Citation
Hand-and-eye training

Material Information

Title:
Hand-and-eye training being a development of the kindergarten for junior and senior scholars
Creator:
Ricks, George
Cassell & Company
Belle Sauvage Works ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
London ;
Paris ;
New York ;
Publisher:
Cassell & Company
Manufacturer:
La Belle Sauvage
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
67, [7] p., [16] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Manual training -- Methods and manuals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Drawing -- Handbooks, manuals, etc -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Modeling -- Handbooks, manuals, etc -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Handicraft -- Handbooks, manuals, etc -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1889 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1889
Genre:
Publishers' advertisements ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
France -- Paris
United States -- New York -- New York
Australia -- Melbourne
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Publisher's advertisements follow text and on endpapers.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
Statement of Responsibility:
by George Ricks ; with sixteen full-page plates in colors and numerous diagrams.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026650306 ( ALEPH )
ALG4869 ( NOTIS )
70870164 ( OCLC )

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GEO. M. HAMMER & CO, |
SGHOOL AND GOLLEGE MURNISHERS,






MANUFACTURERS

OF

Every Description of Fittings

FOR

LADIES’ AND KINDERGARTEN
SCHOOLS, COLLEGES, &c.

ESTIMATES

FOR

COMPLETELY RURNISHING

ON APPLICATION..



SEND FOR CATALOGUE.



Slate in Stand. “Osborne” Convertible Desk. Master’s Desk.

GALLERIES, CUPBOARDS, SEATS, EASELS, DRAWING MODELS, &c. &c.

Complete Itlustrated Catalogue of School or Church Furniture on Application.

GEO. M. HAMMER & CoO., [2

370;> SE RAN Dy. EON DOW). W.GC.
x I
The Baldwin Library | _
University | |



COX & CO.

KINDERGARTEN MATERIALS,

Mat Weaving, Paper Folding, Basket Work, &c.,

99 & 101, NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON.



The following Quotations are from owr Special Illustrated Catalogue to School Bourds, Managers, and Teachers.

GROUP I.—SOLIDS.

FIRST GIFT

Aim.—To Train the eye in Colours, and to
Exercise the Limbs in various ways.

C 1.—Ballbox, containing 6 Balls, viz.
blue, yellow (primary), orange, violet,
green (secondary), with er ‘ossheam,
complete per set 1

C 2.—Balls only, the six’ Kindergarten
Colours per doz. 11

C 2a. Strings in six Colours to match balls,
per doz, sets 0
C3. Ballbox, Teachers’ size, 8 inch scale,

each 6
C 3A Wood Balls, ie six Colours, % inch

per gross 8



diameter : oe

SECOND GIFT.

Aim.—To teach Form, and to direct the attention
of the child to the Similarity and Dissimilarity
existing between different Objects. This is done
by pointing out, explaining, and counting the sides,
corners, and edges of the cube: by showing that
the sphere, the cylinder, and the éube differ from
each other in their sevéral properties because of
the difference in shape; and that the apparent
forms of both the cube and the cylinder vary ac-
cording to the point from which they are viewed.

C4. Box containing two Cubes, a Cylinder, s. d.
and Ball in wood.. per box 0 9







rred, 8. d.

0
0

C6. Nitto, Teachers’ size, s-inch scale, each 6 0
THIRD GIFT.
Box containing a Cube divided into eight Cubes s. d.
oflinch - per dozen boxes 3 9
Ditto, Teachers? size, 2-inch scale.. - each 1 6
Box containing 144 I-inch Cubes .. 40
Loose 1-inch Cubes (reduced price per case of io) 20
Diagrams for Third Gift .. oe per packet 0 5
FOURTH GIFT.
C12. Box containing a Cube, dividedinto s. d.
eight oblong planes, 2 inches long,
1 inch broad, and 3 inch thick,
fe _per dozen boxes 3 9
C13. Ditto, Teachers’ size, 2-inch scale,
each 2 0
C 14. Box containing 144 Oblongs » 40
C15. Loose Oblongs (reduced price per
case of 100) . 20
C 16. Diagrams for Fourth’ Gift, per packet 08



THIRD AND FOURTH GIFTS COMBINED.

Containing the Third and Fourth Gifts combined in one box, as devised
by MARIE MULLER, Teacher at the Lyceum and the Seminary tor Kinder-

garten Teachers,
Tifth Gift.

at Leipsic. Recommended before passing over to the

8. a.
C17. Boxes containing the above Gifts “ a perdozen 7 6
© 18, Ditto, Teachers’ size we - oe « each 4 0
Cc 19. Diagré ‘ams for Combined Gift +. aa per packet 010

FIFTH GIFT (Continuation of Third Gift).
Box containing a Cube divided into twenty-one inch cubes,
six half-cubes, ‘and twelve quarter-cubes per dozen 7
Ditto, Teachers’ size, 2-inch scale a 36 each 5
Loose half and quarter- qubes an, ee om per 100
Diagrams .. oO a a per Packet

SIXTH GIFT (Continuation of Fourth Gift).

C 24. Box containing a Cube divided into eighteen whole and nine
small oblong blocks aia oh es per dozen -7
C 25. Ditto, Teachers’ size, 2-inch seale . . + @ach 5
C2 o. 2
0

C 20.

C21.
C 22,
C 23,



; Loose Oblongs .. in + Per 100
C27. Diagrams per packet
The Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth’ Gifts servi efor “Building purposes.

KINDERGARTEN NOVELTIES !

MUSICAL BELLS. With light wood handle and two Brass Bells,
now so much. in use for the “ Musical Drill” in girls’, boys’, as
well asinfants’ classes .. per dozen

“INPANTS’ DRILL.” With Music and 66 Explanatory Ilustr: ations

DUMB BELLS. White wood, with rounded ends per dozen

Hard wood, Wwith rounded ends, 53 inches ri

Hard wood, with rounded ends, 7 ‘inches

THE aa M ANUAL OF DRILL,” containing Dumb Bell and other

Exercises
FLAG DRILL. Consisting of 10-inch Staff, ‘with a v red and white-
pennon or flag at either end per dozen
Popular Melodies and Words for ditto” » each
-RING DRILL. Flexible Cane Rings. Red and plueâ„¢ per dozen
Polished Wood Rings
POLE AND WAND DRILL. Eolished Wands, Per doz., bs. ,63., &
MUSICAL BAR BEL Ls a per doz., 2s. 9d., 3s. 3d., &
INDIAN CLUBS : ss per pair, 1s. ‘od. 2s., &



2 ”

WWM OAHOM HH RHEE &



Chequered Slates, framed 9 by 6 in., ruled one side in red chequers,
per dozen
white, ruled on both Maes, per
: doz. sheets 3
STENCIL DRAWINGS, CARTRIDGE PAPER,
PENCILS, CRAYONS, &c. &c. ;

COX & CO., New Oxford. Street, London.

i

Chequered Cardboard, 18 by 29 in.,
Drawine COPIES,

=

WAWAD

AoOOCOuUR ©

eo



GROUP IL—PLANES (Surfaces).
: GIFTS VII. to XI.

Planes of Hardwood, polished, in Two Colours,
Planes of Cardboard for Tablet Laying.
Planes of Paper for Folding and Cutting.

(Materials required—white and coloured paper, pencil, and scissors.)

B-inch. 4-inch. Oblongs.
C 43. White papers cut an exact square per 1,000.. 28. 0d. 2s. 10d. -
C 44. Papers, one side coloured and glazed, cut
an exact square and oblongs per 1,000.. 25.9d. 3s.9d. 4s. 0d.
“C45. Papers coluured both sides, cut an exact
square, and oblongs +; Der1,000.. 28.3d. 3s.dd. 3s. 6d.
C46. Paper for Folding and Cutting, in sheets, ten colours, glazed, s. d.
per quire 1 8
C 47. Box containing 3- and 4-inch squares of paper, oblongs,
coloured designs, instructions, and folding knife -- each 2 3
C 48. Designs and instructions for paper folding per pack 010
C 49. Folding Knives, black gutta percha .. .. per doz, 2 6
C50. Folding Knives, of wood . ii 16
C51. Scissors with rounded points for paper “cutting a 7 0

Weaving Mats of Glazed Coloured Paper and
Cardboard,
AU these Mats are (unless otherwise stated) cut in three widths, viz. :—

No.1, 2in.; No. 2,3/16 in; No.3,4in. Please give No. of width required
when ordering.

C52. Materials for 25 Square Mats, 4in., assorted colours, or blue s. d.
and white, or black and yellow, or redand green, per doz. packs 7 6
C 53. Ditto, 5 inch ditto, ditto ea oe ” 8 6
C 54, Ditto, 6inch ditto; ditto oa aa ee i -- 10 6
C 55. Ditto, 7 7 inch ditto, ditto - ia . 138 6
C 56. Ditto, 8 inch, assorted colours only, ditto - 16 0

C 574, Box containing materials for Oblong Mats,” steel ‘weaving
needle,and diagrams . - each 1 0

© 58. Materials for 10 Oblong Mats, 3 by a in., assorted colours,
per doz. packs 4 6

C59. Materials for 10 Oblong Mats, 54 by 7} in., blue and white, or
black and yellow, or grecn and red - per doz. packs 5 0





C 60. Materials for 25 Oblong Mats, 5$ by 74 in., assorted colours,
blue and white, or black and yellow, or green and red, per


































doz. packs 8 6
C6l. Materials for 25 Oblong Mats, 5} by 74 in., assorted colours.
cut one broad and one narrow .. - per doz. packs 90
C 62. Materials for 100 Oblong Mats, 54 by Thi in, assorted colours,
per packet 2 0
C 63. Materials for 10 Square Mats, 5 in., nee ang gold, or black and
gold, or blue and silver.. oe ber doz. packs 5 6
C G4. Ditto, 6 in., ditto sa - . et . 70
C 66, Ditto, 7 7 in., ditto 8 0
C 66. Materials for 10 Oblong Mats, “5h in. Th in., Dlack and gold,
or red and gold, or blue and silver .. per doz. packs 46
C 68. Weay ‘ing Needles of steel, best English rivetted, vind soldered.
Pinch the end.only, and the needle opens to receive the strip
per doz. 2 0
C 62a. Weaving Needles, German make, ditto ditto e 10
C 69. ” fy wood,7in.long-- a 3 0 6
Ci. A dw in. long .- on ian 010
CO 72, Coloured Diagrams for Weaving ae a -- per pack 0 5
C 501, Materials for 25
20 INCHES. Blue Card Mats for
= ESS = beginners, width 1
inch per pack 1 0
C 502, Materials for White
h Card Strips for
g above mats, width
Cok =] linch .. perpack 011
qh o> © 505, Materials for 25
4 Blue Gard Mats,
e width % inch, per
a pack 0 7
C 506. Materials forW lite
Strips for bove
Mats, width $ inch,
per pack 05
C 507. Materials for 1
Card Mats and
= ees : Strips, 74 by 4 in.,
af SBE ORS: assorted colours,
ce Gia width, 1, 2, & 3in.,
Ss 7) per pack 1 0
ES Pl os 5 C 508. Materials for 10 Leather-paper Mats,
wee os - oblong, assorted colours .. perpack 1 0
Ser Sen C 509. Materials for 12 Teachers’ Mats, extra
Baegisigs fine cutting .. per pack 0 3h
Ss mo C511, Materials for 5 Mats (oy: al) of glazed .
‘ Se - 3 cardboard, seonoped edges, assorted
Seg SSP colours per pack 1 3
Es & = C512, Materials for 5 Mats (round) 8 in. dia-
=aé 2 = meter, of cardboard, scolloped edges,
= -nee assorted colours + perpack 1 3
HeOS C 513, Materials for 5 Mats (round), 6 in. dia-
ESena meter, of cardboard, scolloped edges,
S83 at assorted colours 5, per pack 10
a Sa C 514. Materials for 5 Mats (oval, of black
=5 oe leather paper, with assorted coloured
=a Ag strips per pack 1 6
x e C515. Materials for 5
2 Mats, black leather
paper, 4 scolloped

edges, round, 6in.,
strips sorted colours

et

per pack 1 0
C516. Materials for 5
Mats, black leather paper, scolloped edges, Found, diameter
8in., ‘strips, assorted colours ‘ per pack 1 6

COX & CO., New Oxford Street, London.

See Next Page for Card Pricking and Sewing; ‘and first Advertisement at end of Book for Sewing and Knitting Materials.
—— —



y a 5 KINDERGARTEN MATERIALS,
G OX H Mat Weaving, Cork Work, Pea Work, &c.

These Quotations are from owr Illustrated and Special Catalogue for School Bourds, Managers, and Teachers.





PICTURES and OUTLINED CARDS for PRICKING and SEWING.

This occupation combines pricking and embroidering. For pricking, pictures or outline drawings are used, the outline of whichis pricked with a
piercer and then worked out with coloured cotton, wool, or silk.

















5 6
8 o
a a
B B
fo} 3
2, a
8 as

®o
8 g
m4
8 3
a Q
eI 3
© o
COX & C285 EMPRESS SERIES OF PRICKING CARDS.
C 249, A new and well-designed set of cards for pricking and sewing, on tough stout cards, 10 in packet, size of cards 6 by 5 inches. Packet No.1
contains easy right-line figures ; No. 2, right-lines (advanced) ; No. 3, easy Common objects; No. 4, common objects (advanced); No.5, 8s. d.
animals; No. 6, assorted. Best ‘and most suitable set published ¥e af +e = + per sixpenny Packets 0 4%
Or the complete set of 60 cards, with special wools. and needles, ‘post free 38 6
C251. A-selection of cards from series C 249 is supplied in quantities of one design, as shown above; either Nos. 1 6, 12; “ed, 25, 32, 33, 4; 42, 43,
47, 58 per 100 8 9
C 28. Comprises a box containing a seb of 10 ‘Common objects traced on felt squares, size 7 by 1, with special Kindergarten needles, and
coloured cottons . At perbox 1 38
C 246, Comprises a box of 7 mats, traced on perforated felt, 7 by 7, 7, with special Kindergarten needles and colour ed threads Si perbox 1 6
C 247, Box of 12 familiar objects ‘pricked on felt, with. pinked edges, special needles and coloured thread .. o. a se perhox 2 6
G 2474. This is a box containing 12 sorted texts pricked on felt, 7 by 5, special needles and fioss thread a ae perbox 2 6
PRICKING.
C 264. Pictures for perforating and sewing :—1 to 12, sorted subjects; 18 and 14, animals ; 15 and 16, birds; 17 and 18, flowers; 19, fishes; 20 to
22, Old Testament texts ; 2B und 24, New Testament texts; 25, Christmas and birthday cards o . per doz. packs 7 0
C 265, Packages containing cards’ of one design for pricking A, Bird; B, Boat: C, Boy; D, Camel; E Cat; 7 Cow; 6. Cup and Saucer ; H,
Dog ; J, Donkey ; i K, Elephant; L, F Towers : M, Girl; N, Hare; 0; orse; P, House ; 0, Pig; R, Rat; 8, Sheep; 3 T, Squirrel . . per 100 5
C 277. Box containing a set of "designs, pad, pricking needle, and a supply of coloured wool and needles .. - each 2 6
C 278. Box containing 5 coloured car ‘ds, 4 sheet ¢. equered cardboard, 3 ready-pricked cards, pricking needle, ‘embroidery needles, felt pad,
pencil, 4 packets wool, diagrams oe . ee per hox 2 9
Packet containing 8 assorted shapes of tinted mats, baskets, frames, ete., for pricking and sewing a on o .» per-doz. packs 13°«O0
Packet « containing 1 12 assorted shapes of tinted mats, baskets, frames, ete. Fs ae oe ee a a ” 26 0
acket containing 5 n lebooks outlined, on tinted card, for pricking and sewing .. a ah on ee we a a FO
Packet containing 5 baskets, octagonal, on tinted card, for pricking and sewing o o- on e aie a i 9 0
Packe containing 5 5 baskets, octagonal, on tinted card, for pricking and sewing, larger ae ate 2 ix . BB 6
Packet containing 5 mats, octagonal, on tinted card, for pricking and _sewing.. ae ” + 10 0
Packet containing ba: ts, frames, mats, etc., of tinted card, outlined, for p king and sewing es 48 & 6
. Packet containing baskets, frames, mats, etc., of tinted car d, outlined, for pricking and sewing, large packet as 16 0
Packet containing 12 Car ds of Multiplication Tables oe oe per pack 0 9
Coloured Pictures, for perforating and embroidery, 12 sheets i in packet Part Te and It., size ‘4 by 6 in. : Coloured Pictures, for perforating and embr: oidery, 12sheets in packet. Part IIL, on stout paper, size, 6 py 7 hin... ae 8 0
. A B OC, for pricking and sewing. Packet1l,AtoM; Packet2,NtoZ .. ae oe tee “ o oe ae per packet 0 8

MODELLING IN CLAY.
C 292. Modelling Boards, size 6 by 8 in., of white wood ..



























a os oe per doz. -3 6
C 294. Plastiline. A new material for modelling, which peri manently pr C8! ery es its pristine “moisture Br + + per}lb. 0 7
C 295, Modelling Clay, prepared ready for use, box containing about 6 Lh. oe 6 pe oy o. si perbox 1 10
C 206, Modelling Knives, best superior ake, of boxwood, aesonled shapes m7 os a, os ae 2 2 a per doz. 38 6
C 298, Designs for Clay Modelling = Re ars a3 aa um re ee om per pack 0 10
Terra-cotta Models of various shapes to order.
INFANTS’ KINDERGARTEN. Sf DOMESTIC KINDERGARTEN
Unbleached Knitting Cotton, coarse, medium, and fine .. perlIb, 1 0 3 OR
The “RAINBOW ” Knitting Cotton for strip knitting and practice, HOUSEHOLD O BJ ECT LESSONS.
in 8colours. In red, blue, yellow, pink, violet, green, orange, LS Fo FIRS
brown ‘ a perlhb. 1 6 TOY MODE R T STEP.
The “BEAD COUNTER.” ‘An ingenious apparatus of great value
for colour lessons, and adapted also for counting and arith- ; eee eed oles wastes Bedding for the above set each Bi
: 2 ea
THE LIG ss eS me per doz, 18.6d.& 2 0 trays,serviettes, knives, forks Two Chairs for Bed-making, per
MODELS FOR OBJECT LESSONS. and spoons, heing a complete pair 1/0
A: Model ot uBedstend; s# with mattress, pillows, and complete set oe iid Pinner an crus id a Ortho. Gompiete Sat, saben pa oe
: Ix GRE. tray, &c. . +. each 6/6} and including Manual and | a
A Model of a Kitchen with utensils; also a Butcher's Shop a at 70 o
ee Cooking Stove, with A letings and spirit lamp .. i 8 6 Table-board .. op Bho i ree Stock-keeping Box .. + 16/0
a Hite Boat: nth as es + » 14 TOY MODELS FOR SECOND STEP,
a Pea Set, china .. ae a4 a me cents : ; Washing Tray + '.. each 1/0; Flat Ivon Stand and Holder, set 0/6
ar Set of Scales, with weights ae 7 AY ae 3 9 Wringers ae 6 +» 55 0/9} Ironing Board and Cloth » 1/0
2 ’ Noah's Ark (100 pieces) os = oe aes 5 0 Soap Dish a ae eve ge: O/. | Clothes Horse or ae seach 0/9
es Set of Dairy Utensilsin wood (. 1) 1) as.6a’& 6 6 SS eet ait) meee 8 Bae of Glorhes +3 * ae
Models of any description obtained to order, Stands and Clamps for Posis, ' | Sweeping Brush noon AYO
te CPE ee Bae per pair 2/0) Dust Pan and Br Da 3. 1/0
Animals of Papier Maché, made especially for Object Lessons in Ele- Bag of Pegs .. .. each 0/2] Pails a aa. ia o/s
mentary Schools, scientifically accurate in every respect. The size of Scrubbing Brueh and House Flannel, 6d.
cach specimen is About one sey ent of avant Ble theight of elephant 16 Or the Complete Set, packed in and including a Stock keeping Box .. 14/6
inches), therefore the right proportion is taught at the same time,
Antelope .. 48 | Crocodile «- $8 | Horse (Arab) 3/8| Reindeer TOY MODELS FOR THIRD STEP.
Baboon Dog... Horse (Cart).. 3/8 | Seal Pastry Board.. a +. each OG Knife, Fork and Spoon -- set 1/0
Bear.. Dolphin 8 Kangaroo .. 2/6] Sheep Roving bau . se te oy 0/2 | Tart Ban - +. each 0/2
Beaver Donkey “(6 | Bion es +. 3/6 Sloth MOUNDS es ac ee oe an it 9 pare Cutter .. . ss on 0/6
ay romedary Bf- urang- Stag Pie Dis ‘ If 0. wii 36 oe ey) 2/0
Bull Elephant 24/6 Outang f° Tieor E. Pudding Basin and Clown: . a 0/3 | Doll's Clothes.. ais « Bet 2/6
Carp Fox 1/9 | Ostrich Turtle.. Mixing Bowl . 0/6! Bassinette .. - each 2/6
ab tout 3/- | Panther Wolf .. r the Complete Set, packed in and includ ing a Stock-kee: bing Box .. 13/6
ee Bub yr | Be Or the C léte Set; packed i d includi a Stock-keep
condo are .. oe Ve re
Cow Hen .. oI / THE FIRST MANUAL, with music and Directions for Drill, &c. .. 1/0
*Gonplors Set, each in separate box, £6 10s. THE SONGS, on cars: : wes tee ne per 100 4,0
pe ee ” ” on pay oo se o . ” 2/0
cox & CO., NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON. COX & CO., NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON.



“ Carriage Free,” London parcels, 10s, and upwards; country parcels, 40s, and upwards; foreign orders, free to Docks. °
IIL



HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING,



A. N. MYERS & GO.,

15, BERNERS STREET, OXFORD STREET, LONDON, W.,

PUBLISHERS OF

Prize MEDAL GAMES AND GAMUSEMENTS,

STANDARD KINDERGARTEN PUBLICATIONS AND MATERIALS.



THE FOLLOWING ARE A FEW ITEMS FROM CATALOGUE :—
Kindergarten Practice: Part I. Froebel’s First Six Gifts. The Text translated and

abridged from Koehler’s “ Praxis des Kindergartens” by MARY UNS Feap. Ato. with 9 Eiates of Tiustrabous Published
under the sanction of the Froebel Society. Third Edition id

Kindergarten Practice: Part II. Froebel’s Plane Surfaces. Ditto, Git VIL., Tablet-
Laying; VIII., Paper Folding; IX., Paper Cutting ; X., Paper Plaiting. With 10 Plates of Illustrations. Second Edition.

A Practical Guide to the English Kindergarten. By Jouan and Burra Ronez. Sixteenth

Edition. Crown 4to, cloth. With 72 Full-page Lithographic Plates containing numerous Diagrams. Revised by E. HEERWART..

The Kindergarten Explained. By Erurt Riviny. Second Edition. Post 8vo ‘
Kindergarten Toys, and How to Use Them. A Practical Explanation of the First Six Gifts

of Froebel’s Kindergarten. By HninricH HOFFMANN, pupil of Froebel. Sixth Edition. Post 8vo.

The Kindergarten Guide. By Manta Kravs-Borrre and Joun Kraus. Foap. Ato, cloth, A most
comprehensive Work.
Nos. 1 and 2.—Gifts I. to VI., 144 pages, 547 Illustrations .. ss - a a
No. 3.—Tablet-Laying. 94 pages, 558 Illustrations. an. ap ee . ate es.
No. 4._The Connected Slat (or Jointed Lath), Slat- interlacing (or Stick-Plaiting), sick-Laying. 124 Dages, 309 Illustrations
No. 5.—Ring-Laying, Thread-Laying, Points. 82 pages, 468 Illustrations... ne se ae
- No. 6. Perforating and Sewing. 77 pages, 201 Ulustracions

No.7.—Drawing and Painting. 97 pages, 351 Illustrations, and 12'Plates ‘containing 83 Coloured Designs

Hasy Course of Drawing. By E. Hzerrwarr. An Introduction to Froebel’s System of Drawing.
For use in the Kindergar ten, in Infant P Schools, and at Home; adn ancing very, gradually from short straight lines to objects and



geometrical patterns . oy each Part
Part I.—Vertical and ‘Horizontal tines; st Designs. Part IV. —Rorders and ‘Letters, Fir st Series; 93 Designs.
Part _TI.—Oblique and Curyed Lines ; 154° Designs. 2 Part V.—Borders and Letters, Second Seri ies; 90 Designs.
Part III —Objects ; 236 Designs. Part VI.—Symmetrical Forms; 3 257 Designs.

Painting for Children. Arranged according to Froebel’s System, for use at Home or in the Kinder-

gar ten. Specially designed to teach how to mix colours and how to lay-them on, By BE. Hrperwarr and H. Ripuey (Author of
* Drawing from Objects,” &c.)—

KEY BOOK for the Teacher, Containing 12 Plates of Coloured Designs, with Explanations and Directions. Demy 4to ite

EXERCISE BOOK for use with the above. Uniform in size and ruling, new edition, rough paper specially suited for colouring

The Kindergarten Artist for Drawae and Colouring: With Gromezrrican Desiens executed on
Chequered Paper .. fc Two Parts, each

Exercises in Colouring. A Sequel to the above, consisting of ‘Coloured Designs and their Uncoloured

Counterparts, the latter to be painted in imitation of the tormer Ase SEETCEES, FI@ukes, ANIMALS, BIRDS, BUTTERFLIES,
FLOWERS, FRUIT, MILITARY ; a variety of Books of each subject % per Book

KINDERGARTEN MATERIALS, arranged according to the Best Authorities, in the

most accurate and Systematic ‘Style. See Sprcran List.
Useful Plants. First Series, consisting of Twelve Plates, 19 hy 16 in., of acourabely Coloured Mingranis

ife size), representing 31 Plants used for Food, &c., with Treatise

Useful Plants. Second Series, uniform with the last, representing 33 Plants, used fox Dyes, Manufactures,
&c. (mostly life size) 4 3
Each Series of the above " Usetul Plants 4 may be had mounted on | Milboard and Varnished ee
Ditto ditto ditto ditto in stout Portfolio

Natural History Illustrations. A Series of Five Plates, accurately designed and Coloured, and
systematically arranged. Mounted on cloth, with rollers, and varnished. Each of these Plates 1s accompanied by a Pamphiet
containing a classified and descriptive Catalogue of the numerous specimens illustrated ae +.» each Plate, with Pamphlet

1—MAMMALS. 48 by 26 inches ; 135 Specimens. | 4,—INVERTEBRATES—Molluscs, Insects, Spiders, Worms,
2.—Binps. 48 by 26 inches 3 143 Specimens. Star-fishes, Sea-urchins, d&c. 48 by 26 inches;
38,—-REPTILES and FISHES. 48 by 26 inches ; 96 Specimens. | 169 Specimens. 7
5.—MEDICINAL and Poisonous PLANTS. 38 by 33 inches; 104 Specimens.

Washable Letters for Infant Teaching. The Letters and Numbers are of a very distinct pattern,
and large in size, printed on Tablets of smooth hardwood 3 inches long, coated with a special preparation which renders them
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Box, the inside of lid. serving as a Spelling Framé. ‘These Letters are: pr menecaly Pinel UestDIe and are vastly Drekerable-t to
those hitherto used, printed on paper, and stuck on soft wood

Educational Diagrams, Globes, and other Illustrations. ‘See Caanocur.
Davidson’s Landscape Drawing Models. A Set of Models of Familiar Objects arranged by

ELLIs A. DAVIDSON, Lecturer at the City of London Middle-Class Schools. The Models comprise a Bridge, Gate, Cottage, Fence,
Garden Roller, Pair of Steps, Ladder, Houses Doors and Blocks: OF Wood Painted white, aftording good peastice in the rules eS
Perspective Drawing

Slate Drawing School. A vanspareiit ‘Slate, 9 by 7 atcha mahogany frame, with a supply of practical

Designs in white lines on black ground, and a Pencil. Complete in neat Box



A. N. MYERS & CO., 15, Berners Street, Oxford Street, London, W.,

Oh
BP

ocooo0o
RCE COCO CIES

oo
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The ORIGINAL INTRODUOCERS of the Kindergarten Materials and Occupations into England.

Purchasers should insist on having the gongs of A. N. Myrrs & Co., which are supplied through all Stationers,

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FORWARDED ON APPLICATION.
v

Se



A. N. MYERS & GCO.,

15, BERNERS STREET, OXFORD STREET, LONDON, W.,

PUBLISHERS OF

PRIZE (MEDAL GAMES AND GMUSEMENTS,

STANDARD KINDERGARTEN PUBLICATIONS AND MATERIALS.

THE FOLLOWING ARE A FEW ITEMS FROM CATALOGUE :—

Little Artist’s Drawing Box. Containing a Transparent Slate in mahogany frame, a plentiful
supply of Drawing Copies (outline, shaded, and coloured), together with Drawing Pencil, 6 Coloured Pencils, and India Rubber

Dolly’s Dress Patterns, with Fashion Plate and Directions. The Patterns for Cutting out
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International Flag Telescope. With Illustrations of the Royal Standard, Union Ja ack, British

Ensigns, and Flags of other Nations; also the International Code of Signals, This Tele scope is of substantial Br itish makes and
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Rubber Geometric Designer (Pwiented). By means of a few plainly-shaped Tails, Rubber ‘Hand.

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It thus affords endless amusement to young and old, besides being most serviccable to all designers. With a little practice
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Metal Box, including 3 Stamps and Patent Inexhaustible Colour Pad, with Thstruchions:
Metal Box, with 5 Stamps, and 2 Patent Pads y jelding different colours

Gymnastic Exercises without Apparatus. According to Ling’ s Swedish ‘System. By Dr . Row,

This practical and simple System of Ehseieal Edacavien is now widely recognised’ as THE BEST. seventh mation. loth, Bye:
With 41 Illustrations

Gymnastic Exercises ‘without “Apparatus. Ditto, On Two Sheets, for Use of Schools.
Mounted on cloth, with rollers, varnished per Set

Roth’s Gymnastic Games.. A Series of 36 Cards, arrang’ ed with a view to Physical Education,
according to Ling’s Swedish System. Each Card bears an accurate repr esentation illustrating some position of the Body. Clear
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Cards. All these are well calculated to str engthen the manscres of the Body, ; ang, at the same time aston d a vast amount of amuse-
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Botanist’s Portable Collecting Press. Ditto. Cheaper style, 10 by 8 StidhSs, with Trowel .

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Natural History Dominoes. Comprising 30 Picture Cards ‘of Animals, artistically designed. The

Reverse Card can be used for the ordinary game of Danunogs 3 and, the marking being very large and distinct, these cards are
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Object Dominoes. Uniform in style with the above is ss
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The New Doll’s House. Packet of Coloured Designs for forming Parlour, Drawing-room, Bed- -room,
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The Floral Artist. A supply of Coloured Flowers to be ak out accurately, and to be grouped to form
Bouquets, &e., for which purpose coloured Tepresentations of a Power baskets Nase, Bouquet enolders: ang Blower tubes are
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Coasting Voyage. By Captain Caan: A Simple and. Interesting Game, with Ships snd a ‘Chart,

illustrating the difficulties met on such a journey. Ina cloth box

The Huropean Tourist. An Interesting Game, including a Bintenat ‘Map of Rarcpe; a Book containing
notices of ane auerent Countries throush which the FOnnst tray els. Mogel tay ellers; &e. New and Simplified Edition.
In cloth box.

Dissected Map Puzzles. The Pieces are ¢ carefully divided according to the Counties or other Political
and Physical Boundaries .. .. 2s. to

A. N. MYERS & CO., 15, Berners Street, Oxford Street, London, W.



Ob

oo

0

0

J

ne?

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of

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The ORIGINAL INTRODUCERS of the Kindergarten Materials and Occupations into England.

Purchasers should insist on having the goods of A. N. Myzns & Co., which are supplied through ail Stationers, $c.

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FORWARDED ON APPLICATION.
vi

{3



Plate Xil



CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, LITH.LONDON.

i Leere










nypeee







HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

BEING A DEVELOPMENT OF THE KINDERGARTEN FOR JUNIOR

AND SENIOR SCHOLARS.

Book I.—For Boys anp GIR1s.

BY

GEORGE RICKS, B.Sc. Monn),

Inspector of Schools, School Board for London.

With Sixteen Full-page Plates in Colours, and Maumerous Diagrams.



CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED:

LONDON, PARIS, NEW YORK §& MELBOURNE.
: 1889,

[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. |









PREFACE.

—*o+ -——

Av the Annual Conference of the School Board Clerks held at Scarborough
in September, 1887, I read a paper on Manual Training. The writing of
this paper, and the preparation of specimens necessary for its illustration,
- led me to consider how Manual Training, as distinct from Technical Edu-
cation, could be introduced with the greatest advantage into the Hlementary
~ Schools of the country generally. Head Teachers of Tendon Board Schools
whom I consulted, entered con amore into the spirit of the question, and gave
me every opportunity and assistance in bringing various theories to the test of

practical experience.

“ Hand-and-Eye Training” is the result of further and extended con-
sideration and investigation: and, whatever interest and aalne there may be
attached to the various occupations therein described, I am, in a large
measure, indebted for it to the very many friends who have rendered me most
willing help. I an unable to name them all; but I desire to express my
great obligation to Mr. Tait, Head Master of the Beethoven Board School,
for specimens to illustrate the use of tools by boys; to Mr. Murray, Head
Master of the William Street Board School, for hints on cardboard modelling,
and for specimens of various kinds of handwork suitable for boys and girls; to

Mr. Toombs, Head Master of the Surrey. Lane Board School, for notes on



vi PREFACE.

modelling in clay, and for various specimens illustrative of handwork among
boys; to Mr. Harris, of Middle Row Board School, for the models in wood,
from which the drawings were made, and for many notes on the Sléjd; to
Mr. Cannon, of the Saffron Hill School of Art, and teacher of modelling in
clay in various Board Schools, for notes on modelling in clay; to Miss Warren,
the experienced Inspectress under the Leicester Board, who has taken great
interest in the introduction of modelling in clay into the Leicester Schools,
for the use of notes written after practical experience ; to Mr. Vaughan, Art
Master, Science and Art Department, and Art Teacher in three of the London
Pupil Teacher Schools, for very valuable hints on drawing, colouring, and
designing, and for the execution of the coloured drawings in the plates; and

lastly, to Mr. Nickal, a valued colleague, for his correction of the proof sheets.

Among the numerous authorities consulted, I may mention “ Paradise
of Childhood,” by Prof. Wiebe; “The Kindergarten Principle,” by Miss
Liyschinska ; ‘‘ Bench-work in Wood,” by Prof. Goss; and the standard works
of Tredgold and Col. Seddon.

For the convenience of teachers the work is divided into two parts; but
each part is complete in itself.

Book I. deals with occupations suitable for both girls and boys, which
can be carried on in the ordinary school-room.

Book II. embraces occupations designed especially for boys ; and which,
for the elder scholars at least, necessitate the use of a separate sort oom,

The following diagram ee roughly, but in a graphic form, the

occupations suitable for children of different ages.



PREFACKH. - ¥il

APPROXIMATE AGE.
OccUPATION.
10—11 11—12

. Paper Folding, &c. (1)
Chap. IV., Book I.

. Drawing, Cutting, &c.
Chap. V., Book I.

. Drawing, Colouring, &c.
Chap. VI., Book I.

. Paper Folding, &. (2)
Chap. VII., Book I.

. Drawing and Cutting
Geometrical Forms, &c.
Chap. VIII., Book I.

. Modelling in Cardboard,

&e,
Chap. IX., Book I.

. Modelling in Clay.
Chap. X., Book I.

1. Building, Plans, Eleva-
tions, &c.
Chap. II., Book II.

. Bench-work.
Chaps. V., VI., VIL.,
Book IT.

- Modelling in Clay.
Chap. VIIJ., Book II.



Tt is not suggested that all the occupations described shall be attempted at
the same time in any one school. One, or perhaps two, of the occupations
taken concurrently, will form a fairly comprehensive course. Thus, one course
may consist of the two series of paper folding, &c., together with modelling in
clay. A second course may include the second occupation followed by the fifth
and sixth, together with the seventh. A third course may embrace the third
occupation, together with the sixth or seventh, and so on. The special course
for boys need not be curtailed.

* Only such scholars as show special aptitude should continue the modelling in clay beyoud this stage.



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

I—Intropvuction . . . . . _ . :
IIl—Tur KINDERGARTEN AS THE Basis oF HAND-AND-EYE TERETE
III. —Drawine as A Factor In Hawp-anwp-Hyz TRAINING
IV.—FoupIne, CUrrine, AND Mounrine.—Sertizs I.

V.—Drawine, Currine, anp Mountine

VI—Drawine and CoLovRInG . . : . a : .

VII—Fotpine, Curtrne, Mountine, Desienine In Form anp CoLour.—SerRies II.

VIIIL—Drawine anp Curring SIMPLE GEOMETRICAL ForRMS

IX.—MopELLING IN CARDBOARD AND MILLBOARD

X.—MOopELLING IN CLAY :

PAGE

1
16
21
24:

28 °

49
BA

61



HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

THERE is a general consensus of opinion among Educationists in favour of the introduction

of “ Manual Training ”

into the curriculum of Public Elementary Schools, and of pro-
viding means whereby “Technical Instruction” can be carried on in special Technical
Schools, or in Continuation Schools, in the evenings.

On May 19, 1887, the School Board for London passed the following resolution :—
“That it is necessary to introduce into Elementary Schools some regular system of
Manual Training.’ This resolution has recently been reiterated and emphasised in the
Report of the Special Committee on “Subjects and Modes of Instruction in the Board
Schools.”

- Much confusion and misconception exist as to the significance of such phrases as
Manual Training, Technical Education, Technical Instruction, and so on. One is often
confounded with another, and all are associated with Workshop, or Trade Training. To
avoid this ambiguity the phrase “ Hand-and-Eye Training” has been adopted as the title of
this. little handbook on “ Manual Training.”

