Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I: Britain before the English...
 Chapter II: The English in...
 Chapter III: Conversion of the...
 Chapter IV: The rise of Wessex
 Chapter V: From Aethelstan to the...
 Chapter VI: The Danish kings
 Chapter VII: From Edward to the...
 Chapter VIII: William I
 Chapter IX: William II
 Chapter X: Henry I
 Chapter XI: Stephen
 Chapter XII: Henry II
 Chapter XIII: Richard I
 Chapter XIV: John
 Chapter XV: Henry III
 Chapter XVI: Edward I
 Chapter XVII: Edward II
 Chapter XVIII: Edward III
 Chapter XIX: Richard II
 Chapter XX: Henry IV
 Chapter XXI: Henry V
 Chapter XXII: Henry VI
 Chapter XXIII: Edward IV and Edward...
 Chapter XXIV: Richard III
 Chapter XXV: Henry VII
 Chapter XXVI: Henry VIII
 Chapter XXVII: Edward VI
 Chapter XXVIII: Mary
 Chapter XXIX: Elizabeth
 Chapter XXX: James I
 Chapter XXXI: Charles I
 Chapter XXXII: The commonwealt...
 Chapter XXXIII: Charles II
 Chapter XXXIV: James II
 Chapter XXXV: William and Mary
 Chapter XXXVI: Anne
 Chapter XXXVII: George I
 Chapter XXXVIII: George II
 Chapter XXXIX: George III
 Chapter XL: George IV
 Chapter XLI: William IV
 Chapter XLII: Victoria
 Chronological table
 Back Cover

Group Title: History of England for young people : : from the conquest by Julius C¶sar to the present time with 150 illustrations.
Title: History of England for young people
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065407/00001
 Material Information
Title: History of England for young people from the conquest by Julius Cœsar to the present time with 150 illustrations
Physical Description: vi, 154 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Blamire, Joseph L
George Routledge and Sons
Publisher: George Routledge and Sons
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: c1889
Subject: History -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: "Copyright 1889 by Joseph L. Blamire"--T.p. verso.
General Note: Imprint also notes publisher's location in London.
General Note: Includes "Chronological table."
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065407
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002223809
notis - ALG4062
oclc - 44929746

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Chapter I: Britain before the English conquest
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Chapter II: The English in Britain
        Page 5
    Chapter III: Conversion of the English to Christianity
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Chapter IV: The rise of Wessex
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Chapter V: From Aethelstan to the Danish kings
        Page 11
    Chapter VI: The Danish kings
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Chapter VII: From Edward to the Norman conquest
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Chapter VIII: William I
        Page 17
    Chapter IX: William II
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Chapter X: Henry I
        Page 20
    Chapter XI: Stephen
        Page 21
    Chapter XII: Henry II
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Chapter XIII: Richard I
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Chapter XIV: John
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Chapter XV: Henry III
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Chapter XVI: Edward I
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Chapter XVII: Edward II
        Page 39
    Chapter XVIII: Edward III
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Chapter XIX: Richard II
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Chapter XX: Henry IV
        Page 45
    Chapter XXI: Henry V
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Chapter XXII: Henry VI
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Chapter XXIII: Edward IV and Edward V
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Chapter XXIV: Richard III
        Page 56
    Chapter XXV: Henry VII
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Chapter XXVI: Henry VIII
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Chapter XXVII: Edward VI
        Page 63
    Chapter XXVIII: Mary
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Chapter XXIX: Elizabeth
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Chapter XXX: James I
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Chapter XXXI: Charles I
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Chapter XXXII: The commonwealth
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Chapter XXXIII: Charles II
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Chapter XXXIV: James II
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Chapter XXXV: William and Mary
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Chapter XXXVI: Anne
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Chapter XXXVII: George I
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Chapter XXXVIII: George II
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Chapter XXXIX: George III
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Chapter XL: George IV
        Page 136
    Chapter XLI: William IV
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Chapter XLII: Victoria
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Chronological table
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
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From the Conquest by Julius Ccesar to the Present Time


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History of the United States.
History of England.
Great African Travellers.
Great Arctic Travellers.
Life of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Out-Door Sports for Boys (and
Each 160 pages, quarto. With numerous
illustrations. Boards, lithographed double
cover, each, 75 cents.





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History of England.



