numerous, it was needful to
provide the fowls with a house for greater safety.
A visitor found on the breakfast-table, not only
salmon fresh and salmon preserved, but new-laid
eggs in daily abundance. One morning the ser-
vant, whose duty it was to provide the latter,
took the key and the usual basket, and repaired


to the fowl-house to bring in the usual supply.
But when she opened the door, terrible was the
scene. Blood was here and there, and dead
hens lay on every side. In the midst lay a full-
grown fox, apparently as dead as the hens.
The servant stared, and wondered, and supposed
that the fox must have eaten himself to death.
After some exclamations and evil speaking, she
took the beast up by the tail and flung him
out of the window on to the dungheap outside.
But what was her astonishment to see the
creature, so soon as he alighted on the heap,
spring up, alive and vigorous, and scour away
for the neighboring woods.
Mr. St. John, in his Sports of the High-
lands," describes a fox whose manoeuvres he
had himself watched :-
"Just after daylight I saw him come quietly
along. He looked with great care over the turf-
wall into the field, and seemed to long very much
to get hold of some of the hares which were feed-
ing within it; but apparently knew that he had
no chance of catching one by dint of running.
He seemed, therefore, to form a plan. With great
care and in silence he scraped a small hollow in
the ground, just where the walk seemed to be most


~c~-~V ~


frequented he threw up the sand as a screen,
stopping often to take a view of the field. When
he had prepared his 'rifle-pit,' he laid himself
down, in the best position for springing on his
prey, and remained quite motionless, except an
occasional look towards the feeding hares. When
the sun began to rise, the hares thought it time to
leave the field for the plantation; and his ambush
was laid with a view to this. Three passed by
him, but he stirred not: they were scarcely
within his reach. Two more came directly
towards him; and now, with the quickness of
lightning, he had sprung upon one, and killed her
instantly. He took possession, and was carrying
her off, when my rifle-ball stopped his course."
Mr. Jesse says that when a fox is troubled
with fleas he will go into the water-not sud-
denly, but at first to a small depth, the water
only covering the lower part of his body. The
fleas then creep upwards, and rise to his back.
Presently he will go deeper, till the water covers
his body, and only his head is above it. The
fleas are then driven forward, till they get to-
gether in a swarm on his head and nose. At last
he will lay in breath enough, and plunge his
whole head under water, washing the fleas en-


tirely off. A friend told Mr. Jesse he saw a fox
doing this in a lake in Italy.
Mr. Garratt describes another instance of saga-
city. A farm servant was ploughing a small
field for wheat, in Ireland, and was surprised to
see a fox pacing slowly along in the furrow just
before the plough. Soon he heard the cry of the
hounds ; but, turning round, he saw the whole
pack brought to a stand at the other end of the
field, just where the fox must have entered on
the land u der the plough. Somehow the animal
must have thought that newly-turned soil would
break the scent.
In Leicestershire, an old fox, often hunted,
was always lost at a particular place, after
coming to which the hounds always lost the
scent. It was at last discovered that he jumped
upon a close clipped-hedge, ran along the top of
it, and then crept into the hollow of an old pol-
lard-tree, where he lay snugly concealed till the
hounds were baffled and drawn off.
Monkeys, too, are full of expedients to secure
their victims. They will hide for hours in the
long grass on the route of those they count
enemies, a d on the near approach of the prey
spring from their ambush.



During his Arctic voyages, Captain M'Clure
observed the craft of two ravens which were domi-
ciled on board his ship, Invwestigator, and tells
the following story:-Two ravens now established
themselves as friends, living mainly by what little
scraps the men might have thrown away after
meal times. The ship's dog, however, looked
upon these as his especial perquisites, and ex-
hibited considerable energy in maintaining his
rights against the ravens, who, nevertheless, out-
witted him in a way which amused every one.
Observing that he appeared quite willing to make