Technical Instruction is usually understood to mean the development of the special
manual dexterity required by separate trades and industries—in other words, Trade Instruc-
tion. The Manual Training here contemplated is a form of education which shall take
its place side by side with arithmetic, reading, writing, and drawing. It is intended to
develop general manual dexterity rather than special aptitude. It is designed to bring
about such skill in the use of the hand and eye as will enable the learner more quickly,
more easily, and more intelligently to learn any handicraft hereafter. These are important
considerations. ‘If there were no such things,’ says Professor Huxley, “as industrial
pursuits, a system of education which does nothing for the faculties of observation, which
trains neither the eye nor the hand, and is compatible with utter ignorance of the com-
monest natural truths, might still be reasonably regarded as strangely imperfect. But
when: we consider that the instruction and training, which are lacking, are exactly those
which are of most importance for the great mass of our population, the fault becomes



10 HAND-AND-HYE TRAINING.

almost a crime, the more so that there is no practical difficulty in making good these
defects.” Our country has been, and to a large extent is, the workshop of the world. It is
necessary to our very existence, therefore, as a prosperous nation, to maintain this position.
Should our competitors be able by superior skill—the result of a more perfect scheme of
education—to produce goods of a superior quality at the same price, loss of custom must
follow, with the result of reducing numbers of our people to a state bordering on famine.
It is this peril which has produced, not only the demand for technical education, but also
the demand that “all our education, from the Elementary School to the University, shall be
more intelligent, more formative, and less mechanical than it 1s.”

“ Skilled labour is embodied thought—thought that houses, feeds, and clothes mankind.
The nation that applies to labour the most thought (7.e., that best expresses its thoughts in
concrete form) will rise highest im the scale of civilisation, will gain most in wealth, will
most surely survive the shocks of time, will live longest in history.” *

After all, however, valuable as the industrial side of manual training may be, it must
be taken as subsidiary to the mental and moral side. Manual training must take its proper
place in the general cultivation of the faculties. Education, based mainly on book-work and
oral instruction, is incomplete—it needs the Hand-and-Eye Training to round off and perfect
it. ‘The training of the faculties is the primary object of education ; and, although it is
a mistake to suppose that book-knowledge does little to develop the powers of mind,
it is equally a mistake to suppose that book-knowledge alone will suffice. An ideal educa-
tion is one which multiplies. the power of the eye to see, of the ear to hear, of the hand
to execute: which puts a mind well stored with knowledge into active contact with faculties
capable of translating it into action. The hand, the eye, and the ear must be as carefully
trained as the mind, and the system of education which confines itself too exclusively to
either the external or the internal man is one-sided, and, therefore, defective. Mind and
body are so related that their highest development can only be effected through that system
of trainmg which makes the most of both.” +

In his evidence—before the Royal Commission on Technical Education—Sir Philip
Magnus says:—“If handicraft instruction is to be introduced on any large scale into
our Elementary Schools, the instruction ought to be distinctly of a disciplinary, and not
of a professional character ; that its object ought to be to train the senses, to train the hand
and the eye to work together; that it should have a moral and intellectual purpose. Such
training would be extremely advantageous if it became an integral part of the elementary
instruction just in the same way as reading, arithmetic, and writing, its object being
distinctly disciplinary and formative, as distinguished from professional.”

In a lecture on “ Handwork in Education,” Mr. T. G. Rooper, one of Her Majesty’s
Inspectors of Schools, thus concisely describes the intellectual and moral value of handwork
as a branch of ordinary instruction :—‘* Haudwork is the only kind of instruction in which

* Charles Ham. + “ Educational Times.”



INTRODUCTION. Il

you can make certain that the learner is not trusting to words, and words only. No doubt
in the matter of geography, physics, mathematics, and the like, visible illustration tends to
aid the student to get beyond words; but it is astonishing how soon even the most tangible
illustration becomes a matter of words: and when the teacher thinks the pupil has really
got hold of the fact which he wishes him to apprehend, he is often disappointed by
discovering, perhaps through an accident, that the pupil has only a word knowledge
after all, which breaks down in practical application. Now, without the use of the eye
the young pupil cannot rule out and saw to a straight line. Whatever inward impression
he has of a straight line he brings its accuracy to the test im many kinds of handwork.
Book-learning does, without doubt, divert the attention from many things going on around
us, which the eye ought to take notice of, and handwork is a useful corrective to this
defect. Schooling in its incomplete form takes the edge off the natural faculty of
observation, and makes it blunt and dead.

“Secondly, Handwork greatly affects the invaluable habit of attention. Attention
is affected in two ways—first of all it is strengthened, and secondly, it is tested.
In order to perform so simple an operation as ruling a straight line, and sawing along
it afterwards, considerable concentration of the attention is requisite; and, if the mind
wanders, the operator is very quickly made aware of the fact by the abrasion of his skin.
A boy may believe that his mind is engaged in learning his task, and if he keeps still
the teacher may share his opinion; but the boy may be employing half his mind only,
and the rest of it may be wool-gathering. Manual operations demand the whole of
.the attention, and strengthen the habit. They also test it, because if the attention
is not fixed on the task the incorrectness of the work proves itself quickly and completely.

“Thirdly, Handwork cultivates what I call the practical intelligence. The boy learns
more clearly than in any other way the effort and determination which are requisite to
master the outside world. He has an idea in his head which he desires’ to carry out in
making himself a box. Before he has been at work very long he will discover what stub-
born material timber is, and how much patience and care he must employ before he can
see his mental image of a box presented before him as the finished and complete issue
of his brain and hand, fit for holding flowers and ferns. Handwork should be a sort
of bridge between learning and life; and, just as in arithmetic, children are taught to
apply money sums to working out bills of parcels, so boys may learn to cut out of a
plank the side of a box, which shall contain a given number of cubic inches or feet.
Modelling also is of immense help in learning geography, and some boys would sooner
learn to make a model of a country than to draw a map of it.

“T claim also for Handwork certain effects on the will—or, as it is called, moral
advantages. It encourages the virtues of diligence, perseverance, love of order, neatness,
dexterity, caution, a love of construction, a respect for the work of men’s hands, and a
contempt for wanton destruction.”



12 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

Neither must the moral influence of manual training on the dul/ scholar be lost sight
of. The use of tools is good for the bookish boy, to draw him away from his books. But,
in a greater degree, it is good for the non-bookish boy, in showing him that there is a
possible something he can do well. The boy who lacks the natural aptitude to keep pace
even if he tried, with his brighter schoolfellows, loses heart altogether, and has little
pleasure in school. But put him in the workroom, and let him find out that he can do
a piece of work as well or better than his more highly-favoured compeer, and you have
given him an impulse of self-respect that is of untold benefit to him when he goes
back to his studies. He'will be a happier and a better boy for finding out something that
he can do well. '

Lastly, an attractive occupation is provided for the boy on leaving school within
the home, which will doubtless in many instances act as a counterpoise to less refining
influences from without.

While, in this country, we have been discussing the subject of manual training, our
cousins in the States have been forming Manual Training Schools. And, although most of
these schools are established for the training of pupils of an age considerably above the
age limit of our Public Elementary Schools, we may possibly profit from the experiences
gained therein.

The professors and teachers of these schools are enthusiastic in the matter of manual
training ; but they repudiate in the strongest terms any idea of special, or trade instruc-
tion. They argue that the question has nothing to do with teaching trades, or turning |
schools into workshops. They hold that it is purely and simply an educational ques-
tion, and they boldly claim that the cultivation of the child’s powers of expression by
delineation and construction shall form an integral part of the public school-course of
study. ,

Dr. C. M. Woodward, in an admirable work called “The Manual Training School,” has
collated the experiences and opinions of various educational experts. The following are
extracts :—

“ Prof. J. M. Ordway, speaking of the observed influence of manual training in the
Tulane High School, New Orleans, says :-—

« «But even with the imperfect development, the indications are, that it tends to
awaken and keep up the interest of the pupils in all the school exercises; for by it they
acquire juster ideas of the relation between books and actual things. They see that the
school is a place for real earnest work. They gain the habit of close attention in the
exact performance of tasks. They find they have the power to do something of themselves,
and hence are likely to acquire a manly self-reliance. They do not lose time which ought
to be devoted to intellectual studies; for it is found that, without over-exertion, they
accomplish quite as much in these studies as they did before handwork was introduced.
They gain by alternating handwork with pure brainwerk, and thus resting without being



INTRODUCTION. , 13

idle. The surplus activity of youth, which is too prone to vent itself in mischief, is
allowed to find scope in useful and pleasant employment,’

“To the question, Does not the intellectual work suffer if time is taken for industrial
work in school? Miss May Mackintosh, a teacher experienced in manual work, replies :—

«¢The answer is emphatically No! Children, especially young children, cannot force
their attention to keep to one subject for long together—the actual time varying with
the children, and the personal influence of the teacher—and it is hurtful to them, physically,
mentally, and morally, to be obliged to take part in any lesson after this period is reached :
intellectually, because they form the habit of inattention; morally, because they are
obliged to pretend attention; and physically, in their poor little restless bodies, that need
so much movement for their healthy development. Then what a blessed relief is some
piece of work for the hands, and how fresh the interest and attraction for the follow-
ing studies. It is the most economic arrangement even if the claims of intellectual
education are considered as paramount.’

“Prof. Felix Adler, who has had eight years of experience in the conduct of a
Manual Training School, says in a recent report :—

«« Flow does it come to pass that those two organs, the eye and the hand, which are
the preferred messengers for carrying out the intentions of mind, should receive so little
discipline? . . . Who will deny that everyone to whom a deft hand and keen powers
of observation are important, will find such a preparatory discipline in early youth an
inestimable advantage? While the pupil is shaping the typical objects which the
instructor proposes to him as a task, while he poses silently, persistently, and lovingly
over these objects, reaching success by dint of gradual approximation, he is at the same
time shaping his own character, and a tendency of mind is created from which eventually
result the loftiest and purest morality.’ ”

The mental effect of Manual Training is well put in a paper by Prof. E. A. Sheldon,
read before the New York State Association [1888] :—

“The term Manual Training has a wide range of interpretation. It applies to all
modes of expression through the instrumentality of the hand—the hand as employed
to give expression to the ideas that exist in the mind; it is simply language put in
objective form. No one questions the value of language in intellectual training; the
same principle is applicable in drawing, painting, modelling, and the mechanic arts.

“Modelling seems to come first as being the most simple and the easiest of.
manipulation; no tools are required but the hands; and the object produced has such a
veritable likeness to the object imitated as to awaken. the deepest interest in the mind
of the child. We are beginning to learn that there is a genuine educational value in
this form of expression. It tends to give clearness, exactness, and definiteness to the
mental concept.

“In the process something more than the hand has received training. - The



14: HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

important thing that has been gained is the concept, which is purely a mental product.
It is the furnishing of these concepts, clear and well defined, so impressed as to be
life-long in their duration, that constitutes a very important part of our work in all the
early processes of education.

“ After modelling, the way is paved for cutting the regular geometrical forms from
paper or pasteboard; the way is then paved for representing by drawing. In this, as
in forming the clay model, the work of comparison goes on until the work agrees with
the mental concept.

“While the cultivated taste is worth something, and the enhanced power to get a living
is worth a great deal, that which is of most worth is the gain in intellectual power to
acquire knowledge, to. assimilate, to classify, and organise the same. .

‘““Tt is very questionable whether we do not overrate the value of drawing for the eye.
_and the hand, and under-estimate its bearing on intellectual training. We must conclude
that the greatest good that comes from drawing is intellectual; it aids in building up
accurate concepts, and making them permanent as an investment for future use.

““ Whatever is true of moulding clay or putty, of paper-cutting or folding, of drawing,
is true, and pre-eminently true, when a more obstinate material is used; the greater the
obstacle to be overcome, the more vivid and lasting the impression made. But there is an
instinct in a child that gives delight in overcoming difficulties, and leads him to enter
upon this part of his work with that lively interest which insures the most intense and
fixed attention.

«But there is a value to be attached to work with tools, outside of its relation to the
regular lesson work of the school. - It is objected that it tends to crowd out subjects of
study that are more plainly intellectual in their bearing, and more essential to the general
preparation for citizenship. But this is a mistake. A pupil will carry on quite as much
purely intellectual study in connection with tool-work as without it, and I believe with
more ease.

* For the interest runs to a high pitch; the children are wideawake ; their minds are
in a-receptive condition. The workshop gives a rest to children ; and there is a tendency
not to get sufficient rest and change. They construct useful forms, so the result of a course
of a training with tools is to awaken a feeling of conscious strength and dignity; and
nothing can be more important in the formation of character.

“A feeling of conscious power and self-reliance is generated when anything is to be
made or mended, if the boy knows that he can do it.”

With regard to the lines along which manual training should run, we give the opinion
of an English educational expert, that of Dr. Fitch, Her Majesty’s Inspector of Training
Colleges. Ata meeting of the Sléjd Union, held ‘December 12th, 1888, Dr. Fitch is
reported to have said that—

“ There was a prevalent and increasing conviction among teachers that our systems of



- Plate I















>
CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, LITH.LONDON.



INTRODUCTION. 15

education had hitherto been in the main too verbal and bookish; and that a useful corrective
for this fault was to be found in exercises specially designed to encourage better training of
the bodily senses, and to promote manual dexterity. The particular form of such exercise
described to-night was that of working in wood; and it had been clearly shown by the
lecturer that such work, when performed under intelligent supervision, like that of Herr
Salomon, was well calculated to serve as training in accuracy, in neatness, in perseverance,
in the love of the beautiful, and in aptitude for work. -At the same time it should be
. remembered that other forms of manual employment—ey., writing, drawing, designing,
needlework, and cookery—were all fitted in their several degrees to exercise the same set of
faculties, and to furnish the same sort of training. He did not think it had been shown
that working in wood possessed a higher value as an element in general education than -
manual exercises of other kinds. It appeared that, in the opinion of its advocates, tools suited
for manipulation in such a material could not properly be put into the hand of a scholar
_ under the age of eleven; but those who wished to see manual training duly recognised as
a constituent part of a complete system of general education, desired to introduce exercises
in general handiness, and physical power, earlier than this. What was wanted was a regular
series of eraduated exercises from the Kindergarten upwards, and from the age of seven to
eleven. The simple manual employment devised by Froebel furnished fitting occupation
for the eye and for the fingers, in the form of plaiting, brick-building, and the making of
patterns. In Belgium, and in America, the cutting out of paper patterns, and modelling in
‘some plastic material, were found to be among the most useful exercises for the interval
between seven and the age of eleven, at which period the proper use of tools for carving and
for the making of simple models in wood might commence. But he held it to be essential
that teachers should not regard this kind of handwork as a substitute for intellectual
exertion, but as a supplement and a help to it. After all, the first business of a school
was, the training of the intelligence, and it would be a great mistake to depose this one
purpose, and put it in the second place. Manual work, whether in paper, in clay, or in
wood, if duly accompanied with measurement, with careful drawing to scale, and with
training to a sense of proportion and beauty, would become a most valuable educational
instrument. But manual work introduced into schools as a separate subject of instruction,
and not duly co-ordinated with mental exercise, would yield only disappointing results.
He was particularly struck with the importance attached by the Swedish teachers to the
due co-ordination of other teaching with the Sléjd work. It was not by turning the
scholars over to the hands of artisans; but by keeping a// the educational work of a school
in the hands and under the supervision of a skilled teacher, that manual exercises could
assume in due proportion their rightful place in the educational system of the future.”



CHAPTER IL.

THE KINDERGARTEN AS THE BASIS OF HAND-AND-EYE. TRAINING.

Tu resolution referred to in the previous chapter was referred to the Special Committee on
the Subjects and Modes of Instruction in the Board Schools. This Committee recommended
“That the methods of Kindergarten in Infants’ Schools be developed for Senior Scholars
throughout the Schools, so as to supply a graduated course of Manuan Traryine in con-
nection with Science Teaching and Object Lessons ; ” and this recommendation was accepted
and adopted by the Board on July 19th, 1888. This resolution fairly sums up the general
opinion among teachers, and others interested in education, that the manual training of the
junior and senior schools must be a development of the Kindergarten occupations. <‘‘ As the
child is the father of the man, so the Kindergarten is the father of the Manual Training
School. The Kindergarten comes first in order of development, and leads logically to the
Manual Training School. The same principle underlies both. In both it is sought to
generate power by dealing with things in connection with ideas. Both have common
methods of instruction, and they should be adapted to the whole period of school life, and
be applied to all schools.” * The methods and practice here advocated are constructed on
Kindergarten lines, hence it becomes necessary to give the briefest outline of the aims and
possible advantages of this admirable teaching invention of Friedrich Froebel :—Kinder-
garten is a method designed to secure the full and harmonious development of all the
faculties, bodily and mental, with which the child is by nature endowed. Its leading
principles, as set out by Froebel and his followers, are, that all education should begin
with a development of the desire for activity innate in the child, that a knowledge of °
things can best be obtained from things, that the best method of learning is by doing, that
the teacher’s mind must come down to the level of the child’s mind, that the teacher’s
mind must, as it were, enter into the pupil’s mind, guiding and leading him to learn, and
exciting his interest till he wishes to observe, compare, and note for himself. It is
an inward system of direction and development, intent not upon giving in, but upon
drawing out. ‘

The Kindergarten method does much for Hand-and-Eye Training. It aims at manual
dexterity, and love of active work, no less than at awakening and directing intelligence.
Froebel is never weary of repeating that man must not only know, but produce; not only

* OC. H. Ham.



THE KINDERGARTEN AS THE BASIS OF HAND-AND-FEYE TRAINING. 17

think, but work; and that the capacity for work must be trained in early childhood
side by side with the observing and apprehending faculty. The hand should be no less
dexterous, and the eye no less accurate, than the judgment is sure.

In the Kindergarten all occupations are called “plays,” and the materials for the
occupations “gifts.” The plays are systematically and logically arranged. “ Each step
in the course of training is a logical sequence of the preceding; and the various means of
occupation are developed one from another in a perfectly natural order, beginning with
the simplest and concluding with the most difficult features in all the varieties of
occupation.”

There are altogether twenty gifts and plays according to Froebel’s general definition
of the terms.

The Firsr Grrr consists of six soft rubber balls, covered with coloured worsted, repre-
senting the primary and secondary colours. With these the young scholars are not only
tramed to distinguish colours, but are made acquainted with the material, the shape,
the weight, and other properties of the balls. Games are also designed in which the balls
play a prominent part.

The Sxconp Gtrr consists of a sphere, cylinder, and cube, in wood. It offers oppor-
tunity for comparison, first with the rubber balls, and then between the articles which con-
stitute this Gift. The children are led to see and to name the points of difference and
similarity.

The Tuirp Grrr consists of a two-inch cube divided once every way, forming eight one-
inch cubes. “A prominent desire in the mind of every child is to divide things in order
to examine the parts of which they consist. This natural instinct is observable at a very
early period. The little one tries to change its toy by breaking it, desirous of looking at its
inside, and is sadly disappointed in finding itself incapable of reconstructing the fragments.
Froebel’s Third Gift is founded on this observation. In it the child receives a whole,
whose parts he can easily separate, and put together again at pleasure. Thus he is able to
do that which he could not in the case of the toy—restore to its original form that which
was broken, making a perfect whole. And not only this, he can use the parts for the
construction of other wholes.’ *

In this and the following occupations it is usual to divide the exercises—somewhat
arbitrarily, it must be confessed—into forms of life, forms of knowledge, and forms of
beauty. The first refers to the construction of familiar objects, the second to the more
purely mental exercises of geometry and number, and the third to design. In the Infant
School the second series of exercises occupies the most prominent position. In the Hand-
and-Eye Training in the Junior and Senior Schools, the first and third will occupy the
foremost place.

~The Fourru, Frere, and Sixtu Gurrts consist of a eube variously divided, and each

* Wiebe,



18 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

serves the purpose of exercises similar to, but more advanced, than those of the Third
Gift.
The Srventu Girt consists of a series of thin slabs or “ tablets ”—usually coloured
red and white—in five sets :—
1, Square tablets.
2. Right angular with equal sides, viz., each equal to half a square.
3. Equilateral.
4, Obtuse angular with equal sides.
5. Right angular with unequal sides.

These tablets facilitate in a remarkable way the teaching of the elements of geometry,
and they are no less serviceable in the production of designs. As, however, geometry and
design form but a small part of the teaching in Infants’ Schools, this gift is there seldom ~
used.

The Erenrs Grrr consists of a number of sticks, or staffs, about one-twelfth of an inch
in thickness, and in lengths of from two to six inches. This is one of the simplest, as it is
one of the most useful of the gifts. In addition to the formation (laying) of a great number
of familiar objects, the teacher uses the sticks of this gift for the teaching of number—
notation, addition, subtraction, &c., for the formation of the letters of the alphepens and, to
a less extent, for teaching writing and drawing.

The Nintu Girr—rings and half rings—introduces curved lines, and is but little used.

Drawing—the Tenra Grirr—is one of the most important and most useful [see
Chapter ITI.].

The Exzventru and Twenrra Grrts consist of material for perforating, and embroider-
ing. These should not be commenced before the children have become sufficiently prepared
for the perception of forms by the use of their building blocks and staffs. They necessitate
the introduction of tools—the pricking or perforating tool, and the sewing needle. The
material is paper, on which lines and figures have been stamped, and soft thick pads of
felt. This occupation is calculated to produce a steadiness of the hand and eye which will
be invaluable in future Manual Training.

The Turrrzenrn Gurr consists of material for paper cutting, and mounting the pieces
to produce figures and forms. It is an occupation much too advanced for the Infant
Department, but admirably adapted to form a part of Hand-and-Eye Training for Girls’
Schools [see Chapter VII].

The Fourtgrntu Gurr, viz., materials for braiding or weaving, provides for one of the
simplest and most attractive of the Kindergarten occupations. The material consists of (a)
an oblong sheet of paper cut longitudinally into strips—the mat—which remain attached as
a margin at each end; (4) loose strips of paper which may, or may not, be of the same
_ width as the strips in the mat; and (c) a stick, or needle, having a slit at one end into
which the loose strip of paper is inserted. With this needle—the shuttle, the loose strips—



:



Plate Il





Ss

























































CASSELL & COMPANY. LIMITED, LITH.LONDON.



THE KINDERGARTEN AS THE BASIS OF HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING. 19

the weft—are interwoven with the strips—the warp—of the mat. Like stick-laying this
occupation forms an admirable training in number s and, in addition, furnishes exercises in
Form and Colour.

The Firreenta, Srxreenru, and Suvenrsrnru Gurrs consist of wooden and paper
strips for interlacing and intertwining.

The Ereuteentru Grrr provides material for paper folding [see Chapter LV.], and the
Nryereenta for “ peas-work.”” The latter consists of pieces of iron wire of various lengths
about the thickness of ordinary “hair-pins,” and pointed at the ends. As a means of
combination in the production of forms peas are used. These are soaked about twelve hours
in water, and dried an hour before use. They are then just soft enough to allow the child
to introduce the wire without difficulty, and hard enough to afford a sufficient hold. Perhaps
of all the Kindergarten occupations this is the best preparation for the handwork of the
Senior School.

For Modelling—the Twentizts Girr—see Chapter X.

By means of these cunningly-devised toys, Froebel satisfies the innate desire of the
child for action; and herein his method is unique—it gives to each child in the class
something to handle, and examine, and experiment upon; something about which to form
new ideas, to compare, to reason upon; something which trains the pupil’s. powers of
construction, ingenuity, imagination, and inventiveness; which brings about deftness of
manipulation, order, neatness, accuracy, and precision; which, says Miss E. Shireff,
“develops the sense of beauty, and the feeling of harmony and symmetry as essential. to
beauty ; and this is not merely the foundation of all artistic creation in its highest as well
as in its lowest forms; but of artistic enjoyment, adding to the pleasures of life, in the
cottage as well as in the palace, wherever the forms and tints of nature speak to the
imagination and the heart of man.”

“The superficial observer sees in a Kindergarten a little simple material, a few squares
of paper, being handled by happy babies, of four, five, or six years of age; he sees them
marching, singing, playing games, modelling in clay and sand—that is all. The educator
says, ‘ That is enough,’ for he sees how much the little ones are gaining under the guidance
of a skilful teacher. He sees the essential elements of education at work here; he sees the
little ones trained in habits of order, exactness, and neatness; he sees them encouraged to
be industrious and persevering, he sees that their physical powers are carefully developed by
speech exercise, singing, marching, and games; he sees that neither the cultivation of the
imagination nor the training of the memory are neglected ; nor anything, in fact, that tends
to the harmonious development of the whole being. This is the reason why, in spite of the
widespread ignorance of Froebel’s principles which still prevails, the system is steadily
gaining ground, although the principles which underlie the games, gifts, and occupations
are often wholly disregarded. So long as the children are under seven years of age, and
go to a Kindergarten, they find in it a life in everything which makes up real living is

BQ



20 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

provided for. Up to this stage Froebel worked out his ideas ; but he has left us to find the
application of his principles for older children, to select the occupations and the subjects
of intellectual, moral, and physical training which shall replace the Kindergarten life.’ *

From this brief réswmé it will be seen that the Kindergarten claims to develop
harmoniously the mental, moral, manual, and physical powers of the young; but that the
Hand-and-Hye work, however important in itself, is rather to be considered as a means to
an end—the end being the gradual unfolding and strengthening of the mental powers.
The mental training is, in fact, the principal; the manual the subsidiary aim.

In the Junior and Senior Schools, even where the method and spirit of the Kindergarten
prevail, mental training has entirely ousted all idea of any Hand-and-Eye Training such as
is given in the Kindergarten. Writing, of course, is taught in all schools, needlework in
girls’ schools, drawing in most boys’ schools, and drawing and cookery in a few girls’
schools ; but beyond this there is no link to connect the manual training of the Infants’
School with the Technical Instruction, or Trade Teaching, which is given, or proposed to be
given, in Evening, or special Technical Schools.

Now, what is the position which the Hand-and-Eye Training, as founded on the
Kindergarten, should occupy in the Junior or Senior Schools? It must differ to some
extent in its aims from the handwork of the Kindergarten. As already pointed out, the
chief aim of the Kindergarten handwork is to develop mental power. In the Junior and
‘Senior Schools there are introduced subjects of mental training which must of necessity
be dealt with, to a great extent, apart from things; and hence, in the special handwork
lessons, manual dexterity and accuracy of eye must take a more prominent position. In
other words, Hand-and-Eye Training in the Junior and Senior Schools must approach more
nearly to a special subject than the handwork of the infant Kindergarten.

Mental and moral training will still be the most important factors in the manual work,
but accuracy of measurement, deftness in manipulation, and neatness in execution, will
claim a very large share of attention.

For a detailed account of the Kindergarten “ gifts,’ and a description of the various
and special uses of the “plays,” the reader is referred to the many published manuals
on the subject.t We shall, further on, refer again to those particular “ plays” on which
our special occupations are founded.

* Miss Emily Lord in “ Essential Elements of Education.”
t Especially to Prof. Wiebe’s “Paradise of Childhood,” and Miss Lyschinska’s ‘The Kindergarten
Principle.”



CHAPTER III.

DRAWING AS A FACTOR IN HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

Drawine is the representation of forms on a plane surface by means of lines.

It is one of the very first occupations of a child. He breathes on the window pane,
and scrawls lines with his fingers; he makes figures in the sand or mud with the point
of a stick; and, so soon as he can grasp a pencil he attempts to draw animals, trees, and
houses, or anything else he sees. °

These productions, however imperfect, are a source of delight to the child, and the
early innate desire thus manifested should be gratified and encouraged.

“This fondness for drawing is but one of the manifestations of the instinct of
construction which lives in the child, and proclaims his humanity; and the only true
education is that by which the child is to become in due time a true man—a constructive,
or creative being.” *

With this end in view drawing should be introduced very early into the regular school-
course, almost if not quite at the commencement; but the teaching, however simple, must
be sympathetic, and conducted on definite principles.

Froebel considered it highly important that a child should acquire some facility in
drawing before he learns to read and write, since the reproduction of actual things should
precede the repetition of signs and words.

Writing is but a form of drawing, and that not the most simple, and the practice
of drawing straight lines and curves should precede. and form the foundation for the
teaching of writing.

As in the Infants’ so in the Junior and Senior Schools, drawing should be looked
upon as a factor in education side by side with the other indispensable subjects of
mstruction. It is quite as easy to learn. The capacity for learning to draw is just as
widely diffused as the capacity for learning to read or write, or manipulate figures; and,
just as everyone can acquire a fair knowledge and skill in these subjects, so everyone can
attain to some proficiency in drawing.

People who have not been taught to use the facilities which drawing affords, have to
go through life deprived of a very important means of communication with their fellow-
creatures. To be able to make a drawing of an object, showing its correct dimensions,

*® Goldammer.



22 HAND-AND-HYH TRAINING.

is a power which everyone, some time or other, needs to employ. Skill in this simple
kind of drawing is, however, by no means common.

As a mental training drawing has its special value in cultivating accuracy o
observation, and truth of reproduction ; and it develops the sense of form and proportion. |
To represent the correct appearance of an object necessitates a close observation of minute
particulars; and to draw the same .object from memory obliges the pupil to yet more
accurate and intelligent observation, in order that the mind may retain the impression
formed, as so much stored-up observation for future use.

“Drawing,” says Dr. Woodward, “is. the most potent means for developing the
perceptive faculties, teaching the student to see correctly, and to understand what he sees.
Properly taught, it is the constant practice of the analysis of forms, and by this practice
the eye is quickened, and rendered incomparably more accurate; and as the eye is the most
open and ready road through which knowledge passes to the mind, the full development of
its powers can be a matter of no small importance to all. In this respect, then, as an
educator of the eye, drawing is a most valuable means, irrespective of any service that the
power may be of itself.”’

Drawing also gives free scope to the creative, or inventive power. It is the quickest, the -
most convenient, and the most precise way of giving a clear manifestation of the object, or
design, which exists in the inventor’s brain. :

And it has another advantage over word-language—not only is it the shortest of short-
hands; it is a universal language common to the whole civilised world.

Nor must we overlook the value of drawing on the formation of character. Like
_all other hand-and-eye work, drawing develops and strengthens habits of order, neatness,
and perseverance. In nineteen cases out of twenty an orderly drawing, or diagram, is
associated with an orderly mind.

Drawing ‘thus claims to be an essential element in education; but it has other and
important advantages. It is an adjunct to almost every other branch of education. For
technical and trade purposes it is simply invaluable, and it should form the most potent
factor in Hand-and-Iiye Training.

It is in the latter aspect that we have specially to consider drawing in this book. In
the first place drawing is a manual training in itself. The hand is educated and trained
by drawing to be more completely under the control of the will than by any other exercise
to which it can be set; it acquires a delicacy of movement, and a refinement of power, which
no other discipline can impart, and which fits it more completely to perform its varied and
delicate functions.

“On the other hand, drawing alone is not sufficient when not supplemented by hand-
work in wood, cardboard, or other material. Manual traming, through drawing alone, is
work but half done: the other half, by which material is shaped by the hand into any
preconceived design represented by drawing, has hitherto been wanting in our schools.









































CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, LITH.LONDON:



DRAWING AS A FACTOR IN HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING. 23

Unless this element of construction is added our drawing must still fail, as it has hitherto
failed, to yield the full measure of good results expected from it. Designing, and the work-
ing out of the design, are but two parts of one whole; neither can have full educational
value without the other. The former, pursued alone, is open to most of the objections that
may properly be urged against any abstract studies imposed on children; while the latter,
pursued alone, fails to give the worker that broad, intelligent grasp of the plan of his work,
which is a necessary element in all true skill.”

Drawing and construction should be thus inseparably connected and woven together.
“Drawing brings the eye and the mind into relations of the closest intimacy, and makes
the hand the organ of both.” Without drawing, exact and intelligent handwork is scarcely
possible. Drawing saves waste of time and material, it leads straight to the mark, and the
work becomes the product of reason rather than the result of the “rule of thumb.”



CHAPTER IV.
FOLDING, CUTTING AND MOUNTING.—SERIES I.

Kixprrcartun drawing is not a mere mechanical copying of examples. Like the other
“plays” designed by Froebel, it is essentially a method—a method suited to the tender
age of the child, calculated to cause him to reflect, reason, and invent ; and to develop
first ideas of length, form, and proportion.

Froebel suggested a chequered surface on which to draw—viz., a network of per-
pendicular and horizontal lines one-fourth of an inch apart. For the more advanced
pupils coloured pencils are recommended. “This adds greatly to the appearance of the
figures, and also enables the child to combine colours tastefully and fittingly. For the

aemme development of their sense of colour and



of taste, these coloured mosaic-like figures °





are excellent practice.”’

Froebel’s method of drawing is ad-
A | wmirably described and illustrated by
M0) t \N | Miss Lyschinska in “The Kindergarten

Fo

of natural objects; B, geometrical; c,

















Principle.” : The exercises, she says, fall





naturally into three groups :—a, imitation









pattern forming. The exercises in the first





group are best drawn upon paper without







lines, while those groups B and c are







exactly suited to the chequered surface. J
In the first stage of the geometrical ey \







group, the exercises are of a very simple
FIG.2

character, dealing merely with length

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and direction of straight lines.







In the second stage the lines are





grouped together to form certain figures.







Thus isosceles right-angled triangles are





formed with perpendicular, horizontal,





and oblique lines. Figs. 1, 2 and 3 are
FIG.3 examples.


































































































































































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26 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

In the third stage these right-angled triangles are combined to form various larger
figures and patterns. Fig. 4 shows the first four elements of Froebel’s course of
geometry for children. These four triangles can be arranged in a variety of ways, of which
Figs. 5—8 are examples. [The shading is added to give prominence to the forms.]

The first part of our new occupation, for junior scholars, that of paper folding and
cutting, is founded on the geometrical group of exercises, and the second part—the formation
of pattérns or designs—follows from the second group. We use, in fact, the same funda-
mental forms, and: the same patterns and designs by foldirg, cutting, and mounting
paper, as in. the Kindergarten drawing.

The materials required are sguares of paper (four inches in the side is a convenient
size), scissors, and squared paper, on which to construct the patterns. The paper should
be thin and tough to insure folding without breaking. Both plain and tinted paper should
be provided, and the tinted should be gummed at the back similar to postage-stamp paper.
The scissors should be of good quality, and round-tipped, not pointed. It may be objected
that scissors in the hands of young children may become dangerous weapons; but “to teach
the proper use of scissors is the best means to prevent their being used improperly.” No
doubt the forms could be cut more nearly correct by using a sharp knife and a straight
edge; but it is not thought advisable to use the knife at this early stage, and on the
other hand it is advisable to introduce scissors, a much less dangerous tool, as early as
practicable.

It is essential that the work should be well done. Paper carelessly folded, or in-
correctly cut, makes the following task of forming and mounting unsatisfactory, if not
impossible: and, besides, it renders nugatory one chief aim in manual training—the
acquisition of ability to work, and to work correctly and well.

Ex. 1.—The first exercise consists in folding the given square into four smaller squares,
asin Fig.9. [The broken lines represent the lines of folds.] Place the paper on the desk or
table, and turn the lower edge up and over to cover the upper edge, and
fold. This halves the square. Unfold the paper, turn, and fold in
the othier direction. Unfold again, and cut carefully along the lines
formed by the folding. When the pupils can do this well, using plain
paper, they should repeat the exercise on tinted paper, and then the
resultant squares may be arranged to form the patterns like that on
Plate L, Fig. A,* omitting the centre square. The children should gum
the pattern on the squared paper. Obviously the lines are intended to
assist the beginner in arranging the cut pieces symmetrically around a common centre. The
teacher can pin the earlier patterns on the blackboard for imitation, using paper of a
larger surface, or make drawings to illustrate; but, after some practice, the children will




bl Neen ree en

Ot--------

9

* All the designs on Plates I., II., III., are drawn to a scale of one-half. Thus the four squares of A, which
measure one-inch in the side, represent the two-inch squares cut from the given square of paper.





























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FOLDING, CUTTING, AND MOUNTING—SERIES I. 27

readily invent forms for themselves. Tints of the primary colours only should be used in
these first exercises.

Ex, 2.—The second exercise divides the square diagonally in both directions [Fig. 10]
yielding four right angled isosceles triangles. The children should be assisted and encou-
raged to combine the triangles, when cut from tinted paper, into various larger figures.
Some of them may be formed similar to Figs. 5—8. Fig. B, Plate I., is an example of
an arrangement of these triangles obtained from cutting three squares of different colours.

Ex. 3.—Fold the square diagonally, as in Ex. 2, and then fold again by bringing in
succession each corner on to the centre of the squares [Fig. 11], and we get the square
divided into four squares, and eight right angled isosceles triangles, each equal in area to
half of one of the squares. The formation of a coloured pattern, from such squares and half
squares, is shown in Fie. C, Plate I.



FIG.10 FIG.

Ex. 4.—The folding of Fig. D, Plate I., is found by taking each commer of the square
[Fig. 11] three-fourths of the distance along the diagonal towards the opposite corner
[Fig. 12]. Fig. E, Plate I., is a combination of Figs. 11 and 12.

Ex. 5.—Fold as in Figs. 9 and 10, and then fold each side on to the middle [Fig. 13].
This exercise divides the whole square into sixteen one-inch squares, and half of these again
into right angled isosceles triangles. Fig. A, Plate IL, is a design formed from this folding.

The remaining patterns on Plates IJ. and III. are all formed from the fundamental
forms cut in the preceding exercises. The children will be able to invent many more.

All the various manipulations in this occupation—folding, cutting, and mounting—
require considerable skill and accuracy ; but should develop such dexterity as will prove of
very great value in the various -exercises of needlework, and in the folding, cutting, and
fitting of the many necessary articles of clothing. Something, too, will have been done
towards developing a taste in colour and arrangement.

It is exceedingly important that the pupils should not be hurried on too fast. Each
exercise should be accurately done before proceeding to the next, and each executed on
plain paper before proceeding to the coloured.



CHAPTER V.

DRAWING, CUTTING, AND MOUNTING.

THE second occupation in Hand-and-Eye Training is connected even more directly with
Kindergarten ‘drawing than the previous occupation. It consists of drawing (using ruler
and black-lead pencil as our new tools) on cross-lined or “ chequered ’’ paper, and cutting
out and mounting the forms as in paper folding. It is strongly recommended that, in
addition to cross-lined plain paper, tinted paper (primary colours) also cross-lined should be
used. Asa substitute for the latter, however, or as an additional exercise, the drawings
may be made on plain stout chequered paper, and the forms cut with the scissors. The
latter may then be placed on the tinted paper,.such as used in the first occupation, and
lines drawn at the edges with a finely-pointed pencil. The forms may now be cut from
the tinted paper, and mounted in the usual way. There should be no inside cutting in
this oceupation—inside cuts are best made with a knife, and are introduced in a later
exercise—every cut must begin at one edge of the paper. Tinted paper chequered, as
before stated, can be used as a groundwork on which to mount, and thus add considerably
to the number, variety, and beauty of the forms.

