Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Easy games without toys
 Easy games with toys
 Athletic sports and manly...
 Scientific pursuits
 Domestic pets
 Back Cover

Group Title: Every boy's book : a complete encyclopaedia of sports and amusements
Title: Every boy's book
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065421/00001
 Material Information
Title: Every boy's book a complete encyclopaedia of sports and amusements
Physical Description: 912 p., 17 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Routledge, Edmund, 1843-1899
Wood, J. G ( John George ), 1827-1889
Evans, Edmund, 1826-1905
Publisher: George Routledge and Sons
Place of Publication: London ;
Glasgow ;
New York
Publication Date: 1889
Edition: 16th ed., rev. and enl.
Subject: Amusements -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Sports -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Handicraft -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Pets -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Science -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Citation/Reference: BM
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: edited by Edmund Routledge ... ; with six hundred illustrations & coloured plates.
General Note: Frontispiece signed E. Evans i.e. Edmund Evans.
General Note: Originally appeared in 1855 as Every boy's book, by George Forrest i.e. J.G. Wood.
General Note: Illustrated added t.p. counted as leaf of plates.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065421
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002391441
notis - ALZ6331
oclc - 14449828

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Half Title
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Easy games without toys
        Page 17
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
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            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
    Easy games with toys
        Page 59
            Page 59
            Page 60
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    Athletic sports and manly exercises
        Page 103
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    Scientific pursuits
        Page 384
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    Domestic pets
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    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
Full Text


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TE Editor has again been compelled to revise this volume in
the interest of his young readers. He need not detail the
alterations further than to state that several articles have been
revised and improved. The new laws of "Association Football"
have been added, with an article on Fretr.-rl;," which it is
hoped will prove useful to beginners in that art. The Tricycle "
has been handled, and some of the Science topics have been
revised in accordance with later demands.
September, 1883.


ONCE more we have been called upon to revise EVERY BOY'S
BOOK," which has now reached its Fourteenth Edition. The great
and sudden development and popularity of Lawn Tennis and
Bicycling have necessitated a fuller treatment of these favourite
amusements in our pages. To the rules we have appended some
practical hints which we found useful ourselves at first. In
addition-Cricket, Football, Golf, and various other sports and
games, have been revised where necessary, and partly re-written.
To the chapters on Gymnastics we have added Dumb-bells and
Indian Clubs, in a brief but, we believe, practical form. All these
sports need practice, and can never be fully taught on paper, so
we can merely indicate the method and leave the action to the
boys themselves.
The chapters on Rowing, Sailing, Swimming, Fishing, Canoeing,
&c., have also received our attention, and the young collectors of
Moths and Butterflies will find a new portion of the volume
devoted to their instruction.
The more scientific portion of the book-including Chemistry
and the Telephone, chapters on Acoustics, Ballooning, and
Magnetism, with numerous interesting experiments-has been
almost entirely re-written.
September, 1880.


THE twelve years that have passed since the first edition of EvERY
BoY's BooK was published, have brought so many changes in our
national sports and pastimes, and have seen the introduction of so
many new games, that it has been thought desirable to remodel this
work, in order to bring it down to the requirements of the present
time. In carrying out this plan effectually, EVERY BOY's BOOK has
been almost entirely rewritten; and scarcely anything now remains
of the old work except the title.
All the articles that were in the former edition have been
thoroughly revised, and papers on Boxing, Canoeing, Croquet,
Fives, Golf, Rackets, Sliding, Billiards, Bagatelle, Dominoes, Spec-
trum Analysis, Canaries, Hedgehogs, Jackdaws, Jays, Magpies,
Owls, Parrots, Ravens, Boats, Cryptography, Deaf and Dumb
Alphabet, Dominoes, Mimicry and Ventriloquism, Shows, Stamp
Collecting, and Tinselling, appear now for the first time.
In carrying out this work much valuable assistance has been given
by Professor Pepper, the Rev. J. G. Wood, W. B. Tegetmeier,
Clement Scott. Sidney Daryl, J. T. Burgess, Dr. Viner, Thomas
Archer, W. Robinson, of the Field, Cholmondeley Penneli, and other
well-known writers on sports.
The articles at the end of this work on American Billiards,
Base Ball, and the Canadian sport of La Crosse, have been con-
tributed by Henry Chadwick, the leading authority on these games
in America.

CaHRITMAS, 1868.


IT would be impossible for a single author to produce a book of
this description with a fair prospect of success, because it necessarily
treats of many subjects; and a perfect acquaintance with some of
the more important would occupy a lifetime. The reading and re-
searches of one man would not be sufficiently extensive to embrace
the rich variety of- the materials required. Being fully convinced of
this fact, the Publishers have endeavoured to obtain the aid of the
most distinguished writers in the various departments of knowledge
which the following pages are intended to illustrate. Thus each
contributor, in furnishing his quota of information for the work, has
been engaged in a congenial task, one best suited to his peculiar turn
of mind, as well as to his individual acquirements, and one upon
which he could, therefore, with the greatest ease and accuracy,
dilate. This brief explanation will show in what spirit the Pub-
lishers embarked in the undertaking; and the accompanying list of
the writers may be received as a proof that they have succeeded in
securing the services of the most competent authorities. With that
portion of the book with which he was practically acquainted each
of the following gentlemen has dealt: W. Martin, Esq., C. Baker,
Esq., R. B. Wormald, Esq., J. F. Wood, Esq.,- A. McLaren, Esq.,
Stonehenge, author of "Rural Sports," and the Rev. J. G. Wood,
author of several works on Natural History, who also furnished
some of the designs. The remaining illustrations are by William
Harvey and Harrison Weir; and the credit for the able manner in
which they have been engraved is due to the brothers Dalziel.





Hop, Step, and Jump . 17 King of the Castle . .30
Hopping on the Bottle .. .. 18 Battle for the Banner .... .30
Hop-Scotch .. .... 18 Snow-Balls . .. .31
French and English .. ... 19 Snow-Castle . .. .32
Drawing the Oven .. 19 Snow Giant . .. 33
I Spy . . .20 Jack I Jack I show a Light I 34
Pitch-Stone.. ..... 20 Jingling . . 85
Duck-Stone . ... 21 Jump little Nag-tall . 35
Prisoner's Base, or Prison Bars. 21 Jumping Rope . .. 36
Fox . . 23 My Grandmother's Clock. 36
Baste the Bear. . 23 Rushing Bases. . .. .37
Leap-Frog .. ... .24 See-saw . . .. 87
Fly the Garter ..... .24 Thread the Needle . 88
Spanish Fly . .. .25 Tom Tiddler's Ground. . 38
Touch .. ... .26 Two to One . . 38
Touch-Wood and Touch-Iron. 26 Walk, Moon, Walk I. 38
Buck, Buck, how many Horns do I Want a day's work ? ... .39
hold up? ..... 26 Will you 'List? . ... 39
Warning ... . 26 Whoop . .. 40
Follow my Leader .. .27 High Barbaree I . .. .40
The Fugleman. . 27 Bull in the Ring . .40
Hare and Bounds . .. 27 Cock Fight . . 41
Steeple Chase . .. 29 Dropping the Handkerchief 41
Duck and Drake ... 29 The Tug of War . .. 41
Simon Says ... .. 80

Blind Man's Buff . .. 42 Hunt the S'ipper. . 49
Bob-Cherry ... .... .42 Hunt the Ring . . 49
Buff .. . ..... 43 Hunt the Whistle. . ... 49
Concert ......... .. .43 Magic Music . . 50
Consequences . . 44 Post . . .. 50
Cross Questions & Crooked Answers 44 Proverbs . . 51
Dumb Motions. ..... .45 Puss in the Corner . .. 52
Family Coach ..... .45 Red-Cap and Black-Cap . 52
Frog in the Middle .. ... 46 Shadow Buff . ... 53
The Four Elements . 47 Slate Games . ... 53
Hand ........... 47 Trades .......... 56
Hot Boiled Beans ... 481 Trussed Fowls . . 56
Hot Cockles . . 48 The Two Hats . 56
How? Where? and When? 48 What is my Thought like? 57



BALLS . . .. .59 Odd or Even . .. 77
Catch Ball . . 59 Picking the Plums . .. .77
Doutee-Stool .. 59 The Pyramid . . 77
Egg-Hat .. ...... 60 Ring Taw . 77
Feeder . 60 Spans and Snops, and Bounce
Monday, Tuesday ... .. .. 61 About . .... 78
Nine-Holes . ... 62 Teetotum Shot . .. 78
Northen Spell . ... 62 Three-Holes. . ... 78
Rounders . ... .62 Tipshares, or Handers . 79
bcvens ......... 64
Stool-Ball ........ ... 64 TOPS ....... .. .. 80
Trap, Bat, and Ball . .. 64 The Humming-top .. .. .. 80
HOOPS...Peg-top . .......... 81
OOPS .......... 65 punish Peg-top .....
Encounters. . 66 The Whip-top . 81
Hoop Race . ... .67 Chip-stone . . 82
Posting . . 67 Peg-in-the-Ring .. . 82
Tournament . .68
Turnpike. . ... 68 MISCELLANEOUS TOYS 84
KITES .. . ... 69 Ti. 0. Mill 8...... 84
u .'. ...... 84
How to make a Kite ... 69 Baton .......... .
Flying the Kite .. . 70 Cat . . ..... 85
Messengers .... 71 Cat and Mouse . .. 86
Calico Rites . ... 71 Knock-'em-don . ... 87
Fancy Kites .. ..... 71 Pea-shooters . .. 87
Quoits . . 87
MARBLES..........73 N ine.s .. ......... 88
Bounce Eye . 74 Skittles . . 88
Conqueror . . 74 Dutch-pins . .. 89
Die Shot. . 74 Throwing the Hammer. . 89
Eggs in the Bush ..... 75 The Boomerang . 90
Increase Pound . .. 75 The Skip-jack, or Jump-jack. 90
Knock out, or Lag out 75 The Sling . .. 90
Long Taw .. . 76 Walking on Stilts . 92
Nine-Holes, or Bridge Board 76 The Sucker . .. 2

Battledore and Shuttlecock 94 Knuckle-bcnes . .98
Bandilor ... . 95 Merelles, or Nine Men's Morris. 99
Cup and Ball ....... 95 Paper Dart . .. .99
The Cutwater ... 95 The Popgun . 100
Fox and Geese .. .. .96 Push-pin . .. 100
Goose . .. .... 97 Schimmel. . 100
Head, Body, and Legs 97 Spelicans. ... 102




ANGLING . .. 103 Equipment for Archery. .. 139
A Word about Fish .... .. 104 Ancient Directions for Archery. 139
About the Rod ......105 Decline of Archery . .. 139
Abhoosuting the Rod ...... 105 Modern Archery. . 140
Thoosing h Ro .. 0 The Bow I e140
Lines or Bottoms. . ..106 ..........
Shooting the Line. .......107 The Sring ........ .14
The Float .........107 Stringing the Bow. .......141
Reels or Winches . 108 The Arrows . . 141
Rest Lines................10 The Quiver ... ......... .142
ee Lines . .. 108 The Tassel, Brace, Belt, and Pouch 142
How to Baitta Hook ...' 1 Shooting Glove, and Grease Pot 143
Ho Bait a H. .....109 The Target ......... 143
TBaits e.. .. .. 109 A.......... 144
To Bait with Greaves . 11 dr w 44
To Scour and Preserve Worms 111 How to draw the Bow .....144
The Plummet .11 CIC..... Flight Shooting . .. .145
ie Cai Smm ethl . 145
l, o .. .d L net. 112 Roving .. . .. 145
Sand Landing-net 112 General Hints for Archers. 146
Clearing Ring and Line. .... 112
Drag-ook ...... ...112
Bank Runner . ... 112 CANOES AND CANOEING 147
Live-bait Kettle . .113
Disgorger ........ 118 CRICKET.. . 150
ngling xioms . 113
Salmon. . . 114 The Bats o .......... 152
Troutay . .114 The Ball . .... .152
Jack or Pike .. ..... 115 The Stumpsman.-g........152
udgeon. . ......... 117 Pads or Guards . 153
Roach ... .. ...118 Batting Gloves . .. .154
Dace, or .u . 11 Wicket-keeping Gloves. .. 155
Perch .. ...... 120 The Laws of Cricket . 155
Grayling . . .121 Single Wicket . . 159
Chub .......... 122 The Batsman.-Hints to Young
Carkleback and M .. 123 Players . . 160
Tench . . 124 Fieldring . .. 16
Pope, or Ruffis or D g ... 124 Bowling-sl . .. 169
Bream g ad A l F .......... 125 The Wickekeeper . 172
Flounders fr m F..... .125 Long-stop . . 173
Eels...........126 Point............173
Stickleback 1an27 Short-slip On a f.... .173
arbel . . .12 Cover-point . .174
Natural Fly-shing, or Dipping 129 Long-slip.-Fast Rou.d-a .Bw174
Fly-shing and Articial Flies 19 Longon . . 174
Materials for making Flies 129 Long-off ....... ..174
Leg .... ............. 174
ARCHERY ......... 135 Mid-wicket On and Off. .... 174
S Third Man up ....... .174
The Long-bow........ 136 Diagram I.-Fast Round-ann Bowl-
The Cross-bow............. 136 iM...........175
Feats of the Bow .. ... 137 Diagram II.-Medium Pace Round-
Length of Bows and Arrows, and arm Bowling . .175
how used in Ancient Times. 138 Diagram III.-Slow Underhand
Marks for Shooting at .. 1. 8 Bowling . . .170


CROQUET . ... 177 Attacks . . 227
Introductory . . 177 The Straight Thrust ... 227
The Game of Croquet 178 The One emnto ....... 228
Terms used in Croquet 178 The Beat and Thrust. ..... 228
The Croquet Ground 179 The Beat and Disengagement. 228
The Setting, or Arrangement of the Ct over the Point gg .228
Hoops .. ... 180 ut over the Disengagement 228
The Implements . .182 D 9
How to make the various Strokes 184 ADoubleits .......... 229
One-blSre. ..All Feints ..........229
One-ball Strokes . 186 The Assault ......... 220
Two-ball, r Croquet Strokes .186 General Advice. ....... 230
Running Hoops ..... 188 Broadswords...... .280
Judging the Strength 188 Po s ... 281
The Dead Boundary. .188 Poieti . . .28
The Laws of Croquet .. 189 Targetnd Gards .......... 282
The Handicap........ 190 Cuts .......... 23
The Croquet Target ...... 190 Points. ........ 234
The Tournament ..... 190 Guards .......... 235
Hints to Young Players .. 191 Parry .. . ... 235
BADMINTON . .... 194 Hangig Guard ...... 26
Inside Guard .... ........ 236
The Laws of Badminton .196 Outside Guard . . 27
Attack and Defence . 287
LAWN TENNIS . .. 196 Draw Swords . .... 238
Recover Swords ....... 239
Hints to Young Players . 199 arr Swords ........ 239
SlopCarry Swords ....... 239
KNUR AND SPELL .. .199 SRtue Swords ...... 239
RINKING ........ 203 Practices . .... 240
Second Practice ....... 240
BICYCLES AND BICYCLING 206 Thr Practice ....... 24
Fourth Practice ..... 241
SLEIGHING ...... ... 211 Ffth Prac eele ........242
ortand Feeble. ....... 42
DRIVING .......... 212 Drawing Cut ..... ..242
General Advice . 212
Introduction .. 212
The Horse in Harness .... .213 FIVES .. ... 213
The Horse . 214
The Harness .... .. ... 214 FOOT-BALL . ... 244
The Carriage . .. .215 The Association Laws . 245
The Britzschka ....... ...215 The Rugby Union Rules . 246
New Brougham ...... .216 Definition of Terms . 251
The Family Coach . .. .216 The Plan of Play . 252
Putting to . .. 216
Directions for Driving ..... .216 GOLFING . . 253
The Rules of Golf . 254
FENCING ....... 218 Explanation of Terms in Golf 257
The Guard . .. 219 THE TRICYCLE. ..... 258
Advance ... ......... 220
Retreat ......... .221 GYMNASTICS. ....... 259
The Longe . .. 221 Introduction. . 259
The Recover . .. 221 Historical Memoranda. 260
The Engage . .. 222 Modern Gymnastics . 261
Parades . . .. .222 Walking . . 262
Quart. . . ... .223 The Tip-toe March . 262
Tierce ........... 223 Running . . .. 263
Second .. .... .224 Jumping . . .263
Demi-Cercle ..... .. 224 Leaping . . .. 264
Octave 26 To climp up a Board . 265
Contre-Parades ........ .226 Climbing the Pole .... 265


Climbing the Rope. .. 266 Description of the Cutter Yacht. 840
,, Trees. . 266 Construction of the Hull .. 340
The Giant Stride, or Flying Steps, Something about the Masts, Spars,
and its capabilities .. 266 Ropes, &c. . . 343
Dumb-Bells ... 272 Sailing a Yacht . .. 345
Bar-Bells, or French Dumb-Bells 274 Bringing up ....... .347
Indian Clubs . .. .274 Making Snug . .. 347
Parallel Bars ... .. .276 Going back . .. .47
The Horizontal Bar . .. 278 Jibing . . 47
The Horse . . 281 Brgiging up at Moorings 347
The Swing... . .284 Of the Mariners' Compass, and
Throwing the Javelin. ..... .288 various Nautical Terms . 848
Ths Trapeze, Single and Double. 289 Cautions and Directions . 849
Tricks and Feats of Gymnastics 297 Nautical Terms . .. 349
HOCKEY . .. 300 SKATING . .. 853
The Skate . .. .54
RACKETS . .. .803 Putting on the Skates .. 355
How to start upon the Inside Edge 356
RIDING. . .. 306 Movement on the Outside Edge 356
The Horse . .... .307 Forward Roll . .. 357
The Marks of Age in the Horse 307 The Dutch Roll . 357
The Paces of the Horse .308 The Figure of Eight ... 358
Terms used by Horsemen 310 The Figure of Three . .. 358
Form of the Horse . 810 The Back Roll. . .. 358
Varieties of the Horse suitable for General Directions to be followed
Boys .. .... .810 by Persons ieafingv to Skate .. 359
[he Accoutrements and Aids 311
o tg. .. .. .. 31 SLIDING. .........360
counting . .. 313
Dismounting .. ....... .314
The Management of the Reins 314 SWIMMING . .. 362
The Seat .... 315 Places and Times for Bathing and
The Control of the Horse 316 Swimming .... 64
Management of the Walk .. 316 Entering the Water . .. 865
The Trot and Canter .. .317 Aids to Swimming . .. .65
The Management of the Gallop 3. 8 Striking off and Swimming 366
Leapig .... 318 How to manage the Legs 367
Treatment of Vices 320 Plunging and Diving .. .867
Swimming under Water. 368
ROWING .. 324 Swimming on the Side . 869
Swimming on the Back without em-
Historical Memoranea .. 324 playing the Feet . .. .369
Construction of Ancient Ships and Floating . .. 370
Galleys .. . 325 Treading Water . .. 370
Roman Gallies, Ships, ec. 326 The Fling . ..370
Of Boats . . 327 Swimming on the Back. .. 71
The Component Parts of Boats. 328 Thrusting . .. 371
The Oars and Sculls .. 329 The Double Thrust . .. 372
Sea Rowing ......... 329 To Swim like a Dog . .. 372
River Rowing ...... 29 The Mill .. ...... 372
Management of the Oar .. 330 The Wheel Backwards and Forwards 372
The Essential Points in Rowing 331 To Swim with One Hand . 373
Management of the Boat, Steering, Hand over Hand Swimming. 373
. . .... 331 Balancing . . 373
Rowing together . 32 The Cramp . .. 374
Sculling . .... 332 Saving from Danger .. 374
Caution to Young Rowers 333 Sports and Feats in Swimming 375
Bernardi's system of Upright Swim.
BAILING ........ 34 ming .......... 375
Characters of a Yacht . 38 The Prussian System of Pfuel 876
Varions kinds of Yachts 339 TRAINING . ... 79