a mouthful of their own sable persons, they used
to throw themselves intentionally in his way, just
as the mess-tins were being cleaned out on the
dirt-heap, outside the ship. The dog would im-
mediately run at them, and they would just fly a
few yards; the dog then made another run, and
again they would appear to escape him but by an
inch, and so on, until they had tempted and pro-
voked him to the shore, a considerable distance
off. Then the ravens would make a direct flight
to the ship, and had generally done good exe-
cution before the mortified-looking dog detected
the imposition that had been practised upon
him, and rushed back again.
A species of tick and many other insects infest
the hides of elephants, and cause the animals
great annoyance. To rid themselves of these
they have recourse to a very ingenious and
effectual method. Seeking some half-dried pool,
the'mud of which is still soft, they lie down and
roll in it, wallowing after the manner -of a pig
in a similar place. Having covered themselves
thoroughly with the sticky earth, they emerge
entirely of another colour according as the mud
may be white, red, or black, and taking up their
position in the sun, remain motionless for hours,


until their covering becomes dry and hard. Then,
by sudden muscular efforts, the mud is broken
and falls off the hide, carrying with it all the
insects that were on the animal's body, and
which had become embedded in the hardened
earth, and the sagacious animal moves off, freed
for a time of his minute tormentors.




THE two previous chapters have given many
instances to show that animals have some-
thing more than instinct, or, as we said at the
beginning of the book, that God has given them
some spark of reason. But this is not all. Some
of the stories already given would suggest to us
that animals are not without the feelings we call
emotions. The word emotion means simply a
movement. But it is applied especially to move-
ments of the heart. When a child feels unusual
trouble, there is a stirring at the heart followed by
words of sorrow or gladness, by tears or laughter.
Now animals cannot speak, and they cannot laugh.
Some of them do indeed shed tears, as a deer will


when it is wounded to death. But, for the most
part, they can only show their feelings by their
actions; and they do so often in a very touching
manner. If you have ever taken up a young
kitten recently born, you must have noticed with
what eagerness and anxiety the mother follows
you, looking up into your face. She cannot speak,
indeed, as we have said. But there is a pitiful
sound in her mew, which says as plainly as can be,
"Oh, please put it down again! You will hurt it,
I know you will; do put it down again!" The
following stories have been collected in the hope
that our young readers may be led to think how
sensitive are the hearts of their dumb friends,
although the latter have no language but that
of gesture and looks to express their feelings.
The first is a pathetic little story told by
Bishop Stanley. Mr. H- had a little Blen-
heim spaniel, called "Carina." About ten months
ago (i.e. beginning of 1873), while the family
were from home, the gardener slept in the house
to take care of it. One night Carina, who had a
family of puppies about a fortnight old, came to
the man's room, and scraped at the bed-clothes
until he awoke. Without striking a light or
examining the dog in any way, the man said,


" Carina, go back to your puppies," and the dog
accordingly went away. In a short time she
came again, and awoke the man in the same
way. She again received the same order, and
obeyed it as before. In the morning, when the
gardener went to look at the dogs, the puppies
were quite well and Carina was lying by their
side quite dead. Her puppies survived, and
were brought up on cow's milk.
It is evident that the poor little dog felt her
end approaching, and tried to make her last
farewell before she died. That she was not
understood was not the fault of the dog, but
of the man, who was too dull or too sleepy to
comprehend her meaning, though she could
understand him.
Mr. Otway tells of his own experience :-
I am in the habit every year of buying two
or three Kerry cows. They are the kindest little
creatures in the world, and I generally pick out
those I consider to have good countenances. Last
year I was lucky in the three I bought; they soon
became great pets. They met me every morning
at the gate of the pasture, expecting to be spoken
to. One in particular, a quaint little lassie, used
to put her nose into my pocket like a dog, to


look for a piece of bread or potato. Well, there
was a swing in this field; and my Kerry lass,
who was very curious, seeing the girls swinging,
thought, I suppose, that she should like a swing
herself. So one day, about noon, a great lowing
of cows was heard, and some one who was at home
went out to see what was the matter. When he
came to the gate, he saw two of the Kerry cows

-=;, l,'- -, i_--- -'.. ..

in a great state of agitation ; and they followed
him, lowing, to the further end of the field, where
he 'found the third, entangled in the swing,
caught by her head and horns, and in danger of
being strangled by her efforts to get out -of the
ropes. He soon extricated and set her at liberty,
and the alarm of the other cows at once ceased."
Bishop Stanley gives us a story which may
explain how wild birds become domesticated:.-