The first exercise will consist in drawing and cutting out the simplest funda-
mental forms, as shown in Figs. 14 to 28. From the simple elements thus obtained
other forms are constructed, as shown in Figs. 29 to 35. [These figures are drawn to a
small scale to economise space. In practice they should cover four or sixteen times the .
area shown in the drawings.] Thus Fig. 29 is formed by superimposing Fig. 14 on Fig.
18. Fig. 30 is a combination of Figs. 20 and 28 arranged round a common centre. Fig.
31 is formed from Figs. 23 and 27. Fig. 33 utilises Figs. 24 and 27. Fig. 35 represents
a portion of a border formed from Fig. 27, and so on.

The designs on Plates IV. and V. show some simple arrangements of the fundamental
forms in colour. They may, in practice, be extended almost indefinitely.

The best method for practising the children in the formation and invention of patterns
is to take stout chequered paper, or even thin cardboard, of course chequered also, from
which to cut the fundamental forms. The paper on which the pattern is to be constructed
should be fastened on to a small drawing-board, say 10 ins. by 8 ins. On this the children
may lay out their fundamental forms to construct new combinations, oe as Ingenuity or
fancy may suggest.















FIG.15







FIG.46

FIG.17







































































FIG.31























FIG.32











FIG.33











FIG.34







FIG.35









HAND-AND-BYE TRAINING.


































|

FIG.36



ECAC































































FIG.42



















FIG.44

Suppose, for example, that four triangles, Fig. 27, are the fundamental forms; the
children will arrange them without assistance in several ways, some in one way, some in
another, as in Figs. 36 to 39.

By adding two triangles to Fig. 38 we get Fig. 40—a good pattern for which to
use coloured papers. our triangles added to Fig. 37 give us Fig. 41. From Fig. 23 we
may develop Fig. 42; and Figs. 41 and 42 combined give us Fig. 31. Precisely in a similar





Ee a a a eS ee Te Ee Ere











































































CASSELL & COMPANY. LIMITED, LITH.LONDON.



DRAWING, CUTTING, AND MOUNTING. 31

fashion patterns may be developed from the other fundamental forms and combinations
of them. From Figs. 14, 15, and 18, Fig. 43 is formed. Similarly Figs. E, F, and G, on

Plate IV., are constructed from Figs. 14, 18, 19, and 21. Plate V. furnishes four simple
exercises in coloured paper.







































































































FIG.45

At this stage the teacher may very well introduce the drawing and cutting out of such
straight-lined letters E F HILT [Fig. 44]. If cut in paper of one colour they may be
mounted on paper of another colour—yellow on blue, for instance. : -

The foregoing, and like patterns, will probably be found of sufficient difficulty for
the average pupil of eight or nine years of age. We append one more exercise [Fig. 45] as
an example of a more advanced character. It is constructed from Figs. 18 and 21.



CHAPTER VI.

DRAWING AND COLOURING.

Tue method underlying Froebel’s system of drawing has been briefly described in Chapter
IV. Our third occupation—Drawing and Colouring—has a two-fold object. (1) A further
development of Kindergarten drawing from the most elementary forms, as shown on Plate VI.,
to the more advanced work on plain paper as shown on Plate XII. (2) To teach the practice
of colours, and the simple principles underlying their use.

(1) Drawme.—Geometry is the alphabet of drawing : hence the number of geometrical
designs given for practice on Plates VI. to XI. The figures are sufficiently well graduated to

show the method of development, and it is



only necessary to remark that—

(2) The examples are of necessity drawn
to a small scale; and, in practice, especially
at first, they should be drawn to a scale at
least twice the dimensions of those here



used. Portions of each may be taken as





introductory practice before attempting the
FIG.46 more complete forms.

(d) Chequered paper and ruler may ~

be used for a considerable time; but, as the pupil gains in confidence and skill, he may con-

struct his own guide lines with ruler and set squares, till, finally, all helps are withdrawn.

(c) Plate X. introduces

the use of the compasses.

The learner will need some

preliminary practice in the

use of this important tool

before attempting finished de-
signs.

y
1
1
1
l
'
!
1
1
=
i
1
1
1
t
t

(@) The guide lines on
Plate XI. at 60° should be
drawn by the pupil, using set



squares cut to the necessary angles. These lines necessitate very accurate hand-and-eye
work,

(ec) It must be understood that the given forms do wot constitute the beginning and



DRAWING AND COLOURING. 33

the end of this course of drawing. The pupils must be encouraged to discover new com-
binations of lines, and invent new forms for themselves.

The designs on Plate XII. need a fuller explanation. The figures on the preceding
plates have been drawn with ruler and compasses only. Comparatively few drawings can



be completely finished in this way. Some part is usually “ Freehand,” and freehand
needs to be taught on some systematic plan. Just as there is an alphabet of letters, so.
there is an alphabet of lineal elements. A drawing composed of few curves may be very
difficult, another composed of many may be very easy. All depends on the nature of
the curves.

c



34 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

The simplest curve to imitate is an are, or segment, of a circle. It is the least
beautiful curve. The curve of the ellipse is more beautiful, but that of the oval js
more beautiful still. The latter curves require greater skill for their construction.

So soon as a child can draw a straight line, either with the ruler or freehand, the
simple are of a circle may be practised. At first it should be drawn by the aid of a line,
then without such aid, though the line may afterwards be added as a test of accuracy.
The ares should be drawn of different lengths, in different directions, and with curves of
varying curvature [Fig. 46]. A short line drawn as at a will show whether the curve is
symmetrical. The next step is the combination of two of the preceding curves. ‘The lines
on which the curves are to be constructed must be drawn of various lengths, and then
subdivided into two, three, or four parts, so as to give variety in the exercise [Fig. 47].

The drawing of curves, however, does not interest children very much, and where
there is no pleasure there is little profit. Hence, from the very first, the curves should be
arranged to form simple figures, which can be coloured with lines, or with French chalk, as
shown later on. Figs. 48 to 56 are examples of such figures. They may-be multiplied
indefinitely.

After considerable practice has been given in these more elementary figures, such
forms as those given in Plate XII. may be attempted. The geometrical bases, and the
method of construction of each of the forms A, B,C, D, E, F, are shown in Figs. 57 to 62: they
require but little explanation. One figure [say Fig. D] may be taken to illustrate the
whole. Draw tbe square, and the working lines as in the figure [Fig. 60]—using ruler and
compasses; next mark the points as seen on the top left hand small square in all the four’
squares, The richt hand top square gives the next step, showing the use of the points and
two additional construction lines. It is best to put in these minor construction lines as
required, so as to avoid confusion. The two curves shown should now be drawn in each
section, and carefully balanced, as they form the groundwork of the design. The lower
left hand square shows the next curve to be added in each section, and the right hand
square gives the section complete.

Before colour is applied, the construction lines must be removed; and to prevent too
great a disturbance of the surface of the paper when using the rubber, these lines should
be drawn very lightly indeed. It will be a great advantage, as before suggested, to take
pieces of these designs, and draw to a much larger scale, before attempting the more
ecmplete figure.

There are two or three points which need attention in “Freehand” drawing generally.
An H or HB pencil should be used, and in length it should never be less than ¢hree or |
four inches. It must be held firmly, but not clutched, and at least one inch from the
pointed end. The lines should be constructed with free strokes, not with dots, and these
can he obtained only when the pencil is held properly, and the wrist and fingers have free
play. A good curve can never be produced so long as the hand is held in a cramped























































































Rise a
rea Lo
eet
a :
ic Gee
aS 8 2 a ee.
| ieee ee es
Sete
Se aoe eo oe ae
a = ae ee te
{eee et
et ee et ae
Toe :_ on
Ae ll Le Po a Se al i a
oe COSA
SCZ as 2 2S SS
preheater
ral a A | OK oe
CPR BSP Sas esr
EASES PRP RPL
Eee eee | eee a
ys SSS
PEER EERE EHEREE









FIG.58

57

FIG



FIG.60°

FIG.59



62

FIG,



61

FIG



36 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

position. When rubbing out, rub lightly in the direction of the line, and not across it.
A soft medium-sized piece of rubber is best.

(2) Conourtne.—Colour is applied for two reasons; first, because, when rightly
applied, it is an additional beauty ; and secondly, because it assists in distinguishing, and
separating form. If, for example, a number of vases of various shapes, but all coloured
blue, are placed together, some difficulty will be experienced in distinguishing each
separate form. If, however, the vases are variously coloured, the difficulty is diminished.

It is usual to speak of the three colours, red, yellow, and blue, as primary colours,
because they cannot be formed by any combination of other colours ; while, on the other hand,
all other colours are formed from admixtures of these colours. A mixture of any two
primaries forms what is called a secondary colour. Thus :—

Red + Yellow = Orange.
Yellow + Blue = Green.
*Red + Blue = Purple
Orange, green, and purple are the secondary colours.

If these are again mixed in pairs, the so-called ¢ertiary colours are produced. Thus :—

Orange + Green = Citrine.

Orange + Purple = Russet.

Green + Purple = Olive.
Citrine, russet, and olive are called tertiary colours.

Each tertiary is composed of the three primaries, one of which predominates. Thus,
russet—formed by mixing purple (red and blue) with
orange (red and yellow)—contains one part each of
blue and yellow, and two parts of red.

Some idea of each tint may be gained by con-
structing a diagram (Fig 63), and filling in the
colours. It will be seen that the inner circle contains
the primary colours, the intermediate ring the secon-
dary, and the outer ring the tertiary colours. The
diagram also shows how the secondary colours are
formed from the primary, and the tertiary from both.

Further, we learn from the diagram what colours
harmonise—that is, form an agreeable contrast with

FIG.63 each other—or “go well together.” They will be

found opposite to each other. Thus, blue contrasts

with the secondary orange, and is found exactly opposite to it. Red contrasts with

green, and yellow with purple. Again, the secondary colours contrast with the opposite
tertiaries—orange with olive, purple with citrine, and green with russet.





DRAWING AND COLOURING. 37

When colours harmonise the effect of each is increased. If a red wafer be placed
on a sheet of paper tinted green, the red will appear redder, and the green greener, than
when viewed alone.

To produce a harmony of colour the presence of all three primary colours is necessary,
either pure, or in combination. But the colours are not mixed in equal proportion. The
footnote * will give some idea of the mixing proportions, but generally the pupil will
test the colours as described later on.

Colouring with Chalks.—The first exercise in colowring-—viz. , with coloured chalks, is
but a continuation of the Kindergarten colouring. No mixtures will be necessary
because chalks are prepared in all the necessary colours; but the principles above
enunciated will prevent the pupil from applying colours in close proximity, which do
‘not harmonise. We will assume that the figures have been constructed on the rough side
of good tough cartridge paper; the only other necessary articles are soft French chalk,t
and a paper stump.

The colour may be applied in one of two ways. First by drawing parallel lines over
the surface to be covered with the chalk itself. These lines must be drawn quite close
together, and as daghtly as possible. The primary object in colouring with chalks is to
get the colour lightly sprinkled as a fine dust over the entire surface. The chalk is
then rubbed down with the paper stump until an even tint is obtained. The rubbing
must not be too hard, or the surface will assume a glossy appearance, which we wish
to avoid. Secondly, the chalk may be put on in powder—produced by scraping, or rubbing
the stick on a piece of rough paper—with the stump direct. In this case also the colour
should be laid on as lightly as possible, not putting on too much colour at a time, and
then lightly rubbed. This is much the best method in all cases, but especially when very
soft chalks are used. Whatever method is adopted, the most important point is to apply
the colour evenly and lightly.

Before attempting to colour such “forms,” as those shown in the plates, some
preliminary practice will be needed. Draw squares with fine light lines, an inch, or an
inch-and-a-half, in the side, and fill m with different tints. Take the yellow first as
being the easier colour to put on, then the orange, brown, blue, and soon. To complete
the exercise draw firm lines over the light lines, which form the outlines of the squares.

* Field’s. Chromatic Equivalents—The primaries of equal intensities will harmonise in the proportions of 3
yellow, 5 red, and 8 blue, The secondaries in the proportions of the sum of their constituent primaries—viz.,
8 orange, 18 purple, 11 green, and similarly the tertiaries in the proportions of ‘the sum of their constituent
secondaries—viz., 19 citrine, 21 russet, and 24 olive. Each secondary being of compound of two primaries, is
neutralised by the remaining primary in the same proportions, thus § of orange by 8 of blue, 11 of green by 5 of
red, and 18 of purple by 8 of yellow; and so of the tertiaries. When a full colour is contrasted with one of
a lower tone, the volume of the latter must be proportionately increased. :

+ The common-coloured chalks for blackboard work answer very well on cartridge paper, when put
on with the stump. For superior work use French pastels.



38 HAND-AND-EHYH TRAINING.

For a second exercise, a hexagon may be divided into six equal triangles, each of
which may be coloured as indicated in Fig. 64.

A more elementary method of colouring spaces is that of filling in with fine close
parallel lines of different colours [Fig. 65]. The lines may be made with coloured crayons
—those enclosed in cedar will be the best for this purpose—or with coloured inks, or
water-colours, using the ruling pen.

Colouring with Water-colours.—For the application of water-colours we shall need,
in addition to the necessary colours, brushes and palettes. The paper should be strong,
and have a moderately rough surface. Cardboard and paper, with smooth glossy surfaces,
are not at all suitable for “laying on washes.” If cartridge paper is used it should be



FIG.64



of good quality, or the surface washes up when the colour is applied. For more advanced
work use Whatman’s hand-made paper. It is better suited than any other kind to
receive water-colour. It is made in three degrees—“‘rough,”’ “ not,” and “ hot-pressed.”
The “not” is best suited to our purpose. The right side may be determined by
holding the sheet between the eye and the light, so that the maker’s name can be read.

The paper should be fastened firmly to the board with drawing-pins, so as to keep it as
flat as possible while the colour is being put on,

When important and careful drawings are required it is much better to “strain” the
paper. This is done as follows:—Take a sheet of paper, an inch or two larger than the
drawing-board. Lay it on the table right side downwards, with a newspaper or towel
under it. Place the drawing-board over the sheet, and cut out the comers as in the
figure [Fig. 66]. Remove the board, and with a sponge and clean water thoroughly wet
the back of the paper. Allow the water to remain on for a short time, and then sponge it
off again. Now lay the board on again, paste round the edges of the sheet, and turn them
over on to the back of the board. Lay aside in a cool room to dry. Wetting the paper



Vil





















































DRAWING AND COLOURING. 39

causes it to expand, and, as it dries, the contraction will strain it tightly on the board.
A very firm surface is obtained in this way.

About three brushes will be required (Nos. 8, 6, and 4). _ They may be of camel hair.
Those in tin are better than those in quills. If possible one of red sable hair (No. 3)
should also be obtained. Sable hair brushes are much better than camel hair, especially for
small work, as they keep good firm points, and so prevent the colour running over the
edges. Brushes with firm points should always be chosen. Always wash them thoroughly
after use. Never allow the colour to dry in them.

Let the palettes be of good size. Those made of china, sloping, with about four divi-
sions, will be the most useful. Each division should hold at least a dessert-spoonful of water.

Of colours, five only are necessary to produce the tints used in the plates of this book ;
but of course others may and should be introduced. They are indigo blue, light red,
erimson lake, yellow ochre, and brown—either vandyke brown or sepia. The hard cake
colours will be found more suitable than either moist colours or tubes.

‘A supply of clean water, and blotting-paper folded three or four times, will also be

necessary.
\ It will require considerable practice to enable the pupil to prepare tints which properly
harmonise. Blue and yellow mixed produce green ; but it is easy to see that by varying
the proportions of the constituent colours we can make a very large number of shades of
green. The green in the plates is made up of about two parts of yellow to one of blue.
?? oveen, like the colour of the leaves in spring-time. If more blue be added
the green will become ‘ colder”? and heavier. In preparing secondary colours it is better to
mix the primaries separately, and then add the one to the other in small quantities until the
proper tint is obtained.

It is a * warm

In preparing the designs for colouring, the pencil outlines should be drawn very lightly
with an H or HB pencil. If the pencil line is thick and heavy some of the “ lead” will
wash off when the colour is applied, and sully the tint. If it becomes necessary to use the
india-rubber, this also should be applied very lightly, or the surface of the paper will be
disturbed and the colour will “sink in” at these places, causing a patchy appearance. It is
scarcely necessary to add that the paper should never be rubbed while wet.

When all the colouring is finished, and the paper is quite dry, the outlines may be
drawn firmly, so as to hide the rough edges and separate the tints distinctly. The division
lines may be of pencil, or brown colour. In the latter case the ruling pen must be used.

Preliminary exercises, as described under “Colouring with Chalks,” will be of great
advantage.

; In the actual ee of colouring the greatest difficulty usually is to keep the washes
smooth and clear. With perseverance and strict attention to the three following rules, the
difficulty may soon be overcome :—

1. Mix the colours thoroughly, and lay chai on in thin wastes:



40 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

2, Always damp the paper before putting on the colour.

3, When once a wash of colour has been put.on, never touch it in any a until the
whole is quite dry.

The first rule is very important, and the neglect of it is often the source of failure,
and consequent disappointment.

The colours should be mixed in this way. Put a little water into one of the palettes,
and then rub the cake Jightly in it, until the tint seems of sufficient strength. Lay
the cake on one side, and stir the mixture thoroughly with a brush. A strip of the.
tint should now be tried on a piece of scrap paper, and allowed to dry. The exact
strength can then be seen. If too dark add more water;. if too pale, more colour.
Looking at the tint in the palette does not give much idea of its strength—it should always
be tried in this way. Rather let the tint bé too light than too dark. It is much easier to
put colour on than to take it off. If two tints are being used they should be tried side by
side, to see if they harmonise—exactly as two pieces of ribbon would be put together. Tf
colour is allowed to stand, if only for a little while, it will be seen that a sediment falls to
the bottom, just as in muddy water; so that it not only requires well mixing at first,
but every time a fresh brushful of the colour is taken.

When two colours—such as blue and yellow—are mixed together great care must be
taken in using the mixture, as the blue, being the heavier, soon sinks to the bottom, and
leaves the yellow at the top. If the brush is dipped just into the top of this mixture,
yellow is obtained, not green. Always mix up a sufficient quantity of colour to complete
the design. It is better to have too much than too little. If smooth colouring is required
the washes must be kept very thin.

When the colours are mixed ready to put on, take one of the larger brushes, with clean
water in it, and wet the space about to be coloured. Let the water remain on for three or
four seconds, then take up the moisture from the surface with blotting paper. This will
leave the paper damp, but not wet. Lay on the colour at once (not forgetting to stir
it), taking the brush from left to right, and working from top to bottom. Work
as quickly as possible, so that no one part shall dry while another part is being done.
The brush should only be moderately full of colour—not so full as to
cause the colour to form pools, nor so dry as to cause the hairs to

separate. Draw it over the edge of the palette two or three times when a
fresh brushful is taken.



When a second wash is required the paper may be damped again
as before, but only when the first wash is quite dry.
If two spaces like a and B [Fig. 67] are to be coloured with different

tints, the colour in a must be allowed to get quite dry before any is
applied to zB, or the two tints will run together.



FIG.67

When the whole space has been covered with colour, do not touch any part of it, ether



DRAWING AND COLOURING. 41

with a brush, or with blotting paper, while it is wet. If the wash is inclined to be “ patchy,”
this will only make it worse. Let it get guite dry before attempting to make any altera-
tion. A-wash which appears uneven while wet often dries quite smoothly.

However much care is taken, a tint may be too dark, or uneven; but these defects can be
remedied in several ways. Wet the space, when quite dry, with clean water, put on with a
brush. Rub very lightly in every part for a second or two, and then take up the water
with blotting paper. Ora damp wash-leather wrapped round the finger will serve the same
purpose ; and if the surface is very large a sponge may be used. Of course, all other parts
of the drawing must be kept quite dry.



CHAPTER VII.

FOLDING, CUTTING, MOUNTING, DESIGNING IN FORM AND COLOUR.—SERIES Il.

Tuts occupation is a considerable advance in point of difficulty on the paper cutting
described in Chapter IV.

In some of the cuttings a sharp knife, with or without the use of a straight edge, will .
be necessary, in addition to the scissors.

The four-inch squares will again be put in requisition, and the first exercise is to
fold this paper so as to produce eight equal right angled isosceles triangles resting on

D> — — yD



- a (CCC =c Be FIG.69

each other. Let a, 3, c, p [Fig. 68] represent the square of paper. . Carry the corner, c,
over to a, and fold, and we get two triangles, ac, B, D, as inin Fig. 69. Next carry B on

to D, and thus form four triangles ac, E, BD, resting one upon another [Fig¢. 70]. Now,

AC. ee ee D E ABCD



E FIG.70 E FIG.71

fold on the line, EF, carrying the corners, ac, over to BD, thus forming eight triangles
Â¥, B, ABCD, exactly superimposed [Fig. 71].


















as a Sy
pe

an || Vi | Sey

Hi SNA NZ

ea canara





= Ball

|

NY

PN






S





Ao

Soe it eae







iG oer ss |e Ee ee eee (oe | Bs S



















ae
SNS









Ses

Zi
|

eee: i x
a mils
i |
Be
ee |



|
}
| t













































FOLDING, CUTTING, MOUNTING, DESIGNING IN FORM AND COLOUR. 43

This collection of triangles is the jirst fundamental form for this occupation. From
the above description it will be seen that all the edges of the triangles along the line,

ABCD FIG.72

E



ABCD ~ FIG.73 UE

z, ABCD, are free, no two being folded. When in use this side is turned towards the left,
and the side, azcp, £, is made the horizontal base as in Fig. 72.



To secure accuracy in cutting, lines are
drawn on the upper triangle crossing each
other, as in Fig. 73. It is not by any means
easy to divide the sides, and to draw’ these
lines correctly on the folded paper, and the



preferable plan will be to purchase paper already cross-ruled on the reverse side, as in
Fig. 74. It will be found after folding that the lines appear asin Fig. 78. All this is but

yy

)

py

f



FIG.76





preparatory work, but the folding needs to be done
with very great care, or our designs will be worthless.
We have now to draw lines on this chequered





44, HAND-AND-EYH TRAINING.

surface, to show the cutting lines. The direction of the lines is directed by the law of
opposites. First, we have the perpendicular cuts, then the horizontal, then a combination
of these two, then the oblique, and lastly, combinations of any, or all. One example of
each will suffice for illustration.

Ex. 1.-—Cut through the eight-fold triangle in the perpendicular lines, ac and Bp





















































FIG.83

[Fig. 75]. The result will be three pieces represented by Figs. 76,77, and 78. Paper of
three different tints may be distributed, and after cutting, the pieces may be exchanged,
and then recombined and mounted as in Fig. 79. /

Ex. 2.— Horizontal cuts. Cut through the triangles along the lines, aB and op
[Fig. 80], and with the pieces we can construct either of the patterns shown in Fig.
81 or 82.

Ex, 3.—The perpendicular and horizontal cuts combined, as shown in Figs. 83 and 84,
produce the patterns Figs. A and B, Plate XIII.



FOLDING, CUTTING, MOUNTING, DESIGNING IN FORM AND COLOUR. 45

















































































































































FIG.87

Ex. 4.—A good example of horizontal and oblique cuts combined is that of? Fig. 85.
In mounting from the simpler cuts, the clippings must be employed; but when, as in this



46 HAND-AND-HYE TRAINING.

case, the pattern produced [Fig. $6] is complete in itself, it would be foolish to spoil it by
additions. Fig. 87 shows this pattern repeated.
There is scarcely a limit to the number and variety of patterns which can be made by

























Fiaio.”7FSFSCSC*~CS~SG TO

folding and cutting as above described. A few other forms for cutting are here shown
[Figs. 88 to 102]. Many more may be obtained from the best Kindergarten manuals.
A second fundamental form is the six-fold equilateral triangle. This is best obtained



Plate IX

ZS vi sree



aZN
e

PN aN NS

SUH ip

SEXENENRNES afl
OCMC

Pere eee

NENA AREENS
2A



ig











a ee
[ease



KOT
1S













4



DDN
Tey

mmm) |

| eee eee
| KSRERARRES



2

~



INNINNNNINANIN SA
Pe

aes
ee
BARS SEBESKA- NEA

= CASSELL & COMPANY. LIMITED, LITH. LONDON
e



ce
DIA ATX |



VANS

















FOLDING, CUTTING, MOUNTING, DESIGNING IN FORM AND COLOUR.

by cutting the paper into regular hexagons, and then folding as shown in Figs. 103 and 104.
Carry the edge BD on toaB, making the fold along rc. Open out, and carry Bo on
?E. Open out again, and carry cD on to AF. en the sheet is spread out again
folding marks will be shown, as indicated by the broken lines. Next bring the upper half



r the lower, as shown in Fig. 104. Fold the left hand triangle backwards, and the
right hand triangle forwards, on the middle triangle. We thus get the six-fold triangle
with all the free edges at the base. On this triangle a network of guide lines is drawn
[Fig. 105], as in the first fundamental form. But, as before, it will be much more
convenient I to shape, and cross-ruled, ready e. As examples of
this kind of cutting we may take Pies. 106 and 107, which produce the forms E on Plate
XIII. and Fig. 108.

to purchase paper cut



48 ras , HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.



Figs Fiaie — ~ FiGlis——S~™~SC:~C~G LLG

Figs. 109. to 116 are further examples showing how to cut from the six-fold equi-
lateral triangle. Fig. 116 is shown on Plate XIII., pattern F.

The elder scholars may now take another
exercise, based on. this and the preceding occupa-
tions, viz., the further development of designs from
the cut forms, to be drawn on plain, or squared
paper, and coloured. This exercise opens out an im-
mense field for the exercise of the inventive faculties.
Two examples are shown on Plate XIV. The first is
developed from C, Plate XIII., the cutting of which
is shown in Fig. 101. A few lines are added, as
shown by the broken lines in Fig. 117, and the
form is repeated. The second pattern is a copy of
FIGai7 EE, Plate XIII., repeated, and of course coloured.

















































CHAPTER VIII.

DRAWING AND CUTTING SIMPLE GEOMETRICAL FORMS.

Tuts occupation, viz., the construction of the simplest Geometrical Forms, with compasses,
set squares, ruler, and pencil, on plain paper and cardboard, and the cutting out of the same
forms in cardboard with knife and straight edge, is but a preliminary to the next occupation
—modelling in cardboard and millboard.

The following are the geometrical forms required :—

l. Triangles, or three-sided figures.



FIG.118 FIG.119

The equilateral, or equal sided triangle, is formed as shown in Fig. 118. 4B is the
base of any given length. ‘With this side as radius draw ares cutting each other in c.
Join AB, BC; and aBC is the equilateral triangle. :

It may be necessary sometimes to draw triangles similar to given triangles on a given
base ; or a triangle with one side and two angles given.

To do this we have but to learn how to make one angle equal to another. Thus, to
make an.angle at r,in the line re [Fig. 119], equal to the angle asc. With centre B
draw any are ED. From rf as centre, and with same radius, draw another arc, HK.
Make nx equal to BD, and through K draw FL. LÂ¥FG is the angle required.

Fig. 120 ‘shows how one triangle, a B Cc, is constructed on a given line, Bc, similar to |
another, adc. , ;

2. Four-sided figures.—These are the square and oblong.

A square is a four-sided figure with all its sides equal, and all its angles right angles.

An odlong is a four-sided figure with all its angles right angles, but not all its sides
equal.

D



50 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

To construct a square on a given line we have to erect a perpendicular at one end— ,
an exceedingly difficult exercise to perform accurately. The perpendicular may be drawn
by using a ruler and set square, as shown in Fig. 121; but wood being liable to warp
and shrink, the tools are not often in perfect condition, and the result is seldom very

A



B Cc
FIG.120 FIG.121

satisfactory. A better method of using the set-square and ruler is shown in Fig. 122.
Having drawn the horizontal line, 4 B—using the set-square—to form the base of the square,
hold the ruler firmly, and turn the set-square as shown by the dotted lines. The set-square _
can be moved in either direction along the ruler, and any number of perpendicular lines -



FIG.122
FIG.123

ean be drawn, of course all parallel to one another.* When almost. perfect accuracy is
required the compasses must be used [Fig. 123].

Let aB be the line on which we have to construct the square. To erect a perpendicular
at the end, B, take any point, c, above the line, and with radius, cB, draw the arc, DBE.
Through the points p and c draw the line pcr, cutting the are in r. A line, BF, is per-
pendicular to as. To complete the square take aB as radius, and measure off B& equal to

' * We may also remark that horizontal parallel lines may be drawn by moving the set-squiare, in its first
position, along the ruler.



Plate Xl

ae

a Wyvys
Peso, WO
ROR DIT

| ORONO

YX





DRAWING AND CUTTING SIMPLE GEOMETRICAL FORMS. ol

AB. Then with a and @ as centres, and with same radius, describe arcs, cutting in H. Join
AH,GH. ABGH is the square required.

The oblong is drawn in exactly the same way as the square, except that the lengths
of the sides. must be measured from the géven lengths.

3. The pentagon.—To make a pentagon of one inch in the side.

Make as [Fig. 124] one inch in length, and produce an inch on either side to c and D.
With centres a and B, and one inch radius, draw the semicircles cEB, and arp. Divide the
circumference of these semicircles, by trial, into five equal parts. From a and B draw the
lines AH and BF to Band fF, the second points of division from c and D respectively. ‘Then



FIG.124 FIG.125

with one inch radius, and = and F as centres, describe arcs cutting ing. Join EG, FG, to
complete the pentagon.
4. The regular Aewagon.—To make a regular hexagon of one inch in the side.

Draw as [Fig. 125] one inch in length. With radius 43, and centres a and B, draw
ares cutting each other in c. With c as centre, and the same radius, describe a circle
through a and zB. From a, or 8, set off the radius round the circle, viz., in G, ¥, E, D.
Join the points as in the figure. The broken lines indicate that a regular hexagon is made
up of six equal equilateral triangles. This was shown also in the paper folding of the
preceding occupation.

5. The regular octagon.—To make a regular octagon on a given side, say one inch in
length.

Let aB [Fig. 126] be the given side. Produce it on each side. Erect perpendiculars
at aand B. With centres a and 3, and radius aB, draw ares cp, and er. Bisect the
ares CD and EF in G and H, as shown in the figure. ag and Bu form two more
sides of the octagon. Draw perpendiculars through @ and u—viz., lines parallel to the

D2



52 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

perpendiculars at a and B. With the given radius mark off @x, Hs, Kt,and su. Join
KL,LM,andsm. This gives the octagon required.
Fig. 127 shows how to place an octagon in a square. The side of the octagon is equal
in length to half the diagonal of
N the square. Hence, with the corners
of the square as centres, and half
the diagonal as radius, mark points
on the sides of the square as in the
figure.

When the scholars have be-
come proficient in drawing these
forms, they may construct them
on plain or coloured cardboard for



the purpose of cutting out. For
this last occupation scissors may
be used if the cardboard is thin ;
but a sharp knife and straight edge

cee eI Nas ec a Ss ee eee eee



be---------.

=e are preferable; and the best sur-

FIG.126 face on which to cut is a square of
stout glass. The pupil should not
attempt to cut through the material at one stroke, for two reasons: first, because the
knife can be guided more easily with a light
eut; and secondly, because the force required
to eut through at one stroke would pro-
bably disarrange either the cardboard, or the
straight edge, or both. Several light cuts
give better results than one or two heavy
ones.

A good exercise preparatory to the model-
ling in cardboard is to bind the edges of the
cut pieces, first with coloured gummed paper
in strips, and then with bookbinder’s cloth,
fastening the latter with glue.* The strips
of cloth will need to be cut with accuracy,
and the glue must be applied with great care,
or the work will be spoiled. a

* To prepare glue, it should be broken up into small pieces, and steeped for twelve hours in just sufficient
water to cover it. It should then be heated, and more water added until it becomes of a uniform consistency—
just thick enough to run freely from the brush in a continuous stream, without breaking into drops. The glue



DRAWING AND CUTTING SIMPLE GEOMETRICAL FORMS. 53

As a test of accuracy in cutting, the pieces cut from cardboard of different tints may
be arranged to form patterns, one example of which is given in Fig. 128.









Ze
_



SN
eae:
Yy YY Yj

So —<





a



should be applied when quite hot, The glue-pot consists of two pots, one placed within the other; the inner pot
contains the glue; the outer contains water. By this arrangement the glue can never be heated above the boiling
point of water. Otherwise the glue would become hard, and useless, ‘“ Liquid glue’’—viz., a composition pre-
pared ready for use at any time—may be purchased. It answers exceedingly well, but is more expensive than
common glue.



CHAPTER IX.

MODELLING IN CARDBOARD AND MILLBOARD.

Tuts is, perhaps, the most interesting and the most effective of all the suggested occu-
pations.

The first exercises embrace the construction of the simpler regular prisms and
pyramids, of which examples are given in Figs. 129, 131, 185,-and 140.

With accurate drawing, these forms are much less difficult to construct than appears

at first sight. Inaccurate drawing will render every attempt to make an accurate model
futile.

FIG.180



Ex. 1.—To construct regular prisms. Take the triangular prism [Fig. 129] as an
example. Fig. 180 shows the plan of construction. Let the equilateral triangle, « Bc,
represent the base of the prism. On ac construct a rectangle, acc’a’, equal in
length and breadth to one side of the prism, and produce a c and a’ c’ both ways to ¢
and u and & and 7, making A G, cH, a’ B, and c’ ¥, each equal to one side of the triangle.
Join @¢ Band uF. Ona’c’ construct the equilateral triangle a’ c’ Bn’. Now cut out the
whole figure with a sharp knife as described in the last chapter, and then cut partly through







MODELLING IN CARDBOARD AND MILLIBOARD. 55

the cardboard in the lines of foldng—viz., a’ oc’, 4 4’, cc',ac. [This partial eut will prevent
the cardboard from breaking irregularly when folded.}] Lastly, fold as in Fig. 129.

in i a a ee cre ec ee se

_—" ~~



FIG.131_



“FIG.132

To fasten the cut edges accurately is the most difficult and tedious part of the work. If

the cardboard is fairly thick, glue will hold the edges together with sufficient ‘tenacity to

allow of a strip of paper, or of book-
binder’s cloth, being pasted or glued
along the edges, as shown in Plate
XV. When the’ cardboard is thin,
fasten a narrow strip of thicker card-
board along one of the inner edges—
flush with the edge in the case of the
square prism, but making a slight
allowance for the angle in other cases.
One or two trials will show how this
may be done. When the remaining
edges have been bound in the same
way, the model will be firm and
strong. Other prisms may be con-
structed in exactly the same way.
Fig. 181 shows a pentagonal prism,
and Fig. 132, its plan of construction.



|
®
|



FIG.133 _

An application of the method of construction used for the square prism is the manufacture



56 HAND-AND-EYEH TRAINING.

of cardboard boxes. The plan of construction for a box 6” long, 3” wide, and 2” deep
is shown in Fig. 183; that of the lid is shown in Fig. 134. The lid must be a little
longer and broader than the box—two thicknesses of cardboard in each case—and the

strip which makes the sides should be about half an inch in width.
Ex 2.—To construct regular pyramids. Take, for example, the square pyramid [ig.
135]. Fig. 136 shows the plan of construction. Given that the base is 3” in the

S








FIG.135 A
B
A (4) A () Fig.s9 i
side, and height of the pyramid required is 5”. Construct the square ABCD on the side BC

which measures 3”.

To find the exact height, construct another square of equal area on a sheet of paper
[Fig. 137]. Draw the diagonals ac, BD. Measure off half the length of one of these
diagonals, B B, on another line, Bc [Fig. 158], and erect a perpendicular at B equal to the
height of the required pyramid. Join az, az will be the length of one side of the
pyramid measured from one of the angles at the base to the apex, aB [Fig. 135].
Bisect the side aD [Fig. 136] and produce the bisecting line. Then with centres a and pb,



MODELLING IN CARDBOARD AND MILLBOARD. 57°

and a radius equal to a [Fig. 138], cut the line in =. With © as centre, and same radius,
describe the are F H, and measure off ar, DG, GH, each equaltoap. Jom EF, BA, ED, EG,
BH. Cut out the square and the four triangles as one form, and then cut the cardboard
partly through along the lines pa, BD, BG, and ap, and proceed to fold up as before. In



FIG.141



FIG,140

binding the edges of all the forms, cut the strips so that there shall be no overlapping
at the corners; the edges should meet, and not overlap, as shown in Fig. 139 (a), (4), (¢).

Figs. 140 and 141 show the form and construction of a hexa-
gonal pyramid.

Ex. 3.—The obelisk is an application of the method of
construction used for the pyramids.

Fig. 142 represents two obelisks mounted on a square block,
and surmounted by a square pyramid. A convenient size for a
small model is as follows:—The square block to be 4” in the side,
and 2” in height; the first obelisk 3” square at the base, 24”
square at the top, and 2” in height; the second obelisk 13" square
at the bottom, 14” square at the top, and 4” in height, and the
square pyramid 1” in height.

The square block is constructed by the method shown in Fig.
130. The obelisk is but a part of a long pyramid, and its con-
struction is somewhat similar. Let az, Fig. 143, represent one
side of the block B, 3” in length. Bisect as, and at the dis-
tance of 2”—the height of the block—draw the line, cp, parallel to az. Cut off zc and
xD each equal to 14" — giving together 24”, the length of the side of top of the







fk

58 _ HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

block.* Through the points, 4 and c, and also through B and p, draw lines meeting in F; F
is the apex of the square pyramid, of which block Bis the lower portion. With centre F,
and distance, Fra, draw the are KH, and with same centre and ro as radius, draw. the

F

FIG,143





are NM. On Ku set off ax, BG, GH, each equal to aB; and on nu set off cn, DL, Lu, each
equal to cp. Join aK, BG, GH, CN, DL, LM, KN, Gt, uM. The trapeziums thus made form
the sides of the block. To form the base and the top, construct squares on aB and CD, as
indicated in the figure. Cut out as already shown, and partly cut through on the lines ac,
BD, GL, cD, and AB,

Block ¢ is constructed exactly in the same way, excepting the square pyramid at the
top, for which see Fig. 144. - [The length of the side of the square pyramid, aé, is found, as
shown in Figs. 137 and 138.]

* The length of the side is here taken as the height. If absolute accuracy is required the length of the
side must be found, as shown in Figs. 137 and 188. :





CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, LITH.LONDON,



MODELLING IN MILLBOARD AND CARDBOARD. 59

The models, A, B, C, D, E, shown on Plate XV., are all constructed exactly as above
described. They should be executed in stout cardboard of one colour, and bound with book-

binder’s cloth of another colour. The models
Aand B, Plate XVI., are two out of many pos-
sible applications of the given methods to make
The plan of
construction for A to be drawn on the card-

articles useful or ornamental.

board is shown in Fig. 145, and the plan of
The broken
lines in each case show the lines of folding.
The shelves for A, and the upright parti-

construction for B in Fig. 146.