ACOUSTICS ....... .. 385 The Sportsman .. .. 428
TRICITY . . 429
CHEMISTRY .. 93 Origin of Galvanism . 429
Gs Simple Experiment to excite Gal-
ases . . 397 ni Action ....... 430
S . 398 With Metal Plates in Water '. 430
S.. -, t . ... .399 To make a Magnet by the Voltaic
S .. .. .400 Current .. .. 438
E .i' r .....,r- ...... 401 Effects of Galvaninr'v wn T 9'r,t 431
Atmospheric Air . .402 Change of Colour ; .y .. 431
Hydrogen . .. 404 The Galvanic Shock .. .432
Experiments . .. .404 The Electrotype .. 432
Water .. ... 405 How to make an Electrotype
E'-. p'," ..i .. ... 406 Apparatus .. .. 432
.. 407 To -obtain the Copy of a Coin or
Experiments .. ........ 408 eda..........433
].Luriatic. Acid Gas, or Hydrio
Chloride . . .409 HEAT .......... 43
Experiments . . 410
Iodine ........ .411 Heat or Caloric ....... 433
Experiments . .. .411 Expansion . ... 438
Bromine . ... 411
Experiments ..... .. .411 HYDRAULICS . .. 438
Fluorine ...... .. 412 The Syphon .. 439
Experiment . ..412 The Pump . . .439
Carbon . . .412 The Hydraulic Dancer .. 440
Experiments . .. 413 The Water Snail, or Archimedean
Carbon and Hydrogen .. 414 Screw . .... 441
Experiment . .. 415
Coal Gas . . .. 416 MAGNETISM. . .442
Experiment ........ 416 Relation of Magnetism to Electricity 442
Exeosporus .411 To make Artificial Magnets 443
experiments ........ .417 How to Magnetise a Poker 443
Sulphur . .. 418 To Show Magnetic Repulsion and
ELECTRICITY......... A... 420 Attraction ..... .443
EL T .. North and SouthPoles of the Magnet 441
Simple Means of producing Elec- Polarity of the Magnet 444
tricity . . 420 The Magnetic Fish .. ... 441
Attraction and Repulsion exhibited 421 Swan . 445
How to make an Electrical Machine 422 To suspend a Needle in the Air by
The Conductor . .. 423 Magnetism ... .. .445
The Plate Electrical Machine 423 To make Artificial Magnets without
How to draw Sparksfrom the tip of the aid either of Natural Load-
the Nose . .. .423 stones or -i'i,.. ,IH .....- 445
How to charge a Leyden Jar 424 Horse shoe : -r, 416
The Electrical Battery 424 Experiment to show that soft Iron,
Dancing Balls and Dolls 425 i-.... .- Magnetic Properties
The Electrical Kiss . .. 425 .,..- .1 remains in the vicinity of
Ringing Bells . .425 a Magnet .446
Working Power of Electricity 426 Electro-Magnetisnm .. 447
The Electrified Wig . .. 426 Power of the Electro-Magnet 447
Imitation Thunder Clouds 427 The 3rIT .- ...1.. .,1 L-
The Lightning Stroke imitated 427 p..ri a.ul ,r., i,.. r'- ,C li, 447


Variation of the Needle .448 The Camera Obscura . 505
Dip of the Needle . 448 The Camera Lucida . 506
Useful Amusement with the Pocket The Magic Lantern . .. 507
Compass . .. 448 Dissolving Views . .. 509
Interesting Particulars concerning Preparing Slides for the Lantern 509
the Magnet. ........ .449
Th Microphone ....... 459 PHOTOGRAPHY ... 513
MECHANICS . . 464 PNEUMATICS. .... .. .526
Experiment of the Law of Motion 464 Weight of the Air proved by a pair
Balancing ........ 465 of Bellows . . 526
The Prancing Horse . 465 The pressure of the Air shown by a
To construct a Figure, which, being Wine-glass . . 527
placed upon a curved surface and Another Experiment .... 527
inclined in any position, shall, Elasticity of the Air . 527
when left to itself, return to its Reason for this . .. .528
former position . .. 465 The Air-Pump . .. 528
To make a Carriage run in an in- To prove that Air has Weight 528
averted position without falling 465 To prove Air Elastic. . 529
To cause a Cylinder to roll by its Sovereign and Feather . 529
own weight Up-hill. .... 465 Air in the Egg . ... 529
The Balanced Stick. .. 466 The Descending Smoke . 529
I he Chinese Mandarin 466 The Soundless Bell . 530
To make a Shilling turn on its edge The Floating Fish . .. 530
on the point of a Needle 466 The Diving Bell . .. .531
The Dancing Pea . .467 Diving Operations . 531
Obliquity of Motion . 467
The Bridge of Knives ..... 468 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS. 538
The Toper's Tripod ... ...... 468 LUMINOUS PAINT .....548
The Compound Microscope 479 MODERN EXPLOSIVES 551
MENTS .........502
Light as an Effect . .. 502 THE RADIOMETER . 554
Refraction ........ 503
The Invisible Coin made Visible 503 FLOATING MAGNETS . 555
The Multiplying Glass ..... 504 TOUGHENED GLASS ... 556
Transparent Bodies . 504
The Prism . .. 504 ELECTRIC BATTERIES 557
Composition of Light .. 504
A Natural Camera Obscura .505 POLYGRAPHIC COPYING PRO-
Bullock's-eye Experiment .. 505 CESS . . 559



THE CANARY . 569 THE JAY ....... 597
DOGS. . . 579 THE MAGPIE . 599
Glasses ....... .591 THE PARROT . .606
Feeding ........ 591
Diseases . . .. 591 PIGEONS . .... 615
THE GUINEA PIG .... 592 Varieties of Pigeons ..... 619
Blue Rock Dove r ...... 619
THE HEDGEHOG .. ... 594 The Antwerp, or Smerl 620

The Pouter . 621 Moultings . 651
The Carrier ...... 622 The Cocoon. ..... .. 651
The Dragon ....... .623 The Aurelia . .. 652
The Tumbler. .. 623 Winding the Silk . .652
The Barb .... .. .624 The Moth . ..652
The Owl .... 625 General Remarks . .. 653
The Turbit . .. 625
The Fantail .. .. 625 BUTTERFLIES AND BUTTER-
The Trumpeter . 626 FLY CATCHING . .. 654
The Jacobin . . 627 MOTHS . . 658
POULTRY ........ .628 AQUARIUM . .. 660
Fowls . 628 Green Laver . . 661
Fattening . 629 ladophora area ... 661
Laying ......... 629 Top-shell . . .. 662
Hatching .. ......... 629 Soldier or Hermit-Crab ..... .662
Rearingof Chickens ...... 630 Velvet-Fiddler ....... 663
The Pintado, or Guinea Fowl .631 Five-inger Star-Fish .... 66
Ducks . .632 Dahlia Wartlet . .. 664
THE RAVEN . . 645 The Lampern . .. 666
SILKWORMS ......648 Water Scorpion Flying . 667
Food of the Silkworm ... 650 THE SQUIRREL . .. 668
Hatching, Feeding, and Temperature 650 WHITE MICE . .675



BAGATELLE . . 679 The Spoke Shave. .. .701
English Bagatelle ...... .679 Stock and Bits. . 701
The French Game ... 679 How to make a Wheelbarrow .701
Sans Egal ......... 679 The Way to make a Box .. 703
The Cannon Game ...... 630 To cut the Dovetails ...... 703
BMississippi .......... 60 The Bottom of the Box 704
BILLIARDS . .. 681 FRET-WORK . . 705
The Agles of theTable ... 685 THE GAME OF CHESS 711
The American Game.... 690
Pyramids, or Pyramid Pool 690 The Laws of the Game . 712
Winning and Losing Carambole The King's Knight's Opening 714
Game. .. 690 Game I.-Philidor's Defence 715
Pool .. . .. 691 ,, II.-Petroff's . .. 715
Italian Skittle Pool ..... 692 Variation A. on White's 5th Move 716
BOAT-BUILDING 691 Game III.-The Ginoco Piano 716
BOA-BUILDI ...... 693 Variation A. on White's 6th Move 716
Cutter ........ 694 Game IV.-The Evans' Gambit 717
Smack . ... .695 Variation A. on White's 9th Move 717
Schooner ... .. 695 ,, B. ,, ,, ,, 718
Lugger . .696 T A. on Black's 10th Move. 718
The ambit declined ..... 719
CARPENTERING . 697 Game V.-Ruy Lopez Knight's
The Shop and Bench 697 Game 720
Of Planes . 698 Variation B. on Black's 3rd Move 721
Saws . 699 ,, C. ,, ,, ,, 721


Game VI. -The Scotch Gambit 721 To make the Pass . .751
Variation A. on Black's 4th Move 722 To tell a Card by its Back. .. 752
The King's Bishop's Opening 724 The Card named without being seen 752
Game I.-The Lopez Gambit. 724 The Card told by the Opera Glass 752
Variation A. on White's 4th Move 725 The Four Kings . .. .754
Game II.-The Double Gambit 725 Audacity .. . 754
Game III. ... . 25 The Card found at the Second Guess 754
Variation A. on Black's 4th Move 726 The Card found under the Hat 755
The King's Gambit . .726 To call the Cards out of the Pack 755
Game I .. 726 Heads and Tails . 755
The Salvio Gambit . .. 727 The Surprise . . 750
Variation A. on Black's 4th Move 727 The Revolution . .. 756
Game II.-The Muzio Gambit 727 The Slipped Card . .. 756
Game I.-The Allgaier Gambit .729 The Nailed Card .. 756
Game I .. . 729 Toaseertain the Number of Points
on three Unseen Cards . 757
THE YOUNG CONJUROR. 731 To tell the Numbers on two Unseen
Cards ..... .......... 757
Sleight of Hand 733 The Pairs Repaired . 757
The Flying Shilling ..... 733 The Queen digging for Diamonds 758
Another Method 34 The Triple Deal . .. 758
The Beads and String The Quadruple Deal . 9
To get a Ring out ofa Handkerchief 735 Ticks with Cards that require Ap
To tie a Knot in a Handkerchief paratus ......... 759
which cannot be drawn tight ..75 The Crdsinthe ase . 759
The Three Cups 736 The Metamorphosis . 760
To tie a Handkerchief round your To change a Card in a Person's
Leg, and getitoffwithoutuntying Hand . . .761
the Knot ........ CRYPTOGRAPHY . 762
The Magic Bond ....... 737
The Old Man and his Chair. 737 TH D AND DUMB
To tie a Knot on the Left Wrist THA DEAF A. DU. B
without letting the Right Hand ALPHABE .......
approach it . . 739 The Alphabet . .. .70
The Handcufs . .. 739 The Numbers . ... .. 773
To pull a String through your
Button-hole . .. 740 DOMINOES ........ 773
The Cut String restored .. 740
The Gordian Knot ..... 740 The ordinary Boy's Game 774
The Knot loosened . .. 741 All Fives . . 775
To put Nuts into your Ears 742 The Metadore Game . 775
To crack Walnuts on your Elbow 742 All Threes . ... 775
To take Feathers out of an empty Tidley-Wink . .. 776
Handkerchief . 742 The Fortress . .. .776
Tricks requiring Special Apparatus 742 Whist Dominoes . .. .776
The Die Trick . .. 743
The Penetrative Pence .... 744 DRAUGHTS ........ 777
The Doll Trick . ... 745
The Flying Coins ...... 745 How to play the Game 778
The Vanished Groat . .. 746 The Moves . .. 778
The Restored Document .. 746 Laws of the Game . .. 778
The Magic Rings . .. 746 Games for Practice . 779
The Fish and Ink Trick. ... 747 Game I . ... 779
The Cannon Balls. . ... 747 Game II . . 780
The Shilling in the Ball of Cotton 748
The Egg and the Bag Trick 748 FIREWORKS . . 781
The Dancing Egg . .749
Bell and Shot . 749 Gunpowder . .. 781
The Burned Handkerchief restored. 750 How to make Touch-paper 782
The Fire-Eater. . 750 Cases for Squibs, Flower-pots,
Tricks with Cards. . 751 Rockets, Roman Candles, &e.. .782

xvi CONTE 1Rs.

To Choke the Cases . .. 782 September . .819
Composition for Squibs, &c.. .782 October. . ... 20
How to fill the Cases .. .783 November . ... 820
To make Crackers . .. 783 December .. . 820
Roman Candles and Stars 783 MIMICRY AND VENTRILO-
Rockets . . 784 QUISM. . . 821
Rains . . 784
Catherine Wheels. . 784 PUZZLES . . .824
Various Coloured Fires. . 7. 4 The Divided Garden . 824
Crimson Fire . . 784 The Vertical Line Puzzle . 824
Blue . . .. 785 The Cardboard Puzzle .. 824
Green . ... 785 The Button Puzzle . 824
Purple . . .785 The Circle Puzzle . 825
White . . .. 785 The Cross Puzzle . .. .825
Spur. 785 Three-Square Puzzle. . 25
Blue Lights .. .. 785 Cylinder Puzzle . 825
Port or Wild Fires . 785 The Nuns . .. 826
Slow Fire for Wheels .... 785 The Dog Puzzle . .. 826
Dead Fire for Wheels ... 785 u.. out a Cross . .. .. 82
Cautions . . .785 .. I. Cross Puzzle . 826
To make an Illuminated Spiral The Fountain Puzzle .. 826
Wheel .......... 786 The Cabinet-maker's Puzzle 827
The Grand Volute .... 786 TI -t.. ,..J ,11..- -:le 827
AbrilliantYew-tree. ... 787 j1. i ..i.i. i,. i. ..827
The Row of Halfpence ..... .828
GARDENING . . 78 1 '. ..... .82
On Laying out a Small Garden 790 1i ... 1. iI 1.I lo Pay 828
Planting the Ground with Trees, Father and Son .... 828
Flowers, &c. . 791 ANSWERS TO PUZZLES 829
The Noblest Kind of Gardening for The Divided Garden 829
Boys . . .. 791 Vertical Line Puzzle 822
The Boy's Flower Garden . 798 Cut Card Puzzle .. 829
Fruit Garden .... 805 Button Puzzle . .. 829
Cropping the Ground .. .807 Circle Puzzle . .. .829
Digging .......... .807 The Cross Puzzle . 830
Hoeing .......... 808 Three-Square Puzzle . 830
Raking .. ... 808 Cylinder Puzzle .. . 830
Weeding ... ... 808 The Nuns' Puzzle .. 630
Sowing Seeds 809 The Dog's Puzzle . 830
Transplanting ...... 809 Cutting out a Cross Puzzle 831
Watering .. .. .810 Another Cross Puzzle. 831
Various Modes of Propagation .811 The Fountain Puzzle. 831
Layers . . 811 The Cabinet-maker's Puzzle 831
p . 811 String and Balls Puzze 832
( . . 812 Double-Headed Puzzle 82
Tongue-Grafting. .. 812 Typographical Puzzle 83
Budding .. ... .813 The Landlord made to Pay 833
Inarching . 813 Father and Son. .. 833
Grafting Clay ....... 814 SHOWS . ... 34
Pruning ....... 814
Training . .. 814 Punch and Judy . 834
Insects and Depredators .815 Fantoccini . . 837
Protection from Frost 815 The Sailor . .839
The Young Gardener's Calendar for 'Oh .T'wkr .r ... 839
the Work to be done in all the 'lu .i< i . 839
Months of the Year . .816 The Milkwoman 839
February . .. 817 oR PHILATELY .. ... 840
March ........ .817 TINSELLING ........ 856
April ......... . 817
June ......... 818 BASE-BALL . 857
July . . 819 American Billiards . 885
August . .. .819 La Crosse . . 900



/I i f-

MAKE a mark on the ground at a place called the "starting point."
At ten yards' distance from this make another, called the" i'pring."
Then let the players arrange themselves at the starting point, and in
succession run to the second mark called the spring. From the
spring make first a hop on one leg, from this make along step, and
from the step a long jump. Those who go over the greatest space
of ground are of course the victors.



/I i f-

MAKE a mark on the ground at a place called the "starting point."
At ten yards' distance from this make another, called the" i'pring."
Then let the players arrange themselves at the starting point, and in
succession run to the second mark called the spring. From the
spring make first a hop on one leg, from this make along step, and
from the step a long jump. Those who go over the greatest space
of ground are of course the victors.


Various games are in vogue among boys, in which hopping on one
foot is the principal object. Among these is one which not only
assists in strengthening the limbs, but also teaches the performer,
the useful art of balancing themselves upon a movable substance.
A wooden bottle, a round wooden log, or something of that descrip-
tion, is laid upon the ground, a mark is made at a certain distance,
and the players have to hop from the mark upon the bottle, and
retain their possession while they count a number agreed upon. In
the olden times of Greece, this was considered an exercise of sufficient
importance to give it a place at the public games. The performers
in this case had to hop upon inflated leather bags, carefully greased,
and of course, by then inevitable upsettings and floundering, caused
great amusement to the spectators. The sports took place on the
Dionysia, or festivals of Bacchus, when the vintage was gathered in,
and the victor was appropriately rewarded with a cask of wine. The
rustics in many parts of England introduce a modification of this
game in their rural festivals. Two men place themselves opposite to
each other, the right knee of each being supported on a wooden
cylinder, while the remaining foot is l.. l,: unsupported. When
. are fairly balanced, they grasp each other by the shoulders, and
endeavour to cast their opponent to the ground, while themselves
retain their position upon their fickle support.
This is a game played by hopping on one foot and kicking an
syster-shell or piece of tile from one compartment to the other,
without halting the lifted foot, except in one case,
to the ground, and without suffering the shell or
tile to rest on any of the lines. A diagram is
72 first drawn similar to the subjoined. It consists
70 I of twelve compartments, each being numbered,
Sand at its further end the pleasant and inviting
S picture of a plum pudding with knife and fork
S therein stuck. In commencing the game, the
players take their stand at the place marked by
6 a star, and quoitt" for innings. The object is,
that of doing what every boy is supposed to like
S above all things to do, i.e. "pitch into the pud-
ding," and he who can do this, and go nearest to
the plum in the centre, plays first.
2 5 \3 Method of Playing.-The winner begins by throw-
7 ing his shell into No. 1; he then hops into the
space, and kicks the tile out to the star *; he
next throws the tile into No. 2, kicks it from No. 2
to No. 1. and thence out. He then throw it into No. 3, kicks it

from 3 to 2, from 2 to 1, and out. He next throws it into No. 4,
kicks it from 4 to 3, from 3 to 2, from 2 to 1, and out; and so he pro-
ceeds till he has passed the cross and comes to No. 7, when he is
permitted to rest himself, by standing with one foot in No. 6 and
the other in No. 7; but he must resume hopping before he kicks the
tile home. He then passes through the beds 8, 9, 10 and 11, as he
did those of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c., and so on, till he sets to plum pud-
ding, when he may rest, and placing his tile on the plum, he is re-
Squired, while standing on one foot, to kick it with such force as to
send it through all the other beds to at one kick. If one player
throws his tile into the wrong compartment, or when he is kic&ng it
out, he loses his innings, as he does also if the tile or his foot at any
time rests on a line, or if he kicks his tile out of the diagram.
This is an old Greek game, and, like very many simple boys' games.
has retained its popularity to the present day. Its Greek name was
rather a jaw-crackig one, but may be literally translated by "Pully-
haully." It consists of two parties of boys, who are chosen on dif-
ferent sides by lots. One party takes hold of one end of a strong
rope, and the other party of the other end. A mark being made
midway between the parties, each strives to pull the other over it,
and those who are so pulled over, lose the game.
In this game, two leaders should be appointed, who must calculate
the powers of their own side, and concert plans accordingly. The
leader of either side should have a code of signals, in order to corn
municate with his own friends, that he may direct them when to
stop, when to slacken, or when to pull hard. So important is the
leader's office, that a side with a good leader will always vanquish
a much superior force which has no commander to guide it. For
example, when all the boys are pulling furiously at the rope, the
leader of one side sees that his opponents are leaning back too much,
depending on their weight more than on their strength. He imme-
diately gives the signal to slacken, when down go half the enemy on
their backs, and are run away with merrily by the successful party,
who drag them over the mark with the greatest ease. Or if the
enemy begins to be wearied with hard pulling, an unanimous tug will
often bring them upright, while they.are off their guard, and once
moved, the victory is easily gained. We have seen, assisted, and led
this game hundreds of times, and never failed to find it productive
of very great amusement. No knots are to be permitted on the
rope, nor is the game to be considered as won, unless the entire side
has been dragged over the line.
This is a game not very dissimilar to the preceding, but not so
much to be recommended, as the clothes are very apt to be torn, and

if the players engage too roughly, the wrists are not unfrequently
injured. The method of playing the game is as follows:-Several
boys seat themselves in a row, clasping each other round the waist,
thus fantastically representing a batch of loaves. Two other players
then approach, representing the baker's men, who have to detach the
players from each other's hold. To attain this object, they grasp
the wrists of the second boy, and endeavour to pull him away from
the boy in front of him. I they succeed, they pass to the third,
and so on until they have drawn the entire batch. As sometimes an
obstinate loaf sticks so tight to its companion, that it is not torn
away without bringing with it a handful of jacket or other part of
the clothing, the game ought not to be played by any but little boys.
This is a capital game for the summer months. The players divide
themselves into two parties, one party remaining at a spot called
"Bounds," and concealing their faces, while the other party goes out
and hides. After waiting for a few minutes, the home party shouts,
"Coming, coming, coming." After a short pause they repeat the
cry, and after another short interval they again shout, "Coming."
If any out-player is not concealed, he may cry, "No," and a few
minutes more are allowed. At the last shout, the home players,
leaving one to guard bounds, sally forth in search of their hidden
companions. Directly one of the seekers sees one of the hiders, he
shouts, "I Spy," ana runs home as fast as he can, pursued by the
one he has found, who tries to touch him before he can reach bounds.
If he succeeds, the one so touched is considered taken, and stands
aside. If the hiding party can touch three, or more, if especially
agreed upon, they get their hide over again. The object of the
hiders is to intercept the seekers,, and prevent them from reaching
bounds without benm touched. The worst player is left at the
bounds, in order to warn his companions, which he does by the word
".Home," as any hider may touch any seeker.