An officer, settled on a farm near the Mis-
souri, observed one day, when walking near the
banks of the river, a large eagle, which seemed
to be frequently darting down to the water and
then rising again. Drawing nearer, he perceived
that the object of attack was a wild goose, which
was floating on the water, and which dived
beneath whenever, its enemy swooped. But the
goose was exhausted, after a time, by these efforts
to escape; and at last it fled to the shore, where
two men were at work, to whom it surrendered
rather than fall into the talons of the eagle. It
found the protection it sought, and in two or three
days seemed quite reconciled to its new position."
A similar story is told of a hare, which, in its
helpless distress, took refuge at the feet of a
passing boy. A fire broke out between two and
three o'clock in the morning in the house of
Mr. R. Handley, in Bermondsey. Mr. Handley
kept two small dogs in his house; and that
night, by some oversight he had left his bedroom
door ajar. Shortly before three o'clock he and
his wife were both awakened by the dogs scratch-
ing their faces. On getting up they found
volumes of smoke pouring up the staircase, so
great as to prevent their escape that way.


Rousing the other inmates, they opened one of
the back windows, leaped out upon the leads
underneath, and escaped into the next house,
from which they got into the street with safety.
The fire was subdued in the course of an hour

F .1



or two, but not until Mr. Handley's premises
had been entirely destroyed.
"My friend Mr. E- lately called at a
house," writes Mr. Morris, where, as the master
was absent, he had to sit down and chat with the
mistress. After a time a dog came into the room,


whining and looking very miserable. This was
soon accounted for by the mistress exclaiming,
' Oh, dear! Mr. -- is coming home tipsy ; and
you will see that the poor dog, who is so fond of
him at other times, will not go near him now.'
This was soon confirmed, for the master of the
house came into the room, and, after a few words,
began to coax his dog ; but the creature quite
refused to go near him. This, the mistress after-
wards told me, was invariably the case under
similar circumstances; the dog would always
shrink from his master's touch."
T. Brown, residing near Hawick, travels the
country as higgler, or pedlar, having an ass for
the partner of his journeys. Weakened by a
touch of paralysis, he is in the habit of steady-
ing himself, while on the road, by keeping hold
of the crupper of the saddle or of the tail of the
ass. During a recent winter which was more
than usually severe, while on a journey near
Rule Water, the old man and the ass were sud-
denly immersed in a wreath of snow, which had
filled up a hollow in the road. There they lay,
far from help, and ready to perish; till at last
the poor ass, after some severe struggles, extri-
cated itself and got upon safe ground. But his


master was still in the snow; so, after con.
sidering the matter for a while, the creature
returned, forced his way to his master, and
then placed himself in such a position as to
give the poor pedlar a firm grasp of his tail.
The perishing man eagerly availed himself of
this help, grasped his ass's tail, and was imme-
diately dragged out by the faithful beast till
they both reached a place of safety.
"An old mare belonging to a man in my
village" (says a writer in the Naturalist's
Magazine), which looked as if it had hardly
sense to do its work, had a foal last summer;
and, one day, the mother came galloping up the
village to its owner's, neighing and showing
great agitation. The man said, Something must
be the matter,' and he went out to her. She
at once trotted -off looking to see that he
followed her; and she led him to the mill-dam,
where he found her foal, who had slipped in,
and was in danger of being drowned."
Mr. Otway also gives the following remarkable
story :-
"At some flour-mills near Clonmel there
was a goose which by some accident was left
solitary, without mate or offspring. Soon after,


the miller's wife had put a number of duck's
eggs under a hen, and, as usual, the ducklings
when hatched ran eagerly to the water; and
the hen, also as usual, stood clucking in great
alarm on the pond-side. Just then up came
the goose, and cried out, in goose-language,
' Leave them to me; I'll take care of them.'
She swam up and down with them, and when
they were tired she brought them back to the
hen, their foster-mother. The next day down
ran the ducklings to the pond, and the hen after
them; and there was the goose, ready to take
charge of them. Now, whether the goose sug-
gested the thought or not, so it was, that when
the ducklings took the water, and the goose lay
close by to receive them, the hen, full of anxiety
for their safety, jumped off the bank on to the
goose's back, and there sat, the ducklings swim-
ming, and the goose and hen following them up
and down the pond. And this, once begun, was
continued for weeks, until the young ducks
began to be independent both of the goose and
of their anxious foster-mother."
In Mr. Forbes's "Oriental Memoirs" we
On a shooting party one of my friends