.tions for B, must be cut separately.

In the second model, B, the two upright
pieces, forming the divisions of the paper-
rack, can be kept exactly in position by glue-
ing strips of cardboard on the bottom and
sides, and leaving room between the strips to
form a shallow groove into which the pieces can
be fitted. In both models the binding cloth
will keep the parts in their proper position.

Working in millboard is laborious com-





“

: 4
><-!!





“

Q
a

Lie

n

—---—f

FIG.145 (4)

pared with working in cardboard, because the material is very hard and difficult to cut;
but, when finished, the models more than repay for the extra labour in their greater





|
|
I
1
1

1
Height of Back Partition

!
{ Height of Front Partition

14

---------6
eo cae

K-



FIG.146 > (@)





Back Partition



Front Partition





60 HAND-AND-HYH TRAINING.

firmness and durability. As a rule, it is best to cut the pieces completely through, and not
trust to folding. The model from which C was drawn was constructed by partial folding
[see Fig. 147]. The lines were drawn, as shown, on the
cardboard. The V-shaped pieces at the corners, represent-
ing angles of 30°, were cut out, and the. edges bevelled.
Then V-shaped grooves were cut along the lines aB, BO,
cD, DA, to a considerable depth in the millboard, and
lastly, cuts were made on the other side along the same
lines to prevent a broken edge where the millboard was
bent up to form the tray. When the corners are glued
up, the sides must be kept in their places by tying with
string till the glue is firm. The edges may then be bound,
or, indeed, the whole surface may be covered with book-
binder’s cloth. ,
The box, Fig. D, is formed of rectangles. In Fig.
148 (a) is the plan, (4) is a side elevation, and (c) an end
“ial elevation. The projecting piece over which the lid fits is
the upper part of a shell, or lining, of millboard covering
all the sides of the box. The lid has the same dimensions as the box, except that itis but
one inch deep. The whole is bound and covered, inside and out, with bookbinder’s cloth.

ken 2
|
!
'
1

|
1
1
t
1
1
sal
SI
>
I

e-->kKe- - -



nD
~



L AL 1
ae

fe
Fig.zas, (2)



Further exercises can be found in various kinds of wall-brackets, but in constructing

such models the shelf, or shelves, and the supports must be let into a groove cut in the
back.



CHAPTER IX.

MODELLING IN CLAY.

Or all the ‘ Plays” invented by Froebel none is better calculated to cultivate habits of
accurate observation, neatness, cleanliness, hand dexterity, and artistic taste, than modelling.
Man is a constructive being, and he is but the boy of larger growth. Children are fond
of representing objects by lines; but to make the things themselves has attractions still
greater. Witness the delight of children to build houses and castles in the sand. The
production of forms of ornament and utility from plastic material was one of the earliest
and most natural occupations of the human race; and has served as the starting-point of
all plastic art. Nor is work in plastic material too difficult for young children. It is
easier than drawing. ‘In drawing, the apparent form is shown by using lines in a more
or less conventional way, which is somewhat puzzling. With plastic material the length
and breadth and thickness of the object may be exactly reproduced. The position of the
worker, too, is free and unrestrained, and something tangible is the outcome.of the child’s
efforts. The manipulation of clay is especially suitable for those whose age and strength
preclude the use of tools in the workroom.”

Several kinds of plastic material are used in modelling—clay, terra-cotta clay, wax,
gutta-percha, &c.—but for a school course the ordinary grey clay used by the pipe
manufacturer is the best. It is cheap,* easily worked, and can be kept in good condition
with a minimum of attention. Terra-cotta clay is sometimes preferred because it is cheaper;
but it is much less smooth to work, and is liable to greater shrinkage.

A good many works have been written on modelling as an art, and some are addressed
ostensibly to beginners ; but as most of them suggest a foot, or a hand, or even a face as
the first model, it is very evident that no school course can be worked out by following
such guides.

Our aim in this, as in the other occupations, is to introduce clay into all our schools—



secondary as well as elementary—as a means of Hand-and-Eye Training, and in such a
manner as to require but little, if any, special training on the part of the ordinary
teacher in the preliminary stages.

The first object is to keep the clay in good condition for working. To ¢es¢ it, cut off a

small slice with a piece of wire, roll this into a ball, and press this ball between finger and

* Bought direct from the manufacturer it costs about one halfpenny a pound.



62 HAND-AND-EYEH TRAINING.

thumb. If the finger and thumb meet easily, and you can separate them, without any”
portion of the clay adhering, it is in a good working state. [On receipt from the manufacturer
always test in this way.] It can be kept in good condition by the very simple expedient
of covering it with moist flannel, or rag; but this covering will require daily attention. A

slab of slate or stone, with a tin-lined cover, to put

on and take off [Fig. 149], is the best receptacle.
Sa 149.




| —— fi |___T'o prepare the flannel or rag, dip it into clean water,

py and wring lightly until it ceases to drip. Place this



al eee closely over the clay, and on the slab ; and put the
whole in a cool place. A couple of minutes’ atten-
tion, morning and evening, by one of the elder
pupils, will probably keep the clay in proper condition for working.

Neglect will cause the clay to become hard and brittle: too much water will make it
sticky, and dirty, and wet. These defects may, however, be remedied. Should the clay
become hard, break it in pieces about the size of a penny loaf, and place in a, pail of water.
Cover, and leave for a couple of hours, then pour the water off, take out the pieces, work
them again into a mass with the hands, and leave the mass for a day exposed to the air.
Work it up again the next day, and it will probably be now fit for use. Never attempt
to dry clay by the fire. It will be spoiled for future use.

Should the clay become sticky by the application of too much moisture, expose it to
the air for a day or two, and knead it several times. Or, work in a little dry clay in the
state of a fine powder. The above are, of course, but general rules. The condition of the
clay is very much dependent upon the amount of moisture in the atmosphere, and the
treatment must be modified accordingly. One thing is quite certain —it is absolutely
useless to try modelling in clay unless the clay is in a proper workable condition.

The next question we have to consider is the distribution of clay to the scholars. Cut
it into the requisite number of pieces of the size required for the lesson, using a piece of
copper wire—say half a yard—with handles, in the same way as a cheesemonger cuts his
cheese. Place the pieces on a wooden tray for distribution. The modelling may be done
on a proper modelling board; or, an old slate without the frame will answer very well.
Moisten with a damp sponge when necessary to make the clay adhere.

As a means of education, clay may be used in the ordinary class. If possible, several
models should be provided ; but failing this, the one model must be placed in full view of
the whole class. The teacher will work at the same time with the children, pausing at
the different steps to show, to help, and to advise. When children are taught in large
classes great care and method are requisite. One model only can be attempted, and a

careful adjustment of time is necessary, so that the model may be completed in the given
time.

yp

This course would be impracticable were we training children to become sculptors, but



Plate XV



COMPANY LIMITED, LITH.LONDON.

CASSEL! 2



MODELLING IN CLAY. 63

our school course is simplified by the fact that we want the training that results from the
work rather than the work itself.

In the earlier lessons the lump of clay supplied should be of about the proper size to
complete the given model. After the lesson, which should not ‘oceupy less than an
hour, the clay models may be collected; and all,,except a very few of the best to be
preserved,* may be again worked into the mass for future use. Models that need the work
of two or three sittings are useless with large classes. The storage room needed, and the
amount of attention required to keep unfinished models in a proper condition present
insurmountable difficulties.

As to the mode of working the clay into given shapes, a modeller usually duzlds up
his model by successive additions to the first piece; but practice with children seems to
show that we must adopt a simpler plan in the first stage, and this simpler plan is to require
the whole piece of clay supplied to the child to be shaped into the required form. Simple
solids, modelled into form by the hands only, may first be given, and then others modelled
with the aid of the slab on which the child works, or by the addition of a piece of slate
for rolling into spherical and cylindrical forms. These forms may be rendered characteristic
by the additions of simple ornamentations by finger and thuméd.

In the second stage models may be given which require to be built up; but even here
the additions should be entirely subordinate to the main figure, which in itself should
show skill.

In both these stages the work is entirely ‘‘in the round”?—that is, in the solid
unattached form. The flat, or “relief,”’+ work, taken too soon with beginners, is apt to lead
to too much cutting away—a method which belongs rather to the carver than the modeller.

In the third stage simple “relief”? modelling will be taken.

This work will probably require some training on the part of the teacher, and we
therefore simply append the following general directions :—

1. Make the clay slab in proportion to the model to be copied.

2, Make a drawing of the copy on the slab with a tool.

3. Take a portion of clay, according to relief of the model, and work freely with thumb
and finger until the general shape of the required piece is obtained. Model the highest
and lowest pots first. [These form the key by which to work the rest.]

4, Never build to exactly the correct height at first. Allow one-fourth of an inch, or
80, ee the addition of detail.

. See that the proportions of the whole are correct before adding details.

6 Press the clay, when working, as firmly as possible, so as to knead well together, and

not leave the clay lumpy. .

* For preservation, let them stand for a few days, then dry in the sun, or bake in a slow oven, and coat
with varnish, or gum arabic.
+ Relief—viz,, projecting from the general ‘surface or ground on which it is formed.



64 AND-AND-HYH TRAINING.

7. Use only the first finger and. thumb, and disregard the use of tools until the last,

when they may be used for sharpening up the general outline.
The fingers are the chief instruments used in modelling, and their proper use is the most
essential feature in this occupation. [Beyond the slab, already referred to, a small wooden
knife and a little water, or a damp sponge, and perhaps an apron and sleeves for cleanliness
sake, no other tool or material need be introduced for a long time.] They must be kept
clean; if allowed to become sticky, freedom of work is lost. The first finger should be kept
damp to make the clay— which is worked between this finger and the thumb — more
pliable. Heavy work, such as building up, should be done mainly with the thumb; but
additions, in the shape of light ornament, should be put on with the finger. In making
additions the clay may be shaped to a certain extent before being placed in position.

With regard to the models, those for the earlier stages may be supplied in wood ; for the
later stages there are plenty in “ plaster of Paris” in the market.

The method suggested above for introducing this subject necessitates that we begin
with the sphere as the first typical model. This should be formed by rolling the clay—the
whole piece supplied—in the palms of the hands, and also on the board or slate. supplied.
After a little practice it will be found that the children can produce a fairly true sphere.

' Numerous exercises may be developed from this. The large ball may be divided, and
two, four, six, or more balls made from it, as nearly as possible of the same size. Marbles
may be given of different sizes, and the children may be asked to construct balls of nearly
as possible the same sizes. Or they may get an exercise in proportion, by graduating the
size of the balls, say 1”, 3", £”, £” in diameter, &c. And, lastly, the children who show more
aptitude may model a potato, an egg, a pear, a cherry, a bunch of grapes, a plum, or
even an apple, though the latter is rather a difficult subject.

These fruits may be modelled from natural examples, or, where these are not to hand,

from wooden models. The stalks of the fruits will need to be

as: modelled and placed on as additions.
Our second typical model will be the eyZénder [Fig. 150]. This

will be produced by rolling, &c.; and, as in the case of the sphere,
the time of several lessons will be occupied with developments from
the original. A pencil-box, a cigar, a candle, bottles are direct;
while jelly pots, honey jars, and vases, all in the solid, are less
direct developments [Figs. 151-159].

The third typical model is our old Kindergarten friend the
cube. And here we begin to work to exact dimensions. Plans
and elevations of slabs, square prisms, and other simple right-
lined objects must be drawn on the modelling board or slate as
guides to accurate working. [The modelling knife will be useful in forming angles
and edges.] As examples we suggest, in addition to the cube and square prism, slabs

FIG. 150



MODELLING IN CLAY. 85

of different dimensions, square canister, cross, obelisk, book, hexagonal bottle, &c. [see
Figs. 160— De



FIG. 151. FIG, 152, FIG. 153. FIG. 154. FIG. 155.







From the typical models again, separately or in combination, other forms may be con-
structed. From a slice taken off the side of the sphere a saucer and small plate, or even the
concave and convex surface of a shell, may be modelled [Fig. 166].



em




FIG. 158. FIG. 159.

FIG. 160. FIG. 164.

The latter objects, however, are much better done by building up and shaping out on a
slab. If a modelling board is used, the simplest possible plan for constructing the slab
is to tack on a framework of the required dimensions. Then fill in and remove the super-
fluous clay with a straight edge. On this slab an outline drawing must be made of the
object to be modelled, with a tvol.

B



66 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

The wooden tools will be needed here to form the radiation on the shells, and to give
sharpness to the general outline. Then, again, a pen-tray may be constructed from the
half of a cylinder. Similarly, with slight additions, the cup and nut of the acorn may
be formed, a child’s cup and ball, a nine-pin, &e. ,









































FIG. 161. FIG. 163. FIG. 162. FIG. 165.

The tools used are very varied. Most modellers make their own. Fig. 167 (1,2, 3, 4,5, 6)
represents a few of the more common.

- There is no need for further illustration, because the pupil may now turn to the

- elementary casts specially prepared for the purpose of teaching modelling. But two other

points have particularly to be noted. (1) Whatever models are given the teacher must not



























Concare.

Convex,
FIG. 166.
be content with a reproduction of the original size only—that would be very mechanical
work ; and (2) the children must be encouraged to make original designs.
? * 7 . . : . . .
ne may add here a word as to cleanliness in modelling. After every exercise wash
with a piece of wet linen every tool that has been used, and cleanse the sponge.
San are made to this occupation because “it is so much trouble,” or “it is dirty
rayir 4: ” 7 7 7 7 Ss . . .
work.” Certainly it is a trouble, but what is there worth doing which is not.a trouble?





CASSELL &Y COMPANY, LIMITED, LITH. LONDON



MODELLING IN CLAY. 67

With a slight but watchful attention, and the regular method here pointed out, the trouble is
reduced to a minimum. It is in a certain sense “ dirty work,” too ; but is all the work in the
world clean work? And have we not here an excellent means of inculeating lessons of care-
fulness, tidiness, and cleanliness. True it is that bits of clay will stick to the fingers, and
to the little wooden knives; but from this may we not learn that the soiled blouse of the
artisan, and the horny hand of the peasant, only supply us with a key to the man’s daily
occupation, not to his inward worth. ,

The educational value of modelling far more than compensates for its slight disadvan-
tages. It is the best method of training the observing faculties. ‘ Let a child form a horse

1 2 3 4 5 yee
Front. Side. Front. Side. Front. Side.
FIG. 167.
in clay, however awkward his attempt may be, his idea of a horse, of its different parts, and
of their relations to each other will be rendered a thousand times clearer and more definite ;
and the inducement to examine real horses himself will be made a thousand times stronger
by these attempts than by any amount of contemplating pictures of horses.” * Jt is the
hest language of form we have. Measurement of solids is a mere abstraction compared with
the knowledge clay-modelling gives.

And then by careful attention, diligence, and perseverance, by means of brains and
fingers, the child shapes from a shapeless, unsightly mass of clay, perfect things ; and he
thus learns to respect things that appear worthless in themselves, because they. are capable
of being transformed through the fertile brain, the cunning eye, and the dexterous hand
into things of beauty, and of intrinsic value.

* Goldammer.



LONDON :
CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, LA BELLE SAUVAGE,

LUDGATE HILL, E.C.



COX & CO.’

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK MATERIALS
For the various Standards (Schedule III),

A Special Price List FREE to School Boards, Managers, and Teachers.

99 & 101,

In addition to the following, “OUR TEACHERS’
GUIDE” contains a Price List of all articles required
in Schedule III. for all the Standards, and a Catalogue
of Kindergarten and other varied occupations.

INFANTS, and STANDARDS I. and IL

sod.
Threading Needles, for needle drill . peroz. 0 42
Knitting Pins, for knitting pin drill... per gross 1 6
Unbleached Cotton, for strip knitting perlb, 1 0
Rainbow Cotton, in eight colours—red, blue, pink,
violet, orange, green, yellow, brown perlb. 1 6
Calico for strips, unbleached ... w. peryd. 0 3}
Dotted Calico, for teaching hemming peryd. 0 64
Pocket Handkerchiefs, for hemming, per doz.,
83d., 10$d., and 1 04

Black, White, and Coloured Sewing Cotton
—Best Soft—200 yards ... .. perdoz, 1 6

STANDARD I.

Materials: Needles, Cotton, Knitting Pins, Em-
broidery Cotton, Calico, Holland, Print, Flan-
nel, Canvas, and Yarn. (See ‘“ Teacuurs’ Guins.’’)

STANDARDS IV. and V.
Materials: Needles, Cottons, Knitting Pins,
Coloured Cotton, for darning, Calico, Canvas,
Yarn, Buttons, and Flannel.
Stocking Web, for darning ... per dozen lengths 4 6

STANDARDS VI. and VII.

Materials: Needles, Cottons, Knitting Pins,

Calico, Mull Muslin, Coarse Linen, for darn-

ing, Print, Yarn, Stocking Web, Flannel,

Canvas, Buttons, Tapes, Cutting-out Paper.
Lined cutting-out paper, 36 in. x 45in., 1s. 0d. per quire.
Stout do. do. do. 2s. 6d. do.
Sectional do, do. do. Is. 6d. do.

Our ‘TEACHERS’ GUIDE” in the selection of

NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON.

No, of y
in Piee



s. Peryd.

sd,

CALICO (Patterns sent).













Az Grey 28in., Soft puremake .. o . +» about 90 0 2h
5 3 Sn 35 ri 7h - ae oe o a 90 .. 0 Bh
55 2in., o Sau 90 .. O 4
Bi 35. 28 in., * Lined: or dented for 2 2in, ‘strips ee as 7B «. O BE
i 2in., Soft puremake .. i wipe 1 80 .. 0 4§
aa 32in., Scoured or Half- Bleached . oe 35 Sf .. 0 5
D White 3 in., Soft finish Calico .. ow o a 100 0 3h
EH, 32in., : és a aie gy 80 0 43
BR in., Soft ‘wine finish <1 » —:100 05
G a 25 in., Soft finish, our New School Calico : ‘3 80 -- 0 53
H 4, 36 in. Soft Rockwater Calico, very ev en
Threads ia a 55... 0 64
I a 2in., Soft-washed School ‘Longeloth’ ay 62 .. 0 3%
J 55 seine 3s ss ee oe $i 62 0 43
K 3 36in? a 2 eh eee ey legge 0. ak
Loy, 36in, 98 ‘s ear ae 56 o7
M 4, 36in., PS _ ie id % 56 4. 0 8
No, 386 ins I ay oa 3 56 0 of
0 4, 36in., mivitlea Calico .. 1 56 0 6k
P 4, 36in., Soft e¥on Thread Sampler Calico... fi 80 0 6s
Qs, 86in., Soft open even Thread for Specimens ,, 70 0 64
FLANNEL eae ae
W.F. 1. Imitation Welsh, 25in. .. we é 3 oO ah
WF 2. i MB ites Stee ee kes es 0 108
WOE, 3. aa 27in, .. a oN 5 A 1 ob
GF. 4. Cream 27in .. us: a a as 1 of
W.F. 5. Imitation Welsh, 29in. .. as oe a, iy 13
WF. 6. a SOM wh be Cuvee, Dae 1 6
Sx.F. 7 Saxony 27in, .. ns bs Ke a 1 O§
Sx.F. 8, 30in, .. we ae a 8 16
B 9. Blue, for Herring-
bone stitch 25, i 0 8h
8. Scarlet a 4 0 8k
§ ” a 0 108
s ” ” 1 03
8 » ” 13
8. 9 % 16
8, si 5 19
SB 3) a 200



HANDKERCHIEFS, for Hemming.

Linen, 18 in. square, per doz., 3s. and 4s. ; ditto, fine, 5s. 6d. to 8s. 6d.

White Gam brid, per doz., 1s. osd.; White, with coloured border, Is. 04d.
am s,
Coloured Pictured do., 64d., 84d., 104d., 1s. 5d., and 1s. 6d. per dozen.
HOLLAND Cheat 70S —
Brown. B.H. 1. Dark shade, 32 in. . about 45 0 43
5 BH. 2. » 82in, ste on “6 * 4 . O 5k
6. CH. 3. Cream » 32in, a as cbs 55 45 .. 0 6
34 BH. 4. Light ,, 382in. Be ae ae a; 45 .. 0 63
YF C.H. 5. Cream ,, 40in. as a oi i 45 .. 0 7
33 BH. 6 Light ,, 382in. Sie a of 4 45 .. 0 72
a BH. 7% 5, wy SBRINE oe. Rae rey “as 45 . 0 8
% BB. 8. 3a » 82in, oe ain a, iF 45 .. 0 105
Glazed. D.H. 10. 32 in. eh die ae 38 45 .. 0 6
si D.H. 11. 32 in. is we. te 9 45 .. 0 8!
DH. 12, Bain. 2, 45 0 105

Needlework Materials contains List of Prices for

every article required in the various Standards, Gratis and Post free.





THE
DEMONSTRATION
FRAME.





















20 inches.







































Complete (withspecial
Needle & Cord), size
21 by 19 in., price 5s. 6d.







IQUE ONS Cam



Extra and

Cord

Needle
... price ts, Od.

Stand for above, with

Tron foot ... price 5s. 6d.

38 inches,

Skeleton Crate for

Packing frame (re-

















turnable) ... price Is. Od.





“SIMPLE CUTTING OUT.”
Illustrated with Twenty Diagrams.



For use in Government Schools in accordance with the New
Code, indludes also a transcript of the Government require-
ments in Schedule III., and the directions to H.M. Inspectors
as to examinations in Needlework; and a description of
materials and quantities required during practice and ex-
aminations.

PART I.—UNDERCLOTHING, 100 pp. PART JI.—BAByY LINEN, 122 pp,
Each Parr ONE SHILLING NETT. Post free.

“HOW TO KNIT” ano “WHAT TO KNIT.”

1s. per set of 8 Large Cards, Post Free.





The “ Victoria Knitting Cards” are compiled so that beginners may
knit from the first STRIP to a full-sized Stocking or Quilt without the
aid of the Teacher.

FIRST SET, Nos. I. to VIII, contains General Remarks on Knitting
—Knitting for Standards I. and Ii.—Muffatees—Scarves—Socks and Stock-
ings, ribbed and plain, thickened heels and toes, &c.

SECOND SET, Nos. 1X. to XVI., contains Complete Directions for
Knitting Ladies’ Vests—Child’s Vests—Boy’s V ests—Child’s Quilt—Large
Quilt—Diagonal Pattern Quilt—Baby’s Boots: nee Caps—Muffatees,
with thumbs—Vests and Quilts, &c., With quantities and kind of Yarns
needed for each article.

THIRD SET, Nos, XVII. to XXIV., contains Easy Directions for
Infant's Vest, Gloves, Hood, or Helmet—Br aided Cuffs—Mat—Rug—
Child’s Gaiters—Shoulder Cape—Shawl—Tam o’ Shanter, &c,

cox & CO., 99 and 101, NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON.








See Front Pages for Price Lists of Kindergarten and other varied occupations.



ADOPTED BY THE LONDON SCHOOL BOARD AND BY NUMEROUS PROVINCIAL
SCHOOL BOARDS.

CASSELL'S
Coloured Historical Cartoons.

These Beautiful Plates have been prepared by Mr. Hurserr A. Bonz, the-
Designer to the Royal Windsor Tapestry Works, from Original Drawings by
Tininent Artists.

In addition to pictorial effect and design, it has been the aim of ‘ike
designer to reproduce, with the greatest posable accuracy, all the details,
whether of Dress, Feature, or Surroundings, which Historical Research has
enabled him to portray.

“The Landing of the Romans in Britain.,”’
By Warren Pacer.*

“King John Signing Magna Charta.’”? By
Cu. Grecory, R.W.S.*

“Cromwell Dissolving the Long Parlia-
ment.”

‘* The Meeting of Wellington and Blurher
at La Belle Alliance after Waterloo.”
By E. Buair Leicuton.*

Red the. Jubilee of Queen. Victoria — The
J Thanksgiving Service in We estminster
A bbey.’’

“Queen Elizabeth at Tilbury Fort.’?
E. Buarr Lereuton.*

The Cartoons are HANDSOMELY PropucED IN CoLours, and published at 2s. each unmounted; or 5s. each,
mounted on rollers and varnished.

“Hach cartoon is a work of art, and as such is an attempt to represent truthfully, and without
exaggeration, the incident intended to be brought before the notice of the spectator. The educational.
effect. of finely-coloured cartoons like these in teaching history will be immense. Lach cartoon
makes a striking picture, and forms not only a permanent lesson in history, but a fine decoration for
the wall, They are published at a most reasonable price, and ought to be eahebited on the walls oe
every school where history is taught.” —ScHOOLMASTER.

“There is nothing to touch these pictures in the market, their cheapness and beauty being alike
remarkable. Every school in the kingdom should be supplied with a set.”.—TEACHERS’ AID.

“To this really excellent series of cartoons we give our cordial commendation. In pictorial effect
aud general design they are alike admirable, and as an interesting adjunct to the history lesson they
will doubtless give great satisfaction. The publishers may be congratulated on having practically
inaugurated a new era in the history of school wall decoration.”—Practical Teacher.

“We have the greatest pleasure in testifying our warmest approval of this series of pictures.
They are just what was required to enliven the usually cheerless walls of our schoolrooms. Bold in
design, the figures clearly delineated, and of sufficiently large size to be viewed from a distance, they
cannot fail to impress upon the minds of children the important historical events they portray. We
heartily commend them to the notice of teachers.’—Schoolmistress.

* From an Original Drawing executed expressly for the New Edition of “ Cassell’s History of England.”

An Historical and Descriptive Account of the Incidents depicted in CASSELL’S HISTORICAL
CARTOONS, illustrated with Outline Drawings, can be obtained, price ONE PENNY.

CASSELL & COMPANY, Liumrrep, Ludgate Hill, London.



APPROVED BY THE SCIENCE AND ART. DEPARTMENT.
PRACTICAT. GRADUATED. CHEAP.

— Cassell’s “New Standard” Drawing Copies.

(Adapted by the Lonpon, Epinsurcn, Lezps, SHEFFIELD, BrrmincHam, Aston, PLYMOUTH, Ports-

MOUTH, BRADFORD, READING, BRIsTor, Luton, BRIGHTON, HUDDERSFIELD, Hatirax, BARROW,
and many other School Boards.)





THESE CoprEs are in exact accordance with the recently issued “Illustrated Circular” and the new
“Tnstructions of the Science and Art Department ”



Order of Books. Requirements. PRICE,

Book A. Standards I. and II.
Freehand = (Elementary ”) on

Squared Paper.

» 3B, Standards I. and II,

Freehand (Advanced) on Ordi-
nary Paper.

» Cc. Standard IIT.
ee Freehand.
» D. Standard III.
Geometrical Figures,

|
ae oe SON wt
9 E. ee { Standard IV.—(a) Freehand drawing from the 2d.

Standard X.—Drawing, freehand, and with the 2d.
ruler, of lines, angles, parallels, and the simplest
right-lined forms, such as some of those given in
*s ‘Dyce’ 8 Drawing Book.” (To be drawn on slates.) - -

2d.

Standard tie same on paper.

2d

Standard FXYT.—(«) Freehand drawing of regular
forms and curved figures from the flat. (0) Simple
geometrical figures with rulers, 2d.

flat. (6) Drawing from simple rectangular and
» FF Standard Tv. circular models. (e ) Simple scales and drawing to 2d

Drawing to Seale Beales:
» G. Standard V. 3d.
Freehand. Standard V.—(a) Freehand drawing from the
: Ala, (6) Drawing from easy common objects. (c)
3 H. Standard V. Geometrical figures with instruments and to scale. 3d.
Geometry.

» K. Standard VI.
Freehand.

Standard VI.
Plans, Elevations, &c.

Standard VII.

Da — > of eombemnenas vI.—(a) Freehand drawing fromthe 934,
flat. (b) Drawing from models of regular forms
and from easy common objects. (¢) Plans and ele-
vation of plain figures and rectangular solids in 3c
simple BRS oe ED Dene with sections.*

mp

39

M.
29 ( 3d.
'reehand.

e Standard VII.—(a) Freehand drawing from the
» ON. Standard VII. flat. (b) Drawing any common objects and casts of 4d
** Shading.’’ ; ornimient in ight aoe dade ee vena .

drawing more advanced than in V. (c) Plans and
9 O. Standard VII. elevations of rectangular and circular solids with 3d
; Geometry. sections, * :
>» P. Standard VII. { Ad.

Plans, Elevations, &c,
* These will not be required tn Girls’ Schoo

Each Book contains the Copies only, and thus supplies at a very small cost the full course for a whole year’s work.
This arrangement also enables the Teacher to supply the children, as required, with good blank drawing paper at a
_ comparatively small outlay.

*,.* Teachers who desire, in accordance with the recommendation of the Department, to place examples of the same
style as those in “DYCE’S DRAWING BOOK” before their Pupils, should give this Series a trial. They
are invited to send for specimens that they may judge for themselves of the essentially practical character of
these books. -

CASSELL & COMPANY, Lumnrep, London, Paris, New York §& Melbourne,



CASSELL’S MODERN SCHOOL SERIES.

Adapted to the latest requirements of the Education Department.
Cassell’s “Readable” Readers.

Carefully graduated, extremely interesting, illustrated CORO D TNT, Senay beanie and gly chine:

FIRST INFANT READER, 82 pages, limp cloth

SECOND INFANT READER. 48 see oe8 ose rk ee a

BOOK I. 112 pages, limp cloth boards (blue) sa ; very stiff cloth boards (red) oe aie wee eo ieee 7d.
» I 28 ,, ny op a ad. 3 "i ee pe ee Bie MB mee SOU
3. TEL 192 3 - i aha? fs s a hy lage “ae ae ae LBLOO.
yx EVs T92 gy ¥s $5 » _ Ld; 4 - os gee asap pa) ean eet DBS Od.
Wi 224 2 7 . », Is. 1d.3 4 wie Cade muah ens any es BEE
» VI, 224 ,, os es » Is. ld; 93 a3 ia! * tae, erie we 1g, 3d,

FOR INFANT SCHOOLS.

Cassell’s New Readers with Coloured Pictures.

Three Books, 48 pages each, very bold type, carefully graduated, paragraphed, and numbered. Most interesting.
Strongly bound in limp cloth, 4d. each.

Cassell’s “Modern School” Reading Sheets.
THREE SERIES, each containing Twelve Sheets. Printed on Paper, 28. each; or Mounted on Linen, with
rollers, 5s. each.

Cassell’s “ Modern School ” Infant Readers.



" FIRST INFANT READER a ee | THIRD INFANT READER... one ove we 4d.
SECOND INFANT READER ... ies 52 ee a, FOURTH INFANT READER . ve ss ae ww =5d.
te ” c
Cassell’ S Modern School” Readers.
FIRST READER, Standard I. oe we Ud FOURTH READER. Standard IV. ... a wae 1s. 2d.
SECOND READER. x» IL. oe oP ae Mie OUks FIFTH READER, : For Standard V. 2 1s, 3d.
THIRD READER, ° » IIL aia w Is. SIXTH READER. For Standards VI. and VIL. 1, 1s. 6d.
} te ”
Cassell’s Modern School”. Historical Readers. —
I,_-ENGLISH HISTORY. For Standard III. (Stories i IV.—THE EASY HISTORY FOR UPPER STAND-
‘or Children) s
Ti, ENGLISH GagTORY. For Standards IV. and V. ; ARDS.—MopErn History... 0 eee
The Simple Outline) .. Ss. 7
Tr, ee BASY HISTORY FOR “UPPER STAND. 2 V._THE COMPLETE HISTORY OF ENGLAND FOR
ARDS.—MippLe AGES ae 1s. STANDARDS V., VI, VIL. ate Z 28,
3 &t 33
Cassell’s Modern School Geographical Readers.
INTRODUCTORY LESSONS. For Standard I. See SCOTLAND, IRELAND, AND THE COLONIES. For
INTRODUCTORY LESSONS. For Stand. IT. Enlarged. sa Standard IV. (With Two Coloured Maps) A 1g,
ENGLAND AND WALES. For Standard te (With EUROPE. For Standard V. ae ase by aw Is.
Coloured Map.) Enlarged vee LOG _ THE WORLD. For Standard’ Vie ess Rs see 1s, 8d.

a SPECIAL READERS.
The “Citizen Reader.” By H. 0. Arnorp-Forsrer. With a Preface by the late

Rieut Hon. W. E. Forsrer, M.P., formerly Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education, With New and
Special Illustrations. Strongly bound in cloth, 216 pages, price 1s. 6d. One Hundreth Thousand. With.an additional
Coloured Plate and Chapter on the County Councils. Adopted by the London, Edinburgh, and many other School Boards.

IMPORTANT NEW WORK by the Author of ‘‘ THE CITIZEN READER,” :
The ‘Laws of Hvery-day Life.” By H. 0. Aryozp-Forsrer. Fully Illus-

trated and strongly bound in cloth, price 1s. 64. Presentation edition, half-persian calf, gilt top, 3s. 6d.

ce ay
The Making of the Home. A Reading Book in Domustic Economy for School
and Home Use. By Mrs, Samuven A. Barnett. Nineteenth Thousand. Extra feap. 8vo, cloth, price 1s, 6d.

Cassell’s ‘Higher Class” Readers.

; : Specially prepared for use in Middle and Higher Schools, and the Upper Classes in Elementary Schools. _
“The World’s Lumber-Room.” An Elementary Science Reader. Fully Illustrated.
Very Interesting. Strongly bound in cloth boards. Price 2s. 6d.
“Short Studies from Nature.” With Full-page Illustrations and Diagrams. Very
Interesting. Strongly bound in cloth, 2s. 6d. : 5
“The World in Pictures.” Being Graphic Studies in the Geography, Manners, and
Customs of the following Districts. Very fully and beautifully Illustrated. Strongly bound in cloth, Qs, each,

A RAMBLE ROUND FRANCE, (French tricolor binding.) THE LAND OF Jeune (INDIA).
ALL THE RUSSIAS. (Imperial yellow binding.) PEEPS INTO CHIN

CHATS ABOUT GERMANY. (German tricolor binding.) GLIMPSES OF SOUT AMERICA.
THE LAND OF THE PYRAMIDS (EGYPT), ROUND AFRICA.

THR EASTERN WONDERLAND (JAPAN). THE ISLES OF THE PACIFIC.

CASSELL & COMPANY, Lauirep, Ludgate Hill, London.



MESSRS. CASSELL & Company beg to announce the preparation of
an entirely NEW SERIES OF WALL SHEETS, suitable
for use in connection with their vecently published Work,

‘‘ HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING,” enfitled—

“Model Joint” Wall Sheets

IN “MANUAL TRAINING.”

By 8. BARTER,

Instructor to the Joint Committee on ‘“‘ Manual Training” of the London School Board
and City Guilds.

The Series consists of Eight Sheets, fully Mounted on Rollers, price 2/6 each.

These WatL SHEETS present a carefully graduated Series
of “Working Drawings” for handwork in Wood represented by
Plans, Elevations, Sections, and Isometric Progections, such as tt ts
absolutely necessary for the pupil to perform before any good
| Bench Work can be executed.
| 4 List oF THE Tools veguived for use is given on each
sheet so as to accustom the learner to a correct selection of tools
for each particular exercise. |

The DrRawincs, which ave the outcome of PRAcTICAL Ex-
PERIENCE, ave clearly printed in CoLours, and will be found
exceedingly valuable now that instruction im Practical and Tech-
nical education ts being so largely developed throughout the country.

CASSELL & COMPANY, Limitep, London, Paris, New York & Melbourne.



CASSELL & COMPANY'S”

EDUCATIONAL WORKS.



MATHEMATICS.

The “Marlborough” Avrithmetical Ex-

amples. 3s.

The “Wariborough” Avithmetic Rules.
1s. 6d.

Algebra. By Profs. GALBRATTHL and Havenron.
Part L., 2s. 6d. ; Y complete, 7s, 6d.

Euclid. By Profs. Gatpratry and Hauenron.
Books I.—IIL., 2s, 6d. ; IV.—VI., 2s. 6d.

Ewelid, Complete. By Prof. Watutace, M.A.
Cloth, 1s.

A Series of Practical Works on Book-
keeping. By Turopore Jones.
Book-KEEPING FOR SCHOOLS. Paper, 28; cloth, 3s.
Book-KEBPING FOR THE MILLION. Paper, 2s.; cloth, 3s.
Books FoR JoNus's SYSTEM, Ruled Sets of, 2s.

ENGLISH LITERATURE.
Spelling, A Complete Mammal of, on the

Principles of Contrast and Comparison, By J. D MOoRELL,
LL.D., H.M. Inspector of Schools. 1s.

English Literature, A First Sketch of. By
Professor Hzunry Morury. Comprising an Account of
English Literature from the Earliest Period to the Present

Date. New and Enlar: ged Edition. 1,099 pages, crown 8vo,
cloth, 7s. 6d.

English Literature, The Story of. By Anna
Bucxranp. Cheap Edition. Cloth, 3s. 6d.

ENGLISH HISTORY.

Cassell’s Historical Course for Middle
and Higher Schools. By Oxford Graduates in Historical
Honours. ;

1, STORIES FROM ENGLISH HisToRY. With Maps and Twenty-five
Illustrations. 1s.

2, Tuk SIMPLE OUTLINE oF ENGLIsH History. With Maps and
Thirty Illustrations. 188 pages, 1s. 3d.

_ 8 THE CLAss History or BneLanp. A Text-book for Use in
Connection with Oral Class-Teaching and Lectures, and for the
Preparation of Work for Examination. With Maps, Analysis,
and upwards of One Hundred Illustrations. 400 pages, 2s. 6d.

DRAWING.

Linear Drawing and Practical Geo-
metry. By Eiiis A, Dayipson. With about 150 Illustra-
tions. Cloth, 2s.

Practical Geometry, Cassell’s Course of.
By Euuis A. Davipson. Consisting of Sixty-four Cards, ém-
bracing the First and Second Grade Studies. In Packet, 5s.

Model Drawimg. By Exuis A. Davinson. With
Twenty single-page and Six double-page Plates. Cloth, 3s.

Practical Perspective. By Enis A. Davinson. *

With Thirty-six double-page Illustrations. Cloth, 3s. 6d.

Systematic Drawing and Shadimg. Illus-
trated, 2s.

Geometrical Drawing for Army Candi-
dates. By H, T, Linrey, M.A. 2s.

Geometry, Practical Solid, A Manual of.
Adapted to the Requirements of Military Students and
Draughtsmen. By WiLtiam Gorpon Ross, Major, Royal
Engineers, . 2s. :

Geometry, Experimental, First Ele-
ments of. By Pau, Burr. Translated from the French.
Fully Illustrated. Cloth, 1s. 6d.