This game is played by two boys, each of whom takes a smooth
round pebble. One player then throws his pebble about twenty feet
before him, and the next tries to strike it with his stone, each time
of striking counting as one. If the two pebbles are near enough for
the player to place one upon the other with his hand, he is at perfect
liberty to do so. It is easy enough to play at this game when the
pebbles are at some distance apart; but when they lie near each
other, it is very difficult to take a good aim, and yet send one's own
pebble beyond the reach of the adversary's aim. Two four-pound
e.anwon balls are the best objects to pitch, as they roll evenly, and
do nA split, as pebbles always do when they get a hard knock.


This game may be played by any number of players. A large
stone is selected, and placed on a particular spot, and the players
first "Pink for Duck," that is, they each throw their stones up to
the mark, and the one who is farthest from it becomes "Duck." The
Duck places his stone on the other, while the rest of the players
return to the bounds, and in succession pitch their stones at his with
the endeavour to knock it off. If this is accomplished, Duck mus',
immediately replace it, and the throwers must pick up their stones
and run to me bounds. As soon as Duck has replaced his stone, he
runs after any of the other players, and if he can succeed in catching
or merely touching any one of them, the player so touched becomes



boys of all classes. It is commenced by choosing Captains, which is
either done by lot or by the "sweet voices" of the youths. If by
lot, a number of straws of different lengths are put in a bunch, and
those who draw from one end, the other being hidden, the two longest
straws, are the two "Captains;" each of which has the privilege of
choosing his men: the drawer of the longest of the two straws has
the first choice. When this has been arranged each D.amain selects,
alternately, a boy till the whole are drawn out.
This method is, however, often attended with considerable incoc
venience, as it is not impossible that the lots may fall on the two
worst players. It is very much better to let the boys choose the two

Captains, as the two best players will then assuredly Ie elected, and
most of the success of the game depends on the CapWtins.
The leaders being thus chosen, the next point is to mark out the
homes and prisons. First, two semicircles are drawn, large enough to
hold the two parties, the distance between the semicircles being about
twenty paces. These are the "homes," or "bounds." Twenty paces
in front of these, two other semicircles, of a rather larger size, are
marked out. These are the prisons; the prison of each party being
in a line with the enemy's home. These preliminaries being settled,
the sides draw lots; the side drawing the longest straw having to
commence the game. The Captain of side A orders out one of his own
side, usually a poor player, who is bound to run at least beyond the
prisons before he returns. Directly he has started, the Captain of
side B sends out one of his men to pursue, and, if possible, to
touch him before he can regain his own home. If this is accom-
plished, the successful runner is permitted to return home scathless,
while the vanquished party must go to the prison belonging to his
side; from which he cannot stir, until some one from his own side re-
leases him, by touching him in spite of the enemy. This is not an easy
task; as, in order to reach the prison, the player must cross the
enemy's home. It is allowable for the prisoner to stretch his hand as
far towards his rescuer as possible, but he must keep some part of his
body within the bounds; and if several prisoners are taken, it is suffi-
cient for one to remain within the prison, while the rest, by joining
hands, make a chain towards the boy who is trying to release them.
When this is accomplished, both the prisoner and his rescuer return
home, no one being able to touch them until they have reached their
home and again started off. But the game is not only restricted to
the two originally sent out. Directly Captain A sees his man pressed
by his opponent, he sends out a third, who is in his turn pursued by
another from side B; each being able to touch any who have pre-
ceded, but none who have left their home after him. The game soon
becomes spirited; prisoners are made and released, the two Captains
watching the game, and rarely exposing themselves, except in cases
of emergency, but directing the whole proceedings. The game is
considered won, when one party has succeeded in imprisoning the
whole of the other side. Much depends upon the Captains. who
sometimes, by a bold dash, rescue the most important ;of their pri-
soners, and thereby turn the fate of the battle; or, when the attention
of the opposite side is occupied by some hardly-contested struggle,
send some insignificant player to the rescue; who walks quietly up
to the prison, and unsuspectedly lets out the prisoners one by one.
No player is permitted to touch more than one person until he has
returned to his home; when he can sally out again armed with fresh
strength, like Antmus of old, who could not be conquered at wrestling,
because whenever he touched the ground his strength was renewed
by his mother Earth.


This game was extensively played at the school where our boyhood
was passed; but we never saw it elsewhere. It used to afford t.s such
amusement in the long summer evenings, that it deserves a place in
this collection of sports. One player is termed Fox, and is furnished
with a den, where none of the players may molest him. The other
players arm themselves with twisted or knotted handkerchiefs, (one
end to be tied in knots of almost incredible hardness,) and range
themselves round the den waiting for the appearance of the Fox. He
being also armed with a knotted handkerchief, hops out of his den.
When he is fairly out, the other players attack him with their hand-
kerchiefs, while he endeavours to strike one of them without putting
down his other foot. If he does so he has to run back as fast as he
can, without the power of striking the other players, who baste him
the whole way. If, however, he succeeds in striking one without
losing his balance, the one so struck becomes Fox; and, as he has
both feet down, is accordingly basted to his den. The den is useful
as a resting-place for the Fox, who is often sorely wearied by futile
attempts to catch his foes.

This is a funny game. The players generally draw lots for the firs'
'Bear, who selects his own Keeper. The Bear kneels on the ground,
and his Keeper holds him with a rope about four feet long, within a
circle of about five feet in diameter. The other players tie knots in
their handkerchiefs, and begin to strike or baste the Bear, by running
close to, or into the ring. Should the Keeper touch any of the boys
a-hle they are at this sport without dragging the Bear out of the

ring, or should the Bear catch hold of any player's leg, so as to hold
him fast, the player so touched or caught becomes Bear. The second
Bear may select his Keeper as before, and the play continues.

This is an excellent game of agility, and very simple. It consists,
of any number of players; but from six to eight is the most con-!
venient number. Having by agreement or lots determined who shall
give the first "back," one player so selected places himself in posi-
tion, with his head inclined and his shoulders elevated, and his hands
resting on his knees, at ten yards' distance from the other players;
one of whom immediately runs and leaps over him,-having made
his leap, he sets a back at the same distance forward from the boy
over whom he has just leaped. The third boy leaps over the first
and second boy, and sets a "back" beyond the second; and the
fourth boy leaps over the first, second, and third, and sets a "back "
beyond the third, and so on till the pl-,ci-t :re ..-"t. The game may
continue for any length of time, and :-i- i!r'!.iil till the players
are tired ; but the proper rule should be, that 11 who do not go clean
over should be out. Those who "make backs" should stand per-
fectly stiff and firm; and those who "make leaps" should not rest
in their flight heavily upon the shoulders of their playmates, so as to
throw them down, which is not fair play.
Chalk or make a line, or, as it is usually termed, "a garter," on
the ground; on this line one of the players must place himself and
bend down as in leap-frog, while the other players in rotation leap
over him, the last one as he flies over calling out Foot it." If he
should fail in giving this notice, he is out, and must take the other
boy's place at the garter. The boy, immediately the word is given,
rises, and places his right heel close to the middle of the left foot; he
next moves the ieft forwards and places that heel close up to the

toes of his right foot, and bends down as before. This movement is
called a "step," and is repeated three times. The other players
should fly from the garter each time a step is made, and the last
player must invariably call out "Foot it" as he leaps over. After
making the three "steps," the player giving the back takes a short
ruli, and,from the spot where he made his last step to, jumps as far
forwards as he possibly can, and bends down again; the others jump
from the garter and then fly over. Should any of the players be
unable to jump easily over the one giving the back, but rather slide
down upon, or ride on him, the player so failing must take the other's
place at the garter, and the game be begun again; if, also, through the
impetus acquired in taking the jump from the garter, a player should
happen to place his hands on the back of the player bending down,
and then withdraw them in order to take the spring over, he is out,
and must take his turn at the garter. It is usual, in some places,
for the boy giving the back to take a hop, step, and a jump after lie
has footed it three times, the other players doing the same, and then
flying over.
This game is capable of being varied to any extent by an ingenious
boy, but it is generally played in the following way:-One boy,
selected by chance, sets a back, as in "fly the garter," and another
is chosen leader. The game is commenced by the leader leaping
over the one who gives the back, and the other players follow in
succession; the leader then leaps back, and the others follow; then
they all go over in a cross direction, and return, making, in all, four
different ways. The leader then takes his cap in both hands, and
leaves it on the boy's back while he is covering and his followers
perform the same trick; in returning, the last man takes the lead,
and removes his cap without disturbing the others, and each boy
does the same : this trick is repeated in a cross direction. The next
trick is throwing up the cap just before covering, and catching it
before it falls; the next, reversing the cap on the head, and so
balancing it while covering, without ever touching it with the hands,
both tricks must be performed while leaping the four different ways.
The leader, with his cap still balanced, now overs, and allows his cap
to drop on the opposite side; the others do likewise, but they must
be careful not to let their caps touch the others, nor to let their feet
touch any of the caps in alighting; the leader now stoops down,
picks up his cap with his teeth, and throws it over his head and the
boy's back; he then leaps after his cap, but avoids touching it with
his feet. The other players follow him as before. The next
trick is "knuckling,"-that is to say, covering with the hands
clenched; the next, "slapping," which is performed by placing
one hand on the boy's back, and hitting him with the other,
while covering; the last, "spurring," or touching him up with
the heel. All these tricks must be performed in the four diffeien.

directions, and any boy failing to do them properly goes down, and
the game begins afresh.
This is a brisk game, and may be played by any number of boys.
One of the players being chosen as Touch, it is his business to run
about in all directions after the other players, till he can touch one,
who immediately becomes Touch in his turn. Sometimes when the
game is played it is held as a law that Touch shall have no power
over those boys who can touch iron and wood. The players then,
when out of breath, rush to the nearest iron or wood they can find,
to render themselves secure. Cross-touch is sometimes played, in
which, whenever another player runs between Touch and the pursued,
Touch must immediately leave the one he is after to follow him.
But this rather confuses, and spoils the game.

These games are founded on the above. When the boys pursued
by Touch can touch either wood or iron they are safe, the rule being
that he must touch them as they run from one piece of wood or iron
to another.
This is a very good game for three boys. The first is called the
Buck, the second the Frog, and the third the Umpire. The boy who
plays the Buck gives a back with his head down, and rests his hands
on some wall or paling in front of him. The Frog now leaps on his
back, and the Umpire stands by his side: the Frog now holds up
one, two, three, five, or any number of fingers, and cries, "Buck!
Buck how many horns do I hold up ? The Buck then endeavours
to guess the right number; if he succeeds, the Frog then becomes
Buck, and in turn jumps on his back. The Umpire determines
whether Buck has guessed the numbers rightly or not. In some
places it is the custom to blindfold the Buck, in order to prevent him
seeing. This plan, however, is scarcely necessary.

This is an excellent game for cold weather. It may be played by
any number of boys. In playing it loose bounds" are made near a
wall or fence, about four feet wide and twelve long. One of the
boys is selected, who is called the Cock, who takes his place within
the bounds; the other players are called the Chickens, who distribute
themselves in various parts of the playground. The Cock now clasps
his hands together, and cries, Warning once, warning twice, a
bushel of wheat, and a bushel of rye, when the Cock crows out jump
I." He then, keeping his hands still clasped before him, runs after
the other players; when he touches one, he and the player so touched

immediately make for the bounds; the other players immediately try
to capture them before they get there; if they succeed, they are
privileged to get upon their backs and ride them home. The Cock
and his Chick now come out of the bounds hand-in-hand, and try tc
touch some other of the players; the moment they do this they
break hands, and they and the player now touched run to the bounds
as before, while the other players try to overtake them, so as to secure
the ride. The three now come from the bounds in the same manner,
capture or touch a boy, and return. If, while trying to touch the
other boys, the players when sallying from the grounds break hands
before they touch any one, they may immediately be ridden, if tney
can be caught before they reach the bounds. Sometimes when three
players have been touched the Cock is allowed to join the out party,
but this is of no advantage in playing the game.
This may be played by any number of boys: one being selected as
the Leader, and the others are the Followers. The Followers arrange
themselves in a line behind the Leader, who immediately begins to
progress, and the others are bound to follow him. The fun of this
sport is in the Leader carrying his Followers into "uncouth places,"
over various "obstacles," such as hedges, stiles, gate-posts, &c.,
through "extraordinary difficulties," as ditches and quagmires,-
every player being expected to perform his feats of agility; and those
who fail are obliged to go last, and bear the emphatic name of the
"Ass." The game lasts till the Leader gives up, or the boys are all
tired out.
This is a game something like the above. It consists of the
Fugleman and his Squad. The Fugleman places himself in a central
spot, and arranges his Squad before him in a line. He then com-
mences with various odd gestures, which all the Squad are bound to
imitate. He moves his head, arms, legs, hands, feet, in various direc-
tions, sometimes sneezes, coughs, weeps, laughs, and bellows, all of
which the Squad are to imitate. Sometimes this is a most amusing
scene, and provokes great laughter. Those who are observed to
laugh, however, are immediately ordered to stand out of the line, and
when half the number of players are so put out, the others are
allowed to ride them three times round the playground, while the
Fugleman with a knotted handkerchief accelerates their motions.
This is perhaps the very best game that can be introduced into a
school. The principle of it is very simple, that one boy represents
the Hare and runs away, while the others represent the Hounds and
oursue him. The proper management of the game, however, requires

some skill. When we were at school in the north, this game was ex-
tensively played; and in more recent times, when we ourselves were
masters instead of scholars, we reduced the game to a complete
system. The first thing to be done is to choose a Hare, or if the
chase is to be a long one, two Hares are required. The Hare should
not be the best runner, but should be daring, and at the same time
prudent, or he may trespass into forbidden lands, and thereby cause
great mischief. A Huntsman and WTipper-in are then chosen. Tlh

"r- ,I,, 3.- .' "

":-. '* +. '*I "

luntsman should be the best player, and the Whipper-in second
best. Things having advanced so far, the whole party sally forth.
The Hare is furnished with a large bag of white paper torn into small
squares, which he scatters on the ground as he goes. An arrange-
ment is made that the Hare shall not cross his path, nor return home
until a certain time; in either of which cases he is considered caught.
The Hounds also are bound to follow the track or "scent" implicitly
and not to make short cuts if they see the Hare. The Hare then
starts, and has about seven minutes' grace, at the expiration of which
time the Huntsman blows a horn with which he is furnished. .md
sets off, the Hounds keeping nearly in Indian file, the Whipper-in
bringing up the rear. The Huntsman is also furnished with a white
flag, the Whipper-in with a red one, the staves being pointed and
shod with metal. Off they go merrily enough, until at last the
Huntsman loses the scent. He immediately shouts "Lost!" on
which the Whipper-in sticks his flag in the ground where the scent
was last seen, and the entire line walks or runs round it in a circle,
within which they are tolerably sure to find the track. The Hunts-
man in the meanwhile has stuck his flag in the ground, and examines
the country to see in what direction the Hare is likely to have gone

When the track is found, the player who discovers it shouts Tally ho!
the Huntsman takes up his flag, and ascertains whether it is really
the track or not. If so, he blows his horn again, the Hounds form in
line between the two flags, and off they go again. It is incredible
how useful the two flags are. Many a Hare has been lost because
the Hounds forgot where the last track was seen, and wasted time in
searching for it again. Moreover, they seem to encourage the players
wonderfully. We used often to make our chases fourteen or fifteen
miles in length; but before such an undertaking is commenced, it is
necessary to prepare by a series of shorter chases, which should how-
ever be given in an opposite direction to the course fixed upon for the
grand chase, as otherwise the tracks are apt to get mixed, and the
Hounds are thrown out. The Hare should always carefully survey his
intended course a day or two previously, and then he will avoid
getting himself into quagmires, or imprisoned in the bend of a
river. A pocket compass is a most useful auxiliary, and prevents all
chance of losing the way, a misfortune which is not at all unlikely to
happen upon the Wiltshire downs or among the Derbyshire hills.
This is a trial of speed and agility, and 'any be played by any
number of boys. It consists in the boys agreeing upon some distant
object for a mark, such as a conspicuous tree, or house, or steeple.
The players then start off in whatever direction they please, each one
being at liberty to choose his own course. In a long run of a mile or
so it very often happens that hedges, ditches, and other obstructions,
have to be got over, which adds great interest to the play, and the
best climbers and jumpers are the most likely to come m victors.
He who comes in first to the appointed object is called the King, the
second the Duke, the third the Marquis, the fourth the Viscount, the
fifth the Earl, the sixth the Knight. The last receives the dignified
appellation of the Snail, and the last but one the Tortoise.
At Oxford there were in our undergraduate days two clubs for the
purpose of Steeple-chasing, one named the Kangaroo Club, and the
other the Charitable Grinders, whose performances over hedges and
ditches were really astonishing. There was also a club which kept a
set of beagles, and used to hunt a red herring with intense per-
This is a very simple sport, but necessarily restricted to those
spots where there is a river, or a pond of some magnitude. It con-
sists in throwing oyster-shells, flat stones, or broken tiles along the
water, so as to make them hop as often as possible. One hop is
called Dick, the second Duck, and the third Drake. The sea-shore
is a capital place for this sport, as, if the player can only succeed
in making the stone touch the top of a wave, it is tolerably certain

to make a succession of hops from wave to wave. If a rifle-bullet is
shot along the water, it will go a great distance, making very long
hops, and splashing up the water at every bound. In war, this method
of firing at an enemy that lies low is extensively made use of, and is
called "ricochet practice." It is also much used in naval warfare.
This, if well managed, is a very comical game. The players are
arranged as in Fugleman, the player who enacts Simon standing in
front. He and all the other players clench their fists, keeping the
thumb pointed upwards. No player is to obey his commands unless
prefaced with the words, Simon says." Simon is himself subjected
!o the same rules. The game commences by Simon commanding,-
" Simon says, turn down:" on which he turns his thumbs downwards,
followed by the other players. He then says, Simon says, turn up,"
.nd br'nfs his hands back again. When he has done so several times,
and thinks that the players are off their guard, he merely gives the
word, "Turn up," or "Turn down," without moving his hands.
Some one, if not all, is sure to obey the command, and is subject to a
forfeit. Simon is also subject to a forfeit, if he tells his companions
to turn down while the thumbs are already down, or vice versa. With
a sharp player enacting Simon, the game is very spirited.
This is a very good game, and to play it properly there must be in
the centre of the playground a small hill or hillock. One player,
selected by choice or lot, ascends this hill, and is called the King;
and the object of the other players is to pull or push him from his
elevation, while he uses his endeavours to keep his "pride of place."
Fair pulls and fair pushes are only allowed at this game; the players
must not take hold of any part of the clothes of the King, and must
confine their grasps to the hand, the leg, or the arm. If a player
violates these rules, he is to sit down upon the ground, and is called
Dummy." The player who succeeds n dethroning the King, takes
his place, and is subjected to the like attacks.
This game is to be played from a mound, the same as the above,
and it may consist of any number of players. Each party selects a
Captain, and having done this, divide themselves into Attackers and
Defenders. The defending party provide themselves with a small flag,
which is fixed on a staff or the top of the mound, and then arrange
themselves on its side and at its base, so as to defend it from the
attacks of their opponents, who advance towards the hillock, and
endeavour to throw down those that oppose them. Those that are so
thrown on either side, are called dead men," and must lie quiet till

the game is finished, which is concluded either when all the attacking
party are dead, or the banner is carried off by one of them. The

fit .
I '

-^ --

-- '_ .. .