killed a female monkey, and carried it to his
tent, which was soon surrounded by forty or
fifty of the tribe, who made a great noise, and
advanced in a menacing manner. When he pre-
sented his fowling-piece they retreated; but one
stood his ground, chattering and menacing in a
furious manner. At length he came nearer to
the tent-door, and finding that his threatening
were of no avail, he began a lamentable moan-
ing, and by every expression of grief seemed to
beg for the body. It was given to him. He
took it up in his arms, eagerly pressed it to
him, and carried it off in a sort of triumph to
his companions."
A swallow's nest, built in a corner of a
window facing the north, and containing a brood
of young ones, was so much softened by the
beating of the rain upon it, that it finally gave
way, fell, and was broken in the fall, leaving
the young ones exposed to the weather. The
owner of the house, compassionating the young
creatures, ordered a covering of some sort to be
thrown over them. As the storm subsided,
many other swallows, interesting themselves in
the parents' trouble, gathered about the spot;
and when at last they saw the covering re-


I i:~I;i'iII


moved, and the little ones safe, they showed
every sign of joy. While the parents fed their
young, the other swallows set to work, each
one collecting clay and other materials and
helping in the work, till they had built over
the brood a sort of arched canopy, and so shel-
tered them from the weather. From the time
it took the whole flock to perform this, it was
clear that the young ones must have perished
of cold and hunger before the parents could
have completed a fifth part of the undertaking.


Dr. Stanley tells us that a gentleman, walk-
ing over his fields in Yorkshire, saw a small
hawk attempting to fly off with some prey it
had captured, but which proved too heavy for
it. It was pursued by a hare, which, when-
ever she came within reach, struck at it, and at
last succeeded in knocking it down, when it
relinquished its prey. This proved to be a
young leveret, and the hare was its -mother.
The little thing was wounded; but the mother's
care might revive it.
Mr. Wood tells of a pair of larks that had
built their nest in a grass field, where they
hatched a brood of young. Very soon after the
young birds were out of the eggs the owner of
the field was forced to set his mowers to work,
the state of the weather obliging him to cut
his grass sooner than usual. When the labourers
approached the nest the parent-birds took alarm,
and at last the mother bird laid herself flat on
the ground, with outspread wings and tail,
while the male bird took one of the young out
of the nest, and, by dint of pushing and pulling,
got it on to its mother's back. She then flew
away with it over the fields, and soon returned
for another. This time the father took his turn,



and carried one of the young ones, the mother
helping to get it on to his back; and so they
managed to remove the whole brood before the
mowers had reached their nest.
Lord Brougham relates the following story,


which, he says, was told him by the eye-witness
of the affair :-
A swallow at Paris had entangled its foot
in a noose of a cord attached to a fountain in
the College des Quatres Nations, and it soon
found that its struggles to get free only drew
the cord tighter, so as to make its escape more
and more impossible. It fluttered and struggled
till its strength was exhausted, and it could then
do nothing but utter cries of distress and despair.
These cries, however, brought together a large
number of its companions--indeed, it seemed as
if all the swallows of the Tuileries and Pont
Neuf were collected together at the spot. For
a time they seemed to consult as to what could
be done. At last a plan was decided upon, and
they all began a rapid and continuous flight,
swallow after swallow, every one darting its beak
at the string which kept the foot in bondage.
This assault went on, unceasingly, for about half
an hour, and then the string gave way, having
sustained a thousand pecks, and the prisoner
in a moment found himself free; a loud chirp-
ing and chattering followed of joy and congra-
tulation, and then the assemblage ended, and
each bird betook himself to his own affairs.