Drawing for Wachinists and Emgimeers.
4s, 6d.

Practical Mechamics. By Prof. Purry, ME.
3s. 6d. °
Emergy and Motiom: A Text-Book of Elemen-

tary Mechanics. By Wiiiiam Paicu, M.A. Illustrated.
Feap. 8vo, 128 pages, ls. 6d.



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Cassell’s French Dictionary. Frencu-Ene
Lish and Ewewisu-Frencu. 262nd Thousand. Revised
and Corrected from the Seventh and Latest Edition of the
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8s. 6d. ; or in superior binding, with leather back, 43.-6d.

Cassell’s Lessoms im French. New and Re-
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siderably Enlarged by Prof. E. Rovupaup, B.A. Paris. Partd -
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French Exercises, The “ Marlborough.”
Twelfth Edition. Enlarged and Revised. By the Rev.
G. W. pE Lists, M.A., late French Master in Marlborough
College. Cloth, 3s. 6d.

French Grammar, The “ Warlborough.”
Twenty-second Edition. Enlarged and Revised. ‘Arranged
and. Compiled -by the Rev. J. F: Brigut, M.A., Master of
University ‘College, Oxford, late Master of the Modern
School in Marlborough College. 164 pages, cloth, 2s, 6d.

** The above two Works are now in use at Harrow and
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_ GERMAN.

German Reading, First Lessoms im. By
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“German of To-day.’ A Selection of Short
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Vol. II. Exopus._ 3s. Vol. lV. NUMBERS. 28. 6d.
Vol. V. DEUTERONOMY. 2s. 6d.

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suitable for School and general Educational Purposes.

Ay Inrropucrion To THE | CorinrirAns, I. GIL 3s.
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SUhITAG

ce EXHIBITION

KINDERGARTEN MATERIALS AND HOME AMUSEMENTS

ey; “NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, CHARING CROSS, 8.W.;
CaTaLoGuE] And 101, REGENT STREET, W. : [Post Freer,

0. NEWMANN & CO.,

Publishers, Manufacturers, and Importers

Educational Apparatus % Implements

SERVING FOR DEMONSTRATIVE INSTRUCTION AND AS TEACHING AIDS
IN ALL THE VARIOUS BRANCHES OF MODERN EDUCATION.



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Melbourne, and others ; the City and Guilds of London Institute ; the London and other |
School Boards; and to various Foreign Governments and Institutions.

THR FOLLOWING CATALOGUES ISSUED.

. SCIENTIFIC LIST.—Embracing Mechanics, Theory of Undulation, Acoustics, Optics, Heat, Magnetism, j
Electricity, Meteorology. -d Descriptive List of 2,400 Apparatus, with 300 Illustrations, price 1s. 6d. !

. CHEMICAL APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES.—Balances, Scales, Weights. List, post free, 1s. 6d,

. LIST OF TECHNOLOGICAL CABINETS.—Minerals and other Collections, Geometrical and Crystal Models,
Various Diagrams and Models, serving as Teaching Aids for Technical, Industrial, and Commercial Education. :
Price 18., post free.

4, KINDERGARTEN MATERIALS AND HOME AMUSEMENTS—MATERIALS, MODELS, AND TOOLS
- FOR HANDICRAFT CLASSES.—Models, Diagrams, and Cabinets of Objects: and Products, serving as
Teaching Aids for Kindergarten and Elementary Schools. Free, on application.

. NEEDLEWORK MATERIALS,—Specially Selected for Government Elementary Schools. Free, on application.

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Full Text


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GEO. M. HAMMER & CO, |
SGHOOL AND GOLLEGE MURNISHERS,






MANUFACTURERS

OF

Every Description of Fittings

FOR

LADIES’ AND KINDERGARTEN
SCHOOLS, COLLEGES, &c.

ESTIMATES

FOR

COMPLETELY RURNISHING

ON APPLICATION..



SEND FOR CATALOGUE.



Slate in Stand. “Osborne” Convertible Desk. Master’s Desk.

GALLERIES, CUPBOARDS, SEATS, EASELS, DRAWING MODELS, &c. &c.

Complete Itlustrated Catalogue of School or Church Furniture on Application.

GEO. M. HAMMER & CoO., [2

370;> SE RAN Dy. EON DOW). W.GC.
x I
The Baldwin Library | _
University | |
COX & CO.

KINDERGARTEN MATERIALS,

Mat Weaving, Paper Folding, Basket Work, &c.,

99 & 101, NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON.



The following Quotations are from owr Special Illustrated Catalogue to School Bourds, Managers, and Teachers.

GROUP I.—SOLIDS.

FIRST GIFT

Aim.—To Train the eye in Colours, and to
Exercise the Limbs in various ways.

C 1.—Ballbox, containing 6 Balls, viz.
blue, yellow (primary), orange, violet,
green (secondary), with er ‘ossheam,
complete per set 1

C 2.—Balls only, the six’ Kindergarten
Colours per doz. 11

C 2a. Strings in six Colours to match balls,
per doz, sets 0
C3. Ballbox, Teachers’ size, 8 inch scale,

each 6
C 3A Wood Balls, ie six Colours, % inch

per gross 8



diameter : oe

SECOND GIFT.

Aim.—To teach Form, and to direct the attention
of the child to the Similarity and Dissimilarity
existing between different Objects. This is done
by pointing out, explaining, and counting the sides,
corners, and edges of the cube: by showing that
the sphere, the cylinder, and the éube differ from
each other in their sevéral properties because of
the difference in shape; and that the apparent
forms of both the cube and the cylinder vary ac-
cording to the point from which they are viewed.

C4. Box containing two Cubes, a Cylinder, s. d.
and Ball in wood.. per box 0 9







rred, 8. d.

0
0

C6. Nitto, Teachers’ size, s-inch scale, each 6 0
THIRD GIFT.
Box containing a Cube divided into eight Cubes s. d.
oflinch - per dozen boxes 3 9
Ditto, Teachers? size, 2-inch scale.. - each 1 6
Box containing 144 I-inch Cubes .. 40
Loose 1-inch Cubes (reduced price per case of io) 20
Diagrams for Third Gift .. oe per packet 0 5
FOURTH GIFT.
C12. Box containing a Cube, dividedinto s. d.
eight oblong planes, 2 inches long,
1 inch broad, and 3 inch thick,
fe _per dozen boxes 3 9
C13. Ditto, Teachers’ size, 2-inch scale,
each 2 0
C 14. Box containing 144 Oblongs » 40
C15. Loose Oblongs (reduced price per
case of 100) . 20
C 16. Diagrams for Fourth’ Gift, per packet 08



THIRD AND FOURTH GIFTS COMBINED.

Containing the Third and Fourth Gifts combined in one box, as devised
by MARIE MULLER, Teacher at the Lyceum and the Seminary tor Kinder-

garten Teachers,
Tifth Gift.

at Leipsic. Recommended before passing over to the

8. a.
C17. Boxes containing the above Gifts “ a perdozen 7 6
© 18, Ditto, Teachers’ size we - oe « each 4 0
Cc 19. Diagré ‘ams for Combined Gift +. aa per packet 010

FIFTH GIFT (Continuation of Third Gift).
Box containing a Cube divided into twenty-one inch cubes,
six half-cubes, ‘and twelve quarter-cubes per dozen 7
Ditto, Teachers’ size, 2-inch scale a 36 each 5
Loose half and quarter- qubes an, ee om per 100
Diagrams .. oO a a per Packet

SIXTH GIFT (Continuation of Fourth Gift).

C 24. Box containing a Cube divided into eighteen whole and nine
small oblong blocks aia oh es per dozen -7
C 25. Ditto, Teachers’ size, 2-inch seale . . + @ach 5
C2 o. 2
0

C 20.

C21.
C 22,
C 23,



; Loose Oblongs .. in + Per 100
C27. Diagrams per packet
The Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth’ Gifts servi efor “Building purposes.

KINDERGARTEN NOVELTIES !

MUSICAL BELLS. With light wood handle and two Brass Bells,
now so much. in use for the “ Musical Drill” in girls’, boys’, as
well asinfants’ classes .. per dozen

“INPANTS’ DRILL.” With Music and 66 Explanatory Ilustr: ations

DUMB BELLS. White wood, with rounded ends per dozen

Hard wood, Wwith rounded ends, 53 inches ri

Hard wood, with rounded ends, 7 ‘inches

THE aa M ANUAL OF DRILL,” containing Dumb Bell and other

Exercises
FLAG DRILL. Consisting of 10-inch Staff, ‘with a v red and white-
pennon or flag at either end per dozen
Popular Melodies and Words for ditto” » each
-RING DRILL. Flexible Cane Rings. Red and plueâ„¢ per dozen
Polished Wood Rings
POLE AND WAND DRILL. Eolished Wands, Per doz., bs. ,63., &
MUSICAL BAR BEL Ls a per doz., 2s. 9d., 3s. 3d., &
INDIAN CLUBS : ss per pair, 1s. ‘od. 2s., &



2 ”

WWM OAHOM HH RHEE &



Chequered Slates, framed 9 by 6 in., ruled one side in red chequers,
per dozen
white, ruled on both Maes, per
: doz. sheets 3
STENCIL DRAWINGS, CARTRIDGE PAPER,
PENCILS, CRAYONS, &c. &c. ;

COX & CO., New Oxford. Street, London.

i

Chequered Cardboard, 18 by 29 in.,
Drawine COPIES,

=

WAWAD

AoOOCOuUR ©

eo



GROUP IL—PLANES (Surfaces).
: GIFTS VII. to XI.

Planes of Hardwood, polished, in Two Colours,
Planes of Cardboard for Tablet Laying.
Planes of Paper for Folding and Cutting.

(Materials required—white and coloured paper, pencil, and scissors.)

B-inch. 4-inch. Oblongs.
C 43. White papers cut an exact square per 1,000.. 28. 0d. 2s. 10d. -
C 44. Papers, one side coloured and glazed, cut
an exact square and oblongs per 1,000.. 25.9d. 3s.9d. 4s. 0d.
“C45. Papers coluured both sides, cut an exact
square, and oblongs +; Der1,000.. 28.3d. 3s.dd. 3s. 6d.
C46. Paper for Folding and Cutting, in sheets, ten colours, glazed, s. d.
per quire 1 8
C 47. Box containing 3- and 4-inch squares of paper, oblongs,
coloured designs, instructions, and folding knife -- each 2 3
C 48. Designs and instructions for paper folding per pack 010
C 49. Folding Knives, black gutta percha .. .. per doz, 2 6
C50. Folding Knives, of wood . ii 16
C51. Scissors with rounded points for paper “cutting a 7 0

Weaving Mats of Glazed Coloured Paper and
Cardboard,
AU these Mats are (unless otherwise stated) cut in three widths, viz. :—

No.1, 2in.; No. 2,3/16 in; No.3,4in. Please give No. of width required
when ordering.

C52. Materials for 25 Square Mats, 4in., assorted colours, or blue s. d.
and white, or black and yellow, or redand green, per doz. packs 7 6
C 53. Ditto, 5 inch ditto, ditto ea oe ” 8 6
C 54, Ditto, 6inch ditto; ditto oa aa ee i -- 10 6
C 55. Ditto, 7 7 inch ditto, ditto - ia . 138 6
C 56. Ditto, 8 inch, assorted colours only, ditto - 16 0

C 574, Box containing materials for Oblong Mats,” steel ‘weaving
needle,and diagrams . - each 1 0

© 58. Materials for 10 Oblong Mats, 3 by a in., assorted colours,
per doz. packs 4 6

C59. Materials for 10 Oblong Mats, 54 by 7} in., blue and white, or
black and yellow, or grecn and red - per doz. packs 5 0





C 60. Materials for 25 Oblong Mats, 5$ by 74 in., assorted colours,
blue and white, or black and yellow, or green and red, per


































doz. packs 8 6
C6l. Materials for 25 Oblong Mats, 5} by 74 in., assorted colours.
cut one broad and one narrow .. - per doz. packs 90
C 62. Materials for 100 Oblong Mats, 54 by Thi in, assorted colours,
per packet 2 0
C 63. Materials for 10 Square Mats, 5 in., nee ang gold, or black and
gold, or blue and silver.. oe ber doz. packs 5 6
C G4. Ditto, 6 in., ditto sa - . et . 70
C 66, Ditto, 7 7 in., ditto 8 0
C 66. Materials for 10 Oblong Mats, “5h in. Th in., Dlack and gold,
or red and gold, or blue and silver .. per doz. packs 46
C 68. Weay ‘ing Needles of steel, best English rivetted, vind soldered.
Pinch the end.only, and the needle opens to receive the strip
per doz. 2 0
C 62a. Weaving Needles, German make, ditto ditto e 10
C 69. ” fy wood,7in.long-- a 3 0 6
Ci. A dw in. long .- on ian 010
CO 72, Coloured Diagrams for Weaving ae a -- per pack 0 5
C 501, Materials for 25
20 INCHES. Blue Card Mats for
= ESS = beginners, width 1
inch per pack 1 0
C 502, Materials for White
h Card Strips for
g above mats, width
Cok =] linch .. perpack 011
qh o> © 505, Materials for 25
4 Blue Gard Mats,
e width % inch, per
a pack 0 7
C 506. Materials forW lite
Strips for bove
Mats, width $ inch,
per pack 05
C 507. Materials for 1
Card Mats and
= ees : Strips, 74 by 4 in.,
af SBE ORS: assorted colours,
ce Gia width, 1, 2, & 3in.,
Ss 7) per pack 1 0
ES Pl os 5 C 508. Materials for 10 Leather-paper Mats,
wee os - oblong, assorted colours .. perpack 1 0
Ser Sen C 509. Materials for 12 Teachers’ Mats, extra
Baegisigs fine cutting .. per pack 0 3h
Ss mo C511, Materials for 5 Mats (oy: al) of glazed .
‘ Se - 3 cardboard, seonoped edges, assorted
Seg SSP colours per pack 1 3
Es & = C512, Materials for 5 Mats (round) 8 in. dia-
=aé 2 = meter, of cardboard, scolloped edges,
= -nee assorted colours + perpack 1 3
HeOS C 513, Materials for 5 Mats (round), 6 in. dia-
ESena meter, of cardboard, scolloped edges,
S83 at assorted colours 5, per pack 10
a Sa C 514. Materials for 5 Mats (oval, of black
=5 oe leather paper, with assorted coloured
=a Ag strips per pack 1 6
x e C515. Materials for 5
2 Mats, black leather
paper, 4 scolloped

edges, round, 6in.,
strips sorted colours

et

per pack 1 0
C516. Materials for 5
Mats, black leather paper, scolloped edges, Found, diameter
8in., ‘strips, assorted colours ‘ per pack 1 6

COX & CO., New Oxford Street, London.

See Next Page for Card Pricking and Sewing; ‘and first Advertisement at end of Book for Sewing and Knitting Materials.
—— —
y a 5 KINDERGARTEN MATERIALS,
G OX H Mat Weaving, Cork Work, Pea Work, &c.

These Quotations are from owr Illustrated and Special Catalogue for School Bourds, Managers, and Teachers.





PICTURES and OUTLINED CARDS for PRICKING and SEWING.

This occupation combines pricking and embroidering. For pricking, pictures or outline drawings are used, the outline of whichis pricked with a
piercer and then worked out with coloured cotton, wool, or silk.

















5 6
8 o
a a
B B
fo} 3
2, a
8 as

®o
8 g
m4
8 3
a Q
eI 3
© o
COX & C285 EMPRESS SERIES OF PRICKING CARDS.
C 249, A new and well-designed set of cards for pricking and sewing, on tough stout cards, 10 in packet, size of cards 6 by 5 inches. Packet No.1
contains easy right-line figures ; No. 2, right-lines (advanced) ; No. 3, easy Common objects; No. 4, common objects (advanced); No.5, 8s. d.
animals; No. 6, assorted. Best ‘and most suitable set published ¥e af +e = + per sixpenny Packets 0 4%
Or the complete set of 60 cards, with special wools. and needles, ‘post free 38 6
C251. A-selection of cards from series C 249 is supplied in quantities of one design, as shown above; either Nos. 1 6, 12; “ed, 25, 32, 33, 4; 42, 43,
47, 58 per 100 8 9
C 28. Comprises a box containing a seb of 10 ‘Common objects traced on felt squares, size 7 by 1, with special Kindergarten needles, and
coloured cottons . At perbox 1 38
C 246, Comprises a box of 7 mats, traced on perforated felt, 7 by 7, 7, with special Kindergarten needles and colour ed threads Si perbox 1 6
C 247, Box of 12 familiar objects ‘pricked on felt, with. pinked edges, special needles and coloured thread .. o. a se perhox 2 6
G 2474. This is a box containing 12 sorted texts pricked on felt, 7 by 5, special needles and fioss thread a ae perbox 2 6
PRICKING.
C 264. Pictures for perforating and sewing :—1 to 12, sorted subjects; 18 and 14, animals ; 15 and 16, birds; 17 and 18, flowers; 19, fishes; 20 to
22, Old Testament texts ; 2B und 24, New Testament texts; 25, Christmas and birthday cards o . per doz. packs 7 0
C 265, Packages containing cards’ of one design for pricking A, Bird; B, Boat: C, Boy; D, Camel; E Cat; 7 Cow; 6. Cup and Saucer ; H,
Dog ; J, Donkey ; i K, Elephant; L, F Towers : M, Girl; N, Hare; 0; orse; P, House ; 0, Pig; R, Rat; 8, Sheep; 3 T, Squirrel . . per 100 5
C 277. Box containing a set of "designs, pad, pricking needle, and a supply of coloured wool and needles .. - each 2 6
C 278. Box containing 5 coloured car ‘ds, 4 sheet ¢. equered cardboard, 3 ready-pricked cards, pricking needle, ‘embroidery needles, felt pad,
pencil, 4 packets wool, diagrams oe . ee per hox 2 9
Packet containing 8 assorted shapes of tinted mats, baskets, frames, ete., for pricking and sewing a on o .» per-doz. packs 13°«O0
Packet « containing 1 12 assorted shapes of tinted mats, baskets, frames, ete. Fs ae oe ee a a ” 26 0
acket containing 5 n lebooks outlined, on tinted card, for pricking and sewing .. a ah on ee we a a FO
Packet containing 5 baskets, octagonal, on tinted card, for pricking and sewing o o- on e aie a i 9 0
Packe containing 5 5 baskets, octagonal, on tinted card, for pricking and sewing, larger ae ate 2 ix . BB 6
Packet containing 5 mats, octagonal, on tinted card, for pricking and _sewing.. ae ” + 10 0
Packet containing ba: ts, frames, mats, etc., of tinted card, outlined, for p king and sewing es 48 & 6
. Packet containing baskets, frames, mats, etc., of tinted car d, outlined, for pricking and sewing, large packet as 16 0
Packet containing 12 Car ds of Multiplication Tables oe oe per pack 0 9
Coloured Pictures, for perforating and embroidery, 12 sheets i in packet Part Te and It., size ‘4 by 6 in. : Coloured Pictures, for perforating and embr: oidery, 12sheets in packet. Part IIL, on stout paper, size, 6 py 7 hin... ae 8 0
. A B OC, for pricking and sewing. Packet1l,AtoM; Packet2,NtoZ .. ae oe tee “ o oe ae per packet 0 8

MODELLING IN CLAY.
C 292. Modelling Boards, size 6 by 8 in., of white wood ..



























a os oe per doz. -3 6
C 294. Plastiline. A new material for modelling, which peri manently pr C8! ery es its pristine “moisture Br + + per}lb. 0 7
C 295, Modelling Clay, prepared ready for use, box containing about 6 Lh. oe 6 pe oy o. si perbox 1 10
C 206, Modelling Knives, best superior ake, of boxwood, aesonled shapes m7 os a, os ae 2 2 a per doz. 38 6
C 298, Designs for Clay Modelling = Re ars a3 aa um re ee om per pack 0 10
Terra-cotta Models of various shapes to order.
INFANTS’ KINDERGARTEN. Sf DOMESTIC KINDERGARTEN
Unbleached Knitting Cotton, coarse, medium, and fine .. perlIb, 1 0 3 OR
The “RAINBOW ” Knitting Cotton for strip knitting and practice, HOUSEHOLD O BJ ECT LESSONS.
in 8colours. In red, blue, yellow, pink, violet, green, orange, LS Fo FIRS
brown ‘ a perlhb. 1 6 TOY MODE R T STEP.
The “BEAD COUNTER.” ‘An ingenious apparatus of great value
for colour lessons, and adapted also for counting and arith- ; eee eed oles wastes Bedding for the above set each Bi
: 2 ea
THE LIG ss eS me per doz, 18.6d.& 2 0 trays,serviettes, knives, forks Two Chairs for Bed-making, per
MODELS FOR OBJECT LESSONS. and spoons, heing a complete pair 1/0
A: Model ot uBedstend; s# with mattress, pillows, and complete set oe iid Pinner an crus id a Ortho. Gompiete Sat, saben pa oe
: Ix GRE. tray, &c. . +. each 6/6} and including Manual and | a
A Model of a Kitchen with utensils; also a Butcher's Shop a at 70 o
ee Cooking Stove, with A letings and spirit lamp .. i 8 6 Table-board .. op Bho i ree Stock-keeping Box .. + 16/0
a Hite Boat: nth as es + » 14 TOY MODELS FOR SECOND STEP,
a Pea Set, china .. ae a4 a me cents : ; Washing Tray + '.. each 1/0; Flat Ivon Stand and Holder, set 0/6
ar Set of Scales, with weights ae 7 AY ae 3 9 Wringers ae 6 +» 55 0/9} Ironing Board and Cloth » 1/0
2 ’ Noah's Ark (100 pieces) os = oe aes 5 0 Soap Dish a ae eve ge: O/. | Clothes Horse or ae seach 0/9
es Set of Dairy Utensilsin wood (. 1) 1) as.6a’& 6 6 SS eet ait) meee 8 Bae of Glorhes +3 * ae
Models of any description obtained to order, Stands and Clamps for Posis, ' | Sweeping Brush noon AYO
te CPE ee Bae per pair 2/0) Dust Pan and Br Da 3. 1/0
Animals of Papier Maché, made especially for Object Lessons in Ele- Bag of Pegs .. .. each 0/2] Pails a aa. ia o/s
mentary Schools, scientifically accurate in every respect. The size of Scrubbing Brueh and House Flannel, 6d.
cach specimen is About one sey ent of avant Ble theight of elephant 16 Or the Complete Set, packed in and including a Stock keeping Box .. 14/6
inches), therefore the right proportion is taught at the same time,
Antelope .. 48 | Crocodile «- $8 | Horse (Arab) 3/8| Reindeer TOY MODELS FOR THIRD STEP.
Baboon Dog... Horse (Cart).. 3/8 | Seal Pastry Board.. a +. each OG Knife, Fork and Spoon -- set 1/0
Bear.. Dolphin 8 Kangaroo .. 2/6] Sheep Roving bau . se te oy 0/2 | Tart Ban - +. each 0/2
Beaver Donkey “(6 | Bion es +. 3/6 Sloth MOUNDS es ac ee oe an it 9 pare Cutter .. . ss on 0/6
ay romedary Bf- urang- Stag Pie Dis ‘ If 0. wii 36 oe ey) 2/0
Bull Elephant 24/6 Outang f° Tieor E. Pudding Basin and Clown: . a 0/3 | Doll's Clothes.. ais « Bet 2/6
Carp Fox 1/9 | Ostrich Turtle.. Mixing Bowl . 0/6! Bassinette .. - each 2/6
ab tout 3/- | Panther Wolf .. r the Complete Set, packed in and includ ing a Stock-kee: bing Box .. 13/6
ee Bub yr | Be Or the C léte Set; packed i d includi a Stock-keep
condo are .. oe Ve re
Cow Hen .. oI / THE FIRST MANUAL, with music and Directions for Drill, &c. .. 1/0
*Gonplors Set, each in separate box, £6 10s. THE SONGS, on cars: : wes tee ne per 100 4,0
pe ee ” ” on pay oo se o . ” 2/0
cox & CO., NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON. COX & CO., NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON.



“ Carriage Free,” London parcels, 10s, and upwards; country parcels, 40s, and upwards; foreign orders, free to Docks. °
IIL
HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING,
A. N. MYERS & GO.,

15, BERNERS STREET, OXFORD STREET, LONDON, W.,

PUBLISHERS OF

Prize MEDAL GAMES AND GAMUSEMENTS,

STANDARD KINDERGARTEN PUBLICATIONS AND MATERIALS.



THE FOLLOWING ARE A FEW ITEMS FROM CATALOGUE :—
Kindergarten Practice: Part I. Froebel’s First Six Gifts. The Text translated and

abridged from Koehler’s “ Praxis des Kindergartens” by MARY UNS Feap. Ato. with 9 Eiates of Tiustrabous Published
under the sanction of the Froebel Society. Third Edition id

Kindergarten Practice: Part II. Froebel’s Plane Surfaces. Ditto, Git VIL., Tablet-
Laying; VIII., Paper Folding; IX., Paper Cutting ; X., Paper Plaiting. With 10 Plates of Illustrations. Second Edition.

A Practical Guide to the English Kindergarten. By Jouan and Burra Ronez. Sixteenth

Edition. Crown 4to, cloth. With 72 Full-page Lithographic Plates containing numerous Diagrams. Revised by E. HEERWART..

The Kindergarten Explained. By Erurt Riviny. Second Edition. Post 8vo ‘
Kindergarten Toys, and How to Use Them. A Practical Explanation of the First Six Gifts

of Froebel’s Kindergarten. By HninricH HOFFMANN, pupil of Froebel. Sixth Edition. Post 8vo.

The Kindergarten Guide. By Manta Kravs-Borrre and Joun Kraus. Foap. Ato, cloth, A most
comprehensive Work.
Nos. 1 and 2.—Gifts I. to VI., 144 pages, 547 Illustrations .. ss - a a
No. 3.—Tablet-Laying. 94 pages, 558 Illustrations. an. ap ee . ate es.
No. 4._The Connected Slat (or Jointed Lath), Slat- interlacing (or Stick-Plaiting), sick-Laying. 124 Dages, 309 Illustrations
No. 5.—Ring-Laying, Thread-Laying, Points. 82 pages, 468 Illustrations... ne se ae
- No. 6. Perforating and Sewing. 77 pages, 201 Ulustracions

No.7.—Drawing and Painting. 97 pages, 351 Illustrations, and 12'Plates ‘containing 83 Coloured Designs

Hasy Course of Drawing. By E. Hzerrwarr. An Introduction to Froebel’s System of Drawing.
For use in the Kindergar ten, in Infant P Schools, and at Home; adn ancing very, gradually from short straight lines to objects and



geometrical patterns . oy each Part
Part I.—Vertical and ‘Horizontal tines; st Designs. Part IV. —Rorders and ‘Letters, Fir st Series; 93 Designs.
Part _TI.—Oblique and Curyed Lines ; 154° Designs. 2 Part V.—Borders and Letters, Second Seri ies; 90 Designs.
Part III —Objects ; 236 Designs. Part VI.—Symmetrical Forms; 3 257 Designs.

Painting for Children. Arranged according to Froebel’s System, for use at Home or in the Kinder-

gar ten. Specially designed to teach how to mix colours and how to lay-them on, By BE. Hrperwarr and H. Ripuey (Author of
* Drawing from Objects,” &c.)—

KEY BOOK for the Teacher, Containing 12 Plates of Coloured Designs, with Explanations and Directions. Demy 4to ite

EXERCISE BOOK for use with the above. Uniform in size and ruling, new edition, rough paper specially suited for colouring

The Kindergarten Artist for Drawae and Colouring: With Gromezrrican Desiens executed on
Chequered Paper .. fc Two Parts, each

Exercises in Colouring. A Sequel to the above, consisting of ‘Coloured Designs and their Uncoloured

Counterparts, the latter to be painted in imitation of the tormer Ase SEETCEES, FI@ukes, ANIMALS, BIRDS, BUTTERFLIES,
FLOWERS, FRUIT, MILITARY ; a variety of Books of each subject % per Book

KINDERGARTEN MATERIALS, arranged according to the Best Authorities, in the

most accurate and Systematic ‘Style. See Sprcran List.
Useful Plants. First Series, consisting of Twelve Plates, 19 hy 16 in., of acourabely Coloured Mingranis

ife size), representing 31 Plants used for Food, &c., with Treatise

Useful Plants. Second Series, uniform with the last, representing 33 Plants, used fox Dyes, Manufactures,
&c. (mostly life size) 4 3
Each Series of the above " Usetul Plants 4 may be had mounted on | Milboard and Varnished ee
Ditto ditto ditto ditto in stout Portfolio

Natural History Illustrations. A Series of Five Plates, accurately designed and Coloured, and
systematically arranged. Mounted on cloth, with rollers, and varnished. Each of these Plates 1s accompanied by a Pamphiet
containing a classified and descriptive Catalogue of the numerous specimens illustrated ae +.» each Plate, with Pamphlet

1—MAMMALS. 48 by 26 inches ; 135 Specimens. | 4,—INVERTEBRATES—Molluscs, Insects, Spiders, Worms,
2.—Binps. 48 by 26 inches 3 143 Specimens. Star-fishes, Sea-urchins, d&c. 48 by 26 inches;
38,—-REPTILES and FISHES. 48 by 26 inches ; 96 Specimens. | 169 Specimens. 7
5.—MEDICINAL and Poisonous PLANTS. 38 by 33 inches; 104 Specimens.

Washable Letters for Infant Teaching. The Letters and Numbers are of a very distinct pattern,
and large in size, printed on Tablets of smooth hardwood 3 inches long, coated with a special preparation which renders them
washable and indelible. The Set consists of 94 Tablets, namely—36 Capitals, 48 Small Letters, 10 Numbers—in a strong wooden hinged
Box, the inside of lid. serving as a Spelling Framé. ‘These Letters are: pr menecaly Pinel UestDIe and are vastly Drekerable-t to
those hitherto used, printed on paper, and stuck on soft wood

Educational Diagrams, Globes, and other Illustrations. ‘See Caanocur.
Davidson’s Landscape Drawing Models. A Set of Models of Familiar Objects arranged by

ELLIs A. DAVIDSON, Lecturer at the City of London Middle-Class Schools. The Models comprise a Bridge, Gate, Cottage, Fence,
Garden Roller, Pair of Steps, Ladder, Houses Doors and Blocks: OF Wood Painted white, aftording good peastice in the rules eS
Perspective Drawing

Slate Drawing School. A vanspareiit ‘Slate, 9 by 7 atcha mahogany frame, with a supply of practical

Designs in white lines on black ground, and a Pencil. Complete in neat Box



A. N. MYERS & CO., 15, Berners Street, Oxford Street, London, W.,

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The ORIGINAL INTRODUOCERS of the Kindergarten Materials and Occupations into England.

Purchasers should insist on having the gongs of A. N. Myrrs & Co., which are supplied through all Stationers,

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FORWARDED ON APPLICATION.
v

Se
A. N. MYERS & GCO.,

15, BERNERS STREET, OXFORD STREET, LONDON, W.,

PUBLISHERS OF

PRIZE (MEDAL GAMES AND GMUSEMENTS,

STANDARD KINDERGARTEN PUBLICATIONS AND MATERIALS.

THE FOLLOWING ARE A FEW ITEMS FROM CATALOGUE :—

Little Artist’s Drawing Box. Containing a Transparent Slate in mahogany frame, a plentiful
supply of Drawing Copies (outline, shaded, and coloured), together with Drawing Pencil, 6 Coloured Pencils, and India Rubber

Dolly’s Dress Patterns, with Fashion Plate and Directions. The Patterns for Cutting out
are most practically arranged on tough paper, for a doll 18kin. high. Ina strong cloth portfolio

International Flag Telescope. With Illustrations of the Royal Standard, Union Ja ack, British

Ensigns, and Flags of other Nations; also the International Code of Signals, This Tele scope is of substantial Br itish makes and
the Designs are so clearly and carefully executed as to be of practical use and really instructive

Rubber Geometric Designer (Pwiented). By means of a few plainly-shaped Tails, Rubber ‘Hand.

stamps an infinite variety of beautiful Designs can be formed, dev eloping gradually from the simplest to any degree of complexity.

It thus affords endless amusement to young and old, besides being most serviccable to all designers. With a little practice
marvellous effects can be rapidlu produced.

Metal Box, including 3 Stamps and Patent Inexhaustible Colour Pad, with Thstruchions:
Metal Box, with 5 Stamps, and 2 Patent Pads y jelding different colours

Gymnastic Exercises without Apparatus. According to Ling’ s Swedish ‘System. By Dr . Row,

This practical and simple System of Ehseieal Edacavien is now widely recognised’ as THE BEST. seventh mation. loth, Bye:
With 41 Illustrations

Gymnastic Exercises ‘without “Apparatus. Ditto, On Two Sheets, for Use of Schools.
Mounted on cloth, with rollers, varnished per Set

Roth’s Gymnastic Games.. A Series of 36 Cards, arrang’ ed with a view to Physical Education,
according to Ling’s Swedish System. Each Card bears an accurate repr esentation illustrating some position of the Body. Clear
Instructions are given for a variety of Games, which require the Player to assume the different Positions represented on the

Cards. All these are well calculated to str engthen the manscres of the Body, ; ang, at the same time aston d a vast amount of amuse-
ment. Ina cloth case

Botanist’s Portable Collecting Press. For pressing ‘Specimens directly they are found. Especially

adapted for preserving the more fragile flowers, which fade as secon as gathered. 1t COMPTIBES: a Drying IPRA, with Pressure
Boards, Straps, and Handle. Neatly and strongly made ; 11 by 83 inches

Botanist’s Portable Collecting Press. Ditto. Cheaper style, 10 by 8 StidhSs, with Trowel .

Struwwelpeter; or, Funny Pictures and Stories of Naughty Children. Aer the
celebrated German Work of Dr. HEINRICH HorrMaN, Thirty-third Edition. Areprint of the Original Edition

Struwwelpeter; or, Funny Pictures and. Stories of Naughty Children. Ditto.
Indestructible. mounted on Linen.

Struwwelpeter; or, Naug hty Children; A Merny Cine FOR Gedy Curupnen. With Fac- simile
Illustrations and Rhymes Pcbess) the hie Strawwelpeter Book

Natural History Dominoes. Comprising 30 Picture Cards ‘of Animals, artistically designed. The

Reverse Card can be used for the ordinary game of Danunogs 3 and, the marking being very large and distinct, these cards are
specially suitable also for instruction in counting :

Object Dominoes. Uniform in style with the above is ss
Cock-a-Doodle-Doo, An Amusing Game played Ey means of a Set of Cand, with Pictares of Pinte

and Animals.

Ups and Downs. An Amusing Game for Big ‘and Little Childzen, played ‘by means of 48 Cards con-

taining Humorous Pictures and Rhy mes ..

Roman Mosaie Puzzle. The Great Novelty y of the Age. This Pazzle i is equally fascinating to young ana
old. It appears very easy, hut after a little time is found otherwise, yet it is something solved within an hour oe . 1s, and

The New Doll’s House. Packet of Coloured Designs for forming Parlour, Drawing-room, Bed- -room,
and Kitchen, with Furniture, Utensils, &c.; also Dolls to inhabit it, with Removable Dresses. The whole arranged to have an
appearance of solidity when set up. Although made of paper, by an ingenious contr ‘ivance any of the Dolls: can be made to appear
to sit on the chairs, or to lie in the bed, &c., in any position

The Floral Artist. A supply of Coloured Flowers to be ak out accurately, and to be grouped to form
Bouquets, &e., for which purpose coloured Tepresentations of a Power baskets Nase, Bouquet enolders: ang Blower tubes are
furnished. In’a neat box .. :

Coasting Voyage. By Captain Caan: A Simple and. Interesting Game, with Ships snd a ‘Chart,

illustrating the difficulties met on such a journey. Ina cloth box

The Huropean Tourist. An Interesting Game, including a Bintenat ‘Map of Rarcpe; a Book containing
notices of ane auerent Countries throush which the FOnnst tray els. Mogel tay ellers; &e. New and Simplified Edition.
In cloth box.

Dissected Map Puzzles. The Pieces are ¢ carefully divided according to the Counties or other Political
and Physical Boundaries .. .. 2s. to

A. N. MYERS & CO., 15, Berners Street, Oxford Street, London, W.



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The ORIGINAL INTRODUCERS of the Kindergarten Materials and Occupations into England.

Purchasers should insist on having the goods of A. N. Myzns & Co., which are supplied through ail Stationers, $c.

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FORWARDED ON APPLICATION.
vi

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Plate Xil



CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, LITH.LONDON.

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HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

BEING A DEVELOPMENT OF THE KINDERGARTEN FOR JUNIOR

AND SENIOR SCHOLARS.

Book I.—For Boys anp GIR1s.

BY

GEORGE RICKS, B.Sc. Monn),

Inspector of Schools, School Board for London.

With Sixteen Full-page Plates in Colours, and Maumerous Diagrams.



CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED:

LONDON, PARIS, NEW YORK §& MELBOURNE.
: 1889,

[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. |



PREFACE.

—*o+ -——

Av the Annual Conference of the School Board Clerks held at Scarborough
in September, 1887, I read a paper on Manual Training. The writing of
this paper, and the preparation of specimens necessary for its illustration,
- led me to consider how Manual Training, as distinct from Technical Edu-
cation, could be introduced with the greatest advantage into the Hlementary
~ Schools of the country generally. Head Teachers of Tendon Board Schools
whom I consulted, entered con amore into the spirit of the question, and gave
me every opportunity and assistance in bringing various theories to the test of

practical experience.

“ Hand-and-Eye Training” is the result of further and extended con-
sideration and investigation: and, whatever interest and aalne there may be
attached to the various occupations therein described, I am, in a large
measure, indebted for it to the very many friends who have rendered me most
willing help. I an unable to name them all; but I desire to express my
great obligation to Mr. Tait, Head Master of the Beethoven Board School,
for specimens to illustrate the use of tools by boys; to Mr. Murray, Head
Master of the William Street Board School, for hints on cardboard modelling,
and for specimens of various kinds of handwork suitable for boys and girls; to

Mr. Toombs, Head Master of the Surrey. Lane Board School, for notes on
vi PREFACE.

modelling in clay, and for various specimens illustrative of handwork among
boys; to Mr. Harris, of Middle Row Board School, for the models in wood,
from which the drawings were made, and for many notes on the Sléjd; to
Mr. Cannon, of the Saffron Hill School of Art, and teacher of modelling in
clay in various Board Schools, for notes on modelling in clay; to Miss Warren,
the experienced Inspectress under the Leicester Board, who has taken great
interest in the introduction of modelling in clay into the Leicester Schools,
for the use of notes written after practical experience ; to Mr. Vaughan, Art
Master, Science and Art Department, and Art Teacher in three of the London
Pupil Teacher Schools, for very valuable hints on drawing, colouring, and
designing, and for the execution of the coloured drawings in the plates; and

lastly, to Mr. Nickal, a valued colleague, for his correction of the proof sheets.