player who carries off the banner is called the Knight, and is chose-
Captain for the next game.
Every boy has played at snow-balls, from the time that his little
fingers were first able to grasp and mould a handful of snow. Elderly
gentlemen know to their cost how apt the youthful friend is to hu.
very hard snow-balls, which appear to pick out the tenderest parts of
his person, generally contriving to lodge just at the juncture of the
chin and the comforter, or coming with a deafening squash in the
very centre of his ear. Even the dread policeman does not always
escape; and when he turns round, indignant at the temporary loss of
his shiny hat, he cannot recognize his assailant in the boy who is
anlmly whistling the last new nigger-song, as he saunters along,
with both his hands in his pockets. The prudent schoolmaster wiL
also not venture too near the playground, unless he has provided
himself with an umbrella. It is rather a remarkable fact, that when-
ever a Grammar-school and a National-school are wi(in a reasonable
distance of each other, they are always at deadly feud. So it was at
the school where our youthful days were passed. One winter's morn-
ing, just after school had opened, the door was flung violently open,
and a party of National-school boys hurled a volley of snow-balls at
the head-master. He, after the door had been secured, remarked in
a particularly mild voice,-" Now, boys, if I had been at school, and

tay schoomiaster had been assaulted by National-school doys, 1 should
lave gone out and given them a thrashing. Remember. I do not at
all advise you to do so, but merely mention the course that I should
have adopted under such circumstances. We will resume lessons at
three." So saying, he took off his gown, put on his hat and gloves,
and walked out to see the fun. Now, the prospect of a morning's
holiday would have made us attack a force of twenty times our
number, but as they only out-numbered us threefold, we commenced
a pursuit without hesitation. After a sharp ci,.- -,: utnid. we drove
them back to their own schoolroom. The cause :. ti!!ir yelding was,
that they threw at random among us, whereas each of our balls was
aimed at the face of an opponent, and we very seldom missed. When
Ihey had reached their school, they closed and barred their door;
at which we made such a battering, that their-master, a large negro,
rushed out upon us, vowing vengeance, and flourishing a great cane.
He was allowed to proceed a few yards from the door, when one
snow-ball took off his hat, and two more lodged in his face. He
immediately went to.the right-about, and made for the school, which
he reached under an avalanche of snow. We pursued, but he had
succeeded in fastening the door, and we could not open it for some
time. When we did, the school was deserted; not a boy was to be
seen. There was no back entrance to account for their disappear-
ance, and we were completely puzzled. At last, when we had quetea
down a little, a murmuring was heard apparently below our feet, and
on examination we found that the entire school had taken shelter in
the coal-cellar. We made a dash at the door (a trap-door), and in
- -',. I f the showers of coal that came from below, fastened and
Si.l..... I -.I the door, carefully throwing the key among a clump of fir-
trees, where it was not likely to be found. Having achieved this
victory, we had a snow-ball match among ourselves, and then re-
turned to school. About five o'clock, in rushed the black school-
master, who had only just been liberated by the blacksmith, and who
came to complain of our conduct. So far, however, from obtaining any
satisfaction, he was forced to apologise for the conduct of his boys.
The object of this game is, that a castle of snow is built, which is
attacked by one party and defended by the other. The method of
building the castle is as follows :-A square place is cleared in the
snow, the size of the projected castle. As many boys as possible
then go to some distance from the cleared square, and commence
r., l.1,i_ .lnow-balls, rolling them towards the castle. By the time
ii I, haave reached it, each ball is large enough to form a founda-
S..... ..:. By continuing this plan, the walls are built about five
feet six inches high, a raised step running round the interior, on
which the defenders stand while hurling the balls against their
opponents. In the centre are deposited innumerable snow-balls,

ready made; and a small boy is usually pressed into the service, to
make snow-balls as fast as they are wanted. If the weather is very

I I ,

cold, some water slashed over the castle hardens and strengthens
it considerably. The architect of the castle must not forget to
leave space for a door.
This is made in the same way as the snow castle, that is, by rolling
large snow-balls to the place where the giant is to be erected, and
then piled up and carved into form. He is not considered completed
until two coals are inserted for eyes, and until he is further decorated
with a pipe and an old hat. When he is quite finished, the juvenile
sculptors retire to a distance, and with snow-balls endeavour to knock
down their giant, with as much zest as they exhibited in building
him. If a snow giant is well made, he will last until the leaves are
out, the sun having but little power on so large a mass of hard snow.
There is a legend extant rr.P i.._. the preservation of snow through
the warmer parts of the year. A certain Scotch laird had for a
tenant a certain farmer. The laird had been requested by influential
personages to transfer the farm to another man directly the lease was
run out. The farmer's wife, hearing of this from some gossip of hers,
went o to her landlord, and besought him t -is ot a renewal of the
lease. When she called, he was at dinner h i ur numerous party of
friends, and replied in a mocking tone, that the lease should be
renewed when she ro a dista him a snow-ball in July. She-immediately
calledd upon the guests to char witness to the offer, and went home.

In due time the winter came, and with it the snow. One day, hei
husband, an excellent labourer, but not over bright, asked her why
she was wasting so much meal. At that limo, she had taken a large
vessel of meal to a valley, and was pou rin it into the space between
two great stones. Upon the meal she placed a large quantity of
snow, which she stamped down until it was hard. Upon this she
poured more meal, and placed upon the meal a laver of straw. The
whole affair was then thickly covered over with straw and reeds. To
her husband, who thought she had fairly lost hei senses, she deigned
no reply, except that the meal would repay itself. So affairs went on
until July, when the good dame, hearing that her landlord had invited
a large party to dine with him, many of whom had been at the party
when the promise was made, proceeded to the store of snow, which
she found about half diminished. The remainder she kneaded hard,
and put it in -a wheelbarrow, well covered with straw, which she
rolled up to the laird's own house. When once there, she took out
her snow-ball, and presenting it to her landlord, before all his guests,
demanded the renewal of her lease. It may be satisfactory to know,
that the laird, struck with her ingenuity and perseverance, at once
granted her request.

This game can only be played in the dusk of evening, when all the
surrounding objects are lost in the deepening gloom. The players
divide into two parties, and toss up for innings, which being gained,
the winners start off to hide themselves, or get so far away that the
others cannot see them; the losers remaining at the home. One of
the hiding party is provided with a flint and steel, which, as soon as
they are all ready, he strikes together; the sparks emitted guide the
seekers as to what direction they must proceed in, and they must
endeavour to capture the others ere they reach home; if they cannot

touch more than two of the boys, the hiders resume their innings,
,nd the game continues as before. It is most usual, however, for
the boys at the home to call out, Jack, Jack! show a light! before
the possessor of the flint and steel does so. When one party is cap-
tured, the flint and steel must be given up to the captors, that they
may carry on the game as before.

The jingling match is a common diversion at country wakes and
fairs, and is often played by ; .l...d11...;- The match should be played
on a soft grass-plot within a large circle, enclosed with ropes. The
players rarely exceed nine or ten. All of these, except one of the
most active, who is the jinglerr," have their eyes blindfolded with
handkerchiefs. The jingler holds a small bell in his hand, which he
is obliged to keep ringing incessantly so long as the play continues,
which is commonly about twenty minutes. The business of the
jingler is to elude the pursuit of his blindfolded companions, who
follow him by the sound of the bell in all directions, and sometimes
oblige him to exert his utmost abilities to effect his escape, which
must be done within the boundaries of the rope, for the laws of the
sport forbid him to pass beyond it. If he be caught in the time
allotted for the continuance of the game, the person who caught him
wins the match ; if, on the contrary, they are not able to take him,
he is proclaimed the winner.

Ii' l : :

In this game, six or eight players on each side is the best number.
The two leaders should toss up for choice of partners, and aftei
selecting them, toss again for innings. The loser must tnen place
himself quite upright, with his face to a wall, against which he rests
his hands; and one of his partners should next stoop down, and put
his head against his leader's skirts, as shown in the annexed illustra-

tion; another partner also bends, and places his head against the
skirts of the second player, and the rest of the partners must take
their places in the same manner, one behind the other: when thus
arranged, they are called "nags." One of the winning party next
takes a run, and placing his hands on the back of the last player or
" nag," endeavours to spring on to the back of the first, or at least to
clear as many "nags" as he possibly can, in order to allow room for
those following him to leap on the backs of the other "nags," which
they should do in succession, until they are all fairly astride. If any of
the "nags" sink under the weight, or in trying to support them-
selves touch the ground either with their hands or knees, or if the
riders can keep their seats without touching the ground, whilst their
leader counts twenty, or repeats the words, "Jump little ,i f.it.,l one,
two, three I three times, concluding with off, off, off! the riders
resume their innings, and begin again; on the contrary, should there
not be sufficient space for all to leap on, or they are -unable to keep
their seats on the backs of the "nags," they lose their innings, and
become "nags in their turn. The "nags must, while in the line,
hold either by the trousers of the player before them, or else lean
their hands on their knees, or cross their arms on their breasts."
Each rider must call out "Warning" before he leaps on the back of
one of the "nags."
Two players swing round a long rope, and when the revolutions
become tolerably regular, one, two, or even more boys step forwards,
and allowing it to swing over their heads, jump up as it descends, so
as to let it pass under their feet as in the case of the common skip-
ping-rope. The leapers must step forwards the moment the rope is
at its highest, in order to be ready to skip over as it swings close to
the ground; and they should be careful to keep the same time with
the motions of the boys holding the rope, so as not to be struck by
it in its circuit. Another game may be played with a long skipping-
rope, by the player at one end holding the rope in his outside hand,
making a step or two towards the other player, and with his help
swinging it round, and then skipping over it.

In this amusing sport the players join hands, and extend their
arms to their full extent. One of the outside players remains
stationary, and the others run round him as fast as they can, which
proceeding is called "winding the clock." In this manner the
straight Line becomes a confused spiral, and all the players get
huddled together in a most laughable manner. The winding of the
clock usually leads to such disorder that it is next to impossible to
unwind it without breaking the line of boys.

SEE-AW. 37

Two bases having been made, one at each end of the playground,
all the players take up their position in one of them, except one, who
is generally elected by counting out; this player, who is called "the
King," stations himself midway between the bases, and endeavours
to catch the others as they rush through his territory from base to
base. Should the king succeed in catching one of the trespassers, he
raps him on the head, saying, "I crown thee king! and the one so
crowned joins the first king between the bases, and helps to catch
the other players. When the out-players considerably outnumber
those remaining in the bases, they may enter the bases, and, if they
are strong enough, pull the others out and crown them. In this
lively game the rule is, that a player must run to the opposite base
if he puts both feet outside his own. In some parts of England this
game is known by the name of King Cesar."

For this amusement a stout plank should be laid across a felled
tree or a low wall; it must be very nicely balanced if the players are
of the same weight; but if one is heavier than the other, the end
on which he intends to sit should be the shortest. Two players then
take their seats on the plank, one at each end, whilst a third stations
himself on the middle of it, as represented in the illustration; the
name of this player is in some places Jack o' both Sides, and in
others Pudding. As the players by turns make slight springs from
their toes, they are each alternately elevated and depressed, and it is
the duty of Pudding to assist these movements by bearing all his
weight on the foot, on the highest end of the plank, beyond the
centre of the tree or wall on which it rests. This will be best under-
stood by referring to the illustration: thus, A. is the trunk of a tree

across it a plank is laid, on which two players, B, c, take their
seats; D is "Pudding; it will be seen that his left foot is beyond
the centre of the trunk A, on the highest end of the board, and con-
sequently his weight being added to that of B will depress that end
of the plank, and the end on which c sits must, of course, rise;
Pudding then bears on his right foot, and c in turn descends; and
thus the game continues during pleasure, Pudding bearing alternately
on each side.
This game can be played by any number of boys, who must all
join bands; the game is begun by the outside players at each end of
the line holding 1he following dialogue: "How many miles to
Babylon?" "Threescore and ten." "Can I get there by candle-
light?" "Yes, and back again." "Then open the gates without
more ado, and let the king and his men pass through." The player
and the one next to him at the end of the line opposite the last
speaker then elevate their joined hands as high as they can, to allow
the speaker to run under, and the whole line follows him, still
holding hands. This should be done, if possible, without breaking
the line by letting the hands go, and is styled "threading the needle."
When all the boys have passed through, the same conversation begins
again, excepting that the respondent in his turn becomes the in-
quirer, and runs between the opposite players, the others following
as before.
This is a very favourite game with little boys, and may be con-
sidered as a modification of rushing bases. A large base is formed
by Irawing a line across the playground, and one boy, called "Tom
Tiddler," takes his station within it, while the others run in crying
out, "Here am I on Tom Tiddler's ground, picking up gold and
silver." If Tom Tiddler can touch any boy while he is on his
ground, the boy so touched takes his place as the gual dian of the
imaginary gold and silver.
Two to one is a very capital exercise with a common skipping-rope.
It is done by skipping in the usual way for a short time, and then
increasing the rapidity of your movements, and leaping tolerably
high, endeavouring to swing the rope round so quickly that you can
pass it twice under your feet while you are taking the leap; practise
this till you are quite proficient, and then try to pass the rope three
times under your foot instead of twice.
This may be played by any number of boys, who all tie large knots
in one corner of their cocket-handkerchiefs and then toss up to see

who shall be "Moon;" the loser is the one to whom the part falls,
and he must be blindfolded. "Moon" now stands with his legs
stretched apart, while his playmates go behind him in succession, and
jerk their handkerchiefs between his legs, as far as they can and in
whatsoever direction they please. When all the boys have done this,
one of them cries Walk, Moon, walk which is a signal for the
blindfolded player to walk forwards until he treads upon one of the
handkerchiefs, when in an instant the other players pick up their
knotted handkerchiefs, with which they belabour the unlucky owner
of the one trodden upon by Moon, as he runs to a distant base and
back; after which he becomes Moon, and the game continues as
This is a capital game when well played, and the antics and
grimaces of boys who are mimics cause great merriment. It
also gives a boy a good notion of how mechanical labour is done, as
no boy will ask for work unless he understands something of the
nature of the business he solicits to be employed upon. The game
begins thus, and it matters not how many boys are engaged in it:-
A line is drawn; within that line is the shop, and when a bad work-
man is discharged he is pushed across the line. The employer, or
master, should be a very sharp lad. A boy comes up, and the master
asks him if he wants a day's work; the boy says he does. He is
then asked what trade he is; if he says a tailor, a coat is supposed
to be given to him to make; if a shoemaker, a pair of shoes; if a
tinker, a saucepan to bottom; if a stonemason, a stone to cut or saw,
and every boy must imitate the actions of the tailor, shoemaker, &c.,
while at work, whatever the trades may be. Then the master loos
over the work, finds fault, gets in a rage, discharges the workman,
and, if he can, turns.him out of the shop. But if in the struggle the
boy turns the employer out, he then becomes master, and the other
is set to work. So that, after a few good-natured trials of strength,
each boy in turn generally becomes master.

This is a very old game, and in some places is called playing at
soldiers; the whole ceremony of enlisting is gone through, taking
the shilling and swearing to serve the Queen, &c. But there ought
to be two parties of boys, of not less than a dozen, with a command-
ing officer on each side. After learning their exercise, such as
shouldering arms and marching, war breaks out; then one party is
English and the other the enemy. Their weapons ought to be bul-
rushes, or stout reeds, such as are used in building, or something
that will not do any injury when the charge commences. The sia.
that breaks or takes away the most weapons is the conqueror, and
much skill may be displayed in capturing the arms of others, and

retaining your own. If boys can get some old soldier to drill them
a few times, this may be made as good a game as they can play at.
We have too few military amusements in our English games.
wnoo !
One player takes his station at a spot called the "home," while
the others go to seek out various hiding-places in which to ensconce
themselves; when all are ready, one of them calls out Whoop "
on which the player at the "home" instantly goes in search of the
hiders, and endeavours to touch one of them as they run back to
"home;" if he can do so, the one caught takes his place at the
"home," while he joins the out players.


In this game sides are chosen, and one party remains "at home,"
while the other hides. When the hiders are all ready, one of them
calls out High Barbaree i upon which the seekers sally forth to
look for them, as in "Whoop If the seekers can succeed in
touching a certain number of the hiders before they can get to
"home," they take their turn at hiding. The number to be caught
must be agreed upon beforehand, and of course depends upon the
number of players. It is usual to mention this number in the cry-
thus, High barbaree! three caught he !"-"four caught he !" and
so forth. As a general rule, the number to be caught should exceed
half the number of the hiders.
This active, merry, noisy game can be played by any number of
boys, and commences by their joining hands and forming a ring,

having enclosed some boy in the middle, who is the Bull. It is the
Bull's part to make a rush, break through the ring, and escape, and
the part of the boys who form the ring to hold their hands so fast
together that he cannot break their hold. Before making a rush the
Bull must cry boo" to give warning, so that the boys may grasp
their hands more tightly. The whole ring generally replies to the
Bull's challenge by crying "boo" all togetLhr, and a pretty noise
they make. When the Bull breaks through the ring he is pursued
until captured, and the boy who seizes him first is "Bull" when
they return. A good Bull" will lead them a pretty dance, clearing
hedges and ditches; and if he gets back and touches some mark
agreed upon, near to where he broke through the ring, he is "Bull"
This humorous sport must not be confounded with the cruel battles
between game-cocks once so popular in England. Two boys repre-
sent the feathered combatants; each hops upon one leg, with his arms
folded, and bumps against the other, endeavouring to compel him to
put both feet to the ground. The boy who keeps up longest wins
the game.
A tolerably large ring should be formed by several boys standing
in a circle and joining hands; another boy, who stands out, when all
are ready walks round outside the ring, drops a handkerchief behind
one of the players, and immediately runs off; he is instantly followed
by the one behind whom he dropped the handkerchief, and who must
track him in all his windings in and out under the arms of the boys
in the ring, who elevate them for the purpose, and indeed wherever
he runs to; should .the pursuer be able to touch the pursued, the
former takes the handkerchief in his turn, and the latter joins hands
in the circle. If the boy who dropped the handkerchief is enabled
to elude his follower by passing through and about the ring, he
walks again round and drops the handkerchief behind some other
This is a game played very frequently in garrison towns and
camps, soldiers of different corps being opposed. It is a very
simple pastime, requiring strength of arm and hand, and a firm
footing. Like the "French and English'' of our school-days,
this "Tug" consists in a dozen boys or men pulling from each
side of a marked line. The feet of the foremost players on each
side are about two yards from the line, and at a given signal the
" Tug" begins. Whichever party is pulled across the line first is
considered to be defeated.




Consists in one person having a hand-
kerchief bound over his eyes, so as to. .
completely blind him, and thus blind- '
folded tryingto chasethe otherplayers,
either by the sound of their footsteps,
or their subdued merriment, as they
scramble away in all directions, en-
deavouring to avoid being caught
by him; when he can manage to
catch one, the player caught must in
aurnbe blinded, and the game bebegun
again. In some places it is customary
for one of the players to inquire of
Buff (before the game begins SEEING'S BELIEVING.
" How many horses has your father
got? to which inquiry he responds, "Three." "What colours are
they?" "Black, white, and grey." The questioner then desires
Buff to "turn round three times, and catch whom you may,"
which request he complies with, and then tries to capture one of the
players. It is often played by merely turning the blindfold hero round
and round without questioning him, and then beginning. The hand-
kerchief must be tied on fairly, so as to allow no little holes for Buffy
to see through. Blind Man's Buff is a very ancient pastime, having
been known to the Grecian youths. In England it formerly went
oy the name of Hoodman Blind, because it was customary to blind
Buff with his hood.
Attach a cherry to a piece of string, and then fasten it to a door,
sufficiently high to compel the player to jump a little in order to

catch the cherry in his mouth. The cherry is then set swinging;
and the players, ranging themselves in line, jump at the cherry, one
after the other. This game is productive of much amusement, and
may be kept up for a long time.
In this game one of the players enters the room, armed with a
poker, with which he taps on the floor. "Where do you come
from ? inquires one of the company. Alas from poor Buff, who
is full of grief." "And what did he say to you?" "He spoke
thus," is the reply-
"Buff said 'Baff,'
And gave me this staff,
And bade me not laugh
Till I came to his house again."
Having thus spoken, the messenger leaves the room. While he has
been delivering his speech, the company, however, endeavour to
make him laugh, by asking him any absurd questions that may pre-
sent themselves to their imagination. If they do not succeed in this,
the emissary of the great Buff delivers himself of a more lengthy
Buff says Baff' to all his men,
And I say Baff' to you again;
But he neither laughs nor smiles
In spite of al your cunning wiles,
But keeps his face with a very good grace,
And carries his staff to the very next place."
A noisier game than this could scarcely be desired by the most
boisterous of our young friends. The players having selected a
"conductor," seat themselves round him in a circle. The conductor
now assigns to each a musical instrument, and shows how it is to be
played. When all are provided with their imaginary instruments,
the conductor orders them to tune, and by so doing, he gives each
musician a capital opportunity for making all sorts of discordant
noises. When the different instruments have been tuned, the conductor
waves an unseen bdton, and commences humming a lively air, in
which he is accompanied by the whole of his band, each player en-
deavouring to imitate with his hands the different movements made in
performing on a real instrument. Everynow and then the conductor
pretends to play on a certain instrument, and the player to whom it
belongs must instantly alter his movements for those of the con-
ductor, and continue to wield the bdton until the chief player
abandons his instrument. Should a player omit to take the con-
ductor's office at the proper time, he must pay a forfeit. The fun of
this game greatly depends upon the humour of the conductor, and
the adroitness with which he relinquishes his bdton and takes up the
instruments of the other players.