Mr. Brew, of Ennis, says :-
An old goose that had been sitting on her
eggs for a fortnight, in a farmer's kitchen, was
perceived on a sudden to be taken violently ill.
She soon after left the nest, and repaired to an
outhouse where there was a goose of the first
year, which she brought with her into the
kitchen. The young one immediately scrambled
into the old one's nest, sat, hatched, and brought
up the brood. The old goose, so soon as the
young one had taken her place, sat down by the
side of the nest, and shortly after died. As the
young goose had never been in the habit of
entering the kitchen before, I know no other
way of accounting for this fact but by suppos-
ing that the old bird had some way of commu-
nicating her wants, which the other was perfectly
able to understand."
Mr. Graves says, in his British Birds," that
he observed a pair of sparrows which had built
their nest in a wall close by his house. He
noticed that the old birds continued to bring
food to the nest some time after the young
brood had left it, and had the curiosity to place
a ladder against the wall and to look into the
nest, when, to his surprise, he found a full-


grown bird, which had got its leg entangled in
some thread which formed part of the nest in
such a manner as to prevent its getting out.
He observed that the parents continued sup-
plying it with food all the autumn and part of
the winter; but when the cold became severe
he thought it time to release it. It then flew
away with its parents,"

._- .o ,.I-, ',_ 1 -.



'PISCIPLINARIAN is a long word; but it
means simply a keeper of order. Men
found out long ago that there was no good to
be done without order. For this reason they
made laws, and appointed rulers and officers to
see that the laws were kept. But is it possible
that animals know anything of the value of
order ? Not much, perhaps. This is a matter
in which they are led rather by instinct than by
reason. If you watch a flock of sheep, you will
see that they generally feed with their heads all
pointing in one direction, and for the most part
the direction is against the wind. This is a habit
that sheep have inherited from their wild



ancestors. For when these were feeding, it was
necessary they should scent the first sign of
coming danger, and should all be on the alert
to meet it. Now this was best secured by
feeding in the order we have described. All
animals that live together in large herds, as
elephants and antelopes, have arrangements of
a similar kind, and some even set sentinels to
keep watch. So when they are on the march
they move in a particular order, the strongest in
the front and rear, the females and the young


in the middle. But order needs something more
than arrangement. It needs justice and fairness,
obedience and devotion. If in a ship's company
every one insists on having his own way, there
can be no order. Thus, there are moral qualities
needed for such order as the best men love.
Do animals know anything of this kind of order ?
The following anecdotes would seem to show
that they do. And, if so, it is probable that
reason, as well as instinct, has something to do
with it.
Mrs. Lee says: "On one occasion I saw a
cock pursue a hen round the poultry-yard, and
when he had caught her he took a worm from
her, and gave it to another hen, who stood by
waiting. I came, however, to the opinion that
the hen who was punished had stolen the worm
from the other, and that the cock was only
doing justice between them."
"A friend of mine," says V. D." in Land
and Water, "who would not have spared any
pains in teaching his sheepdogs their proper
lessons, had one dog who was in the habit of
doing his work in an unsatisfactory manner.
In a country full of hills and valleys, it was
often the duty of this dog to collect the flock


at the bottom and to drive them up the hill;
instead of which he would drive them half-way,
and then leave them to wander again. On the
opposite side of one of these hills lived a farmer
who had a dog of a more satisfactory kind,
both knowing its duty and performing it. On
some occasions it was observed that, when the
careless dog had failed in his task, the other
would pass over from its own land, take charge
of the flock, and drive them home. -But its
patience at last was exhausted; and one day,
when the flock had become dispersed, the
watchful creature first finished the work, drove
the flock home, and then fell upon the careless
dog, which it severely punished. After this it
refused to interfere further in the matter. It
seemed to say, You rascal! what right have
you to expect me to do your work ? "
Dr. Edmonstone tells us that in Northern
Scotland extraordinary meetings of crows are
occasionally seen to occur. They collect in great
numbers as if they had been summoned for the
occasion. A few of them sit with drooping
heads, and others sit like judges, while others
are exceedingly active and noisy. In the course
of an hour or two they disperse; but it is not


uncommon to find, when they are gone, that
one or two have been left dead on the place of
meeting. "Crows seem to come from all
quarters. When they have all assembled, a
general noise or conversation follows, and shortly
after the whole fall upon one or two of the
number, and put them to death. When this
has been done they quietly disperse."
These observations are confirmed by the testi-
mony of Major Norgate, who had long been an
observer. He says-
"The crows hold meetings for some reason or
other. Two or three will begin cawing, and in
a minute or two forty or fifty others will come
flying to the place by twos and threes, from
every quarter. They then form a kind of ring
round one crow, who appears to have been an
offender against some of their rules, and they
remain still for some minutes, the culprit never
attempting to escape. Then, all of a sudden,
five or six of them will fall upon the prisoner,
pecking him, and striking him with their wings.
On one occasion I saw the crow left dead on
the spot, and on another its wing was broken.
Of course, the reason why these crows are
punished can only be a matter of surmise."