Among the numerous authorities consulted, I may mention “ Paradise
of Childhood,” by Prof. Wiebe; “The Kindergarten Principle,” by Miss
Liyschinska ; ‘‘ Bench-work in Wood,” by Prof. Goss; and the standard works
of Tredgold and Col. Seddon.

For the convenience of teachers the work is divided into two parts; but
each part is complete in itself.

Book I. deals with occupations suitable for both girls and boys, which
can be carried on in the ordinary school-room.

Book II. embraces occupations designed especially for boys ; and which,
for the elder scholars at least, necessitate the use of a separate sort oom,

The following diagram ee roughly, but in a graphic form, the

occupations suitable for children of different ages.
PREFACKH. - ¥il

APPROXIMATE AGE.
OccUPATION.
10—11 11—12

. Paper Folding, &c. (1)
Chap. IV., Book I.

. Drawing, Cutting, &c.
Chap. V., Book I.

. Drawing, Colouring, &c.
Chap. VI., Book I.

. Paper Folding, &. (2)
Chap. VII., Book I.

. Drawing and Cutting
Geometrical Forms, &c.
Chap. VIII., Book I.

. Modelling in Cardboard,

&e,
Chap. IX., Book I.

. Modelling in Clay.
Chap. X., Book I.

1. Building, Plans, Eleva-
tions, &c.
Chap. II., Book II.

. Bench-work.
Chaps. V., VI., VIL.,
Book IT.

- Modelling in Clay.
Chap. VIIJ., Book II.



Tt is not suggested that all the occupations described shall be attempted at
the same time in any one school. One, or perhaps two, of the occupations
taken concurrently, will form a fairly comprehensive course. Thus, one course
may consist of the two series of paper folding, &c., together with modelling in
clay. A second course may include the second occupation followed by the fifth
and sixth, together with the seventh. A third course may embrace the third
occupation, together with the sixth or seventh, and so on. The special course
for boys need not be curtailed.

* Only such scholars as show special aptitude should continue the modelling in clay beyoud this stage.
CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

I—Intropvuction . . . . . _ . :
IIl—Tur KINDERGARTEN AS THE Basis oF HAND-AND-EYE TERETE
III. —Drawine as A Factor In Hawp-anwp-Hyz TRAINING
IV.—FoupIne, CUrrine, AND Mounrine.—Sertizs I.

V.—Drawine, Currine, anp Mountine

VI—Drawine and CoLovRInG . . : . a : .

VII—Fotpine, Curtrne, Mountine, Desienine In Form anp CoLour.—SerRies II.

VIIIL—Drawine anp Curring SIMPLE GEOMETRICAL ForRMS

IX.—MopELLING IN CARDBOARD AND MILLBOARD

X.—MOopELLING IN CLAY :

PAGE

1
16
21
24:

28 °

49
BA

61
HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

THERE is a general consensus of opinion among Educationists in favour of the introduction

of “ Manual Training ”

into the curriculum of Public Elementary Schools, and of pro-
viding means whereby “Technical Instruction” can be carried on in special Technical
Schools, or in Continuation Schools, in the evenings.

On May 19, 1887, the School Board for London passed the following resolution :—
“That it is necessary to introduce into Elementary Schools some regular system of
Manual Training.’ This resolution has recently been reiterated and emphasised in the
Report of the Special Committee on “Subjects and Modes of Instruction in the Board
Schools.”

- Much confusion and misconception exist as to the significance of such phrases as
Manual Training, Technical Education, Technical Instruction, and so on. One is often
confounded with another, and all are associated with Workshop, or Trade Training. To
avoid this ambiguity the phrase “ Hand-and-Eye Training” has been adopted as the title of
this. little handbook on “ Manual Training.”

Technical Instruction is usually understood to mean the development of the special
manual dexterity required by separate trades and industries—in other words, Trade Instruc-
tion. The Manual Training here contemplated is a form of education which shall take
its place side by side with arithmetic, reading, writing, and drawing. It is intended to
develop general manual dexterity rather than special aptitude. It is designed to bring
about such skill in the use of the hand and eye as will enable the learner more quickly,
more easily, and more intelligently to learn any handicraft hereafter. These are important
considerations. ‘If there were no such things,’ says Professor Huxley, “as industrial
pursuits, a system of education which does nothing for the faculties of observation, which
trains neither the eye nor the hand, and is compatible with utter ignorance of the com-
monest natural truths, might still be reasonably regarded as strangely imperfect. But
when: we consider that the instruction and training, which are lacking, are exactly those
which are of most importance for the great mass of our population, the fault becomes
10 HAND-AND-HYE TRAINING.

almost a crime, the more so that there is no practical difficulty in making good these
defects.” Our country has been, and to a large extent is, the workshop of the world. It is
necessary to our very existence, therefore, as a prosperous nation, to maintain this position.
Should our competitors be able by superior skill—the result of a more perfect scheme of
education—to produce goods of a superior quality at the same price, loss of custom must
follow, with the result of reducing numbers of our people to a state bordering on famine.
It is this peril which has produced, not only the demand for technical education, but also
the demand that “all our education, from the Elementary School to the University, shall be
more intelligent, more formative, and less mechanical than it 1s.”

“ Skilled labour is embodied thought—thought that houses, feeds, and clothes mankind.
The nation that applies to labour the most thought (7.e., that best expresses its thoughts in
concrete form) will rise highest im the scale of civilisation, will gain most in wealth, will
most surely survive the shocks of time, will live longest in history.” *

After all, however, valuable as the industrial side of manual training may be, it must
be taken as subsidiary to the mental and moral side. Manual training must take its proper
place in the general cultivation of the faculties. Education, based mainly on book-work and
oral instruction, is incomplete—it needs the Hand-and-Eye Training to round off and perfect
it. ‘The training of the faculties is the primary object of education ; and, although it is
a mistake to suppose that book-knowledge does little to develop the powers of mind,
it is equally a mistake to suppose that book-knowledge alone will suffice. An ideal educa-
tion is one which multiplies. the power of the eye to see, of the ear to hear, of the hand
to execute: which puts a mind well stored with knowledge into active contact with faculties
capable of translating it into action. The hand, the eye, and the ear must be as carefully
trained as the mind, and the system of education which confines itself too exclusively to
either the external or the internal man is one-sided, and, therefore, defective. Mind and
body are so related that their highest development can only be effected through that system
of trainmg which makes the most of both.” +

In his evidence—before the Royal Commission on Technical Education—Sir Philip
Magnus says:—“If handicraft instruction is to be introduced on any large scale into
our Elementary Schools, the instruction ought to be distinctly of a disciplinary, and not
of a professional character ; that its object ought to be to train the senses, to train the hand
and the eye to work together; that it should have a moral and intellectual purpose. Such
training would be extremely advantageous if it became an integral part of the elementary
instruction just in the same way as reading, arithmetic, and writing, its object being
distinctly disciplinary and formative, as distinguished from professional.”

In a lecture on “ Handwork in Education,” Mr. T. G. Rooper, one of Her Majesty’s
Inspectors of Schools, thus concisely describes the intellectual and moral value of handwork
as a branch of ordinary instruction :—‘* Haudwork is the only kind of instruction in which

* Charles Ham. + “ Educational Times.”
INTRODUCTION. Il

you can make certain that the learner is not trusting to words, and words only. No doubt
in the matter of geography, physics, mathematics, and the like, visible illustration tends to
aid the student to get beyond words; but it is astonishing how soon even the most tangible
illustration becomes a matter of words: and when the teacher thinks the pupil has really
got hold of the fact which he wishes him to apprehend, he is often disappointed by
discovering, perhaps through an accident, that the pupil has only a word knowledge
after all, which breaks down in practical application. Now, without the use of the eye
the young pupil cannot rule out and saw to a straight line. Whatever inward impression
he has of a straight line he brings its accuracy to the test im many kinds of handwork.
Book-learning does, without doubt, divert the attention from many things going on around
us, which the eye ought to take notice of, and handwork is a useful corrective to this
defect. Schooling in its incomplete form takes the edge off the natural faculty of
observation, and makes it blunt and dead.

“Secondly, Handwork greatly affects the invaluable habit of attention. Attention
is affected in two ways—first of all it is strengthened, and secondly, it is tested.
In order to perform so simple an operation as ruling a straight line, and sawing along
it afterwards, considerable concentration of the attention is requisite; and, if the mind
wanders, the operator is very quickly made aware of the fact by the abrasion of his skin.
A boy may believe that his mind is engaged in learning his task, and if he keeps still
the teacher may share his opinion; but the boy may be employing half his mind only,
and the rest of it may be wool-gathering. Manual operations demand the whole of
.the attention, and strengthen the habit. They also test it, because if the attention
is not fixed on the task the incorrectness of the work proves itself quickly and completely.

“Thirdly, Handwork cultivates what I call the practical intelligence. The boy learns
more clearly than in any other way the effort and determination which are requisite to
master the outside world. He has an idea in his head which he desires’ to carry out in
making himself a box. Before he has been at work very long he will discover what stub-
born material timber is, and how much patience and care he must employ before he can
see his mental image of a box presented before him as the finished and complete issue
of his brain and hand, fit for holding flowers and ferns. Handwork should be a sort
of bridge between learning and life; and, just as in arithmetic, children are taught to
apply money sums to working out bills of parcels, so boys may learn to cut out of a
plank the side of a box, which shall contain a given number of cubic inches or feet.
Modelling also is of immense help in learning geography, and some boys would sooner
learn to make a model of a country than to draw a map of it.

“T claim also for Handwork certain effects on the will—or, as it is called, moral
advantages. It encourages the virtues of diligence, perseverance, love of order, neatness,
dexterity, caution, a love of construction, a respect for the work of men’s hands, and a
contempt for wanton destruction.”
12 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

Neither must the moral influence of manual training on the dul/ scholar be lost sight
of. The use of tools is good for the bookish boy, to draw him away from his books. But,
in a greater degree, it is good for the non-bookish boy, in showing him that there is a
possible something he can do well. The boy who lacks the natural aptitude to keep pace
even if he tried, with his brighter schoolfellows, loses heart altogether, and has little
pleasure in school. But put him in the workroom, and let him find out that he can do
a piece of work as well or better than his more highly-favoured compeer, and you have
given him an impulse of self-respect that is of untold benefit to him when he goes
back to his studies. He'will be a happier and a better boy for finding out something that
he can do well. '

Lastly, an attractive occupation is provided for the boy on leaving school within
the home, which will doubtless in many instances act as a counterpoise to less refining
influences from without.

While, in this country, we have been discussing the subject of manual training, our
cousins in the States have been forming Manual Training Schools. And, although most of
these schools are established for the training of pupils of an age considerably above the
age limit of our Public Elementary Schools, we may possibly profit from the experiences
gained therein.

The professors and teachers of these schools are enthusiastic in the matter of manual
training ; but they repudiate in the strongest terms any idea of special, or trade instruc-
tion. They argue that the question has nothing to do with teaching trades, or turning |
schools into workshops. They hold that it is purely and simply an educational ques-
tion, and they boldly claim that the cultivation of the child’s powers of expression by
delineation and construction shall form an integral part of the public school-course of
study. ,

Dr. C. M. Woodward, in an admirable work called “The Manual Training School,” has
collated the experiences and opinions of various educational experts. The following are
extracts :—

“ Prof. J. M. Ordway, speaking of the observed influence of manual training in the
Tulane High School, New Orleans, says :-—

« «But even with the imperfect development, the indications are, that it tends to
awaken and keep up the interest of the pupils in all the school exercises; for by it they
acquire juster ideas of the relation between books and actual things. They see that the
school is a place for real earnest work. They gain the habit of close attention in the
exact performance of tasks. They find they have the power to do something of themselves,
and hence are likely to acquire a manly self-reliance. They do not lose time which ought
to be devoted to intellectual studies; for it is found that, without over-exertion, they
accomplish quite as much in these studies as they did before handwork was introduced.
They gain by alternating handwork with pure brainwerk, and thus resting without being
INTRODUCTION. , 13

idle. The surplus activity of youth, which is too prone to vent itself in mischief, is
allowed to find scope in useful and pleasant employment,’

“To the question, Does not the intellectual work suffer if time is taken for industrial
work in school? Miss May Mackintosh, a teacher experienced in manual work, replies :—

«¢The answer is emphatically No! Children, especially young children, cannot force
their attention to keep to one subject for long together—the actual time varying with
the children, and the personal influence of the teacher—and it is hurtful to them, physically,
mentally, and morally, to be obliged to take part in any lesson after this period is reached :
intellectually, because they form the habit of inattention; morally, because they are
obliged to pretend attention; and physically, in their poor little restless bodies, that need
so much movement for their healthy development. Then what a blessed relief is some
piece of work for the hands, and how fresh the interest and attraction for the follow-
ing studies. It is the most economic arrangement even if the claims of intellectual
education are considered as paramount.’

“Prof. Felix Adler, who has had eight years of experience in the conduct of a
Manual Training School, says in a recent report :—

«« Flow does it come to pass that those two organs, the eye and the hand, which are
the preferred messengers for carrying out the intentions of mind, should receive so little
discipline? . . . Who will deny that everyone to whom a deft hand and keen powers
of observation are important, will find such a preparatory discipline in early youth an
inestimable advantage? While the pupil is shaping the typical objects which the
instructor proposes to him as a task, while he poses silently, persistently, and lovingly
over these objects, reaching success by dint of gradual approximation, he is at the same
time shaping his own character, and a tendency of mind is created from which eventually
result the loftiest and purest morality.’ ”

The mental effect of Manual Training is well put in a paper by Prof. E. A. Sheldon,
read before the New York State Association [1888] :—

“The term Manual Training has a wide range of interpretation. It applies to all
modes of expression through the instrumentality of the hand—the hand as employed
to give expression to the ideas that exist in the mind; it is simply language put in
objective form. No one questions the value of language in intellectual training; the
same principle is applicable in drawing, painting, modelling, and the mechanic arts.

“Modelling seems to come first as being the most simple and the easiest of.
manipulation; no tools are required but the hands; and the object produced has such a
veritable likeness to the object imitated as to awaken. the deepest interest in the mind
of the child. We are beginning to learn that there is a genuine educational value in
this form of expression. It tends to give clearness, exactness, and definiteness to the
mental concept.

“In the process something more than the hand has received training. - The
14: HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

important thing that has been gained is the concept, which is purely a mental product.
It is the furnishing of these concepts, clear and well defined, so impressed as to be
life-long in their duration, that constitutes a very important part of our work in all the
early processes of education.

“ After modelling, the way is paved for cutting the regular geometrical forms from
paper or pasteboard; the way is then paved for representing by drawing. In this, as
in forming the clay model, the work of comparison goes on until the work agrees with
the mental concept.

“While the cultivated taste is worth something, and the enhanced power to get a living
is worth a great deal, that which is of most worth is the gain in intellectual power to
acquire knowledge, to. assimilate, to classify, and organise the same. .

‘““Tt is very questionable whether we do not overrate the value of drawing for the eye.
_and the hand, and under-estimate its bearing on intellectual training. We must conclude
that the greatest good that comes from drawing is intellectual; it aids in building up
accurate concepts, and making them permanent as an investment for future use.

““ Whatever is true of moulding clay or putty, of paper-cutting or folding, of drawing,
is true, and pre-eminently true, when a more obstinate material is used; the greater the
obstacle to be overcome, the more vivid and lasting the impression made. But there is an
instinct in a child that gives delight in overcoming difficulties, and leads him to enter
upon this part of his work with that lively interest which insures the most intense and
fixed attention.

«But there is a value to be attached to work with tools, outside of its relation to the
regular lesson work of the school. - It is objected that it tends to crowd out subjects of
study that are more plainly intellectual in their bearing, and more essential to the general
preparation for citizenship. But this is a mistake. A pupil will carry on quite as much
purely intellectual study in connection with tool-work as without it, and I believe with
more ease.

* For the interest runs to a high pitch; the children are wideawake ; their minds are
in a-receptive condition. The workshop gives a rest to children ; and there is a tendency
not to get sufficient rest and change. They construct useful forms, so the result of a course
of a training with tools is to awaken a feeling of conscious strength and dignity; and
nothing can be more important in the formation of character.

“A feeling of conscious power and self-reliance is generated when anything is to be
made or mended, if the boy knows that he can do it.”

With regard to the lines along which manual training should run, we give the opinion
of an English educational expert, that of Dr. Fitch, Her Majesty’s Inspector of Training
Colleges. Ata meeting of the Sléjd Union, held ‘December 12th, 1888, Dr. Fitch is
reported to have said that—

“ There was a prevalent and increasing conviction among teachers that our systems of
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CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, LITH.LONDON.
INTRODUCTION. 15

education had hitherto been in the main too verbal and bookish; and that a useful corrective
for this fault was to be found in exercises specially designed to encourage better training of
the bodily senses, and to promote manual dexterity. The particular form of such exercise
described to-night was that of working in wood; and it had been clearly shown by the
lecturer that such work, when performed under intelligent supervision, like that of Herr
Salomon, was well calculated to serve as training in accuracy, in neatness, in perseverance,
in the love of the beautiful, and in aptitude for work. -At the same time it should be
. remembered that other forms of manual employment—ey., writing, drawing, designing,
needlework, and cookery—were all fitted in their several degrees to exercise the same set of
faculties, and to furnish the same sort of training. He did not think it had been shown
that working in wood possessed a higher value as an element in general education than -
manual exercises of other kinds. It appeared that, in the opinion of its advocates, tools suited
for manipulation in such a material could not properly be put into the hand of a scholar
_ under the age of eleven; but those who wished to see manual training duly recognised as
a constituent part of a complete system of general education, desired to introduce exercises
in general handiness, and physical power, earlier than this. What was wanted was a regular
series of eraduated exercises from the Kindergarten upwards, and from the age of seven to
eleven. The simple manual employment devised by Froebel furnished fitting occupation
for the eye and for the fingers, in the form of plaiting, brick-building, and the making of
patterns. In Belgium, and in America, the cutting out of paper patterns, and modelling in
‘some plastic material, were found to be among the most useful exercises for the interval
between seven and the age of eleven, at which period the proper use of tools for carving and
for the making of simple models in wood might commence. But he held it to be essential
that teachers should not regard this kind of handwork as a substitute for intellectual
exertion, but as a supplement and a help to it. After all, the first business of a school
was, the training of the intelligence, and it would be a great mistake to depose this one
purpose, and put it in the second place. Manual work, whether in paper, in clay, or in
wood, if duly accompanied with measurement, with careful drawing to scale, and with
training to a sense of proportion and beauty, would become a most valuable educational
instrument. But manual work introduced into schools as a separate subject of instruction,
and not duly co-ordinated with mental exercise, would yield only disappointing results.
He was particularly struck with the importance attached by the Swedish teachers to the
due co-ordination of other teaching with the Sléjd work. It was not by turning the
scholars over to the hands of artisans; but by keeping a// the educational work of a school
in the hands and under the supervision of a skilled teacher, that manual exercises could
assume in due proportion their rightful place in the educational system of the future.”
CHAPTER IL.

THE KINDERGARTEN AS THE BASIS OF HAND-AND-EYE. TRAINING.

Tu resolution referred to in the previous chapter was referred to the Special Committee on
the Subjects and Modes of Instruction in the Board Schools. This Committee recommended
“That the methods of Kindergarten in Infants’ Schools be developed for Senior Scholars
throughout the Schools, so as to supply a graduated course of Manuan Traryine in con-
nection with Science Teaching and Object Lessons ; ” and this recommendation was accepted
and adopted by the Board on July 19th, 1888. This resolution fairly sums up the general
opinion among teachers, and others interested in education, that the manual training of the
junior and senior schools must be a development of the Kindergarten occupations. <‘‘ As the
child is the father of the man, so the Kindergarten is the father of the Manual Training
School. The Kindergarten comes first in order of development, and leads logically to the
Manual Training School. The same principle underlies both. In both it is sought to
generate power by dealing with things in connection with ideas. Both have common
methods of instruction, and they should be adapted to the whole period of school life, and
be applied to all schools.” * The methods and practice here advocated are constructed on
Kindergarten lines, hence it becomes necessary to give the briefest outline of the aims and
possible advantages of this admirable teaching invention of Friedrich Froebel :—Kinder-
garten is a method designed to secure the full and harmonious development of all the
faculties, bodily and mental, with which the child is by nature endowed. Its leading
principles, as set out by Froebel and his followers, are, that all education should begin
with a development of the desire for activity innate in the child, that a knowledge of °
things can best be obtained from things, that the best method of learning is by doing, that
the teacher’s mind must come down to the level of the child’s mind, that the teacher’s
mind must, as it were, enter into the pupil’s mind, guiding and leading him to learn, and
exciting his interest till he wishes to observe, compare, and note for himself. It is
an inward system of direction and development, intent not upon giving in, but upon
drawing out. ‘

The Kindergarten method does much for Hand-and-Eye Training. It aims at manual
dexterity, and love of active work, no less than at awakening and directing intelligence.
Froebel is never weary of repeating that man must not only know, but produce; not only

* OC. H. Ham.
THE KINDERGARTEN AS THE BASIS OF HAND-AND-FEYE TRAINING. 17

think, but work; and that the capacity for work must be trained in early childhood
side by side with the observing and apprehending faculty. The hand should be no less
dexterous, and the eye no less accurate, than the judgment is sure.

In the Kindergarten all occupations are called “plays,” and the materials for the
occupations “gifts.” The plays are systematically and logically arranged. “ Each step
in the course of training is a logical sequence of the preceding; and the various means of
occupation are developed one from another in a perfectly natural order, beginning with
the simplest and concluding with the most difficult features in all the varieties of
occupation.”

There are altogether twenty gifts and plays according to Froebel’s general definition
of the terms.

The Firsr Grrr consists of six soft rubber balls, covered with coloured worsted, repre-
senting the primary and secondary colours. With these the young scholars are not only
tramed to distinguish colours, but are made acquainted with the material, the shape,
the weight, and other properties of the balls. Games are also designed in which the balls
play a prominent part.

The Sxconp Gtrr consists of a sphere, cylinder, and cube, in wood. It offers oppor-
tunity for comparison, first with the rubber balls, and then between the articles which con-
stitute this Gift. The children are led to see and to name the points of difference and
similarity.

The Tuirp Grrr consists of a two-inch cube divided once every way, forming eight one-
inch cubes. “A prominent desire in the mind of every child is to divide things in order
to examine the parts of which they consist. This natural instinct is observable at a very
early period. The little one tries to change its toy by breaking it, desirous of looking at its
inside, and is sadly disappointed in finding itself incapable of reconstructing the fragments.
Froebel’s Third Gift is founded on this observation. In it the child receives a whole,
whose parts he can easily separate, and put together again at pleasure. Thus he is able to
do that which he could not in the case of the toy—restore to its original form that which
was broken, making a perfect whole. And not only this, he can use the parts for the
construction of other wholes.’ *

In this and the following occupations it is usual to divide the exercises—somewhat
arbitrarily, it must be confessed—into forms of life, forms of knowledge, and forms of
beauty. The first refers to the construction of familiar objects, the second to the more
purely mental exercises of geometry and number, and the third to design. In the Infant
School the second series of exercises occupies the most prominent position. In the Hand-
and-Eye Training in the Junior and Senior Schools, the first and third will occupy the
foremost place.

~The Fourru, Frere, and Sixtu Gurrts consist of a eube variously divided, and each

* Wiebe,
18 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

serves the purpose of exercises similar to, but more advanced, than those of the Third
Gift.
The Srventu Girt consists of a series of thin slabs or “ tablets ”—usually coloured
red and white—in five sets :—
1, Square tablets.
2. Right angular with equal sides, viz., each equal to half a square.
3. Equilateral.
4, Obtuse angular with equal sides.
5. Right angular with unequal sides.

These tablets facilitate in a remarkable way the teaching of the elements of geometry,
and they are no less serviceable in the production of designs. As, however, geometry and
design form but a small part of the teaching in Infants’ Schools, this gift is there seldom ~
used.

The Erenrs Grrr consists of a number of sticks, or staffs, about one-twelfth of an inch
in thickness, and in lengths of from two to six inches. This is one of the simplest, as it is
one of the most useful of the gifts. In addition to the formation (laying) of a great number
of familiar objects, the teacher uses the sticks of this gift for the teaching of number—
notation, addition, subtraction, &c., for the formation of the letters of the alphepens and, to
a less extent, for teaching writing and drawing.

The Nintu Girr—rings and half rings—introduces curved lines, and is but little used.

Drawing—the Tenra Grirr—is one of the most important and most useful [see
Chapter ITI.].

The Exzventru and Twenrra Grrts consist of material for perforating, and embroider-
ing. These should not be commenced before the children have become sufficiently prepared
for the perception of forms by the use of their building blocks and staffs. They necessitate
the introduction of tools—the pricking or perforating tool, and the sewing needle. The
material is paper, on which lines and figures have been stamped, and soft thick pads of
felt. This occupation is calculated to produce a steadiness of the hand and eye which will
be invaluable in future Manual Training.

The Turrrzenrn Gurr consists of material for paper cutting, and mounting the pieces
to produce figures and forms. It is an occupation much too advanced for the Infant
Department, but admirably adapted to form a part of Hand-and-Eye Training for Girls’
Schools [see Chapter VII].

The Fourtgrntu Gurr, viz., materials for braiding or weaving, provides for one of the
simplest and most attractive of the Kindergarten occupations. The material consists of (a)
an oblong sheet of paper cut longitudinally into strips—the mat—which remain attached as
a margin at each end; (4) loose strips of paper which may, or may not, be of the same
_ width as the strips in the mat; and (c) a stick, or needle, having a slit at one end into
which the loose strip of paper is inserted. With this needle—the shuttle, the loose strips—
:



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Ss

























































CASSELL & COMPANY. LIMITED, LITH.LONDON.
THE KINDERGARTEN AS THE BASIS OF HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING. 19

the weft—are interwoven with the strips—the warp—of the mat. Like stick-laying this
occupation forms an admirable training in number s and, in addition, furnishes exercises in
Form and Colour.

The Firreenta, Srxreenru, and Suvenrsrnru Gurrs consist of wooden and paper
strips for interlacing and intertwining.

The Ereuteentru Grrr provides material for paper folding [see Chapter LV.], and the
Nryereenta for “ peas-work.”” The latter consists of pieces of iron wire of various lengths
about the thickness of ordinary “hair-pins,” and pointed at the ends. As a means of
combination in the production of forms peas are used. These are soaked about twelve hours
in water, and dried an hour before use. They are then just soft enough to allow the child
to introduce the wire without difficulty, and hard enough to afford a sufficient hold. Perhaps
of all the Kindergarten occupations this is the best preparation for the handwork of the
Senior School.

For Modelling—the Twentizts Girr—see Chapter X.

By means of these cunningly-devised toys, Froebel satisfies the innate desire of the
child for action; and herein his method is unique—it gives to each child in the class
something to handle, and examine, and experiment upon; something about which to form
new ideas, to compare, to reason upon; something which trains the pupil’s. powers of
construction, ingenuity, imagination, and inventiveness; which brings about deftness of
manipulation, order, neatness, accuracy, and precision; which, says Miss E. Shireff,
“develops the sense of beauty, and the feeling of harmony and symmetry as essential. to
beauty ; and this is not merely the foundation of all artistic creation in its highest as well
as in its lowest forms; but of artistic enjoyment, adding to the pleasures of life, in the
cottage as well as in the palace, wherever the forms and tints of nature speak to the
imagination and the heart of man.”

“The superficial observer sees in a Kindergarten a little simple material, a few squares
of paper, being handled by happy babies, of four, five, or six years of age; he sees them
marching, singing, playing games, modelling in clay and sand—that is all. The educator
says, ‘ That is enough,’ for he sees how much the little ones are gaining under the guidance
of a skilful teacher. He sees the essential elements of education at work here; he sees the
little ones trained in habits of order, exactness, and neatness; he sees them encouraged to
be industrious and persevering, he sees that their physical powers are carefully developed by
speech exercise, singing, marching, and games; he sees that neither the cultivation of the
imagination nor the training of the memory are neglected ; nor anything, in fact, that tends
to the harmonious development of the whole being. This is the reason why, in spite of the
widespread ignorance of Froebel’s principles which still prevails, the system is steadily
gaining ground, although the principles which underlie the games, gifts, and occupations
are often wholly disregarded. So long as the children are under seven years of age, and
go to a Kindergarten, they find in it a life in everything which makes up real living is

BQ
20 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

provided for. Up to this stage Froebel worked out his ideas ; but he has left us to find the
application of his principles for older children, to select the occupations and the subjects
of intellectual, moral, and physical training which shall replace the Kindergarten life.’ *

From this brief réswmé it will be seen that the Kindergarten claims to develop
harmoniously the mental, moral, manual, and physical powers of the young; but that the
Hand-and-Hye work, however important in itself, is rather to be considered as a means to
an end—the end being the gradual unfolding and strengthening of the mental powers.
The mental training is, in fact, the principal; the manual the subsidiary aim.

In the Junior and Senior Schools, even where the method and spirit of the Kindergarten
prevail, mental training has entirely ousted all idea of any Hand-and-Eye Training such as
is given in the Kindergarten. Writing, of course, is taught in all schools, needlework in
girls’ schools, drawing in most boys’ schools, and drawing and cookery in a few girls’
schools ; but beyond this there is no link to connect the manual training of the Infants’
School with the Technical Instruction, or Trade Teaching, which is given, or proposed to be
given, in Evening, or special Technical Schools.

Now, what is the position which the Hand-and-Eye Training, as founded on the
Kindergarten, should occupy in the Junior or Senior Schools? It must differ to some
extent in its aims from the handwork of the Kindergarten. As already pointed out, the
chief aim of the Kindergarten handwork is to develop mental power. In the Junior and
‘Senior Schools there are introduced subjects of mental training which must of necessity
be dealt with, to a great extent, apart from things; and hence, in the special handwork
lessons, manual dexterity and accuracy of eye must take a more prominent position. In
other words, Hand-and-Eye Training in the Junior and Senior Schools must approach more
nearly to a special subject than the handwork of the infant Kindergarten.

Mental and moral training will still be the most important factors in the manual work,
but accuracy of measurement, deftness in manipulation, and neatness in execution, will
claim a very large share of attention.

For a detailed account of the Kindergarten “ gifts,’ and a description of the various
and special uses of the “plays,” the reader is referred to the many published manuals
on the subject.t We shall, further on, refer again to those particular “ plays” on which
our special occupations are founded.

* Miss Emily Lord in “ Essential Elements of Education.”
t Especially to Prof. Wiebe’s “Paradise of Childhood,” and Miss Lyschinska’s ‘The Kindergarten
Principle.”
CHAPTER III.

DRAWING AS A FACTOR IN HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

Drawine is the representation of forms on a plane surface by means of lines.

It is one of the very first occupations of a child. He breathes on the window pane,
and scrawls lines with his fingers; he makes figures in the sand or mud with the point
of a stick; and, so soon as he can grasp a pencil he attempts to draw animals, trees, and
houses, or anything else he sees. °

These productions, however imperfect, are a source of delight to the child, and the
early innate desire thus manifested should be gratified and encouraged.

“This fondness for drawing is but one of the manifestations of the instinct of
construction which lives in the child, and proclaims his humanity; and the only true
education is that by which the child is to become in due time a true man—a constructive,
or creative being.” *

With this end in view drawing should be introduced very early into the regular school-
course, almost if not quite at the commencement; but the teaching, however simple, must
be sympathetic, and conducted on definite principles.

Froebel considered it highly important that a child should acquire some facility in
drawing before he learns to read and write, since the reproduction of actual things should
precede the repetition of signs and words.

Writing is but a form of drawing, and that not the most simple, and the practice
of drawing straight lines and curves should precede. and form the foundation for the
teaching of writing.

As in the Infants’ so in the Junior and Senior Schools, drawing should be looked
upon as a factor in education side by side with the other indispensable subjects of
mstruction. It is quite as easy to learn. The capacity for learning to draw is just as
widely diffused as the capacity for learning to read or write, or manipulate figures; and,
just as everyone can acquire a fair knowledge and skill in these subjects, so everyone can
attain to some proficiency in drawing.

People who have not been taught to use the facilities which drawing affords, have to
go through life deprived of a very important means of communication with their fellow-
creatures. To be able to make a drawing of an object, showing its correct dimensions,

*® Goldammer.
22 HAND-AND-HYH TRAINING.

is a power which everyone, some time or other, needs to employ. Skill in this simple
kind of drawing is, however, by no means common.

As a mental training drawing has its special value in cultivating accuracy o
observation, and truth of reproduction ; and it develops the sense of form and proportion. |
To represent the correct appearance of an object necessitates a close observation of minute
particulars; and to draw the same .object from memory obliges the pupil to yet more
accurate and intelligent observation, in order that the mind may retain the impression
formed, as so much stored-up observation for future use.

“Drawing,” says Dr. Woodward, “is. the most potent means for developing the
perceptive faculties, teaching the student to see correctly, and to understand what he sees.
Properly taught, it is the constant practice of the analysis of forms, and by this practice
the eye is quickened, and rendered incomparably more accurate; and as the eye is the most
open and ready road through which knowledge passes to the mind, the full development of
its powers can be a matter of no small importance to all. In this respect, then, as an
educator of the eye, drawing is a most valuable means, irrespective of any service that the
power may be of itself.”’

Drawing also gives free scope to the creative, or inventive power. It is the quickest, the -
most convenient, and the most precise way of giving a clear manifestation of the object, or
design, which exists in the inventor’s brain. :

And it has another advantage over word-language—not only is it the shortest of short-
hands; it is a universal language common to the whole civilised world.

Nor must we overlook the value of drawing on the formation of character. Like
_all other hand-and-eye work, drawing develops and strengthens habits of order, neatness,
and perseverance. In nineteen cases out of twenty an orderly drawing, or diagram, is
associated with an orderly mind.

Drawing ‘thus claims to be an essential element in education; but it has other and
important advantages. It is an adjunct to almost every other branch of education. For
technical and trade purposes it is simply invaluable, and it should form the most potent
factor in Hand-and-Iiye Training.

It is in the latter aspect that we have specially to consider drawing in this book. In
the first place drawing is a manual training in itself. The hand is educated and trained
by drawing to be more completely under the control of the will than by any other exercise
to which it can be set; it acquires a delicacy of movement, and a refinement of power, which
no other discipline can impart, and which fits it more completely to perform its varied and
delicate functions.

“On the other hand, drawing alone is not sufficient when not supplemented by hand-
work in wood, cardboard, or other material. Manual traming, through drawing alone, is
work but half done: the other half, by which material is shaped by the hand into any
preconceived design represented by drawing, has hitherto been wanting in our schools.






































CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, LITH.LONDON:
DRAWING AS A FACTOR IN HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING. 23

Unless this element of construction is added our drawing must still fail, as it has hitherto
failed, to yield the full measure of good results expected from it. Designing, and the work-
ing out of the design, are but two parts of one whole; neither can have full educational
value without the other. The former, pursued alone, is open to most of the objections that
may properly be urged against any abstract studies imposed on children; while the latter,
pursued alone, fails to give the worker that broad, intelligent grasp of the plan of his work,
which is a necessary element in all true skill.”

Drawing and construction should be thus inseparably connected and woven together.
“Drawing brings the eye and the mind into relations of the closest intimacy, and makes
the hand the organ of both.” Without drawing, exact and intelligent handwork is scarcely
possible. Drawing saves waste of time and material, it leads straight to the mark, and the
work becomes the product of reason rather than the result of the “rule of thumb.”
CHAPTER IV.
FOLDING, CUTTING AND MOUNTING.—SERIES I.

Kixprrcartun drawing is not a mere mechanical copying of examples. Like the other
“plays” designed by Froebel, it is essentially a method—a method suited to the tender
age of the child, calculated to cause him to reflect, reason, and invent ; and to develop
first ideas of length, form, and proportion.

Froebel suggested a chequered surface on which to draw—viz., a network of per-
pendicular and horizontal lines one-fourth of an inch apart. For the more advanced
pupils coloured pencils are recommended. “This adds greatly to the appearance of the
figures, and also enables the child to combine colours tastefully and fittingly. For the

aemme development of their sense of colour and



of taste, these coloured mosaic-like figures °





are excellent practice.”’

Froebel’s method of drawing is ad-
A | wmirably described and illustrated by
M0) t \N | Miss Lyschinska in “The Kindergarten

Fo

of natural objects; B, geometrical; c,

















Principle.” : The exercises, she says, fall





naturally into three groups :—a, imitation









pattern forming. The exercises in the first





group are best drawn upon paper without







lines, while those groups B and c are







exactly suited to the chequered surface. J
In the first stage of the geometrical ey \







group, the exercises are of a very simple
FIG.2

character, dealing merely with length

} i t



and direction of straight lines.







In the second stage the lines are





grouped together to form certain figures.







Thus isosceles right-angled triangles are





formed with perpendicular, horizontal,





and oblique lines. Figs. 1, 2 and 3 are
FIG.3 examples.































































































































































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26 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

In the third stage these right-angled triangles are combined to form various larger
figures and patterns. Fig. 4 shows the first four elements of Froebel’s course of
geometry for children. These four triangles can be arranged in a variety of ways, of which
Figs. 5—8 are examples. [The shading is added to give prominence to the forms.]

The first part of our new occupation, for junior scholars, that of paper folding and
cutting, is founded on the geometrical group of exercises, and the second part—the formation
of pattérns or designs—follows from the second group. We use, in fact, the same funda-
mental forms, and: the same patterns and designs by foldirg, cutting, and mounting
paper, as in. the Kindergarten drawing.

The materials required are sguares of paper (four inches in the side is a convenient
size), scissors, and squared paper, on which to construct the patterns. The paper should
be thin and tough to insure folding without breaking. Both plain and tinted paper should
be provided, and the tinted should be gummed at the back similar to postage-stamp paper.
The scissors should be of good quality, and round-tipped, not pointed. It may be objected
that scissors in the hands of young children may become dangerous weapons; but “to teach
the proper use of scissors is the best means to prevent their being used improperly.” No
doubt the forms could be cut more nearly correct by using a sharp knife and a straight
edge; but it is not thought advisable to use the knife at this early stage, and on the
other hand it is advisable to introduce scissors, a much less dangerous tool, as early as
practicable.