The first player writes an adjective on the upper part of a slip of
paper, and then folds the slip so that the written word cannot be
seen by the next player, who writes the name of a gentleman, real or
imaginary, on the paper, which he passes to another after having
folded it over again. The third player writes an adjective; the
fourth, a lady's name; the fifth, the name of a place; the sixth,
what the gentleman said to the lady; the seventh, the lady's reply;
the eighth, the consequences; and the ninth, what the world said
about the whole affair. One of the players now unfolds the slip and
reads what has been written by the different persons engaged in the
game, adding a few words to unite the disjointed members of the
little narrative. As a specimen of the ludicrous result which arises
from each player's ignorance of what has been written by his com-
panions, we give the following pathetic tale, in which the words and
phrases printed in italics represent those written on the slip of
paper:-" The illfavoured Peter Wilkins met the adorable Jenny
Jones in the silver mine of Potosi. He said to her, Will you love me
then as now ?' and she replied, When did I refuse you anything ?'
The consequences were, he drowned himself in the water-butt and she
married the baker, and the world said, Served them right!'" When
there are only three or four players, the slip of paper is to be passed
round from one to another until it is filled up. When the players
are numerous, three or four slips may be commenced simultaneously
by different persons.
This game will be best described by a short dialogue.
Harry.-I am going to put a question in a whisper to Tom, who
is seated on my right hand, to which he will reply in the same tone.
He will then put a question to his next neighbour, and receive
his answer. When the tour.of the circle is made, I shall commence
by stating aloud the question put to me by my left-hand neighbour,
answering it by the reply received in answer to my own from Tom.
He will then do the same, giving my question and his next neigh-
bour's reply.-(Whispers to Tom.) Of what use are the bellows ?
Tom.-To blow up the fire.-(To Charles) Of what use is a fire-
Charles.-To put out a fire.-(To John) Of what use is a plough ?
John.-To plough up the ground.-(To James) Of what use is a
James.-To cover the head.-(To Edward) Of what use is a
shoe ?
Edward.-To protect your foot.-(To William) Of what use is a
black pin?
William.-To fasten your collar with.-(To Harry) Of what use is
9 barometer ?

Harry.-To tell the weather.-(Aloud) William has just asked
me the use of a barometer? Tom replies, "To blow up the fire "
Tom.--Harry has asked me the use of the bellows; and Charles
replies, "To put out the fire !"
Charles.-Tom wishes to know the use of the fire-engine, and
John tells him, "To plough up the ground," &c.
Any mistake is punished by a forfeit.

The players form sides, and decide who shall be masters and who
men. The principal aim of the men is to keep working as long as
possible, and to prevent the masters taking their places. The men
consult secretly among themselves, and decide upon some trade or
profession, the practice of which may be certain movements of the
arms, hands, or legs. They now range themselves opposite the
masters, and the-foreman tells them the first and last letters of the
trade they are about to exercise; as for example, C-r for carpenter,
D-t for druggist, B-h for blacksmith, and so on. The men now
set to work and express in dumb motions the various labours belong-
ing to the craft they have chosen. Let us suppose that they have
selected the trade of blacksmith: one of the players will appear to
-be blowing the forge bellows, another will seem to be filing some-
thing in a vice, while others will be violently exerting themselves by
wielding imaginary sledge-hammers round an unseen anvil. If any
of the men speak at their work, or make use of inappropriate
gestures, the whole side is out. The masters are allowed one guess
each, and if none of them can hit upon the right trade, the men tell
them their occupation, and then fix upon another. If the masters
can guess the name of the trade, the men are out and become
masters. The men need not continue their labours until all the
masters have guessed, but may stop working, and demand their
wages, after having plied their craft for a reasonable time. When
the name of a trade consists of two words, the men must tell the
first and last letter of each word, as C-h B-r, for coach builder.

The chief player in this amusing game must possess the faculty of
inventing a long story, as well as a tolerably good memory. 'his
player gives to each of the others the name of some person or thing
to be mentioned in the story he is about to relate. For example, he
may call one "the coachman," another "the whip," another "the
inn," another the old gentleman," another the "footman," another
"the luggage," and so on, until he has named all the persons en-
gaged in the game. The story-teller now takes his stand in the
centre of the room, and commences his narrative; in the course of
which he takes care to mention all the names given to the players.

When the name of a player is mentioned, he must immediately rise
from his seat, turn round, and sit down again, or else pay a forfeit
for his inattention; and whenever "the family coach" is named, all
the players must rise simultaneously. In the following example of a
story, the names given to the different players are printed in italics:
" An old gentleman, dreading an attack of the gout, resolved to pay a
visit to the hot wells of Bath; he therefore summoned his coachman,
and ordered him to prepare THE FAMILY COACH (all the players rise,
turn round, and sit down again). The coachman, not liking the pros-
*Deet of so long a journey, tried to persuade the old gentleman that
THE FAMILY COACH was out of repair, that the leader was almost
olind, and that he (the coachman) could not drive without a new
whip. The old gentleman stormed and swore upon hearing these
paltry excuses, and ordered the coachman out of the room, while the
little dog sprang from under his master's chair and flew at the calves
of the offender, who was forced to make a precipitate exit. Early
the next morning, THE FAMILY COAuH belonging to the old gentleman
stopped at an inn on the Bath road, much to the surprise of the land-
lord, who had never seen such a lumbering conveyance before. THE
FAMILY COACH contained the old gentleman, the old lady (his wife),
and the little dog that had made such a furious attack on the poor
coachman's legs. The landlord called the landlady, who came
bustling out of the inn to welcome the old gentleman and old lady.
The footman jumped down from behind THE FAMILY COACH, and
helped the old gentleman and the old lady to alight, while the boots
and chambermaid belonging to the inn busied themselves with the
luggage. The little dog trotted after the old lady, but just as it was
going into the inn, the coachman gave it a cut with his whip. The
little dog howled, upon which the old gentleman turned round, and
seeing the coachman with his whip raised, he seized him by the
throat. The footman came to the assistance of his friend the coach-
wan, and the ostler belonging to the inn took the side of the. old
gentleman. The landlord, landlady, chambermaid, boots, cook, stable-
boy, barmaid, and all the other inmates of the inn, rushed into the
road to see what was the matter, and their cries, joined to the yells
of the little dog and the screams of the old lady, so frightened the
leader, the white horse, and the brown mare, that they ran away with
THE FAMILY COACH." Of course this tale might have been con-
tinued to any length, but the specimen we have given will be suffi-
cient to give the story-teller some idea of what is expected from him
to keep up the fun of the game.
This is a highly amusing, though very simple game. One player
seated on the ground is surrounded by his comrades, who pull and
buffet him till he can catch one of them, when the person so caught
takes his place, and is buffeted in like manner. As the players sport

round the irog, they usually cry, rog in the middle-can't caten
me !" but they frequently find that this is vain boasting, as Preggy
does catch them now and then.
The party being seated in a circle, the player who has been chosen
to commence the game takes a knotted handkerchief, and throws it
suddenly into another's lap, calling out at the same time either
"Earth!" "Water!" "Air!" or Fire!" If "Earth" be called out,
the player into whose lap the handkerchief has fallen must name some
quadruped before the other can count ten; if Water! he must
name afish; if "Air!" a bird; and if "Fire!" he must remain
silent. Should the player name a wrong animal, or speak when lie
ought to be silent, he must pay a forfeit and take a turn at throwing
the handkerchief; but should he perform his task properly, he must
throw the handkerchief back to the first player. -Those who have
never joined in this simple game can have no idea of the absurd
errors into which the different players fall when summoned unawares
to name a particular kind of animal.
The game of Hand is of great antioiuity, and is common to almost
every nation, whether savage or civilized. In many of the rural dis-
tricts of England this universal pastime is known by the name of
" Coddem." To play at Hand, sides must be formed, and the
players of each side must seat themselves at a table opposite their
antagonists. Chance decides which of the sides shall first hide the
piece, which may be any small object that can be easily held in the
closed hand of one of the players. One of the fortunate players now
exhibits the piece to his opponents; having done which, he cries out,
" Hands down 1 at which signal he and his comrades put their
hands out of sight, and in the language of the game, commence
" working the piece," which operation is performed by shifting the
piece from hand to hand, so as to deceive the opposite players as to
its whereabouts. When the piece has been properly worked, the
chief player calls out, Hands up," and he and all his comrades
simultaneously place their closed flsts on the table. The top player
on the opposite side has now to fix upon the hand in which the piece
is concealed. There are two ways of guessing, either of which he
may adopt; the first is to point at once to the hand supposed to
contain the piece, and cry out, Hand the second mode of guess-
ing is to point to those hands which appear to be empty, saying with
each guess, "Take that hand away!" and when most of the hands
have been removed from the table, to fix upon the most likely-looking
one among those that remain. If the guesser can find the piece
without making a mistake, he claims it for his party, and is entitled
to guess again when the opposite side regains it; but if he makes a

mistake, either by ordering the hand that holds the piece to be
removed, or by "handing" an empty fist, his antagonists retain the
-piece, and having concealed it, the second player attempts to discover
its whereabouts. From our description, the reader will probably
regard Hand as a mere frivolous game of chance; but we can assure
him that chance has little to do with the discovery of the piece. A
good Hand player watches the faces of his opponents while their
hands are engaged in working the piece under the table; he scru-
tinises the different hands, and does not allow himself to be misled
by any of the cunning devices which the hiders employ to throw him
off the right scent; again, when he has the piece in his possession,
he takes care not to let a tightly-clenched fist, a guilty smile, or an
anxious expression, betray the fact to his wary antagonist.

In this game, one of the players is sent out of the room, while the
others hide a handkerchief or any small article that can be easily
secreted. When the article has been concealed, the door is opened,
and the seeker is invited to enter in these words: "Hot boiled beans
and. butter; walk in and find your supper." The seeker now sets to
work to look for the hidden article. When he approaches the place
of concealment, his playmates must give him notice of it, by telling
him that he is "rather warm," "very hot," or, if he gets very near
it, that he "burns." When.he wanders away from the object of his
search, he is told that he is cold; and if he persists m his mis-
taken course, he is informed that he "freezes." Should the seeker
succeed in finding the hidden article, another player goes out of the
room in his stead.
One player with his eyes bandaged lays his head on a chair, or in
another player's lap, while the others strike him on his back with
their open hands. In this unenviable position he remains until he
can guess who strikes him, when the striker takes his place. The
poet Gay describes this pastime in the following lines :-
As at Hot Cockles once I laid me down,
And felt the weighty hand of many a clown,
Buxoma gave a gentle tap, and I
Quick rose, and read soft mischief in her eye."
One of the players is sent out of the room, while the others fix
upon a subject, which may be anything to which the three questions,
"How do you like it ? Where do you like it ?" anc "When do
you like it? will apply. When the subject has been decided upon,
the out-player is summoned. He now puts the first question to the
nearest player, who returns him a puzzling answer; he then passes
to the next, and repeats the same question; then to the next, and

so on, until he has made the round of the room. If none of the
answers enable him to guess the subject, he tries each player with
the second question, and if the answers to this leave him still in the
dark, he solicits a reply from each to the third and last question.
Should the player fail to guess the subject after asking the three
questions, he pays a forfeit and takes another turn outside; but
should he succeed din guessing it during his rounds, the player last
questioned must pay a forfeit, and go out of the room in his place.
The in-players should always endeavour to hit upon some word that
has two or three meanings for a subject, as such a word renders the
answers extremely confusing. For instance, if Jack be the subject
decided on, one of the players may say, in answer to the first query,
that he likes it "fried," referring to fish called the Jack; in answer
to the second, that he likes it "before the kitchen fire," referring
now to a roasting-jack; and in answer to the third, that he likes it
when he is dressing," now regarding the subject as a boot-jack.

This old-fashioned pastime is so generally known that it is scarcely
necessary to describe it; however, as it forms one of the merriest in-
door sports for the long winter evenings, it would be absurd to omit
it in this work. Several boys seat themselves in a circle on the
ground, and another, taking his place inside the ring, gives a slipper
to one of them, by whom it is immediately and secretly handed to
one of his neighbours; it is now passed round from one sitter to
another, with as much dexterity as possible, so as to completely
perplex the "hunter" (or player standing in the middle) in his en-
deavours to chase the' slipper by its sound," and who must continue
his search until successful. The player in whose possession it is
found must in his turn "hunt the slipper," whilst the former hunter
joins the sitters.
A game almost similar to the former. A piece of tape, on which
a ring is fastened, is held by the players as they stand in a circle,
with one in the middle. The ring is passed from hand to hand, and
the hunter's business is to find out in whose hand the ring is.

A boy who has never seen the game played is elected hunter; the
others seat themselves on the ground, as in Hunt the Slipper. The
hunter, having been shown the whistle, kneels in the centre of the
circle, and lays his head in the lap of one of the players until the
whistle is concealed. While he is in this posture, the whistle is to
be secretly attached to the back part of his jacket or coat, by means
of a piece of string and a bent pin. One of the players now blows
the whistle and drops it, and the hunter, being released, is toil to

find it; but this is no easy task, as he carries the object of his search
about his own person. As the hunter kneels in the centre of the
group, the different players blow through the whistle and drop it, as
the opportunities occur. The puzzled hunter is sometimes fairly
tired out before he discovers the trick that is played upon him. We
need scarcely say that the whistle should be very small and light.
This is a very similar game to Hot Boiled Beans. One
player having been sent out of the room, the others arrange some
simple task for him to perform on his return. When this has
been done, he is summoned by the magic music, which is played by
one of his comrades, either by tapping a tea-tray with a key, or by
rattling the poker and tongs together. The boy who has been sent
out of the room must perform his appointed task under the guidance
of the musician, who so regulates his performance on the rude instru-
ments that the music gets loud and noisy when the puzzled player
does what he ought not to do, and grows soft and quiet when he
does anything towards the performance of his task. To render this
game more intelligible, we will suppose the task to be the removal
of a certain chair from one room to another. The player having
entered the room is saluted by the magic music, the unmeaning
clatter of which only confuses him at first. He walks towards the
side of the room where the chair is stationed, and as he approaches
it the clatter grows fainter; this informs him that he is in the right
path. He touches the table, but removes his hand at the sound of
the music, which suddenly gets terribly noisy. He touches the
chair; the music ceases. He now knows that he is expected to do
something with this particular chair, so he very naturally sits down
upon it; but he jumps up directly he hears the "clatter, clatter
clatter" of the music. He lifts the chair, and as he does so the
music grows soft again. He now turns the chair upside down;
carries it into the middle of the room ; places it on the sofa; but all
to no purpose, as he cannot stop the continual clatter of the magic
music, At last he carries the chair into the adjoining room; the
music ceases, and his troublesome task is accomplished. In this
noisy but amusing game the players go out of the room, and have
tasks set them in turns. The musician generally retains his office
lii..ugli..j the game.
This exciting game may be played by an unlimited number, and is
particularly adapted for a large party. One of the players, called
"the postman," has his eyes bandaged as in Blind Man's Buff; another
vornteers to fill the office of postmaster-general," and all the rest
seat themselves round the room. At the commencement of the
gaw,- the postmaster assigns to each player the name of a town, and,
if .Y players are numerous, he writes the names given to them on a

slip of paper, in case his memory should fail him. These prelimina-
ries having been arranged, the blind postman is placed in the centre
of the room, and the postmaster-general retires to some snug corner,
whence he can overlook the other players. When this important
functionary calls out the names of two towns,-thus, "London to
Halifax,"-the players who bear these names must immediately change
seats, and as they run from one side of the room to another, the
postman tries to capture them. If the postman can succeed in
catching one of the players, or if he can manage to sit down on an
empty chair, the player that is caught, or excluded from his place,
becomes postman. The postmaster-general is not changed through-
out the game unless he gets tired of his office; When a player re-
mains seated after his name has been called he must pay a forfeit,
or if the game is played without forfeits he must go to the bottom of
the class, which is represented by a particular chair, and to make
room for him all the players who were formerly below him shift
their places.
One player leaves the room, and while he is absent the rest fix
upon some proverb. The words are then distributed among them,
and each player, in reply to a question asked by the guesser, has to
introduce his particular word. When all the words have been intro-
duced, the guesser has to guess the name of the proverb, and another
player takes his place. If, however, he cannot make it out, he has
to leave the room again.
A false friend is worse than a bitter enemy.
A penny saved is a penny gained.
A man is known by the company he keeps.
A bad workman quarrels with his tools.
All is not gold that glitters.
A friend in need is a friend indeed.
A good name is better than wealth.
A good word costs nothing.
A little rain lays much dust.
A little spark makes a great flame.
A bird in hand is worth two in a bush.
Better late than never.
Barking dogs seldom bite.
Cut your coat according to your cloth.
Empty vessels make the most sound.
Example is better than precept.
Evil beginnings have bad endings,
Friends are plenty when the purse is ull.
Good ware makes quick markets.

Great cry and little wool.
Gather thistles, expect prickles.
Half a loaf is better than no bread.
Hear twice before you speak once.
In a calm sea every man is a pilot.
Idle folks have the least leisure.
It's an ill wind that blows nobody good.
If a thing is worth doing, it is worth doing well.
It's a sad heart that never rejoices
Least said is soonest mended.
Let them laugh that win.
Look before you leap.
Long looked for comes at last.
Make hay while the sun shines.
Many a slip between the cup and the lip.
Make the best of a bad bargain.
Marry in haste, repent at leisure.
Of two evils choose the least.
One good turn deserves another.
Opportunity makes the thief.
Out of sight out of mind.
Penny wise and pound foolish.
Prevention is better than cure.
Pride will have a fall.
Short reckonings make long friends.
Strike while the iron's hot.
Still waters run deep.
Safe bind, safe find.
The best part of valour is discretion.
Waste not, want not.
Where there's a will there's always a way.
Wilful waste makes woful want.
Four players take their stations in the four corners of a room, and
a fifth, called Puss," places himself in the middle of it; the players
in the corners then change places by running to the opposite ends,
and Puss must endeavour to get into one of the vacant places before
the opposite player is able to reach it; if he can do so, the player left
out becomes Puss.
The players sit round in a circle, each taking a colour. Thus one
is red-cap, another black-cap, and so on. One of them, who takes
the place of master, and has no colour, taking up a cap says: Hullo,
here's a false stitch. Who made it, blue-cap?" Blue-cap then
answers, "Who, sir P I, sir "Yes, you, sir!" "Not I, sir."

" Who then, sir ? Yellow-cap, sir." Yellow-cap then starts up
and says, "Who, sir? I, sir?" and goes through the dialogues,
giving another colour. The player who neglects to start up when
his colour is mentioned, or who does not repeat the question
correctly, pays a forfeit.
Shadow Buff differs very materially from Blind Man's Buff, but it
is equally amusing. A large piece of white linen should be fastened
neatly up at one end of room, so that it hangs quite smooth; Buff
(not blinded) seats himself on a low stool with his face to the linen,
and a table, on which is a lighted candle, should be placed about
four or five feet behind him, and the rest of the lights in the room
extinguished. Buffy's playfellows next pass in succession, between
the candle and him, distorting their features in as grotesque a manner
as possible-hopping, limping, and performing various odd antice, so
as to make their shadows very unlike their usual looks. Buffy must
then try to guess to whom the shadows belong, and if he guesses
correctly, the player whose shadow he recognizes takes his place.
Buff is allowed only one guess for each person, and must not turn
his head either to the right or left to see who passes.

Birds, Beasts, and Fishes.-" Now, Tom," said Harry, "get your
slate and pencil, and I'll show you such a jolly game. Well now,
look here, 1 have put down h X X X a. Now that stands for a
beast's name, the first and last letters of which are h and a, with three
letters between, represented by the crosses."
"Let's see," replied Tom, scratching his head, "I know-Hare."
"You muff! There are only four letters in 'hare,' and five in my
word. Try again-mind you have only three guesses; so look out."
Tom wondered again for a minute, and then suddenly blurted out;
"I know-Horse."
"Wrong again," replied Harry; "the last letter of Horse is e and
not a. Now be careful, Tom, for.this is your last turn."
Again Tom scratched his head, bit his fingers, and after meditating
for at least two minutes and a half, shouted out in a moment of
inspiration-" Hyena! "
As he was right, it now became his turn to put down a name. So
he wrote on the slate s X X X X X w, at the same time telling
Harry it was a bird; for according to the rules of this game you must
say whether this name represents a beast, a fish, a bird, an insect, or
a reptile.
Harry in a minute shouted "Sparrow! and so the game went
on; an such a capital game did Tom and Harry have, that they sent
this account of it to us in the hope that we would make it known to
the world in "Every Boy's Book."