Most persons have heard of these celebrated
rooks' (or crows') parliaments, though few have
seen them. Mr. Wood gives an account written
by a lady who was at the time in bad health,
and was reclining among some shawls behind a
window-curtain, where even the sharp-eyed
rooks did not detect her.
The account much resembles those that have
already been given by other writers, but intro-
duces one additional circumstance. The rooks
(called crows by the spectator) assembled in a
circle, and in the middle was one bird looking
very downcast and wretched. Two more rooks
took their places at its side, and then a vast
amount of chattering went on. At last the two
birds which seemed to act as accusers pecked
the central bird and flew off. All the others
then set on the condemned bird, pecked it nearly
to pieces, and went away, leaving the mangled
body on the ground. The lady who witnessed
this remarkable scene was much struck by the
variety of tones employed by the birds, and
their great expressiveness.
We read in an Indian paper of a Madrassee
who had a monkey which he was very fond
of. The man had occasion to go on a journey,


and took with him money and jewels, and his
chum, the monkey. Some rogues determined
to rob him of everything he had; accordingly
they lay in wait for him and murdered him.
Having secured the money and jewels, they


threw the murdered man into a dry well, and
having covered the body with twigs and dry
leaves, they went home. The monkey, who was
on the top of a tree, saw the whole proceedings,
and when the murderers departed he came
down, and made his way to the tahsildar's


house, and by his sighs and moans attracted the
attention of that functionary. Inviting the tah-
sildar by dumb signs to follow him, the monkey
went to the well and pointed downwards. The
tahsildar thereupon got men to go down, and,
of course, the body was discovered. The mon-
key then led the men to the place where the
jewels and money were buried. He next took
them to the bazaars, and as he caught sight of
one of the murderers he ran after him, bit him
in the leg, and would not let him go till he was
secured. In this way all the murderers were
caught. The men, it is said, have confessed
their crime, and they now stand committed
for trial before the Tellicherry Court at the
ensuing session. That monkey ought to be
made an inspector of police.
The Rev. Edward Spooner tells a story of a
large grey cockatoo belonging to a friend.
" Poll" is a most communicative bird, and a
great friend of the family. On a fine day she
generally passes several hours in the back-yard,
outside her cage; for, though unchained, she
rarely leaves the house. She is on good terms
with all the yard-dogs, the house cats, and the
poultry; but if a strange dog or cat enters the



yard she flies at him at once with a tremendous
scream. At night she sleeps in the kitchen,
where her usual companions are three cats.
One morning the kitchen-maid went down-
stairs early, and before she entered the kitchen
she heard Poll talking loudly. On opening
the door she found Poll" seated on the
dresser with a large piece of bread in her claw.
Round her, on the floor, were the three cats,


and a kitten which had lately taken refuge
there. With strict impartiality, the bird was
breaking off pieces of the bread, and dropping
them to her pensioners in turn, who received
the dole without squabbling, and with gratitude,
listening all the time to all the words in her
vocabulary, which were poured forth in rapid
Captain Brown tells us the following story of
a tame bird of this sort who had taken up
his abode for some years in the yard of the
College at Tiiubingen. On a neighboring house
was a nest where the storks that resorted to the
place used to hatch their eggs. One day in
autumn a young collegian fired a shot at this
nest. Probably he wounded the stork who was
then sitting. Still, at the usual time, all the
storks took their departure. Next spring a
stork appeared on the roof of the College, and
by clapping his wings seemed to invite the tame
stork to come to him. But the latter was
unable, as his wings were clipped. After a time
the wild stork came down into the yard, and
the tame one went to meet him, clapping his
wings in welcome; but the wild one attacked
him with the greatest fury. The people inter.