It is essential that the work should be well done. Paper carelessly folded, or in-
correctly cut, makes the following task of forming and mounting unsatisfactory, if not
impossible: and, besides, it renders nugatory one chief aim in manual training—the
acquisition of ability to work, and to work correctly and well.

Ex. 1.—The first exercise consists in folding the given square into four smaller squares,
asin Fig.9. [The broken lines represent the lines of folds.] Place the paper on the desk or
table, and turn the lower edge up and over to cover the upper edge, and
fold. This halves the square. Unfold the paper, turn, and fold in
the othier direction. Unfold again, and cut carefully along the lines
formed by the folding. When the pupils can do this well, using plain
paper, they should repeat the exercise on tinted paper, and then the
resultant squares may be arranged to form the patterns like that on
Plate L, Fig. A,* omitting the centre square. The children should gum
the pattern on the squared paper. Obviously the lines are intended to
assist the beginner in arranging the cut pieces symmetrically around a common centre. The
teacher can pin the earlier patterns on the blackboard for imitation, using paper of a
larger surface, or make drawings to illustrate; but, after some practice, the children will




bl Neen ree en

Ot--------

9

* All the designs on Plates I., II., III., are drawn to a scale of one-half. Thus the four squares of A, which
measure one-inch in the side, represent the two-inch squares cut from the given square of paper.


























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FOLDING, CUTTING, AND MOUNTING—SERIES I. 27

readily invent forms for themselves. Tints of the primary colours only should be used in
these first exercises.

Ex, 2.—The second exercise divides the square diagonally in both directions [Fig. 10]
yielding four right angled isosceles triangles. The children should be assisted and encou-
raged to combine the triangles, when cut from tinted paper, into various larger figures.
Some of them may be formed similar to Figs. 5—8. Fig. B, Plate I., is an example of
an arrangement of these triangles obtained from cutting three squares of different colours.

Ex. 3.—Fold the square diagonally, as in Ex. 2, and then fold again by bringing in
succession each corner on to the centre of the squares [Fig. 11], and we get the square
divided into four squares, and eight right angled isosceles triangles, each equal in area to
half of one of the squares. The formation of a coloured pattern, from such squares and half
squares, is shown in Fie. C, Plate I.



FIG.10 FIG.

Ex. 4.—The folding of Fig. D, Plate I., is found by taking each commer of the square
[Fig. 11] three-fourths of the distance along the diagonal towards the opposite corner
[Fig. 12]. Fig. E, Plate I., is a combination of Figs. 11 and 12.

Ex. 5.—Fold as in Figs. 9 and 10, and then fold each side on to the middle [Fig. 13].
This exercise divides the whole square into sixteen one-inch squares, and half of these again
into right angled isosceles triangles. Fig. A, Plate IL, is a design formed from this folding.

The remaining patterns on Plates IJ. and III. are all formed from the fundamental
forms cut in the preceding exercises. The children will be able to invent many more.

All the various manipulations in this occupation—folding, cutting, and mounting—
require considerable skill and accuracy ; but should develop such dexterity as will prove of
very great value in the various -exercises of needlework, and in the folding, cutting, and
fitting of the many necessary articles of clothing. Something, too, will have been done
towards developing a taste in colour and arrangement.

It is exceedingly important that the pupils should not be hurried on too fast. Each
exercise should be accurately done before proceeding to the next, and each executed on
plain paper before proceeding to the coloured.
CHAPTER V.

DRAWING, CUTTING, AND MOUNTING.

THE second occupation in Hand-and-Eye Training is connected even more directly with
Kindergarten ‘drawing than the previous occupation. It consists of drawing (using ruler
and black-lead pencil as our new tools) on cross-lined or “ chequered ’’ paper, and cutting
out and mounting the forms as in paper folding. It is strongly recommended that, in
addition to cross-lined plain paper, tinted paper (primary colours) also cross-lined should be
used. Asa substitute for the latter, however, or as an additional exercise, the drawings
may be made on plain stout chequered paper, and the forms cut with the scissors. The
latter may then be placed on the tinted paper,.such as used in the first occupation, and
lines drawn at the edges with a finely-pointed pencil. The forms may now be cut from
the tinted paper, and mounted in the usual way. There should be no inside cutting in
this oceupation—inside cuts are best made with a knife, and are introduced in a later
exercise—every cut must begin at one edge of the paper. Tinted paper chequered, as
before stated, can be used as a groundwork on which to mount, and thus add considerably
to the number, variety, and beauty of the forms.

The first exercise will consist in drawing and cutting out the simplest funda-
mental forms, as shown in Figs. 14 to 28. From the simple elements thus obtained
other forms are constructed, as shown in Figs. 29 to 35. [These figures are drawn to a
small scale to economise space. In practice they should cover four or sixteen times the .
area shown in the drawings.] Thus Fig. 29 is formed by superimposing Fig. 14 on Fig.
18. Fig. 30 is a combination of Figs. 20 and 28 arranged round a common centre. Fig.
31 is formed from Figs. 23 and 27. Fig. 33 utilises Figs. 24 and 27. Fig. 35 represents
a portion of a border formed from Fig. 27, and so on.

The designs on Plates IV. and V. show some simple arrangements of the fundamental
forms in colour. They may, in practice, be extended almost indefinitely.

The best method for practising the children in the formation and invention of patterns
is to take stout chequered paper, or even thin cardboard, of course chequered also, from
which to cut the fundamental forms. The paper on which the pattern is to be constructed
should be fastened on to a small drawing-board, say 10 ins. by 8 ins. On this the children
may lay out their fundamental forms to construct new combinations, oe as Ingenuity or
fancy may suggest.












FIG.15







FIG.46

FIG.17







































































FIG.31























FIG.32











FIG.33











FIG.34







FIG.35






HAND-AND-BYE TRAINING.


































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FIG.36



ECAC































































FIG.42



















FIG.44

Suppose, for example, that four triangles, Fig. 27, are the fundamental forms; the
children will arrange them without assistance in several ways, some in one way, some in
another, as in Figs. 36 to 39.

By adding two triangles to Fig. 38 we get Fig. 40—a good pattern for which to
use coloured papers. our triangles added to Fig. 37 give us Fig. 41. From Fig. 23 we
may develop Fig. 42; and Figs. 41 and 42 combined give us Fig. 31. Precisely in a similar


Ee a a a eS ee Te Ee Ere











































































CASSELL & COMPANY. LIMITED, LITH.LONDON.
DRAWING, CUTTING, AND MOUNTING. 31

fashion patterns may be developed from the other fundamental forms and combinations
of them. From Figs. 14, 15, and 18, Fig. 43 is formed. Similarly Figs. E, F, and G, on

Plate IV., are constructed from Figs. 14, 18, 19, and 21. Plate V. furnishes four simple
exercises in coloured paper.







































































































FIG.45

At this stage the teacher may very well introduce the drawing and cutting out of such
straight-lined letters E F HILT [Fig. 44]. If cut in paper of one colour they may be
mounted on paper of another colour—yellow on blue, for instance. : -

The foregoing, and like patterns, will probably be found of sufficient difficulty for
the average pupil of eight or nine years of age. We append one more exercise [Fig. 45] as
an example of a more advanced character. It is constructed from Figs. 18 and 21.
CHAPTER VI.

DRAWING AND COLOURING.

Tue method underlying Froebel’s system of drawing has been briefly described in Chapter
IV. Our third occupation—Drawing and Colouring—has a two-fold object. (1) A further
development of Kindergarten drawing from the most elementary forms, as shown on Plate VI.,
to the more advanced work on plain paper as shown on Plate XII. (2) To teach the practice
of colours, and the simple principles underlying their use.

(1) Drawme.—Geometry is the alphabet of drawing : hence the number of geometrical
designs given for practice on Plates VI. to XI. The figures are sufficiently well graduated to

show the method of development, and it is



only necessary to remark that—

(2) The examples are of necessity drawn
to a small scale; and, in practice, especially
at first, they should be drawn to a scale at
least twice the dimensions of those here



used. Portions of each may be taken as





introductory practice before attempting the
FIG.46 more complete forms.

(d) Chequered paper and ruler may ~

be used for a considerable time; but, as the pupil gains in confidence and skill, he may con-

struct his own guide lines with ruler and set squares, till, finally, all helps are withdrawn.

(c) Plate X. introduces

the use of the compasses.

The learner will need some

preliminary practice in the

use of this important tool

before attempting finished de-
signs.

y
1
1
1
l
'
!
1
1
=
i
1
1
1
t
t

(@) The guide lines on
Plate XI. at 60° should be
drawn by the pupil, using set



squares cut to the necessary angles. These lines necessitate very accurate hand-and-eye
work,

(ec) It must be understood that the given forms do wot constitute the beginning and
DRAWING AND COLOURING. 33

the end of this course of drawing. The pupils must be encouraged to discover new com-
binations of lines, and invent new forms for themselves.

The designs on Plate XII. need a fuller explanation. The figures on the preceding
plates have been drawn with ruler and compasses only. Comparatively few drawings can



be completely finished in this way. Some part is usually “ Freehand,” and freehand
needs to be taught on some systematic plan. Just as there is an alphabet of letters, so.
there is an alphabet of lineal elements. A drawing composed of few curves may be very
difficult, another composed of many may be very easy. All depends on the nature of
the curves.

c
34 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

The simplest curve to imitate is an are, or segment, of a circle. It is the least
beautiful curve. The curve of the ellipse is more beautiful, but that of the oval js
more beautiful still. The latter curves require greater skill for their construction.

So soon as a child can draw a straight line, either with the ruler or freehand, the
simple are of a circle may be practised. At first it should be drawn by the aid of a line,
then without such aid, though the line may afterwards be added as a test of accuracy.
The ares should be drawn of different lengths, in different directions, and with curves of
varying curvature [Fig. 46]. A short line drawn as at a will show whether the curve is
symmetrical. The next step is the combination of two of the preceding curves. ‘The lines
on which the curves are to be constructed must be drawn of various lengths, and then
subdivided into two, three, or four parts, so as to give variety in the exercise [Fig. 47].

The drawing of curves, however, does not interest children very much, and where
there is no pleasure there is little profit. Hence, from the very first, the curves should be
arranged to form simple figures, which can be coloured with lines, or with French chalk, as
shown later on. Figs. 48 to 56 are examples of such figures. They may-be multiplied
indefinitely.

After considerable practice has been given in these more elementary figures, such
forms as those given in Plate XII. may be attempted. The geometrical bases, and the
method of construction of each of the forms A, B,C, D, E, F, are shown in Figs. 57 to 62: they
require but little explanation. One figure [say Fig. D] may be taken to illustrate the
whole. Draw tbe square, and the working lines as in the figure [Fig. 60]—using ruler and
compasses; next mark the points as seen on the top left hand small square in all the four’
squares, The richt hand top square gives the next step, showing the use of the points and
two additional construction lines. It is best to put in these minor construction lines as
required, so as to avoid confusion. The two curves shown should now be drawn in each
section, and carefully balanced, as they form the groundwork of the design. The lower
left hand square shows the next curve to be added in each section, and the right hand
square gives the section complete.

Before colour is applied, the construction lines must be removed; and to prevent too
great a disturbance of the surface of the paper when using the rubber, these lines should
be drawn very lightly indeed. It will be a great advantage, as before suggested, to take
pieces of these designs, and draw to a much larger scale, before attempting the more
ecmplete figure.

There are two or three points which need attention in “Freehand” drawing generally.
An H or HB pencil should be used, and in length it should never be less than ¢hree or |
four inches. It must be held firmly, but not clutched, and at least one inch from the
pointed end. The lines should be constructed with free strokes, not with dots, and these
can he obtained only when the pencil is held properly, and the wrist and fingers have free
play. A good curve can never be produced so long as the hand is held in a cramped




















































































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FIG
36 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

position. When rubbing out, rub lightly in the direction of the line, and not across it.
A soft medium-sized piece of rubber is best.

(2) Conourtne.—Colour is applied for two reasons; first, because, when rightly
applied, it is an additional beauty ; and secondly, because it assists in distinguishing, and
separating form. If, for example, a number of vases of various shapes, but all coloured
blue, are placed together, some difficulty will be experienced in distinguishing each
separate form. If, however, the vases are variously coloured, the difficulty is diminished.

It is usual to speak of the three colours, red, yellow, and blue, as primary colours,
because they cannot be formed by any combination of other colours ; while, on the other hand,
all other colours are formed from admixtures of these colours. A mixture of any two
primaries forms what is called a secondary colour. Thus :—

Red + Yellow = Orange.
Yellow + Blue = Green.
*Red + Blue = Purple
Orange, green, and purple are the secondary colours.

If these are again mixed in pairs, the so-called ¢ertiary colours are produced. Thus :—

Orange + Green = Citrine.

Orange + Purple = Russet.

Green + Purple = Olive.
Citrine, russet, and olive are called tertiary colours.

Each tertiary is composed of the three primaries, one of which predominates. Thus,
russet—formed by mixing purple (red and blue) with
orange (red and yellow)—contains one part each of
blue and yellow, and two parts of red.

Some idea of each tint may be gained by con-
structing a diagram (Fig 63), and filling in the
colours. It will be seen that the inner circle contains
the primary colours, the intermediate ring the secon-
dary, and the outer ring the tertiary colours. The
diagram also shows how the secondary colours are
formed from the primary, and the tertiary from both.

Further, we learn from the diagram what colours
harmonise—that is, form an agreeable contrast with

FIG.63 each other—or “go well together.” They will be

found opposite to each other. Thus, blue contrasts

with the secondary orange, and is found exactly opposite to it. Red contrasts with

green, and yellow with purple. Again, the secondary colours contrast with the opposite
tertiaries—orange with olive, purple with citrine, and green with russet.


DRAWING AND COLOURING. 37

When colours harmonise the effect of each is increased. If a red wafer be placed
on a sheet of paper tinted green, the red will appear redder, and the green greener, than
when viewed alone.

To produce a harmony of colour the presence of all three primary colours is necessary,
either pure, or in combination. But the colours are not mixed in equal proportion. The
footnote * will give some idea of the mixing proportions, but generally the pupil will
test the colours as described later on.

Colouring with Chalks.—The first exercise in colowring-—viz. , with coloured chalks, is
but a continuation of the Kindergarten colouring. No mixtures will be necessary
because chalks are prepared in all the necessary colours; but the principles above
enunciated will prevent the pupil from applying colours in close proximity, which do
‘not harmonise. We will assume that the figures have been constructed on the rough side
of good tough cartridge paper; the only other necessary articles are soft French chalk,t
and a paper stump.

The colour may be applied in one of two ways. First by drawing parallel lines over
the surface to be covered with the chalk itself. These lines must be drawn quite close
together, and as daghtly as possible. The primary object in colouring with chalks is to
get the colour lightly sprinkled as a fine dust over the entire surface. The chalk is
then rubbed down with the paper stump until an even tint is obtained. The rubbing
must not be too hard, or the surface will assume a glossy appearance, which we wish
to avoid. Secondly, the chalk may be put on in powder—produced by scraping, or rubbing
the stick on a piece of rough paper—with the stump direct. In this case also the colour
should be laid on as lightly as possible, not putting on too much colour at a time, and
then lightly rubbed. This is much the best method in all cases, but especially when very
soft chalks are used. Whatever method is adopted, the most important point is to apply
the colour evenly and lightly.

Before attempting to colour such “forms,” as those shown in the plates, some
preliminary practice will be needed. Draw squares with fine light lines, an inch, or an
inch-and-a-half, in the side, and fill m with different tints. Take the yellow first as
being the easier colour to put on, then the orange, brown, blue, and soon. To complete
the exercise draw firm lines over the light lines, which form the outlines of the squares.

* Field’s. Chromatic Equivalents—The primaries of equal intensities will harmonise in the proportions of 3
yellow, 5 red, and 8 blue, The secondaries in the proportions of the sum of their constituent primaries—viz.,
8 orange, 18 purple, 11 green, and similarly the tertiaries in the proportions of ‘the sum of their constituent
secondaries—viz., 19 citrine, 21 russet, and 24 olive. Each secondary being of compound of two primaries, is
neutralised by the remaining primary in the same proportions, thus § of orange by 8 of blue, 11 of green by 5 of
red, and 18 of purple by 8 of yellow; and so of the tertiaries. When a full colour is contrasted with one of
a lower tone, the volume of the latter must be proportionately increased. :

+ The common-coloured chalks for blackboard work answer very well on cartridge paper, when put
on with the stump. For superior work use French pastels.
38 HAND-AND-EHYH TRAINING.

For a second exercise, a hexagon may be divided into six equal triangles, each of
which may be coloured as indicated in Fig. 64.

A more elementary method of colouring spaces is that of filling in with fine close
parallel lines of different colours [Fig. 65]. The lines may be made with coloured crayons
—those enclosed in cedar will be the best for this purpose—or with coloured inks, or
water-colours, using the ruling pen.

Colouring with Water-colours.—For the application of water-colours we shall need,
in addition to the necessary colours, brushes and palettes. The paper should be strong,
and have a moderately rough surface. Cardboard and paper, with smooth glossy surfaces,
are not at all suitable for “laying on washes.” If cartridge paper is used it should be



FIG.64



of good quality, or the surface washes up when the colour is applied. For more advanced
work use Whatman’s hand-made paper. It is better suited than any other kind to
receive water-colour. It is made in three degrees—“‘rough,”’ “ not,” and “ hot-pressed.”
The “not” is best suited to our purpose. The right side may be determined by
holding the sheet between the eye and the light, so that the maker’s name can be read.

The paper should be fastened firmly to the board with drawing-pins, so as to keep it as
flat as possible while the colour is being put on,

When important and careful drawings are required it is much better to “strain” the
paper. This is done as follows:—Take a sheet of paper, an inch or two larger than the
drawing-board. Lay it on the table right side downwards, with a newspaper or towel
under it. Place the drawing-board over the sheet, and cut out the comers as in the
figure [Fig. 66]. Remove the board, and with a sponge and clean water thoroughly wet
the back of the paper. Allow the water to remain on for a short time, and then sponge it
off again. Now lay the board on again, paste round the edges of the sheet, and turn them
over on to the back of the board. Lay aside in a cool room to dry. Wetting the paper
Vil


















































DRAWING AND COLOURING. 39

causes it to expand, and, as it dries, the contraction will strain it tightly on the board.
A very firm surface is obtained in this way.

About three brushes will be required (Nos. 8, 6, and 4). _ They may be of camel hair.
Those in tin are better than those in quills. If possible one of red sable hair (No. 3)
should also be obtained. Sable hair brushes are much better than camel hair, especially for
small work, as they keep good firm points, and so prevent the colour running over the
edges. Brushes with firm points should always be chosen. Always wash them thoroughly
after use. Never allow the colour to dry in them.

Let the palettes be of good size. Those made of china, sloping, with about four divi-
sions, will be the most useful. Each division should hold at least a dessert-spoonful of water.

Of colours, five only are necessary to produce the tints used in the plates of this book ;
but of course others may and should be introduced. They are indigo blue, light red,
erimson lake, yellow ochre, and brown—either vandyke brown or sepia. The hard cake
colours will be found more suitable than either moist colours or tubes.

‘A supply of clean water, and blotting-paper folded three or four times, will also be

necessary.
\ It will require considerable practice to enable the pupil to prepare tints which properly
harmonise. Blue and yellow mixed produce green ; but it is easy to see that by varying
the proportions of the constituent colours we can make a very large number of shades of
green. The green in the plates is made up of about two parts of yellow to one of blue.
?? oveen, like the colour of the leaves in spring-time. If more blue be added
the green will become ‘ colder”? and heavier. In preparing secondary colours it is better to
mix the primaries separately, and then add the one to the other in small quantities until the
proper tint is obtained.

It is a * warm

In preparing the designs for colouring, the pencil outlines should be drawn very lightly
with an H or HB pencil. If the pencil line is thick and heavy some of the “ lead” will
wash off when the colour is applied, and sully the tint. If it becomes necessary to use the
india-rubber, this also should be applied very lightly, or the surface of the paper will be
disturbed and the colour will “sink in” at these places, causing a patchy appearance. It is
scarcely necessary to add that the paper should never be rubbed while wet.

When all the colouring is finished, and the paper is quite dry, the outlines may be
drawn firmly, so as to hide the rough edges and separate the tints distinctly. The division
lines may be of pencil, or brown colour. In the latter case the ruling pen must be used.

Preliminary exercises, as described under “Colouring with Chalks,” will be of great
advantage.

; In the actual ee of colouring the greatest difficulty usually is to keep the washes
smooth and clear. With perseverance and strict attention to the three following rules, the
difficulty may soon be overcome :—

1. Mix the colours thoroughly, and lay chai on in thin wastes:
40 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

2, Always damp the paper before putting on the colour.

3, When once a wash of colour has been put.on, never touch it in any a until the
whole is quite dry.

The first rule is very important, and the neglect of it is often the source of failure,
and consequent disappointment.

The colours should be mixed in this way. Put a little water into one of the palettes,
and then rub the cake Jightly in it, until the tint seems of sufficient strength. Lay
the cake on one side, and stir the mixture thoroughly with a brush. A strip of the.
tint should now be tried on a piece of scrap paper, and allowed to dry. The exact
strength can then be seen. If too dark add more water;. if too pale, more colour.
Looking at the tint in the palette does not give much idea of its strength—it should always
be tried in this way. Rather let the tint bé too light than too dark. It is much easier to
put colour on than to take it off. If two tints are being used they should be tried side by
side, to see if they harmonise—exactly as two pieces of ribbon would be put together. Tf
colour is allowed to stand, if only for a little while, it will be seen that a sediment falls to
the bottom, just as in muddy water; so that it not only requires well mixing at first,
but every time a fresh brushful of the colour is taken.

When two colours—such as blue and yellow—are mixed together great care must be
taken in using the mixture, as the blue, being the heavier, soon sinks to the bottom, and
leaves the yellow at the top. If the brush is dipped just into the top of this mixture,
yellow is obtained, not green. Always mix up a sufficient quantity of colour to complete
the design. It is better to have too much than too little. If smooth colouring is required
the washes must be kept very thin.

When the colours are mixed ready to put on, take one of the larger brushes, with clean
water in it, and wet the space about to be coloured. Let the water remain on for three or
four seconds, then take up the moisture from the surface with blotting paper. This will
leave the paper damp, but not wet. Lay on the colour at once (not forgetting to stir
it), taking the brush from left to right, and working from top to bottom. Work
as quickly as possible, so that no one part shall dry while another part is being done.
The brush should only be moderately full of colour—not so full as to
cause the colour to form pools, nor so dry as to cause the hairs to

separate. Draw it over the edge of the palette two or three times when a
fresh brushful is taken.



When a second wash is required the paper may be damped again
as before, but only when the first wash is quite dry.
If two spaces like a and B [Fig. 67] are to be coloured with different

tints, the colour in a must be allowed to get quite dry before any is
applied to zB, or the two tints will run together.



FIG.67

When the whole space has been covered with colour, do not touch any part of it, ether
DRAWING AND COLOURING. 41

with a brush, or with blotting paper, while it is wet. If the wash is inclined to be “ patchy,”
this will only make it worse. Let it get guite dry before attempting to make any altera-
tion. A-wash which appears uneven while wet often dries quite smoothly.

However much care is taken, a tint may be too dark, or uneven; but these defects can be
remedied in several ways. Wet the space, when quite dry, with clean water, put on with a
brush. Rub very lightly in every part for a second or two, and then take up the water
with blotting paper. Ora damp wash-leather wrapped round the finger will serve the same
purpose ; and if the surface is very large a sponge may be used. Of course, all other parts
of the drawing must be kept quite dry.
CHAPTER VII.

FOLDING, CUTTING, MOUNTING, DESIGNING IN FORM AND COLOUR.—SERIES Il.

Tuts occupation is a considerable advance in point of difficulty on the paper cutting
described in Chapter IV.

In some of the cuttings a sharp knife, with or without the use of a straight edge, will .
be necessary, in addition to the scissors.

The four-inch squares will again be put in requisition, and the first exercise is to
fold this paper so as to produce eight equal right angled isosceles triangles resting on

D> — — yD



- a (CCC =c Be FIG.69

each other. Let a, 3, c, p [Fig. 68] represent the square of paper. . Carry the corner, c,
over to a, and fold, and we get two triangles, ac, B, D, as inin Fig. 69. Next carry B on

to D, and thus form four triangles ac, E, BD, resting one upon another [Fig¢. 70]. Now,

AC. ee ee D E ABCD



E FIG.70 E FIG.71

fold on the line, EF, carrying the corners, ac, over to BD, thus forming eight triangles
Â¥, B, ABCD, exactly superimposed [Fig. 71].















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FOLDING, CUTTING, MOUNTING, DESIGNING IN FORM AND COLOUR. 43

This collection of triangles is the jirst fundamental form for this occupation. From
the above description it will be seen that all the edges of the triangles along the line,

ABCD FIG.72

E



ABCD ~ FIG.73 UE

z, ABCD, are free, no two being folded. When in use this side is turned towards the left,
and the side, azcp, £, is made the horizontal base as in Fig. 72.



To secure accuracy in cutting, lines are
drawn on the upper triangle crossing each
other, as in Fig. 73. It is not by any means
easy to divide the sides, and to draw’ these
lines correctly on the folded paper, and the



preferable plan will be to purchase paper already cross-ruled on the reverse side, as in
Fig. 74. It will be found after folding that the lines appear asin Fig. 78. All this is but

yy

)

py

f



FIG.76





preparatory work, but the folding needs to be done
with very great care, or our designs will be worthless.
We have now to draw lines on this chequered


44, HAND-AND-EYH TRAINING.

surface, to show the cutting lines. The direction of the lines is directed by the law of
opposites. First, we have the perpendicular cuts, then the horizontal, then a combination
of these two, then the oblique, and lastly, combinations of any, or all. One example of
each will suffice for illustration.

Ex. 1.-—Cut through the eight-fold triangle in the perpendicular lines, ac and Bp





















































FIG.83

[Fig. 75]. The result will be three pieces represented by Figs. 76,77, and 78. Paper of
three different tints may be distributed, and after cutting, the pieces may be exchanged,
and then recombined and mounted as in Fig. 79. /

Ex. 2.— Horizontal cuts. Cut through the triangles along the lines, aB and op
[Fig. 80], and with the pieces we can construct either of the patterns shown in Fig.
81 or 82.

Ex, 3.—The perpendicular and horizontal cuts combined, as shown in Figs. 83 and 84,
produce the patterns Figs. A and B, Plate XIII.
FOLDING, CUTTING, MOUNTING, DESIGNING IN FORM AND COLOUR. 45

















































































































































FIG.87

Ex. 4.—A good example of horizontal and oblique cuts combined is that of? Fig. 85.
In mounting from the simpler cuts, the clippings must be employed; but when, as in this
46 HAND-AND-HYE TRAINING.

case, the pattern produced [Fig. $6] is complete in itself, it would be foolish to spoil it by
additions. Fig. 87 shows this pattern repeated.
There is scarcely a limit to the number and variety of patterns which can be made by

























Fiaio.”7FSFSCSC*~CS~SG TO

folding and cutting as above described. A few other forms for cutting are here shown
[Figs. 88 to 102]. Many more may be obtained from the best Kindergarten manuals.
A second fundamental form is the six-fold equilateral triangle. This is best obtained
Plate IX

ZS vi sree



aZN
e

PN aN NS

SUH ip

SEXENENRNES afl
OCMC

Pere eee

NENA AREENS
2A



ig











a ee
[ease



KOT
1S













4



DDN
Tey

mmm) |

| eee eee
| KSRERARRES



2

~



INNINNNNINANIN SA
Pe

aes
ee
BARS SEBESKA- NEA

= CASSELL & COMPANY. LIMITED, LITH. LONDON
e



ce
DIA ATX |



VANS














FOLDING, CUTTING, MOUNTING, DESIGNING IN FORM AND COLOUR.

by cutting the paper into regular hexagons, and then folding as shown in Figs. 103 and 104.
Carry the edge BD on toaB, making the fold along rc. Open out, and carry Bo on
?E. Open out again, and carry cD on to AF. en the sheet is spread out again
folding marks will be shown, as indicated by the broken lines. Next bring the upper half



r the lower, as shown in Fig. 104. Fold the left hand triangle backwards, and the
right hand triangle forwards, on the middle triangle. We thus get the six-fold triangle
with all the free edges at the base. On this triangle a network of guide lines is drawn
[Fig. 105], as in the first fundamental form. But, as before, it will be much more
convenient I to shape, and cross-ruled, ready e. As examples of
this kind of cutting we may take Pies. 106 and 107, which produce the forms E on Plate
XIII. and Fig. 108.

to purchase paper cut
48 ras , HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.



Figs Fiaie — ~ FiGlis——S~™~SC:~C~G LLG

Figs. 109. to 116 are further examples showing how to cut from the six-fold equi-
lateral triangle. Fig. 116 is shown on Plate XIII., pattern F.

The elder scholars may now take another
exercise, based on. this and the preceding occupa-
tions, viz., the further development of designs from
the cut forms, to be drawn on plain, or squared
paper, and coloured. This exercise opens out an im-
mense field for the exercise of the inventive faculties.
Two examples are shown on Plate XIV. The first is
developed from C, Plate XIII., the cutting of which
is shown in Fig. 101. A few lines are added, as
shown by the broken lines in Fig. 117, and the
form is repeated. The second pattern is a copy of
FIGai7 EE, Plate XIII., repeated, and of course coloured.











































CHAPTER VIII.

DRAWING AND CUTTING SIMPLE GEOMETRICAL FORMS.

Tuts occupation, viz., the construction of the simplest Geometrical Forms, with compasses,
set squares, ruler, and pencil, on plain paper and cardboard, and the cutting out of the same
forms in cardboard with knife and straight edge, is but a preliminary to the next occupation
—modelling in cardboard and millboard.

The following are the geometrical forms required :—

l. Triangles, or three-sided figures.



FIG.118 FIG.119

The equilateral, or equal sided triangle, is formed as shown in Fig. 118. 4B is the
base of any given length. ‘With this side as radius draw ares cutting each other in c.
Join AB, BC; and aBC is the equilateral triangle. :

It may be necessary sometimes to draw triangles similar to given triangles on a given
base ; or a triangle with one side and two angles given.

To do this we have but to learn how to make one angle equal to another. Thus, to
make an.angle at r,in the line re [Fig. 119], equal to the angle asc. With centre B
draw any are ED. From rf as centre, and with same radius, draw another arc, HK.
Make nx equal to BD, and through K draw FL. LÂ¥FG is the angle required.

Fig. 120 ‘shows how one triangle, a B Cc, is constructed on a given line, Bc, similar to |
another, adc. , ;

2. Four-sided figures.—These are the square and oblong.

A square is a four-sided figure with all its sides equal, and all its angles right angles.

An odlong is a four-sided figure with all its angles right angles, but not all its sides
equal.

D
50 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

To construct a square on a given line we have to erect a perpendicular at one end— ,
an exceedingly difficult exercise to perform accurately. The perpendicular may be drawn
by using a ruler and set square, as shown in Fig. 121; but wood being liable to warp
and shrink, the tools are not often in perfect condition, and the result is seldom very

A



B Cc
FIG.120 FIG.121

satisfactory. A better method of using the set-square and ruler is shown in Fig. 122.
Having drawn the horizontal line, 4 B—using the set-square—to form the base of the square,
hold the ruler firmly, and turn the set-square as shown by the dotted lines. The set-square _
can be moved in either direction along the ruler, and any number of perpendicular lines -



FIG.122
FIG.123

ean be drawn, of course all parallel to one another.* When almost. perfect accuracy is
required the compasses must be used [Fig. 123].

Let aB be the line on which we have to construct the square. To erect a perpendicular
at the end, B, take any point, c, above the line, and with radius, cB, draw the arc, DBE.
Through the points p and c draw the line pcr, cutting the are in r. A line, BF, is per-
pendicular to as. To complete the square take aB as radius, and measure off B& equal to

' * We may also remark that horizontal parallel lines may be drawn by moving the set-squiare, in its first
position, along the ruler.
Plate Xl

ae

a Wyvys
Peso, WO
ROR DIT

| ORONO

YX


DRAWING AND CUTTING SIMPLE GEOMETRICAL FORMS. ol

AB. Then with a and @ as centres, and with same radius, describe arcs, cutting in H. Join
AH,GH. ABGH is the square required.

The oblong is drawn in exactly the same way as the square, except that the lengths
of the sides. must be measured from the géven lengths.

3. The pentagon.—To make a pentagon of one inch in the side.

Make as [Fig. 124] one inch in length, and produce an inch on either side to c and D.
With centres a and B, and one inch radius, draw the semicircles cEB, and arp. Divide the
circumference of these semicircles, by trial, into five equal parts. From a and B draw the
lines AH and BF to Band fF, the second points of division from c and D respectively. ‘Then



FIG.124 FIG.125

with one inch radius, and = and F as centres, describe arcs cutting ing. Join EG, FG, to
complete the pentagon.
4. The regular Aewagon.—To make a regular hexagon of one inch in the side.

Draw as [Fig. 125] one inch in length. With radius 43, and centres a and B, draw
ares cutting each other in c. With c as centre, and the same radius, describe a circle
through a and zB. From a, or 8, set off the radius round the circle, viz., in G, ¥, E, D.
Join the points as in the figure. The broken lines indicate that a regular hexagon is made
up of six equal equilateral triangles. This was shown also in the paper folding of the
preceding occupation.

5. The regular octagon.—To make a regular octagon on a given side, say one inch in
length.

Let aB [Fig. 126] be the given side. Produce it on each side. Erect perpendiculars
at aand B. With centres a and 3, and radius aB, draw ares cp, and er. Bisect the
ares CD and EF in G and H, as shown in the figure. ag and Bu form two more
sides of the octagon. Draw perpendiculars through @ and u—viz., lines parallel to the

D2
52 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

perpendiculars at a and B. With the given radius mark off @x, Hs, Kt,and su. Join
KL,LM,andsm. This gives the octagon required.
Fig. 127 shows how to place an octagon in a square. The side of the octagon is equal
in length to half the diagonal of
N the square. Hence, with the corners
of the square as centres, and half
the diagonal as radius, mark points
on the sides of the square as in the
figure.

When the scholars have be-
come proficient in drawing these
forms, they may construct them
on plain or coloured cardboard for



the purpose of cutting out. For
this last occupation scissors may
be used if the cardboard is thin ;
but a sharp knife and straight edge

cee eI Nas ec a Ss ee eee eee



be---------.

=e are preferable; and the best sur-

FIG.126 face on which to cut is a square of
stout glass. The pupil should not
attempt to cut through the material at one stroke, for two reasons: first, because the
knife can be guided more easily with a light
eut; and secondly, because the force required
to eut through at one stroke would pro-
bably disarrange either the cardboard, or the
straight edge, or both. Several light cuts
give better results than one or two heavy
ones.

A good exercise preparatory to the model-
ling in cardboard is to bind the edges of the
cut pieces, first with coloured gummed paper
in strips, and then with bookbinder’s cloth,
fastening the latter with glue.* The strips
of cloth will need to be cut with accuracy,
and the glue must be applied with great care,
or the work will be spoiled. a

* To prepare glue, it should be broken up into small pieces, and steeped for twelve hours in just sufficient
water to cover it. It should then be heated, and more water added until it becomes of a uniform consistency—
just thick enough to run freely from the brush in a continuous stream, without breaking into drops. The glue
DRAWING AND CUTTING SIMPLE GEOMETRICAL FORMS. 53

As a test of accuracy in cutting, the pieces cut from cardboard of different tints may
be arranged to form patterns, one example of which is given in Fig. 128.









Ze
_



SN
eae:
Yy YY Yj

So —<





a



should be applied when quite hot, The glue-pot consists of two pots, one placed within the other; the inner pot
contains the glue; the outer contains water. By this arrangement the glue can never be heated above the boiling
point of water. Otherwise the glue would become hard, and useless, ‘“ Liquid glue’’—viz., a composition pre-
pared ready for use at any time—may be purchased. It answers exceedingly well, but is more expensive than
common glue.
CHAPTER IX.

MODELLING IN CARDBOARD AND MILLBOARD.

Tuts is, perhaps, the most interesting and the most effective of all the suggested occu-
pations.

The first exercises embrace the construction of the simpler regular prisms and
pyramids, of which examples are given in Figs. 129, 131, 185,-and 140.

With accurate drawing, these forms are much less difficult to construct than appears

at first sight. Inaccurate drawing will render every attempt to make an accurate model
futile.

FIG.180



Ex. 1.—To construct regular prisms. Take the triangular prism [Fig. 129] as an
example. Fig. 180 shows the plan of construction. Let the equilateral triangle, « Bc,
represent the base of the prism. On ac construct a rectangle, acc’a’, equal in
length and breadth to one side of the prism, and produce a c and a’ c’ both ways to ¢
and u and & and 7, making A G, cH, a’ B, and c’ ¥, each equal to one side of the triangle.
Join @¢ Band uF. Ona’c’ construct the equilateral triangle a’ c’ Bn’. Now cut out the
whole figure with a sharp knife as described in the last chapter, and then cut partly through

MODELLING IN CARDBOARD AND MILLIBOARD. 55

the cardboard in the lines of foldng—viz., a’ oc’, 4 4’, cc',ac. [This partial eut will prevent
the cardboard from breaking irregularly when folded.}] Lastly, fold as in Fig. 129.

in i a a ee cre ec ee se

_—" ~~



FIG.131_



“FIG.132

To fasten the cut edges accurately is the most difficult and tedious part of the work. If

the cardboard is fairly thick, glue will hold the edges together with sufficient ‘tenacity to

allow of a strip of paper, or of book-
binder’s cloth, being pasted or glued
along the edges, as shown in Plate
XV. When the’ cardboard is thin,
fasten a narrow strip of thicker card-
board along one of the inner edges—
flush with the edge in the case of the
square prism, but making a slight
allowance for the angle in other cases.
One or two trials will show how this
may be done. When the remaining
edges have been bound in the same
way, the model will be firm and
strong. Other prisms may be con-
structed in exactly the same way.
Fig. 181 shows a pentagonal prism,
and Fig. 132, its plan of construction.



|
®
|



FIG.133 _

An application of the method of construction used for the square prism is the manufacture
56 HAND-AND-EYEH TRAINING.

of cardboard boxes. The plan of construction for a box 6” long, 3” wide, and 2” deep
is shown in Fig. 183; that of the lid is shown in Fig. 134. The lid must be a little
longer and broader than the box—two thicknesses of cardboard in each case—and the

strip which makes the sides should be about half an inch in width.
Ex 2.—To construct regular pyramids. Take, for example, the square pyramid [ig.
135]. Fig. 136 shows the plan of construction. Given that the base is 3” in the

S








FIG.135 A
B
A (4) A () Fig.s9 i
side, and height of the pyramid required is 5”. Construct the square ABCD on the side BC

which measures 3”.