French and English.-On the slate should be drawn a plan some-
what like the following. The dots represent soldiers, one side being

(O O
00 O


termed French and the other English. Each player is provided with
a sharply pointed pencil, and the game is played as follows :-English,
keeping the point of his pencil on a spot denoted by a cannon, draws
it quickly across the slate in the direction of the other army. The
pencil naturally leaves a line to mark his track, and if this mark
passes through any of the men belonging to the other side, they are

I Is '

Sa i a t


considered dead. The game is over as soon as all the men on one
side are dead. Each player has a certain space on the slate allotted
to him, and he may dispose his men in whatever part of it he pleases

The track of the pencil must be straight or curved; any shot in which
there is an angle does not count. In p. 38 we give a battle-field where
the strife is ended. In this the English side has killed all the oppo-
site side in eight shots, while the French in eight have only been able
to kill nine men.
Nouqms and Crosses.-This is a capital game, and one which every
school-boy truly enjoys. A figure is drawn as follows, and the object
of the one player is to draw three crosses in a line before the other
can draw three noughts. Thus A begins by drawing a + in the

centre division; B follows with a nought in the top right-hand corner.
A then draws a + in the bottom right-hand corner, because by this
means he gets two crosses in a line, and spoils one of B's chances.
B in a hurry instantly places a 0 in the top left-hand corner, and A
follows by placing his + between the two O's. B then, seeing that
in the centre line A'already has two crosses, places a 0 in the third
vacant space of the line; while A, as a last resource, plants his + in
the second space of the left-hand line. Then when B puts a 0 in the

0 + +

centre space at the left-hand, A places a + in the bottom left-hand
corner, and the game is drawn, the plan standing as above.


Every player, except one who holds the office of reader, selects a
trade or profession, which he must retain throughout the game. When
all have chosen their trades, the reader opens a book at random,
and reads a passage from it aloud; but when he comes to any common
noun, he looks at one of the tradesmen, who must instantly name
some article that he is supposed to have for sale, or some implement
connected with the exercise of his craft. By this substitution of
one noun for another, the most pathetic passage is converted into
an indescribable jumble of absurdities. In the following burlesqued
extract from an Eastern tale, the words in italics are supposed to be
supplied by the different tradesmen, in place of the nouns omitted by
the reader:-
One offered the prince a bucket of the most precious mutton chops
of Golconda; another a curious piece of a Wellington boot, made by a
European artist; another a piece of the richest plum-pudding from
r.he looms of China; another a gridiron, said to be a sovereign remedy
against all poisons and infectious diseases; another a choice piece
of the most fragrant Turkey rhubarb, in a warming-pan, inlaid with
acid drops; another a cofin full of genuine treacle; another a rock-
ing-horse of the purest breed of Arabia; and another a Flanders brick
of exquisite beauty. The whole court of the palace was overspread
with gingerbread-nuts; and long rows of slaves were continually
passing loaded with corn-plasters, b' ... i~, bees'-wax, and other
articles of high price."
Two boys having seated themselves on the floor, are trussed by their
playmates; that is to say, each boy has his wrists tied together with
a handkerchief, and his legs secured just above the angles with
another; his arms are then passed over his knees, and a broomstick
is pushed over one arm, under both knees, and out again over the
other arm. The "trussed fowls" are now carried into the centre of
room and placed opposite each other, with their toes just touching.
The fun now begins; as each fowl endeavours, with the aid of his
toes, to turn his antagonist over on his back or side, and the one who
can succeed in doing this wins the game. It frequently happens that
both players turn over together, to the great amusement of the
spectators. On board ship these comical encounters frequently take
place between the boys, who are trussed by their elder shipmates.

This game, although only two persons are engaged in it at a time,
furnishes much amusement, from the contradictory nature of its
words and actions. The rules relative to it are as follow:-If three
mistakes are made by the person who responds to the inquiries of the

player who brings the hats round, and whom for distinction's sake
we will call the questioner, he must pay three forfeits, and is out of
the game; when the questioner desires the respondent to be seated,
the latter must stand up; when he begs him to put his hat on, he
must take it off; when he requests him to stand, he must sit; and
in every point, the respondent must take special care to do always
the very reverse of what the questioner wishes him. The questioner
may sit down, stand up, put his hat on, or take it off, without
desiring the respondent to do so, or giving him the least intimation
of his intention; the latter must, therefore, be always on his guard,
so as to act in a contrary way in an instant, else he incurs a forfeit.
These rules being settled, the game is simply this: one player places
a hat on his head, takes another in his hand, and gives it to one of
the company; he then begins conversing with him, endeavouring
both by words and actions to puzzle him as much as he can, so as
to cause him to pay a forfeit. We will give a slight specimen of a
dialogue, describing the accompanying movements of the hats, in
which A is the questioner, B the respondent :
A. (taking his hat of) A very beautiful evening, sir.
B. (. his hat on.) Yes, indeed, a most lovely one.
A. '" his hat on, and sitting down, B. taking his off
andgetting up.) Pray be seated, sir; I really cannot think of sitting
while you stand (gets up, and B. sits down). Have you been out of
town this year ? (takes of his hat.)
B. (putting his on.) I have not yet, but I think I shall, before
(A. sits down, B. gets up) the beauty of the season has entirely passed
away, venture a few miles out of town.
A. (putting his hat on.) I beg ten thousand pardons, you are
standing while I am sitting; pardon me, your hat is on-you must
pay a forfeit.
It generally happens, that before the dialogue has been carried
thus far the respondent has incurred three forfeits, and is, of course,
out; the questioner then goes in succession to the others, and the
same scene is repeated by each: the conversation, it is almost need-
less to add, should be varied as much as possible, and the more non-
sensical it is the better.
The leader of the game commences it by asking each of his com-
panions in turn, "What is my thought like ?" to which they reply
at hazard, by mentioning anything that first comes into their thoughts,
of course avoiding naming the same thing twice over, as that incurs
the penalty of a forfeit. The leader carefully notes down all the
answers he receives, and then revealing his thought, desires to know
what the thing thought of resembles in what it has been compared to.
John.-Charles, what is my thought like ?
Charles.-A young girl.

John.-James ?
James.-A queen.
John.-Now, Harry ?
Harry.-A lion.
John.-You, William?
William.-An oak-tree.
John.-Alfred, it is your turn.
Alfred.-A beautiful woman.
John.-Andrew ?
John.-Arthur ?
Arltur.-A hedgehog.
Ben.-A rose.
John.-And you, Cecil?
Cecil.-A vine.
John.-My thought was a rose; so now, Charles, tell me why a
rose is like a young girl.
Charles.-Because it is loveliest when only half-blown.
John.-And why a queen?
James.-Because the rose is the queen of all flowers.
John.-Harry, why is a rose like a lion?
Harry.-Because it is one of the emblems of England.
John.-And why, Tom, is it like beauty ?
Tom.-Because it soon fades.
Joh~.-William, why is it like an oak ?
William.-Because both spring from the earth.
John.-And you, Alfred; why is a rose like a beautiful woman?
Alfred.-Because its fragrance often remains after the charms are
John.-Andrew, why is a rose like hope ?
Andrew.-Because in returning sunshine it forgets the past storm.
John.-Arthur, why is a rose like a hedgehog ?
Arthur.-Because its thorns defend it from a rough grasp.
John.-You, Ben, having fixed upon the same thing as myself,
must pay a forfeit. Cecil, why is a rose like a vine ?
Cecil.-Because in old times they were both considered essential
to a banquet. I can think of nothing better.

,' ~v


- -: i ._ .




This is very simple play. The ball is thrown into the air by one
player, the others standing round him. He calls out the name f
the player, for whom the ball is thrown. If it be caught by the
player so called, before the ball reaches the ground twice, he scores
a point; if any of the other players catch it, they score a point, and
the other loses one.
This is a variety of the above game. A certain number of stools
are set up in a circular form, and at a distance from each other, and
every one is occupied by a single player; when the ball is struck,
which is done, as before, by the hand, every one of them is obliged
to alter his situation, running in succession from stool to stool; and
if he who threw the ball can regain it in time to strike any of the
players before he reaches the stool to which he is running; he tz.kes
his place, and the person touched must throw the ball, until he can
in like manner return to the circle.



This is very simple play. The ball is thrown into the air by one
player, the others standing round him. He calls out the name f
the player, for whom the ball is thrown. If it be caught by the
player so called, before the ball reaches the ground twice, he scores
a point; if any of the other players catch it, they score a point, and
the other loses one.
This is a variety of the above game. A certain number of stools
are set up in a circular form, and at a distance from each other, and
every one is occupied by a single player; when the ball is struck,
which is done, as before, by the hand, every one of them is obliged
to alter his situation, running in succession from stool to stool; and
if he who threw the ball can regain it in time to strike any of the
players before he reaches the stool to which he is running; he tz.kes
his place, and the person touched must throw the ball, until he can
in like manner return to the circle.

All the players engaged in this favourite pastime must place their
caps on the ground, close to the wall, in such a manner that a ball
may be easily pitched into them. A line being marked on the ground
about fifteen feet from the wall, one of the players takes his station
at it, and begins the game by throwing the ball into one of the caps;
the moment this is done all the boys run away, excepting the one
into whose cap the ball is thrown, who immediately runs to take it
out, and endeavours to strike one of the fugitives by throwing the
ball at him; if he can do so, the one struck has a small stone, called
" an egg," placed in his cap, and has to take his turn at pitching the
ball. Should the thrower fail to hit one of the boys as they are
running away, an egg" is put into his cap, and he has to pitch the
ball into the caps again. If a player fails to throw the ball into a
cap, he earns an "egg," but continues throwing until he succeeds.
When a player gets three "eggs" in his cap, he is out. When all
the players but one have been struck out, he is considered the
winner, and the punishment of the losers then commences; one of
them standing near the wall bounces the ball at it with all his force,
and next stands with his back to the wall, stretching out his right
arm, and placing the back of his hand quite close to the wall, while
the winner, standing where the ball fell, takes aim, and throws the
ball at the said loser's hand three times: each of the losers likewise
receives the same punishment from him. In some places it is usual,
when one boy gets out, for him to bounce the ball against the wall,
and all the other players, standing at the spot where the ball first
touched the ground, to have their three balls at his
back, as he stands with his face to the wall. Should
the ball in rebounding swerve either to the right or
S left, a line must be drawn, from the spot where it
S falls, to a place directly in a straight line from the
S boy at the wall; thus, suppose A is the boy who
has just bounced the ball, which instead of going
direct to B, has deviated from the straight line
A B to C, a line should be drawn from C to B,
and the winner should stand at the latter.
In this game four or five stones or marks must be placed on
the ground, as in the annexed figure, A, B, C, D, E, about
twelve or fifteen yards asunder; these marks are called
bases, and one of them, as A, is styled "home." The C P
players next toss up for the office of "feeder," who a
takes his place about two yards in front of "home," p
as at F, and the rest of the players stand at and Ao
round the home. The feeder then calls out "Play i" and pitches
the ball to the first player, who endeavours to strike it with

a bat, as far as he possibly can; should he succeed in hitting
the ball, he immediately drops the bat, and runs to the first base on
his right hand, as E, while the feeder is going after the ball: but
if he can run all the bases and then home, before the ball is in hand,
so much the better. If, however, the feeder obtains the ball soon
enough to throw it at, and strike him with it as he is running from
base to base, the player is out; he is also out if the feeder catches
the -ball: in either case the player becomes feeder, and the latter
runs home to join his playmates. Should any of the other players

P i

be out at the bases, when one is caught or struck out, they also must
run home. If the first player could only reach the base E, after
striking the ball, he should, when the second player strikes it, run
to the base D, as it is not allowable for two persons to be at one base
at one and the same minute; he proceeds in the same manner to the
third and fourth bases, until he arrives home again, thus enabling
the others to get to their bases and home in their respective turns.
The player with the bat is not obliged to take every ball the feeder
r i:h,...:e to give him; if he does not like a throw, he catches the
ball and throws it back again. He is not allowed to make more than
three "offers" at the ball; if he does so he is out, and must be
This game, which takes its title from the names assumed by the
players, is played by seven boys, each of whom calls himself after
one of the days of the -week. To show the manner of playing
the game, we will suppose that some boys are playing at it, and that
the ball is taken by "Wednesday;" he throws it up against a wall,
calling out at the same time the assumed name of any one of the
other players, who should be standing around-we will suppose, for
instance, "Friday !" All the boys but Friday run away, and he
endeavours to catch it ere it falls to the ground; if he can do so, he
throws it up again, calling out another boy's name-say "Sunday! "
Should the ball touch the ground before he can catch it, he must

pick it up and throw it at the retreating party; and if he succeeds
in hitting one of them, the boy struck has to throw the ball up the
next time; but if he cannot strike one he loses a point, as in Egg-
hat; indeed, in the rules respecting the punishment of the losers,
and the number of points each player is restricted to, it resembles
that game.
Dig near a wall nine holes, of about six inches in diameter, and
three deep. Let each player have one of these, according to his
number, which must be determined by lot. At about six yards from
the holes draw a line, and from this, as a fielding place, one player
pitches the ball into one of the holes. The boy to whom this hole
is assigned immediately runs to it, while all the other players run off
in different directions. The player snatches the ball from the hole,
and throws it at one of the "runners;" if he hits him, the one so
hit becomes "pitcher," and the one that struck him marks one.
Should he not hit him, the player who throws the ball loses a point,
and bowls. The player who misses his aim at throwing the ball at
his partners a second time becomes a Tenner." If he loses a third
hit, he is a Fifteener;" if the fourth, he stands out and can play
no more. When all the players are thus out, the last player remain-
ing in wins the game, and he can compel each of the losers to stand
with their hands open against the wall, for him to throw at, and give
what is called the "Brandy Ball." If the ball be a soft one, this
conclusion of the game is all very well; but if a hard ball be used.
it ought to be omitted, or the Brandy" may be too strong.
This game is played with a trap and ball, which is struck with a
bat or bludgeon at the pleasure of the players; but the latter is most
commonly used. The performance of this game does not require the
attendance of either of the parties in the field to catch or stop the
ball, for the contest between them is simply who shall strike it the
greatest distance in a given number of strokes; the length of each
stroke is measured before the ball is returned, by means of a cord
made fast at one end near the trap, the other being stretched into
the field by a person stationed there for that purpose, who adjusts it
to the ball, wherever it may be.
The cord is divided into yards, which are properly numbered upon
in it in succession, so that the person at the bottom of the ground
can easily ascertain the distance of each stroke by the number of the
yards, which he calls to the players to place to their account, and
the ball is thrown back.
This is a most excellent game, and very popular in some of our
English counties. It is played with a moderate sized ball and a

hand-bat, i.e. a bat that can be held in one hand, and which is about
two feet in length, smooth, and round. Two parties play at the
game, and there ought not to be less than five on a side; and the
first innings is decided by throwing up the ball, the party catching it
being allowed to go in first.
In playing the game, five stones, or stakes (called bases), or, if
these be not convenient, as many holes may he made, at about sixteen
yards apart, forming the five parts of a pentagon, as in the diagram.
At the centre of this figure is a station called the feeder's place,
being the spot at which one of the out party stands to give the
ball to the batsman, or to "feed" him, as it is technically termed.
The out party are distributed over the field, except the feeder, who
takes his station at F to deliver the balls, while one of the in party
takes the bat and places himself at Fig. 1,
which is enclosed within a circle, and called
the Home, and where all the rest of the in
party stand. The feeder then says "Play," and
delivers his ball to the batsman, who imme- -
diately strikes it as far as he can. As soon asa ,/
he has done so, he drops his bat, and runs to as /
many of the stations as he can; but he must
touch at all, or he will be out. If while he is
running to the second, or between any of the bases, the returned
ball is sent up and strikes him, he is out, and the next of the in
party takes up the bat. If he is not struck while he runs, as soon
as he reaches one of the stations the next of the in party takes up
the bat, another ball is given by the feeder, and he runs to the first,
or as many other of the stations as he can; the first batsman does
the same, so as to go the whole round of the bases to the home at
No. 1. The in player is also out if he tips the ball behind him, or if
he misses striking it when delivered. The in players as they arrive
at home take the bat again, till they are got out, according to the
rules of the game just given. When it happens that all are out but
two, the best of the two may, with the consent of the other, call for
"three fair hits for the rounder." Standing at the home, the feeder
then gives him in succession three balls. He may decline as many
balls as he pleases, if they do not suit him; but if he strikes at the
ball, he is only allowed to do so twice without running. On the
delivery of the third ball, he must run the entire course, touching
with his bat at every one of the five points. If, during his progress,
he be touched by the ball, or it be grounded at the home while he is
absent, he is declared out, and the opposite side go in and take their
places. If, on the contrary, he reaches home without being struck
or the ball grounded, his side go in again, and continue the game as
before. Should he miss the ball when striking at it the third time,
the rounder is lost. In the play the feeder is allowed to make feint
)r pretence of throwing theball, in order to tempt a player to run

from his base, so as to get a chance of hitting him. It is usual also
for the out party to place a player behind the home, so that when a
batsman makes a tip on the side of the home, he may seize the ball
and strike him out before he reaches the first base.
This game is very like Catch-ball. The object is to catch a ball
seven times in a particular fashion; hence the name. The player
begins by throwing the ball in the air and catching it seven times
with both hands. Then he catches it seven times with the right
hand, next seven times with the left. Then he throws the ball up,
claps his hand while it is in the air, and catches it seven times with
both hands, then with the right, and then with the left. The players
are allowed to make as many more variations as they please; and he
who goes through the series first wins the game.
This is an old English sport, mentioned by Gower and Chaucer,
and was at one period common to women as well as men. In the
northern parts of England, particularly in Yorkshire, it is practised
in the following manner:-A stool being set upon the ground, one of
the players takes his place before it, while his antagonist, standing
at a distance, tosses a ball, with the intention of striking the stool.
It is the former player's business to prevent this, by breaking it away
with the hand, reckoning one to the game for every stroke of the ball;
if, on the contrary, it should be missed by the hand, and touch the
stool, the players change places. The conqueror of the game is he
who strikes the ball most times before it touches the stool.

This game is so called from the trap used to elevate the ball when
it is to be struck by the batsman. It is one of the earliest games
played with the trap and ball, and we can trace it to the commence-
ment of the fourteenth century. The manner in which it was then
played was somewhat different to the style at the present day. As
now played, the-trap is no longer elevated, but set on the ground, and
is generally made in the form of a shoe, the heel part being hollowed

HOOP&. 65
out for the reception of the ball: but some boys, when they cannot
get a trap, make a hole in the ground, and having obtained the crochet
bone of an ox, place it in a slanting position, one end being in the
hole and the other out of it. The elevated end is then sharply struck
with the bat, which causes the ball to rise to a considerable height,
and then all the purposes of a trap are answered, especially if the
ground be hard and dry.
It is usual in the present game of Trap and Ball to place two
boundaries, at a given distance from the trap, between which it is
necessary for the ball to fall when struck by the batsman, for if it
falls outside of either, he gives up his bat and is out. He is also out
if he strikes the ball into the air, so that it is caught by an oppo-
site player; and, again, if the ball when returned by an adversary
touches the trap, or rests within one bat's length of it. Every stroke
tells for one towards the striker's game.
There are some variations in the play of the game in different
counties. In Essex and Suffolk, for instance, the game is played
with a cudgel instead of a bat, which would seem to be a prefer-
able weapon, as those who strike with it rarely miss their blow,
but frequently send it to an astonishing distance, no boundaries
being set.
The ball being stopped by one of the opposing party, the striker
forms his judgment of the ability of the person who is to throw it
back, and calls in consequence for any number of scores towards the
game that he thinks proper. It is then returned, and if it appears to
his antagonist to rest at a sufficient distance to justify the striker's
call, he obtains his number; but when a contrary opinion is held, a
measurement takes place, and if the scores demanded exceed in number
the length of the cudgel from the trap to the ball, he loses the whole,
and is out; while, on the other hand, if the lengths of the bat are
more than the scores called for, the matter terminates in the striker's
favour, and they are set up to his account.