feared and drove him away; but all that summer
he came down into the yard, again and again,
to attack the other. The next spring, instead
of one stork, four of them came down into the
yard and attacked the tame one ; seeing his
danger, the cocks, and ganders, and turkeys
rushed to help him, and managed to drive
the assailants away. Greater watch was now
kept; but when the third spring came, twenty
storks or more descended into the yard at
once, and killed the poor bird before any help
could come to him. On both sides in this
contest the idea was Union is Strength."
An example of a somewhat similar mode
of action was related by the Rev. F. 0. Morris,
in the Naturalist :-
"In the summer of 1849 a pair of martins
built their nests in an archway at the stables
of Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire, and as soon as
they had completed building it, and had lined
it, a sparrow took possession of it, and although
the martins tried several times to eject him,
they were unsuccessful. But they, nothing
daunted, flew off to scour the neighbourhood
for help, and returned in a short space of time
with thirty or forty martins, who dragged the


unfortunate culprit out, took him to the grass
plot opposite, called The Circle," and then fell
on him and killed him."
"A gentleman," says Mr. Youatt, "near
Laggan, in Scotland, had a bull which was graz-
ing with the cows in the open meadows. As
fences were little known in those parts, a boy
was kept to watch lest the cattle should trespass
on the neighboring fields and injure the corn.
The boy was idle and drowsy, and often fell
asleep; then the cattle trespassed, and he was
punished. In his turn he revenged himself
on the cows, whom he punished for their trans-
gressions with an unsparing hand. The bull
seemed to observe this, and to understand it.
He began to keep the cows within bounds, and
to punish them if they strayed over the boun-
dary.. He himself never entered the forbidden
ground, and if he saw them approach it he
placed himself in the way in a threatening
attitude. At last his honesty and watchful-
ness became so obvious, that the boy was with-
drawn and set about other work, and the duty
was left wholly to the bull, who kept the rest
of the cattle in excellent order."
A gentleman of property, residing in a man-


sion near Berlin, found that a pair of storks had
built a nest on one of the large chimneys of his
house. Curiosity led him to mount a ladder
and to inspect it; and when he found in the
nest one egg, in size much like that of the goose,
the idea struck him that he would exchange it
for one belonging to that bird. This was done,
and the birds seemed to take no notice of the
exchange. But when the egg, in due time, was
hatched, the male stork soon perceived the
difference, and flew round and round the nest,
making loud cries, and at last disappeared, and
did not return until two or three days had
elapsed. Then, however, about the fourth
morning, the people of the house were disturbed
by loud cries ; and, looking out, they perceived a
large assemblage of storks, which they estimated
at "five hundred." These assembled in one
body, and an old bird seemed to be addressing
the rest with great earnestness. When he had
finished another followed, and then a third;
and, at last, the whole body simultaneously rose
in the air, uttering dismal cries. The female all
this while had been sitting on the nest, shelter-
ing the young bird and showing signs of alarm.
All at once the whole body of storks poured


I q

down upon her, knocked her out of the nest,
and soon left her dead, destroying also the poor
gosling, and leaving not a vestige of the nest
itself. They then separated and soon disap-

A writer in the Encyclopedia Britannica "
tells of a pair of crows that made their nest on a
tree, of which there were several round the


garden. One result was a constant warfare
between them and a cat. One morning the
battle raged fiercely, till at last the cat gave
way, and took shelter under a hedge to look out
for some opportunity. The crows went on for
some time with threatening noises; but they
soon saw that noises went for nothing. Then,
after consideration, one of the crows took up a
stone from the middle of the garden, and waited
with it in her claws till the enemy should appear.
When the cat began to creep along the hedge
the crow accompanied her; and when at last
puss ventured forth, the crow, hovering over her
in the air, let fall on her the stone which she
held in her claws.
Arago, in his Account of Ampere," tells
an anecdote of a gentleman, driven by a storm
into a village public-house, who had a fowl
roasted for dinner. Old fashions then prevailed
in the south of France, and turnspits were still
employed in place of the modern jack. Neither
caresses, threats, nor blows could make the
dog act his part. The gentleman interposed.
"Poor dog, indeed !" said the landlord sharply;
"he deserves none of your pity, for these scenes
take place every day. Do you know why this

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