To find the exact height, construct another square of equal area on a sheet of paper
[Fig. 137]. Draw the diagonals ac, BD. Measure off half the length of one of these
diagonals, B B, on another line, Bc [Fig. 158], and erect a perpendicular at B equal to the
height of the required pyramid. Join az, az will be the length of one side of the
pyramid measured from one of the angles at the base to the apex, aB [Fig. 135].
Bisect the side aD [Fig. 136] and produce the bisecting line. Then with centres a and pb,
MODELLING IN CARDBOARD AND MILLBOARD. 57°

and a radius equal to a [Fig. 138], cut the line in =. With © as centre, and same radius,
describe the are F H, and measure off ar, DG, GH, each equaltoap. Jom EF, BA, ED, EG,
BH. Cut out the square and the four triangles as one form, and then cut the cardboard
partly through along the lines pa, BD, BG, and ap, and proceed to fold up as before. In



FIG.141



FIG,140

binding the edges of all the forms, cut the strips so that there shall be no overlapping
at the corners; the edges should meet, and not overlap, as shown in Fig. 139 (a), (4), (¢).

Figs. 140 and 141 show the form and construction of a hexa-
gonal pyramid.

Ex. 3.—The obelisk is an application of the method of
construction used for the pyramids.

Fig. 142 represents two obelisks mounted on a square block,
and surmounted by a square pyramid. A convenient size for a
small model is as follows:—The square block to be 4” in the side,
and 2” in height; the first obelisk 3” square at the base, 24”
square at the top, and 2” in height; the second obelisk 13" square
at the bottom, 14” square at the top, and 4” in height, and the
square pyramid 1” in height.

The square block is constructed by the method shown in Fig.
130. The obelisk is but a part of a long pyramid, and its con-
struction is somewhat similar. Let az, Fig. 143, represent one
side of the block B, 3” in length. Bisect as, and at the dis-
tance of 2”—the height of the block—draw the line, cp, parallel to az. Cut off zc and
xD each equal to 14" — giving together 24”, the length of the side of top of the




fk

58 _ HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

block.* Through the points, 4 and c, and also through B and p, draw lines meeting in F; F
is the apex of the square pyramid, of which block Bis the lower portion. With centre F,
and distance, Fra, draw the are KH, and with same centre and ro as radius, draw. the

F

FIG,143





are NM. On Ku set off ax, BG, GH, each equal to aB; and on nu set off cn, DL, Lu, each
equal to cp. Join aK, BG, GH, CN, DL, LM, KN, Gt, uM. The trapeziums thus made form
the sides of the block. To form the base and the top, construct squares on aB and CD, as
indicated in the figure. Cut out as already shown, and partly cut through on the lines ac,
BD, GL, cD, and AB,

Block ¢ is constructed exactly in the same way, excepting the square pyramid at the
top, for which see Fig. 144. - [The length of the side of the square pyramid, aé, is found, as
shown in Figs. 137 and 138.]

* The length of the side is here taken as the height. If absolute accuracy is required the length of the
side must be found, as shown in Figs. 137 and 188. :


CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, LITH.LONDON,
MODELLING IN MILLBOARD AND CARDBOARD. 59

The models, A, B, C, D, E, shown on Plate XV., are all constructed exactly as above
described. They should be executed in stout cardboard of one colour, and bound with book-

binder’s cloth of another colour. The models
Aand B, Plate XVI., are two out of many pos-
sible applications of the given methods to make
The plan of
construction for A to be drawn on the card-

articles useful or ornamental.

board is shown in Fig. 145, and the plan of
The broken
lines in each case show the lines of folding.
The shelves for A, and the upright parti-

construction for B in Fig. 146.

.tions for B, must be cut separately.

In the second model, B, the two upright
pieces, forming the divisions of the paper-
rack, can be kept exactly in position by glue-
ing strips of cardboard on the bottom and
sides, and leaving room between the strips to
form a shallow groove into which the pieces can
be fitted. In both models the binding cloth
will keep the parts in their proper position.

Working in millboard is laborious com-





“

: 4
><-!!





“

Q
a

Lie

n

—---—f

FIG.145 (4)

pared with working in cardboard, because the material is very hard and difficult to cut;
but, when finished, the models more than repay for the extra labour in their greater





|
|
I
1
1

1
Height of Back Partition

!
{ Height of Front Partition

14

---------6
eo cae

K-



FIG.146 > (@)





Back Partition



Front Partition


60 HAND-AND-HYH TRAINING.

firmness and durability. As a rule, it is best to cut the pieces completely through, and not
trust to folding. The model from which C was drawn was constructed by partial folding
[see Fig. 147]. The lines were drawn, as shown, on the
cardboard. The V-shaped pieces at the corners, represent-
ing angles of 30°, were cut out, and the. edges bevelled.
Then V-shaped grooves were cut along the lines aB, BO,
cD, DA, to a considerable depth in the millboard, and
lastly, cuts were made on the other side along the same
lines to prevent a broken edge where the millboard was
bent up to form the tray. When the corners are glued
up, the sides must be kept in their places by tying with
string till the glue is firm. The edges may then be bound,
or, indeed, the whole surface may be covered with book-
binder’s cloth. ,
The box, Fig. D, is formed of rectangles. In Fig.
148 (a) is the plan, (4) is a side elevation, and (c) an end
“ial elevation. The projecting piece over which the lid fits is
the upper part of a shell, or lining, of millboard covering
all the sides of the box. The lid has the same dimensions as the box, except that itis but
one inch deep. The whole is bound and covered, inside and out, with bookbinder’s cloth.

ken 2
|
!
'
1

|
1
1
t
1
1
sal
SI
>
I

e-->kKe- - -



nD
~



L AL 1
ae

fe
Fig.zas, (2)



Further exercises can be found in various kinds of wall-brackets, but in constructing

such models the shelf, or shelves, and the supports must be let into a groove cut in the
back.
CHAPTER IX.

MODELLING IN CLAY.

Or all the ‘ Plays” invented by Froebel none is better calculated to cultivate habits of
accurate observation, neatness, cleanliness, hand dexterity, and artistic taste, than modelling.
Man is a constructive being, and he is but the boy of larger growth. Children are fond
of representing objects by lines; but to make the things themselves has attractions still
greater. Witness the delight of children to build houses and castles in the sand. The
production of forms of ornament and utility from plastic material was one of the earliest
and most natural occupations of the human race; and has served as the starting-point of
all plastic art. Nor is work in plastic material too difficult for young children. It is
easier than drawing. ‘In drawing, the apparent form is shown by using lines in a more
or less conventional way, which is somewhat puzzling. With plastic material the length
and breadth and thickness of the object may be exactly reproduced. The position of the
worker, too, is free and unrestrained, and something tangible is the outcome.of the child’s
efforts. The manipulation of clay is especially suitable for those whose age and strength
preclude the use of tools in the workroom.”

Several kinds of plastic material are used in modelling—clay, terra-cotta clay, wax,
gutta-percha, &c.—but for a school course the ordinary grey clay used by the pipe
manufacturer is the best. It is cheap,* easily worked, and can be kept in good condition
with a minimum of attention. Terra-cotta clay is sometimes preferred because it is cheaper;
but it is much less smooth to work, and is liable to greater shrinkage.

A good many works have been written on modelling as an art, and some are addressed
ostensibly to beginners ; but as most of them suggest a foot, or a hand, or even a face as
the first model, it is very evident that no school course can be worked out by following
such guides.

Our aim in this, as in the other occupations, is to introduce clay into all our schools—



secondary as well as elementary—as a means of Hand-and-Eye Training, and in such a
manner as to require but little, if any, special training on the part of the ordinary
teacher in the preliminary stages.

The first object is to keep the clay in good condition for working. To ¢es¢ it, cut off a

small slice with a piece of wire, roll this into a ball, and press this ball between finger and

* Bought direct from the manufacturer it costs about one halfpenny a pound.
62 HAND-AND-EYEH TRAINING.

thumb. If the finger and thumb meet easily, and you can separate them, without any”
portion of the clay adhering, it is in a good working state. [On receipt from the manufacturer
always test in this way.] It can be kept in good condition by the very simple expedient
of covering it with moist flannel, or rag; but this covering will require daily attention. A

slab of slate or stone, with a tin-lined cover, to put

on and take off [Fig. 149], is the best receptacle.
Sa 149.




| —— fi |___T'o prepare the flannel or rag, dip it into clean water,

py and wring lightly until it ceases to drip. Place this



al eee closely over the clay, and on the slab ; and put the
whole in a cool place. A couple of minutes’ atten-
tion, morning and evening, by one of the elder
pupils, will probably keep the clay in proper condition for working.

Neglect will cause the clay to become hard and brittle: too much water will make it
sticky, and dirty, and wet. These defects may, however, be remedied. Should the clay
become hard, break it in pieces about the size of a penny loaf, and place in a, pail of water.
Cover, and leave for a couple of hours, then pour the water off, take out the pieces, work
them again into a mass with the hands, and leave the mass for a day exposed to the air.
Work it up again the next day, and it will probably be now fit for use. Never attempt
to dry clay by the fire. It will be spoiled for future use.

Should the clay become sticky by the application of too much moisture, expose it to
the air for a day or two, and knead it several times. Or, work in a little dry clay in the
state of a fine powder. The above are, of course, but general rules. The condition of the
clay is very much dependent upon the amount of moisture in the atmosphere, and the
treatment must be modified accordingly. One thing is quite certain —it is absolutely
useless to try modelling in clay unless the clay is in a proper workable condition.

The next question we have to consider is the distribution of clay to the scholars. Cut
it into the requisite number of pieces of the size required for the lesson, using a piece of
copper wire—say half a yard—with handles, in the same way as a cheesemonger cuts his
cheese. Place the pieces on a wooden tray for distribution. The modelling may be done
on a proper modelling board; or, an old slate without the frame will answer very well.
Moisten with a damp sponge when necessary to make the clay adhere.

As a means of education, clay may be used in the ordinary class. If possible, several
models should be provided ; but failing this, the one model must be placed in full view of
the whole class. The teacher will work at the same time with the children, pausing at
the different steps to show, to help, and to advise. When children are taught in large
classes great care and method are requisite. One model only can be attempted, and a

careful adjustment of time is necessary, so that the model may be completed in the given
time.

yp

This course would be impracticable were we training children to become sculptors, but
Plate XV



COMPANY LIMITED, LITH.LONDON.

CASSEL! 2
MODELLING IN CLAY. 63

our school course is simplified by the fact that we want the training that results from the
work rather than the work itself.

In the earlier lessons the lump of clay supplied should be of about the proper size to
complete the given model. After the lesson, which should not ‘oceupy less than an
hour, the clay models may be collected; and all,,except a very few of the best to be
preserved,* may be again worked into the mass for future use. Models that need the work
of two or three sittings are useless with large classes. The storage room needed, and the
amount of attention required to keep unfinished models in a proper condition present
insurmountable difficulties.

As to the mode of working the clay into given shapes, a modeller usually duzlds up
his model by successive additions to the first piece; but practice with children seems to
show that we must adopt a simpler plan in the first stage, and this simpler plan is to require
the whole piece of clay supplied to the child to be shaped into the required form. Simple
solids, modelled into form by the hands only, may first be given, and then others modelled
with the aid of the slab on which the child works, or by the addition of a piece of slate
for rolling into spherical and cylindrical forms. These forms may be rendered characteristic
by the additions of simple ornamentations by finger and thuméd.

In the second stage models may be given which require to be built up; but even here
the additions should be entirely subordinate to the main figure, which in itself should
show skill.

In both these stages the work is entirely ‘‘in the round”?—that is, in the solid
unattached form. The flat, or “relief,”’+ work, taken too soon with beginners, is apt to lead
to too much cutting away—a method which belongs rather to the carver than the modeller.

In the third stage simple “relief”? modelling will be taken.

This work will probably require some training on the part of the teacher, and we
therefore simply append the following general directions :—

1. Make the clay slab in proportion to the model to be copied.

2, Make a drawing of the copy on the slab with a tool.

3. Take a portion of clay, according to relief of the model, and work freely with thumb
and finger until the general shape of the required piece is obtained. Model the highest
and lowest pots first. [These form the key by which to work the rest.]

4, Never build to exactly the correct height at first. Allow one-fourth of an inch, or
80, ee the addition of detail.

. See that the proportions of the whole are correct before adding details.

6 Press the clay, when working, as firmly as possible, so as to knead well together, and

not leave the clay lumpy. .

* For preservation, let them stand for a few days, then dry in the sun, or bake in a slow oven, and coat
with varnish, or gum arabic.
+ Relief—viz,, projecting from the general ‘surface or ground on which it is formed.
64 AND-AND-HYH TRAINING.

7. Use only the first finger and. thumb, and disregard the use of tools until the last,

when they may be used for sharpening up the general outline.
The fingers are the chief instruments used in modelling, and their proper use is the most
essential feature in this occupation. [Beyond the slab, already referred to, a small wooden
knife and a little water, or a damp sponge, and perhaps an apron and sleeves for cleanliness
sake, no other tool or material need be introduced for a long time.] They must be kept
clean; if allowed to become sticky, freedom of work is lost. The first finger should be kept
damp to make the clay— which is worked between this finger and the thumb — more
pliable. Heavy work, such as building up, should be done mainly with the thumb; but
additions, in the shape of light ornament, should be put on with the finger. In making
additions the clay may be shaped to a certain extent before being placed in position.

With regard to the models, those for the earlier stages may be supplied in wood ; for the
later stages there are plenty in “ plaster of Paris” in the market.

The method suggested above for introducing this subject necessitates that we begin
with the sphere as the first typical model. This should be formed by rolling the clay—the
whole piece supplied—in the palms of the hands, and also on the board or slate. supplied.
After a little practice it will be found that the children can produce a fairly true sphere.

' Numerous exercises may be developed from this. The large ball may be divided, and
two, four, six, or more balls made from it, as nearly as possible of the same size. Marbles
may be given of different sizes, and the children may be asked to construct balls of nearly
as possible the same sizes. Or they may get an exercise in proportion, by graduating the
size of the balls, say 1”, 3", £”, £” in diameter, &c. And, lastly, the children who show more
aptitude may model a potato, an egg, a pear, a cherry, a bunch of grapes, a plum, or
even an apple, though the latter is rather a difficult subject.

These fruits may be modelled from natural examples, or, where these are not to hand,

from wooden models. The stalks of the fruits will need to be

as: modelled and placed on as additions.
Our second typical model will be the eyZénder [Fig. 150]. This

will be produced by rolling, &c.; and, as in the case of the sphere,
the time of several lessons will be occupied with developments from
the original. A pencil-box, a cigar, a candle, bottles are direct;
while jelly pots, honey jars, and vases, all in the solid, are less
direct developments [Figs. 151-159].

The third typical model is our old Kindergarten friend the
cube. And here we begin to work to exact dimensions. Plans
and elevations of slabs, square prisms, and other simple right-
lined objects must be drawn on the modelling board or slate as
guides to accurate working. [The modelling knife will be useful in forming angles
and edges.] As examples we suggest, in addition to the cube and square prism, slabs

FIG. 150
MODELLING IN CLAY. 85

of different dimensions, square canister, cross, obelisk, book, hexagonal bottle, &c. [see
Figs. 160— De



FIG. 151. FIG, 152, FIG. 153. FIG. 154. FIG. 155.







From the typical models again, separately or in combination, other forms may be con-
structed. From a slice taken off the side of the sphere a saucer and small plate, or even the
concave and convex surface of a shell, may be modelled [Fig. 166].



em




FIG. 158. FIG. 159.

FIG. 160. FIG. 164.

The latter objects, however, are much better done by building up and shaping out on a
slab. If a modelling board is used, the simplest possible plan for constructing the slab
is to tack on a framework of the required dimensions. Then fill in and remove the super-
fluous clay with a straight edge. On this slab an outline drawing must be made of the
object to be modelled, with a tvol.

B
66 HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING.

The wooden tools will be needed here to form the radiation on the shells, and to give
sharpness to the general outline. Then, again, a pen-tray may be constructed from the
half of a cylinder. Similarly, with slight additions, the cup and nut of the acorn may
be formed, a child’s cup and ball, a nine-pin, &e. ,









































FIG. 161. FIG. 163. FIG. 162. FIG. 165.

The tools used are very varied. Most modellers make their own. Fig. 167 (1,2, 3, 4,5, 6)
represents a few of the more common.

- There is no need for further illustration, because the pupil may now turn to the

- elementary casts specially prepared for the purpose of teaching modelling. But two other

points have particularly to be noted. (1) Whatever models are given the teacher must not



























Concare.

Convex,
FIG. 166.
be content with a reproduction of the original size only—that would be very mechanical
work ; and (2) the children must be encouraged to make original designs.
? * 7 . . : . . .
ne may add here a word as to cleanliness in modelling. After every exercise wash
with a piece of wet linen every tool that has been used, and cleanse the sponge.
San are made to this occupation because “it is so much trouble,” or “it is dirty
rayir 4: ” 7 7 7 7 Ss . . .
work.” Certainly it is a trouble, but what is there worth doing which is not.a trouble?


CASSELL &Y COMPANY, LIMITED, LITH. LONDON
MODELLING IN CLAY. 67

With a slight but watchful attention, and the regular method here pointed out, the trouble is
reduced to a minimum. It is in a certain sense “ dirty work,” too ; but is all the work in the
world clean work? And have we not here an excellent means of inculeating lessons of care-
fulness, tidiness, and cleanliness. True it is that bits of clay will stick to the fingers, and
to the little wooden knives; but from this may we not learn that the soiled blouse of the
artisan, and the horny hand of the peasant, only supply us with a key to the man’s daily
occupation, not to his inward worth. ,

The educational value of modelling far more than compensates for its slight disadvan-
tages. It is the best method of training the observing faculties. ‘ Let a child form a horse

1 2 3 4 5 yee
Front. Side. Front. Side. Front. Side.
FIG. 167.
in clay, however awkward his attempt may be, his idea of a horse, of its different parts, and
of their relations to each other will be rendered a thousand times clearer and more definite ;
and the inducement to examine real horses himself will be made a thousand times stronger
by these attempts than by any amount of contemplating pictures of horses.” * Jt is the
hest language of form we have. Measurement of solids is a mere abstraction compared with
the knowledge clay-modelling gives.

And then by careful attention, diligence, and perseverance, by means of brains and
fingers, the child shapes from a shapeless, unsightly mass of clay, perfect things ; and he
thus learns to respect things that appear worthless in themselves, because they. are capable
of being transformed through the fertile brain, the cunning eye, and the dexterous hand
into things of beauty, and of intrinsic value.

* Goldammer.
LONDON :
CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, LA BELLE SAUVAGE,

LUDGATE HILL, E.C.
COX & CO.’

SCHOOL NEEDLEWORK MATERIALS
For the various Standards (Schedule III),

A Special Price List FREE to School Boards, Managers, and Teachers.

99 & 101,

In addition to the following, “OUR TEACHERS’
GUIDE” contains a Price List of all articles required
in Schedule III. for all the Standards, and a Catalogue
of Kindergarten and other varied occupations.

INFANTS, and STANDARDS I. and IL

sod.
Threading Needles, for needle drill . peroz. 0 42
Knitting Pins, for knitting pin drill... per gross 1 6
Unbleached Cotton, for strip knitting perlb, 1 0
Rainbow Cotton, in eight colours—red, blue, pink,
violet, orange, green, yellow, brown perlb. 1 6
Calico for strips, unbleached ... w. peryd. 0 3}
Dotted Calico, for teaching hemming peryd. 0 64
Pocket Handkerchiefs, for hemming, per doz.,
83d., 10$d., and 1 04

Black, White, and Coloured Sewing Cotton
—Best Soft—200 yards ... .. perdoz, 1 6

STANDARD I.

Materials: Needles, Cotton, Knitting Pins, Em-
broidery Cotton, Calico, Holland, Print, Flan-
nel, Canvas, and Yarn. (See ‘“ Teacuurs’ Guins.’’)

STANDARDS IV. and V.
Materials: Needles, Cottons, Knitting Pins,
Coloured Cotton, for darning, Calico, Canvas,
Yarn, Buttons, and Flannel.
Stocking Web, for darning ... per dozen lengths 4 6

STANDARDS VI. and VII.

Materials: Needles, Cottons, Knitting Pins,

Calico, Mull Muslin, Coarse Linen, for darn-

ing, Print, Yarn, Stocking Web, Flannel,

Canvas, Buttons, Tapes, Cutting-out Paper.
Lined cutting-out paper, 36 in. x 45in., 1s. 0d. per quire.
Stout do. do. do. 2s. 6d. do.
Sectional do, do. do. Is. 6d. do.

Our ‘TEACHERS’ GUIDE” in the selection of

NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON.

No, of y
in Piee



s. Peryd.

sd,

CALICO (Patterns sent).













Az Grey 28in., Soft puremake .. o . +» about 90 0 2h
5 3 Sn 35 ri 7h - ae oe o a 90 .. 0 Bh
55 2in., o Sau 90 .. O 4
Bi 35. 28 in., * Lined: or dented for 2 2in, ‘strips ee as 7B «. O BE
i 2in., Soft puremake .. i wipe 1 80 .. 0 4§
aa 32in., Scoured or Half- Bleached . oe 35 Sf .. 0 5
D White 3 in., Soft finish Calico .. ow o a 100 0 3h
EH, 32in., : és a aie gy 80 0 43
BR in., Soft ‘wine finish <1 » —:100 05
G a 25 in., Soft finish, our New School Calico : ‘3 80 -- 0 53
H 4, 36 in. Soft Rockwater Calico, very ev en
Threads ia a 55... 0 64
I a 2in., Soft-washed School ‘Longeloth’ ay 62 .. 0 3%
J 55 seine 3s ss ee oe $i 62 0 43
K 3 36in? a 2 eh eee ey legge 0. ak
Loy, 36in, 98 ‘s ear ae 56 o7
M 4, 36in., PS _ ie id % 56 4. 0 8
No, 386 ins I ay oa 3 56 0 of
0 4, 36in., mivitlea Calico .. 1 56 0 6k
P 4, 36in., Soft e¥on Thread Sampler Calico... fi 80 0 6s
Qs, 86in., Soft open even Thread for Specimens ,, 70 0 64
FLANNEL eae ae
W.F. 1. Imitation Welsh, 25in. .. we é 3 oO ah
WF 2. i MB ites Stee ee kes es 0 108
WOE, 3. aa 27in, .. a oN 5 A 1 ob
GF. 4. Cream 27in .. us: a a as 1 of
W.F. 5. Imitation Welsh, 29in. .. as oe a, iy 13
WF. 6. a SOM wh be Cuvee, Dae 1 6
Sx.F. 7 Saxony 27in, .. ns bs Ke a 1 O§
Sx.F. 8, 30in, .. we ae a 8 16
B 9. Blue, for Herring-
bone stitch 25, i 0 8h
8. Scarlet a 4 0 8k
§ ” a 0 108
s ” ” 1 03
8 » ” 13
8. 9 % 16
8, si 5 19
SB 3) a 200



HANDKERCHIEFS, for Hemming.

Linen, 18 in. square, per doz., 3s. and 4s. ; ditto, fine, 5s. 6d. to 8s. 6d.

White Gam brid, per doz., 1s. osd.; White, with coloured border, Is. 04d.
am s,
Coloured Pictured do., 64d., 84d., 104d., 1s. 5d., and 1s. 6d. per dozen.
HOLLAND Cheat 70S —
Brown. B.H. 1. Dark shade, 32 in. . about 45 0 43
5 BH. 2. » 82in, ste on “6 * 4 . O 5k
6. CH. 3. Cream » 32in, a as cbs 55 45 .. 0 6
34 BH. 4. Light ,, 382in. Be ae ae a; 45 .. 0 63
YF C.H. 5. Cream ,, 40in. as a oi i 45 .. 0 7
33 BH. 6 Light ,, 382in. Sie a of 4 45 .. 0 72
a BH. 7% 5, wy SBRINE oe. Rae rey “as 45 . 0 8
% BB. 8. 3a » 82in, oe ain a, iF 45 .. 0 105
Glazed. D.H. 10. 32 in. eh die ae 38 45 .. 0 6
si D.H. 11. 32 in. is we. te 9 45 .. 0 8!
DH. 12, Bain. 2, 45 0 105

Needlework Materials contains List of Prices for

every article required in the various Standards, Gratis and Post free.





THE
DEMONSTRATION
FRAME.





















20 inches.







































Complete (withspecial
Needle & Cord), size
21 by 19 in., price 5s. 6d.







IQUE ONS Cam



Extra and

Cord

Needle
... price ts, Od.

Stand for above, with

Tron foot ... price 5s. 6d.

38 inches,

Skeleton Crate for

Packing frame (re-

















turnable) ... price Is. Od.





“SIMPLE CUTTING OUT.”
Illustrated with Twenty Diagrams.



For use in Government Schools in accordance with the New
Code, indludes also a transcript of the Government require-
ments in Schedule III., and the directions to H.M. Inspectors
as to examinations in Needlework; and a description of
materials and quantities required during practice and ex-
aminations.

PART I.—UNDERCLOTHING, 100 pp. PART JI.—BAByY LINEN, 122 pp,
Each Parr ONE SHILLING NETT. Post free.

“HOW TO KNIT” ano “WHAT TO KNIT.”

1s. per set of 8 Large Cards, Post Free.





The “ Victoria Knitting Cards” are compiled so that beginners may
knit from the first STRIP to a full-sized Stocking or Quilt without the
aid of the Teacher.

FIRST SET, Nos. I. to VIII, contains General Remarks on Knitting
—Knitting for Standards I. and Ii.—Muffatees—Scarves—Socks and Stock-
ings, ribbed and plain, thickened heels and toes, &c.

SECOND SET, Nos. 1X. to XVI., contains Complete Directions for
Knitting Ladies’ Vests—Child’s Vests—Boy’s V ests—Child’s Quilt—Large
Quilt—Diagonal Pattern Quilt—Baby’s Boots: nee Caps—Muffatees,
with thumbs—Vests and Quilts, &c., With quantities and kind of Yarns
needed for each article.

THIRD SET, Nos, XVII. to XXIV., contains Easy Directions for
Infant's Vest, Gloves, Hood, or Helmet—Br aided Cuffs—Mat—Rug—
Child’s Gaiters—Shoulder Cape—Shawl—Tam o’ Shanter, &c,

cox & CO., 99 and 101, NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON.








See Front Pages for Price Lists of Kindergarten and other varied occupations.
ADOPTED BY THE LONDON SCHOOL BOARD AND BY NUMEROUS PROVINCIAL
SCHOOL BOARDS.

CASSELL'S
Coloured Historical Cartoons.

These Beautiful Plates have been prepared by Mr. Hurserr A. Bonz, the-
Designer to the Royal Windsor Tapestry Works, from Original Drawings by
Tininent Artists.

In addition to pictorial effect and design, it has been the aim of ‘ike
designer to reproduce, with the greatest posable accuracy, all the details,
whether of Dress, Feature, or Surroundings, which Historical Research has
enabled him to portray.

“The Landing of the Romans in Britain.,”’
By Warren Pacer.*

“King John Signing Magna Charta.’”? By
Cu. Grecory, R.W.S.*

“Cromwell Dissolving the Long Parlia-
ment.”

‘* The Meeting of Wellington and Blurher
at La Belle Alliance after Waterloo.”
By E. Buair Leicuton.*

Red the. Jubilee of Queen. Victoria — The
J Thanksgiving Service in We estminster
A bbey.’’

“Queen Elizabeth at Tilbury Fort.’?
E. Buarr Lereuton.*

The Cartoons are HANDSOMELY PropucED IN CoLours, and published at 2s. each unmounted; or 5s. each,
mounted on rollers and varnished.

“Hach cartoon is a work of art, and as such is an attempt to represent truthfully, and without
exaggeration, the incident intended to be brought before the notice of the spectator. The educational.
effect. of finely-coloured cartoons like these in teaching history will be immense. Lach cartoon
makes a striking picture, and forms not only a permanent lesson in history, but a fine decoration for
the wall, They are published at a most reasonable price, and ought to be eahebited on the walls oe
every school where history is taught.” —ScHOOLMASTER.

“There is nothing to touch these pictures in the market, their cheapness and beauty being alike
remarkable. Every school in the kingdom should be supplied with a set.”.—TEACHERS’ AID.

“To this really excellent series of cartoons we give our cordial commendation. In pictorial effect
aud general design they are alike admirable, and as an interesting adjunct to the history lesson they
will doubtless give great satisfaction. The publishers may be congratulated on having practically
inaugurated a new era in the history of school wall decoration.”—Practical Teacher.

“We have the greatest pleasure in testifying our warmest approval of this series of pictures.
They are just what was required to enliven the usually cheerless walls of our schoolrooms. Bold in
design, the figures clearly delineated, and of sufficiently large size to be viewed from a distance, they
cannot fail to impress upon the minds of children the important historical events they portray. We
heartily commend them to the notice of teachers.’—Schoolmistress.

* From an Original Drawing executed expressly for the New Edition of “ Cassell’s History of England.”

An Historical and Descriptive Account of the Incidents depicted in CASSELL’S HISTORICAL
CARTOONS, illustrated with Outline Drawings, can be obtained, price ONE PENNY.

CASSELL & COMPANY, Liumrrep, Ludgate Hill, London.
APPROVED BY THE SCIENCE AND ART. DEPARTMENT.
PRACTICAT. GRADUATED. CHEAP.

— Cassell’s “New Standard” Drawing Copies.

(Adapted by the Lonpon, Epinsurcn, Lezps, SHEFFIELD, BrrmincHam, Aston, PLYMOUTH, Ports-

MOUTH, BRADFORD, READING, BRIsTor, Luton, BRIGHTON, HUDDERSFIELD, Hatirax, BARROW,
and many other School Boards.)





THESE CoprEs are in exact accordance with the recently issued “Illustrated Circular” and the new
“Tnstructions of the Science and Art Department ”



Order of Books. Requirements. PRICE,

Book A. Standards I. and II.
Freehand = (Elementary ”) on

Squared Paper.

» 3B, Standards I. and II,

Freehand (Advanced) on Ordi-
nary Paper.

» Cc. Standard IIT.
ee Freehand.
» D. Standard III.
Geometrical Figures,

|
ae oe SON wt
9 E. ee { Standard IV.—(a) Freehand drawing from the 2d.

Standard X.—Drawing, freehand, and with the 2d.
ruler, of lines, angles, parallels, and the simplest
right-lined forms, such as some of those given in
*s ‘Dyce’ 8 Drawing Book.” (To be drawn on slates.) - -

2d.

Standard tie same on paper.

2d

Standard FXYT.—(«) Freehand drawing of regular
forms and curved figures from the flat. (0) Simple
geometrical figures with rulers, 2d.

flat. (6) Drawing from simple rectangular and
» FF Standard Tv. circular models. (e ) Simple scales and drawing to 2d

Drawing to Seale Beales:
» G. Standard V. 3d.
Freehand. Standard V.—(a) Freehand drawing from the
: Ala, (6) Drawing from easy common objects. (c)
3 H. Standard V. Geometrical figures with instruments and to scale. 3d.
Geometry.

» K. Standard VI.
Freehand.

Standard VI.
Plans, Elevations, &c.

Standard VII.

Da — > of eombemnenas vI.—(a) Freehand drawing fromthe 934,
flat. (b) Drawing from models of regular forms
and from easy common objects. (¢) Plans and ele-
vation of plain figures and rectangular solids in 3c
simple BRS oe ED Dene with sections.*

mp

39

M.
29 ( 3d.
'reehand.

e Standard VII.—(a) Freehand drawing from the
» ON. Standard VII. flat. (b) Drawing any common objects and casts of 4d
** Shading.’’ ; ornimient in ight aoe dade ee vena .

drawing more advanced than in V. (c) Plans and
9 O. Standard VII. elevations of rectangular and circular solids with 3d
; Geometry. sections, * :
>» P. Standard VII. { Ad.

Plans, Elevations, &c,
* These will not be required tn Girls’ Schoo

Each Book contains the Copies only, and thus supplies at a very small cost the full course for a whole year’s work.
This arrangement also enables the Teacher to supply the children, as required, with good blank drawing paper at a
_ comparatively small outlay.

*,.* Teachers who desire, in accordance with the recommendation of the Department, to place examples of the same
style as those in “DYCE’S DRAWING BOOK” before their Pupils, should give this Series a trial. They
are invited to send for specimens that they may judge for themselves of the essentially practical character of
these books. -

CASSELL & COMPANY, Lumnrep, London, Paris, New York §& Melbourne,
CASSELL’S MODERN SCHOOL SERIES.

Adapted to the latest requirements of the Education Department.
Cassell’s “Readable” Readers.

Carefully graduated, extremely interesting, illustrated CORO D TNT, Senay beanie and gly chine:

FIRST INFANT READER, 82 pages, limp cloth

SECOND INFANT READER. 48 see oe8 ose rk ee a

BOOK I. 112 pages, limp cloth boards (blue) sa ; very stiff cloth boards (red) oe aie wee eo ieee 7d.
» I 28 ,, ny op a ad. 3 "i ee pe ee Bie MB mee SOU
3. TEL 192 3 - i aha? fs s a hy lage “ae ae ae LBLOO.
yx EVs T92 gy ¥s $5 » _ Ld; 4 - os gee asap pa) ean eet DBS Od.
Wi 224 2 7 . », Is. 1d.3 4 wie Cade muah ens any es BEE
» VI, 224 ,, os es » Is. ld; 93 a3 ia! * tae, erie we 1g, 3d,

FOR INFANT SCHOOLS.

Cassell’s New Readers with Coloured Pictures.

Three Books, 48 pages each, very bold type, carefully graduated, paragraphed, and numbered. Most interesting.
Strongly bound in limp cloth, 4d. each.

Cassell’s “Modern School” Reading Sheets.
THREE SERIES, each containing Twelve Sheets. Printed on Paper, 28. each; or Mounted on Linen, with
rollers, 5s. each.

Cassell’s “ Modern School ” Infant Readers.



" FIRST INFANT READER a ee | THIRD INFANT READER... one ove we 4d.
SECOND INFANT READER ... ies 52 ee a, FOURTH INFANT READER . ve ss ae ww =5d.
te ” c
Cassell’ S Modern School” Readers.
FIRST READER, Standard I. oe we Ud FOURTH READER. Standard IV. ... a wae 1s. 2d.
SECOND READER. x» IL. oe oP ae Mie OUks FIFTH READER, : For Standard V. 2 1s, 3d.
THIRD READER, ° » IIL aia w Is. SIXTH READER. For Standards VI. and VIL. 1, 1s. 6d.
} te ”
Cassell’s Modern School”. Historical Readers. —
I,_-ENGLISH HISTORY. For Standard III. (Stories i IV.—THE EASY HISTORY FOR UPPER STAND-
‘or Children) s
Ti, ENGLISH GagTORY. For Standards IV. and V. ; ARDS.—MopErn History... 0 eee
The Simple Outline) .. Ss. 7
Tr, ee BASY HISTORY FOR “UPPER STAND. 2 V._THE COMPLETE HISTORY OF ENGLAND FOR
ARDS.—MippLe AGES ae 1s. STANDARDS V., VI, VIL. ate Z 28,
3 &t 33
Cassell’s Modern School Geographical Readers.
INTRODUCTORY LESSONS. For Standard I. See SCOTLAND, IRELAND, AND THE COLONIES. For
INTRODUCTORY LESSONS. For Stand. IT. Enlarged. sa Standard IV. (With Two Coloured Maps) A 1g,
ENGLAND AND WALES. For Standard te (With EUROPE. For Standard V. ae ase by aw Is.
Coloured Map.) Enlarged vee LOG _ THE WORLD. For Standard’ Vie ess Rs see 1s, 8d.

a SPECIAL READERS.
The “Citizen Reader.” By H. 0. Arnorp-Forsrer. With a Preface by the late

Rieut Hon. W. E. Forsrer, M.P., formerly Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education, With New and
Special Illustrations. Strongly bound in cloth, 216 pages, price 1s. 6d. One Hundreth Thousand. With.an additional
Coloured Plate and Chapter on the County Councils. Adopted by the London, Edinburgh, and many other School Boards.

IMPORTANT NEW WORK by the Author of ‘‘ THE CITIZEN READER,” :
The ‘Laws of Hvery-day Life.” By H. 0. Aryozp-Forsrer. Fully Illus-

trated and strongly bound in cloth, price 1s. 64. Presentation edition, half-persian calf, gilt top, 3s. 6d.

ce ay
The Making of the Home. A Reading Book in Domustic Economy for School
and Home Use. By Mrs, Samuven A. Barnett. Nineteenth Thousand. Extra feap. 8vo, cloth, price 1s, 6d.

Cassell’s ‘Higher Class” Readers.

; : Specially prepared for use in Middle and Higher Schools, and the Upper Classes in Elementary Schools. _
“The World’s Lumber-Room.” An Elementary Science Reader. Fully Illustrated.
Very Interesting. Strongly bound in cloth boards. Price 2s. 6d.
“Short Studies from Nature.” With Full-page Illustrations and Diagrams. Very
Interesting. Strongly bound in cloth, 2s. 6d. : 5
“The World in Pictures.” Being Graphic Studies in the Geography, Manners, and
Customs of the following Districts. Very fully and beautifully Illustrated. Strongly bound in cloth, Qs, each,

A RAMBLE ROUND FRANCE, (French tricolor binding.) THE LAND OF Jeune (INDIA).
ALL THE RUSSIAS. (Imperial yellow binding.) PEEPS INTO CHIN

CHATS ABOUT GERMANY. (German tricolor binding.) GLIMPSES OF SOUT AMERICA.
THE LAND OF THE PYRAMIDS (EGYPT), ROUND AFRICA.

THR EASTERN WONDERLAND (JAPAN). THE ISLES OF THE PACIFIC.

CASSELL & COMPANY, Lauirep, Ludgate Hill, London.
MESSRS. CASSELL & Company beg to announce the preparation of
an entirely NEW SERIES OF WALL SHEETS, suitable
for use in connection with their vecently published Work,

‘‘ HAND-AND-EYE TRAINING,” enfitled—

“Model Joint” Wall Sheets

IN “MANUAL TRAINING.”

By 8. BARTER,

Instructor to the Joint Committee on ‘“‘ Manual Training” of the London School Board
and City Guilds.

The Series consists of Eight Sheets, fully Mounted on Rollers, price 2/6 each.

These WatL SHEETS present a carefully graduated Series
of “Working Drawings” for handwork in Wood represented by
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