Trundling the hoop is a pastime of uncertain origin, but it has
long contributed to the health and amusement of the youth of Great
Britain. Iron hoops have almost superseded the old-fashioned wooden
ones, and instead of being trundled with a stick, they are usually

guided by an iron hook shaped like the annexed figure. On a cold
frosty morning the hoop is an invaluable companion to a boy, as he

is enabled by its aid to dety tne weather, and dispense with overcoats,
comforters, and all such devices for keeping out the wintry wind.
Often have we envied our juvenile friends, as they have rushed past
us with their hoops, and lamented that custom should prevent
grown-up people indulging in the same healthful recreation.

The proper and legitimate hoop, however, should be made of a
stout ashen lath, round on the outside and flat on the inside, and
should be well fastened at its point of juncture; it should be in
height so as to reach midway between the youngster's elbow and
shoulder, so that he may not have to stoop while striking it. The
stick should be about sixteen inches long, and made of tough ash;
and, in bowling the hoop, the bowler should strike it vigorously in
the centre, and in a direction horizontal with the ground. Such
hoop exercise is exceedingly good, and a good run with such a hoop
will warm the youth in the very coldest weather.
The games, properly so called, that can be played with the hoop
are very few, and not generally known.

Two boys start at different ends of the playground with their
hoops, and, meeting in the middle, each endeavours to knock down
the hoop of his antagonist, while his own remains upright.
There is no small skill required in this game, for it is not always
easy to make the hoops touch each other at all. Then a light hoop
has little, chance against a heavy one, unless it can strike it side-
ways, for .if it were struck directly in front, it would be certainly
Also, a ready hand at recovering a falling or tottering hoop wins
many a game that appears to be hopelessly lost.
Wooden hoops, also, give due exercise to the arm; and there is
some tact required in knowing exactly where to strike a hoop, so as
to propel it with the greatest force.
This cannot well be done with iron hoops, and forms one of the
objections to them Moreover, boys always complain that they soon
lose their round form, and are awkward to bowl. Still, there is
something cheering in the ringing sound of an iron hoop, as it rusher

along under the pressure of the curved iron rod that is used instead
of a hoop-stick; and as long as boys don't drive them against the legs
of unwary passengers, they are very well in their way.

,,,.. .. -.-. -


Any number of boys can join in this -. sport, but they ought
all to be provided with hoops as nearly equal in size as possible. At
a given signal the players all start together, and each endeavours to
reach the winning post (which may be any distant object) before his
companions. He who arrives at the winning-post last is generally
received with groans, hisses, and other vocal signs of disapprobation.

Bases, called posting-stations, are formed at regular distances, in a
large circle or ellipse, and at each base a player is stationed. Every
player, except the hoop-driver, has charge of a base. Let us sup-
pose that there are seven players-A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, and
that the latter holds the hoop: the other six players having taken
possession of their stations, G now starts from the station belonging
to F, and drives the hoop towards A, who waits, with hoop-stick in
hand, ready to relieve G of his charge. G stops at the posting-
station, while A trundles the hoop to B, who takes charge of it, and
delivers it to g. 0 trundles the hoop to D; D transfers it to E;
E delivers it to F; and F conveys it in safety to the first player, G.
In this way the game continues, until all the players have worked
round the circle five or six times. It is considered very disgraceful
to touch the hoop with the hand, or to allow it to fall after it has
been started on its journey. The game is rendered much more lively
by increasing the number of players, and having two or three hoop-
drivers to follow each other from base to base.
E~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~T de2esi oF;adFcnesi nsft otefrtpaeG


This game is almost the same as Encounters. Two boys drive their
hoops one against the other, and he whose hoop falls in the encounter
is conquered. With eight players this game may be rendered very
exciting. Four of the players stand in a row, about six feet apart,
and, at a considerable distance, the other four take their stand, facing
them. At a given signal each player dashes towards his opponent,
and strives to overturn his hoop. The four victors now pair off, and
charge two against two. The conquerors then urge their hoops one
against the other, and he who succeeds in overturning the hoop of
his antagonist wins the game. Wooden hoops are more suitable for
Tournament than iron ones, though the game is usually played with
the latter.
Five or six boys can play at this game, though only one hoop is
required. Chance decides which of the players shall first take the
hoop. The other players become turnpike-keepers. Each turnpike
is formed of two bricks or stones, placed on the ground, and separated
by about three fingers' breadths. These turnpikes are fixed at regular
distances, and their number is regulated by the number of keepers.
When all is ready, the first player starts his hoop, and endeavours to
drive it through all the turnpikes; should he succeed in this, lie turns
the hoop, drives it back again, and retains it until it touches one of
the turnpikes, the keeper of which now becomes hoop-driver. When
a player touches the hoop with his hand, or allows it to fall, he must
deliver it up to the nearest turnpike-keeper. Each keeper must stand
on that side of his turnpike which is towards the right hand of the
hoop-driver, and it therefore follows that he must alter his position
when the hoop-driver returns. Should a keeper stand on his wrong
side, the driver need not send the hoop through his turnpike.
When the players are numerous, there may be two or more hoopk
driven at once.

iiuue iricin,
.iOO -.--F;

The form of the kite and manner of flying it must be familiar to
all our readers. This favourite toy probably received its denomina-
tion from having originally been made in the shape of the bird called
the kite. The flying of paper kites is a favourite pastime among the
Chinese. On a certain day they hold a sort of kite festival, and then
people of all ages hasten to the hills to fly their kites, the fantastic
shapes and gaudy colours of which produce an extraordinary effect.
Philosophers have occasionally taken the kite out of the hands of the
schoolboy, and have applied it to useful and curious purposes. By
means of a kite formed of a silk handkerchief stretched over a wooden
frame, Dr. Franklin drew down lightning from the clouds, and
demonstrated its identity with electricity. Many years ago Mr.
Pocock, of Bristol, travelled on the road between Bath and London
in a carriage drawn by two paper kites, supported at a moderate ele-
vation, and impelled by the wind. The paper kite has also been
employed to convey a line over the capital of Pompey's Pillar. We
do not expect our readers to perform any electrical or locomotive
experiments with their kites; but we are qnite sure that they may
derive great amusement from these little aerial machines, especially if
they manufacture them with their own hands. We know of no
pleasanter occupation for a summer's day than watching the graceful
flight of a well-made kite.
For the upright get a good straight lath, as A B, in the annexed
figure, and next procure half of a thin hoop or cane for the bow C D,
and then tie the hoop to the upright at A, and take care to have as
much on one side of the upright as on the other; otherwise your kite

will be sure to fall on one side when flying. Notch the two ends of the
now C D, and tie a long piece of string to D; pass it round the upright
at E, and then fasten it at C; next carry the string to.
A A, pass it down to D, and tie it there: from thence
it is to be continued to B, passed round a notch there,,
and carried up again to C, then down the upright at
c-- iF, and up to D, where it is to be finally fastened off.
The skeleton being thus finished, the next thing to.
/ be done is to paste several sheets of paper so as to
S form a surface large enough to cover the kite and
allow of a little turn over to fasten the outer edges;
after you have pasted the paper on to the skeleton,.
you must make two holes, in the upright, as at G, G,.
through which the belly-band is to be passed, knotting
the two ends of the string to keep it from slipping
through the holes. The wings are to be made of several
sheets of paper, cut into slips, rolled close up, so as to bear some
resemblance to a tassel, and tied to the sides of the kite at C, D. The
tail, which should be about fifteen times the length of the kite, is
made by folding a number of pieces of paper so as to be about an.
inch in breadth, and four inches in length, and afterwards tying them
on a string at intervals of three inches, and is finished by affixing to
the end of the string a large tassel made in the same manner as the
wings. Tie the string with which you intend to fly the kite to the
belly-band, and your kite is complete and ready for service.
We need not enter very minutely into the rules to be observed in
flying a kite, as every boy is acquainted with them. Unless there be
a nice breeze stirring, the kite-flyer need not expect to have much
sport, as nothing can be more vexa-
tious than attempting to fly a kite
when there is not sufficient wind for
the purpose. To raise the kite in
the first instance, the flyer will re-
quire the aid of another boy. The.
owner of the kite having unwound'
a considerable length of string, now
turns his face towards the wind and
-- ___ prepares for a run, while his assistant
... .,.- holds the kite by its lower extremity
'as high as he can from the ground.
S'At a given signal the assistant lets
S- 1 the kite go, and if all circumstances
a "'_ be favourable it will soar upwards
with great rapidity. With a well-
constructed kite, in a good breeze

the flyer need not trouble himself to run very fast nor very far, as his
kite will soon find its balance, and float quite steadily on the wind.
The kite-flyer should be careful not to let out string too fast. When
a kite pitches, it is a sign that it is built lop-side, or that its tail is not
long enough.
Some boys amuse themselves by sending messengers up to their
kites when they have let out all their string. A messenger is formed
of a piece of paper three or four inches square, in the centre of which
a hole is made. The end of the string is passed through the hole,
and the wind quickly drives the messenger up to the kite. The kite-
flyer should be careful not to send up too many messengers, lest
they weigh down the kite.
Calico has many advantages over paper as a covering for kites; it
is not so liable to be torn, is not damaged by wet, and may be sewn
on the framework much more neatly than paper can be pasted.
Being much heavier than paper, it is, however, only suited for large

kites. A portable calico kite may now be procured at most of the
toy-shops. The framework of this kite is formed of two slender
pieces of wood, which turn on a common centre in sucfi a manner
that they can either be shut up, so that one piece lies flat upon the
other, or opened out into the form of a cross. The calico covering is
attached to this cross by means of tapes. This portable kite can be
rolled up and carried to the field without inconvenience.

Ingenious boys now and then take a hmnt from the Chinese, and so
shape and paint their kites that they resemble different animate and

inanimate objects. The "officer kite," which has the. figure of
a soldier painted on it, and the "hawk kite," which rudely repre-
sents a flying hawk, are common forms of fancy kites. A very funny
effect may be produced by painting a kite like a sailor, and attaching
moveable arms, instead of the ordinary tassel wings, to the shoulders.
We present our readers with a few suggestive forms, which are

quite novel. All fancy kites should be painted with the most
glaring colours, and the figures on them drawn as coarsely as possible,
as they are intended to be seen at a great distance.


--- -.
_, ---- '',-. ~ ,

In ancient times, when we were boys, and indulged in the luxury
of marbles, they were very different from their present form. They
were made of stone, nicely polished, and some of them, called "alleys,"
of the purest marble. Many of the stone marbles were beautifully
variegated, and now and then a fancy pet was treasured under the
name of "taw," which had somewhat the virtues of a talisman, for
to "lose it or to give it" were such perdition," as Othello says, as
could never be exceeded. Of late years, marbles, like all other
matters, have undergone considerable change. Foreign marbles
have been introduced, prodigiously cheaper, it is true, than our old
English marbles, but infinitely worse; and various kinds of "patent
marbles" have had their day. Some of these go by the name of
Dutchmen, others are called Frenchmen, and others again Chinamen,
while it is not quite impossible to procure some right old English
marbles, which, if they can be procured, are still the best. We
would advise all marble players to procure these, if they can, as
"marbles" is a royal game, and ought to be duly honoured.
How to Shoot your Marble.-The art of holding a marble to shoot
it properly seems to be lost among our London boys, who are gene-

rally content to throw one marble at another, or if
they shoot it to hold it in the turn of the fore-finger,.
forcing it out by the thumb, which is placed behind
S it. This, in our boyish days, was held to be a very
ill -:rmi .,t.. way of proceeding, derogatory to the true
I" f' marble-player, and bore the dishonourable appellation
..* of fulking," and any one who made it his rule to
Should a marble in such a manner was looked upon as a
charlatan, or almost a cheat. The true way to hold
your taw is to place it between the point of the fore-
finger and the first joint of the thumb, and to propel
sow T1 HOLD it from the nail of the thumb with strong muscular
YOUR TAW. force; and so great was the skill attained by many
boys, that they would sometimes strike a marble at five yards' dis-
tance, and frequently shoot one to six or seven.
This game is played by several players, each of whom puts down a
marble in a small ring. One player then stands in a perpendicular
position over the cluster of marbles, and, taking his own bounce in
his hand, lets it fall from his eye on to the heap, and those forced
out of the ring by this method are considered won. If he does not
succeed in this, and his marble falls within the ring, it belongs to the
common stock, and is there impounded.
There is a game called Conqueror," which is extensively played
in some places. A piece of hard ground, and free from stones, is,
chosen for the spot. The first player lays his marble on the ground,
and the second throws his own at it with all his force, and endeavours.
to break it. If he succeeds, his marble counts one, and the van-
quished player lays down another marble. If two players have
marbles that have already vanquished others, the "Conqueror"
counts all the conquered of the other party in addition to his own.
For example, suppose A, being conqueror of twenty, breaks B, also
a popqueror of twenty, A counts forty-one, i.e. twenty of his own,
twenty for the vanquished belonging to B, and one for B itself.
Nuts, chestnuts, and other similar objects are also employed in
this game, only they are fastened to a string, and swung against the
opponent, instead of being thrown.
This is a very good game, and requires both
skill and caution. It is played by elevating a die
upon a marble, whose sides are slightly ground
down, so that it will stand firmly, and firing at it
from an offing, which is generally at a distance of
about four feet from it. The die-keeper under-

takes to pay to the shooter who knocks down the die the number
which falls uppermost, receiving one marble from each player as he
This game is a great improvement upon odd or even. Dick asks
Tom to guess the number of eggs in the bush"-that is, the num-
ber of marbles in his closed hand. If Tom can guess the right
number, he takes all; but if he is out in his reckoning, he pays Dick
is many marbles as will make up or leave the exact number. Suppose
Dick has six marbles in his hand; now, if Tom should guess either
four or eight, he would have to forfeit two marbles to Dick, because
four is two less, and eight is two more, than the exact number. The
players hold the "eggs in the bush" alternately.
In most respects resembles Ring taw, the variations being, that if
before a marble is shot out of the ring one player's taw is struck by
another's (excepting his partner's), or if his taw remains within the
ring, he puts a shot in the pound, continues in the game, and shoots
again from the offing before any of his companions. If his taw is
struck after one or more marbles have been driven out of the ring, if'
he has taken any shots himself, he gives them to the player who
struck him, puts a taw in the ring, and shoots from the offing, as
before. If, however, he has not won any marbles during the game,
before his taw is struck, he is "killed" and put out of the game; he
is likewise out if, after any shots have been struck out, his taw gets
within the pound-if it remains on the line it is nothing. He then
puts the marbles (if he has won any) into the circle, adding one to
them for the taw struck, and shoots again from the offing. In case
he cannot gain any'shots after his taw gets "fat," as remaining in
the ring is termed, he is killed, and out for the rest of the game.
When only one marble remains in the ring, the taw may continue
inside it without being "fat." Each player seldom puts more than
one marble in the ring at the beginning of a game.
This game is played by knocking
marbles against a wall, or perpen- w A L L
dicular board set up for the purpose; A
and the skill displayed in it depends
upon the player's attention to what is
called in mechanics the resolution of
forces: for instance, if an object be
struck against the wall at A from the
mark at B, it will return again to B in
a straight line; if it be sent from C to
A, it will, instead of returning to C, C s
pass off aslant to D, and its course will

form the angle CA D; the angle of incidence being equal to thi
angle of reflection.
The game is played by any number of players: the first player
throws his marble against the wall, so that it may rebound and fall
about a yard distant from it; the other players then, in succession,
throw their marbles against the wall, in such a way as to cause them
to strike any of those already lagged out, and the marble struck is
considered won by the owner of the taw that strikes it, in addition
to which the winner has another throw. When only two boys play,
each successively throws out till one of the "laggers" is struck, and
he who strikes takes up all.
Long taw is played by two persons in the following manner. One
boy places his marble on the ground at A, the other at B; then both
A retire to the spot C. The first boy now shoots at B from a
S line marked at C. If he strikes it, he takes it and shoots at
A; if he strikes A, he then wins the game. If, however, he
misses B, the second boy then shoots at B; if he strikes it,
he can then either shoot at the first boy's taw at the place at
which it lies, or he can shoot at A. If he hits his opponent's
taw, he is said to kill him, and wins the game, or if he shoots
at A, and hits it. The boy who hits the last shot has the
.B privilege of shooting at the taw of the other, provided it has
not already been killed. If he hits it, the taw is taken, or
the owner must pay one, and the game ends; and if he
C misses it, the game is then at an end also. Long taw is a
game seldom played by London boys, but is very common in
the different English counties.

This game is played by means of a piece of board cut into the form
of a bridge, having nine arches, and just large enough to let the
marbles pass through, as in the subioined diagram. One of the

players undertakes to be "bridge-keeper," and the stipulation usually
made is, that he should receive one for every unsuccessful shot, and
pay to those who shoot their marbles through the arches the numbers
standing over them. The place from which the players shoot their
marbles is generally about four feet from the bridge.


One player extends his closed hand containing some marbles, and
asks his opponent to guess whether their number is odd or even.
Should he guess wrong, he forfeits a marble, and his questioner tries
him with another lot; but should he guess right, the first player
must pay him a marble, and take a turn at guessing.
This game consists in each player placing a marble on a line drawn
upon the ground thus, and the
whole shooting at them in suc-
cession from a mark about four ----
feet off. The order of the L--e P ,-' -4 J,
shots is determined beforehand, -
by pitching at a marble from a
six-feet offing, those nearest
being first, second, third, and fourth in order, as the marbles lie.
The marbles knocked off the line are won by the respective shooters.
In this game a boy generally sits upon the ground, with his legs
open wide, and, making a small circle, places
in it three marbles at the three points of a tri-
angle, and the fourth on the top of them, so
as to form a small pyramid. A distance of
about four feet is then chosen as the point to
shoot from, and the other players shoot at the
pyramid. Those that strike it have all the
marbles they knock out of the ring; but if
they miss, they lose their shots.
Ring taw is a game requiring skill and judgment, and is a most
excellent game. It is played as follows. Two rings are drawn upon
the ground, a small one, six inches in
diameter, enclosed by a larger one, six
feet in diameter. Into the small ring
each player puts a marble, called "shot."
The players then proceed to any part
of the large ring, and from thence,
as an offing, shoot at the marbles in the (
centre. If a player knocks a marble
out of the ring he wins it, and he is
entitled to shoot again before his com-
panions can have a shot. When all
the players have shot their marbles,

they shoot from the places at which their marbles rested at the last
shot. If the shooter's taw remain in the small circle, he is out, and
has to drop a marble in the ring, and he must put in besides all the
marbles he had previously won in that game. It is a rule, also, that
when one player shoots at and strikes another's taw, the taw so struck
is considered dead, and its owner must give up to the striker of the
taw all the marbles he may have previously won during the game.
The game is concluded when all the marbles are shot out of the ring,
or all the taws are killed.

This consists of one boy laying down his taw, and, giving a dis-
tance, his antagonist shoots at it; if he misses, the first boy shoots
at the taw of the second, till one is struck, which the striker claims.
Bounce About is the same game played by throwing large marbles
instead of shooting smaller ones, he who strikes the other's bounce
being the winner.
This is played on the same conditions as Die Shot. A teetotum is
set spinning by the keeper, and, when in motion, any player is
allowed to shoot at it, upon the payment of one marble, receiving, if

ne strikes, turns over, and stops the teetotum, as many marbles as
are indicated on the side that falls uppermost. This is a very skilful
game, and requires good shots.

This game is played by making three holes in the ground, about a
yard and a half or two yards asunder. About two yards from the
first hole a line is drawn. The right to shoot first is decided by
chance. The first shooter now knuckles down at the line, anc

-endeavours to shoot into the first hole. If he does this he proceeds
to the second, then to the third, and wins the game; but this rarely
occurs. If he misses the first hole, the other players
shoot their taws, and if neither of them enter the hole,
the first shot immediately does so; and then he has the
privilege either of proceeding to the second hole, or of
killing the other men by shooting at and hitting them,
when they must either give up their taws or -drop one. *
Sometimes a player will kill all his antagonists in sue-
cession without proceeding to any hole except the first,
and thus wins the game; at other times the game may
be won by any of the players killing their antagonists
during any period of the game. It is a rule that no one
can "kill a taw" till he has been in the first hole.

This game is played by two or more players. To play it, a hole,
of the diameter of three inches, is first made on a smooth or level
piece of ground, and a line is marked at about seven feet from it.
ach boy puts down two, three, or four marbles, as may be agreed
upon, and then the whole party bowl for their throws, by retiring to
three times the distance already marked from the hole, and bowling
one marble to it; the order of throws being determined by the near-
ness that each boy's marble approaches the hole. When this is
settled, the first thrower takes all the marbles in his hand, and
throws them in a cluster towards the hole. If an even number falls
m, such as 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, he wins all; but if an odd number falls in,
he loses all.


-La,' i,-,1^--

The peg-top appears to be a modern invention, but the whip-top is
of great antiquity, it having been used in remote times by the Grecian
boys; it was well known at Rome in the days of Virgil, and in Eng-
land as early at least as the fourteenth century, when its form was
the same as it is now. Strutt, in his Sports and Pastimes of the
People of England," relates the following amusing anecdote of Prince
Henry, the eldest son of James I., which he met with in an old manu-
script at the British Museum: "The first time that the prince went
to the town of Stirling to meet the king, seeing a little without the
gate of the town a stack of corn in proportion not unlike to a top
wherewith he used to play, he said to some that were with him, 'Lo,
there is a goodly top! Whereupon one of them saying, 'Why do
you not play with it then?' he answered, Set you it up for me and
I will play with it.'"
These cannot easily be made, but can very easily be purchased bJ
those who are so lucky as to have the money. They are made hollow,
having at their crown a peg, round which is wound a string; this,
being pulled through a kind of fork, gives motion to the top, and
sets it spinning-the fork and the string being left in the spinner's

TOPS. 81
hand. In spinning the top, care should be taken to wind the string
firmly and evenly on the peg; and when it is pulled out, neither too

much nor too little force should be used, and a firm a.:d steady hand
should be employed, while the top should be held in a perpendicular
position. The string should be drawn with a steadily increasing force,
or the top will not hum properly.
There are various kinds of Peg-tops, and
they also vary in shape, some being much
rounder than others. Those are the best
which are shaped like a pear. There is
also great variety as regards the shape and
size of the peg, which in some tops is
short and thick, in others long and tapering.
Again, tops are made of different kinds of ._-.,, --
wood, some being made of deal, others of --'''--.. -
elm, some of yew-tree, and others of box-
wood. These last are the Boxers so highly prized. Some of the very
best tops are made of lignum vitre, with long, handsome pegs.
The Spanish peg-top is made of mahogany. It is shaped some
what like a pear; instead of a sharp iron peg, it has a
small rounded knob at the end. As it spins for a much
longer time than the English peg-top, and does not
require to be thrown with any degree of force in order /
to set it up, it is extremely well adapted for playing on
flooring or pavement.
Whip-top is a capital sport when played by two persons; and is
played by first whirling the top into motion by turning it sharply with

both hands, and then by flogging it till its motion becomes very rapid.
When two persons play whip-top, the object should be for each to
whip his top to a certain goal, he who reaches it first being the
This game is played by two boys, in the following manner: Two
lines, about six feet apart, are marked upon the ground, which ought
to be smooth and hard. Some small stones are then procured and
placed midway between the lines; they should not be larger than a
small bean, and the black and polished ones are the most sought after.
The tops are now set up spinning on the ground, and the players,
being each provided with a small wooden spoon, dexterously intro-
duce them under the pegs of the spinning tops, and then, with the
top still spinning in the spoon, throw the point of'4he peg against the
stone, so as to chip it out of bounds; he who does this the soonest
being the victor. While the top continues to spin, he may take it
up with the spoon as many times as he can, and when it spins out he
must again wind up, pursuing the same plan till he chips out."
Directions.-In winding up the top do not wet the end of the line
too much, and take care to lay it closely and evenly within the
grooves. In throwing the top from you, the line must be pulled in
with a peculiar jerk of the hand, which practice alone can give. The
string button should be held close in the hand, between the last two
fingers of the hand. There is what is called an "underhand" way
of spinning a top, i.e. by holding it peg downwards, throwing it in a
straight line forward, and withdrawing the string; but as we dislike
everything underhand, we shall not recommend this practice any
more than we shall the Spanish tops, which are spun after this

.. ,, ".- % .-

This game may be played by any number of boys. A ring about
a yard in diameter is first marked on the ground, and another ring

TOPS. 83
surrounding the first, and at a yard's distance from it, is also marked.
The players must stand on this ring, and from it throw their tops.
One player begins by throwing his top spinning into the ring, and
while it is there spinning the other players are at liberty tc peg at it
as quickly as they can. If none of them hit it while it is spinning,
and if it rolls out of the ring, the owner is allowed to take it up, and
having wound it, to peg at the others which may be still spinning in
the circle. Should any of the tops, when they cease spinning, fall
within the ring, they are considered dead, and are placed in the centre
of the circle for the others to peg at. The player who succeeds in
striking any of the tops out of the circle claims those so struck out.
In some places each player may ransom his top with a marble.
Sleeping tops are exposed to much danger in the play, for they
offer a fair mark to the pegger," and often get split, when the
"peg" is taken by the splitter as his trophy. Long-pegged tops
are the best for the game, for they lie more upon their sides after
their fall, and, before the spinning entirely ceases, are the more likely
to spin out of the ring.
There is a way of making the top spring out of the ring directly it
has touched the ground. Only long-pegged tops will execute this
feat. It is done by drawing the hand sharply towards the body just
as the top leaves the string. When the manmuvre is well executed,
the top will drive any opponent that it strikes entirely out of the
ring, while it does not remain within the dangerous circle itself for
more than a few seconds.


-'---;q, ,


-- ... ".

There are some out-door games played with toys which do not fall
under any of our previous ir 1-hi- :. These games we now lay
before our reader, together with a description of the toys in common
The Apple Mill is made by boring a hole in a nut, just large
enough to pass a thin skewer through; the kernel should then be
extracted, and another hole bored in the side of the nut, as A in the
annexed figure. A skewer should next be cut or
Ln thinned, leaving it large enough at the top to form a
A head, as shown in the cut. A piece of string is then to
be tied to the skewer, and passed through the hole in
the side of the nut at A, and an apple stuck on the end
of the skewer. The mill being now complete in all its
works, it should be twirled round in the same manner
as the humming top to wind up the string, holding the
S nut stationary between the forefinger and thumb of the
left hand; when this is done, the string must be pulled out quickly,
and the mill will immediately spin round. When an apple cannot be
procured, a small potato will serve equally well.

This amusing game is of a very simple character, consisting essen-
tially in throwing at a small object. Aunt Sally herself is composed
of a head and bust cut out of a solid block of wood, and generally
carved with negro features, and painted black. In the middle of
her nose, or between her lips, a hole is bored, into which is stuck
a short pipe. To break it is the object of the game. An iron

OAT. 85
rod serves to support the wooden figure at a proper elevation from
the ground; and when in gala costume, Aunt Sally is usually
arrayed in a mob cap and a petticoat. The
mode of playing the game is as follows:-
The iron rod is stuck in the ground, a
pipe put into the old lady's mouth, and a i,
line drawn upon the ground, at twelve, six- (
teen, or more paces. At this line the-. N
players stand, and each is furnished with three c- 7
short cudgels, about eighteen inches in .
length, which they hurl at Aunt Sally's I
head, in hopes of hitting the pipe. The "' .
best plan is to throw the cudgels under-
hand, giving them a rapid rotatory move- ',
ment at the same time. Some persons insert /
an additional pipe into each ear; but this is ''.I
an innovation, and leads to careless throw-
ing. It is better to hang a sheet, net, or
large cloth behind Aunt Sally, in order to -
catch the sticks, and save the trouble of con-
tinually fetching them from a distance. Within doors, the iron rod
is furnished with a loaded pedestal.
Or, "Throwing Sticks." This very popular game among the Greeks
was by them called Kyndalismos. It was played with short batons,
and required considerable strength and quickness of eye. With us
the game is played in much the same manner as the Greeks played
it. A stick is fixed in a kind of cup or hole, about six inches deep, in a
loose moist soil, and the players consist of the Keeper and Throwers.
The Keeper places on the top of the stick some article, such as an
apple or orange, and the Throwers endeavour to knock it off, by
throwing at it with short thick sticks, or batons; whoever succeeds
in doing this claims the prize, whenever it falls without the hole.
The Thrower will soon find in his play, that to hit the stick is of
little importance, as from the perpendicular line of gravity which the
apple or orange will take in its descent, it is almost certain to fall
into the hole. The aim, therefore, should be to strike the object
from the stick. This game is very common at fairs and similar
places, and three sticks, with articles upon them, are usually set up,
but which offer no advantage to the throwers.
Tip Cat, although not altogether a nice pastime, ought to be
noticed here. It is a dangerous game, and should be played with
great caution on the part of the players. It is a rustic game, well
known, and generally goes by the name of Cat. It is played with a

cudgel or bludgeon, resembling that used for trap-ball. Its name is
derived from a piece of wood called a "Cat," of about six inches in
length, and an inch and half, or two, in diameter, diminished from
the middle to both the ends, being of the shape of a spindle or
double cone; by this contrivance the places of the trap and ball are
at once supplied, for when the Cat is laid upon the ground, the
player with his stick tips it at one end by a smart stroke, which
causes it to rise in the air with a rotatory motion, high enough for
him to strike it as it falls, in the same manner as lie would 9 ball.

There are various methods of playing the game of Cat. The first
is exceedingly simple, and consists in i,'il- l: a large ring upon the
ground, in the middle of which the striker takes his station. His
business is to beat the Cat over the ring; if he fails in so doing he
is out, and another player takes his place; if he is successful, he
judges with his eye the distance the Cat is driven from the centre of
the ring, and calls for a number at pleasure to be scored for the
game: if the number demanded be found, upon measurement, to
exceed the same number of lengths of the bludgeon, he is out; on
the contrary, if it does not, he obtains his call.
The second method of playing Cat is to make four, six, or eight
holes in the ground, in a circular direction, and as nearly as possible
at equal distances from each other, and at every hole is placed a
player with his bludgeon. One of the opposite party who stands in
the field tosses the Cat to the batsman who is nearest him, and every
time the Cat is struck the players are obliged to change their situa-
tions, and run once from one hole to another in succession. If the
Cat be driven to any very great distance, they continue to run in the
same order, and claim a score of one towards the game every time
they quit one hole and run to another. But if the Cat be stopped
by their opponents, and thrown across between any two of the holes,
before the player, who has quitted one of them, can reach the other,
he is out.
This sport, which is of French origin, is for two players only.
Both being blindfolded, they are tied to the ends of a long string,
which is fastened by a loose knot in the middle to a post, and, as the

Knot is ve y slightly tied, the players are enabled to move about with
facility. The player who takes the part of the "mouse" scrapes
two pieces of wood together, so as to make a grating noise, and for
which purpose the edges of one of the pieces of wood are notched :
the sound attracts the other player, vho represents the cat," and
he immediately uses his utmost efforts to catch his prey, bly following
the noise as well as he can, the "mouse" at the same time struggling
about; in order to escape being caught.
SA similar game to Aunt Sally, but a simpler one, is
made by scooping a hole in the ground, and placing
in it an upright stick; on the top of it is placed a
stone, or similar substance. The player then retires
to a distance, and flings at the stone with cudgels
or balls, the latter being preferable. If the stone
falls into the hole, the player only counts one to-
wards the game; but if it falls outside the hole, he
counts two. This is a capital game for the sea- -.. -- -
side, and can be played upon the sands. This game -
is almost similar to Baton.
The pea-shooter is a tube of metal, through which a pea may be
propelled with great force by a puff of air from the mouth. The
ordinary tin pea-shooters sold in the shops are comparatively worth-
less. We should advise the reader to procure a straight piece of
brass tube from two to four feet long, and get a brazier to tin one
end of it, so that the brass may not corrode when placed in the
mouth. With such a tube peas, pellets of clay, and other projectiles
may be shot with great precision to a considerable distance. The
game of puff and dart is played with a long brass tube, and a small
dart having a needle point. The dart is blown through the tube at
a target, on which there are divisions bearing different numbers.
The game of Quoits is very excellent. It seems to have derived
its name from the ancient discus, and with us in the present day is a
circular plate of iron perforated in the middle, --
not always of one size, but larger or smaller to
suit the strength or convenience of the several
To play at Quoits an iron pin called a hob is
driven into the ground within a few inches of the /
top, and at the distance of eighteen or twenty
yards, as may be agreed upon, a second pin of
ruon is also fixed. The players ame generally divided into parties, and

the players pitch the quoits from hob to hob; those who pitch the
nearest reckoning towards the game. But the determination is
'i discriminately made; for instance, if a quoit belonging to A
.". lies nearest to the hob, and a quoit belonging to B the second,
*" A can claim but one towards the game, though all his other
quoits be nearer to the hob than all the other quoits of B,
Because one quoit of B boin the second nearest to the hob,
cuts out, as it is called, Il! I..._!!.d it. If no such quoit had
interfered, then A would have reckoned all his as one each.
Having all cast their quoits, the players walk to the opposite
side, and determine the state of the play. Then taking their
stand there, throw their quoits back again, and continue to
do so alternately, till the end of the game. A quoit that falls
with its flat side upward does not count.

I' 'iI/ A iji '- ---

This game, as its name denotes, is played by means of nine pins,
which are set up in a regular order, the aim of the players being
to throw down as many as possible in the fewest attempts. Each
player is permitted to throw three times at the pins, and if he can
knock them all down in two throws, it is called a "single," and they
are again set up for his last throw; or, if he can knock them down
in one throw, it is called a double," and they are set up. A heavy
wooden ball, called a bowl," is used to throw at the pins.

Skittles is played in a manner somewhat similar to the preceding
game, but the number of pins is only four. These are very large, and

are arranged on a square framework, so as to present one of the
angles to the player. The bowl used for playing this game is of the
shape of a cheese, and is usually made of lignum vita, as being very
heavy and hard wood. The game requires more bodil -.. h lL than
nine-pins, as the bowl must be thrown upon the l.lI:-,, .i11 not
rolled up to them.
The best play is to throw the bowl with a round-handed swing of
the arm, so as to strike the nearest skittle at the right of its upper
third. The ball then .-i'u -; to the second skittle, and from this
generally twists to the third, while the fourth skittle is sent down
by the roll of the one first struck. It is very difficult to make this
throw successfully, and many players prefer driving down the first
-nd third skittles with a straightforward shoot, and then making
their second ball spring across from the second to the fourth. This
latter stroke appears very difficult, but is soon learnt; the great
point being to throw the bowl high, so that it may drop as perpen-
dicularly as possible on the left of the upper third of the second
skittle. In the long run, the constant repetition of this practice will
overbalance occasional brilliancy of play.

I ,- i\X ., .l i l" -,

This game is nothing more than a modification of nine-pins; the
pins being higher, and the centre one bearing the name of king, and
a crown upon its head. The great point in this game is to strike
the king out of the board without knocking down any of the subjects.
If this can be done, the game is won. In all other cases, the king
counts for no more than any of his subjects.
This is a good athletic sport, but the Hammer can scarcely be called
a toy. The hammer used by rustics is 1-,:,.: il. 7 the sledge-hammer
of the blacksmith, with a head weighing some twelve or fourteen
pounds. The players are all single and do not join in parties, and the
prize is given to him who makes the greatest number of long throws
in a dozen. It does not merely require strength to throw the sledge-
nammer, but a nice calculation of the area which the Hammer has to
pass over in its flight, combined with the strength of the thrower.


This instrument is a curved piece of wood, flat on one side, and
slightly rounded on the other. It is used by the natives of New
South Wales, who can throw it so
dexterously as to kill a man behind
a tree, where he may have fled for
safety. It should be held hori-
zontally in throwing it, and cast by
bringing the arm backwards, and
after making a variety of curves it
will come back again to the person
who send it. If skilfully thrown, it may be made to go in almost
any direction the thrower pleases.

The skip-jack is manufactured out of the merry-thought of a goose,
which must, of course, be well cleaned before it is used. A strong
doubled string must be tied at the two ends of the bone, and a piece
of wood about three inches long put between the
Strings, as shown in the marginal illustration, and
S twisted round until the string acquires the force of a
spring. A bit of shoemaker's wax should then be
put in the hollow of the bone at the spot where the end of the piece of
wood touches, and when the wood is pressed slightly on the wax
the jack is set; it adheres but a very short time, and then springs
forcibly up. The skip-jack is placed on the ground with the wax
downwards, and in some parts of the country it is usual to call out,
"Up, Jack or Jump, Jack !" just before it springs.

The art of slinging, or of casting stones with a sling, is of very
high antiquity. We see it represented on the Nimroud monuments,
and the feat of the divine youth, David, is familiar to every one. In
the earliest times there were bands of slingers, and probably whole
regiments of them, and there is little doubt that the art of slinging
preceded that of archery. The former seemed, however, to belong
to the Asiatic, as the latter did to the European nations. Our
'Saxon ancestors, also, seem to have been skilful in their manner of
holding the sling. Its form is preserved in several of their paint-
ings, and the manner in which it was used by them, as far back as
the eighth century, may be seen in the annexed cut. We have also
sufficient testimony to prove, that men armed with slings formed part
of the Anglo-Norman soldiery.
(1) The instrument represented in the cut is the Australian boomerang. Thost
used in England have a sharper curve.

In country districts, slinging of stones is a common sport; and the
sling so used consists simply of a piece of leather cut into the sub-


joined form, to which are affixed two cords, one having a loop. In
using it, leather is suffered to hang from the strong downwards; the
slinger places his little finger in the loop, and
holds the other end in his hand, and then putting
the stone in the hole of the sling at A, which pre-
vents its falling, whirls the whole round for three
or four times, to obtain a strong centrifugal force,
and suddenly letting go of that part of the sling
held in his hand, the stone flies forward with in-
conceivable rapidity, making a twanging sound in
the ear as it flies. Slinging is a very good exercise /
for imparting strength to the arm, but young (
slingers should be very careful where they send
their stones, or they may do much damage.
If any of my readers may wish to construct a better kind of sling,
they may do it in the following manner:-Get a currier
to cut a piece of very strong buckskin leather in this
shape, the centre being cut into bars. Two long strips LU
of the same leather are then cut of this shape,

two cuts being made along them, so as to leave three leather cords.
These are plaited together, and the flat ends firmly sewn to the
centrepiece. The shape will then be this:

^^ TO^~t^ SWA^P^

A sling made on this principle will carry a stone of a pound weight.
The loop and point should be whipped with silk. The accuracy that
can be obtained with such a weapon is astonishing, only the missiles
should always be leaden bullets of the same weight-,two or three
ounces being the best average weight. At the school where my boy-
hood was spent, we used to send such bullets just over the weather-
cock of one of the loftiest spires in _, .,.11 and stripped a chestnut-
tree of its blossoms. One year there was a solitary blossom on the
top of the tree, which defied our efforts for many days. The blossoms
were soon knocked off, but the green stalk resisted the blows for a
long time. It was battered to pieces, but bent to the strokes, and
had to be knocked off in fragments. I mention this to show the
accuracy of aim that can be attained by practice.

\ Among the Swiss, and in several districts in
S the South of France, walking on stilts is not only
S an amusing, but a useful, practice, as by means
i of these crane-like legs men and women trans-
-I form themselves into the order of Waders,"
emulating the long-legged storks and herons, and
can cross over marshes and flooded grounds
without wetting their feet. Stilts are easily made,
S being nothing but a pair of poles, with a wooden
S step at the sides for the feet to stand on. The
poles are kept in their proper place by the hands.
A little practice will soon render a youth easy
Son his stilts," and they may be made an amusing
and i, i.-- exercise.

<*>~ -

The sucker is a toy of the simplest construction imaginable; it Is
made by merely cutting a circular piece out of some tolerably stout
leather, boring a hole in its centre, and then passing a string through
the hole, taking the precaution to make a large knot at the end of
the string, to prevent its being drawn completely through the hole.

Before using the sucker, it must be steeped in water antil it becomes
quite soft and pliable. If its smooth, moist surface be now pressed
so closely against the flat side of a stone or other body, that the air
camnot enter between them, the wihlt of the atmosphere pressing
on the upper surface of the -:. .1..! ;:-. cause it to adhere so strongly,
that the stone, if its weight be proportioned to the extent of the disc
of leather, may be raised by lifting the string. If the sucker could
act with full effect, every square inch of its surface would support
about the weight of fourteen pounds. The feet of the common
house-fly are provided with minute natural suckers, by aid of which
the insect is enabled to run up a smooth pane of glass and walk
along the ceiling.

Ou. young readers will in all probability remark that we have laid
but little stress on games with toys, and that comparatively few toys
nave been mentioned. We have done so intentionally, because the
book is written expressly for boys, and those, English boys. Now
an English boy always likes a toy that will do something. For
example, he cares not one farthing for all the elegant imitations of
guns in the world, as long as he can have his pea-shooter; and the
walnut stock, the glittering decorations, and the burnished but
useless barrel of the toy gun, are nothing in his eyes, when compared
with the plain tin barrel of his beloved pea-shooter, which will throw
a missile with rifle-like accuracy of aim.
For these reasons, we have mentioned but very few toys, looking
with contempt upon those innumerable fabrications that find their
place in the windows of toy-shops, and in ninety-nine cases out of a
hundred are only'purchased for the immediate gratification of spoilt
children, who unconsciously illustrate the real objects of toys, by
pulling them to pieces, and converting the fragments to unexpected

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