ENGLAND, the southern part of the Isle of Brit-
ain, has its name from the Angles or English, a
Teutonic people who, with other kindred tribes,
came over from the mainland of Europe, and won
themselves a new home in Britain. Theyfo'nd the
land already occupied by a Celtic-speaking peo-
ple, the Britons, who still exist under the name of
Welsh. In the island of Ireland, formerly called lerne

Britons begins, the Romans were the most power-
ful nation of the world; and it was their great gen-
eral, Caius Julius Caesar, who came over with two
legions in August, B.c. 55, landing either at Walmer
or Deal, after a sharp fight with the natives. The
next year he came again, when he was opposed by a
league of tribes under a chief called Cassivelaunus,
whose fortified town or camp the Romans assaulted

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and Scotia, there was another Celtic people, the
Scots or Gael, who afterwards made a settlement in
Caledonia, or North Britain, which from them came
to be called Scotland. Two Celtic languages are
still spoken in the British Isles. These are the
Gaelic, dialects of which survive in parts of Ireland,
in the Isle of Man, and in the Western Highlands
of Scotland; and the Cymric, or Welsh tongue,
which is spoken in Wales.
At the time when our historical knowledge of the

and took. The Britons employed both cavalry and
chariots in war, and were remarkable for their skill
in driving and the activity with which they leaped
down to fight on foot and sprang back again to
their cars. They were in the habit of staining
themselves blue with woad, to look more terrible in
battle. Their priests were called Druids, and human
sacrifices were offered to their gods.
It was not, however, till the time of the Emperor
Claudius, who himself came over A.D. 43, that the



Romans began really to conquer Britain. One who
struggled the hardest against the invaders was
Caradoc, called by the Romans Caractacus. He

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was at last taken and sent prisoner to Rome, where
the Emperor, struck by his gallant speech and
bearing, instead of putting him to death, the usual

fate of a captive, gave him and his family their lives.
It is told of Caradoc, that when, after his release,
he walked through the stately streets of Rome, he
asked bitterly why men thus magnificently lodged
should covet the poor cottages of the Britons.
In the year 61, Suetonius Paulinus, the Roman
governor in Britain, attacked the Isle of Mona (now
Anglesey), the refuge of those who stood out against
the Roman power. A strong force of warriors de-
fended the shore; the Druids stood around, call-
ing down the wrath of heaven upon the invaders;
women with streaming hair and torches in their
hands rushed wildly to and fro. For a moment the
Romans quailed with superstitious terror, but, re-
calling their courage, they advanced; the defenders
of the isle were overwhelmed, and the sacred groves,
where captives had been offered in sacrifice, were
destroyed. Meanwhile the subject Britons broke
out into revolt under the leadership of Boadicea,
widow of a King of the Icenians, a tribe dwelling
in what are now Norfolk and Suffolk. This people
had been cruelly oppressed by the Roman officers;
Boadicea herself had been scourged, and her two
daughters subjected to brutal outrage. The colony
of Camulodunum (Colchester) was stormed, and the
colonists slaughtered by the insurgents. In like
manner were massacred the inhabitants of the Ro-
man towns of Verulamium (near St. Albans) and
Londinium (London). So far the Britons carried
all before them, but on the return of Suetonius
they were routed with great slaughter. Boadicea
died soon after-a natural death, as some say; ac-
cording to others, she poisoned herself in despair.

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The Roman dominion in Britain was gradually
strengthened and increased. From the year 78 to
84 the governor of the province, the territory sub-
ject to Rome, was Cneus Julius Agricola. He ex-
tended the Roman dominions to the Firths of Forth


and Clyde, securing the frontier by a chain of forts,
while a second line of defence was formed by simi-
lar forts from the Tyne to the Solway. The wild
northern tribes called Caledonians were never sub-
dued, although Agricola defeated them in a battle
on the Highland border. His fleet sailed along the
northern coast and took possession of the Orkneys.
Agricola was a wise and good man, who ruled the
province well, checking the extortions of the Roman
officials, and encouraging the natives to build tem-
ples, courts of justice, and good dwelling-houses.
Under his influence the chieftains' sons learned to
speak Latin, wore the toga or gown which was the
distinctive dress of the Romans, and adopted the
ways and manners of their conquerors. -The great-
er part of Britain remained subject to Rome for
more than three hundred years; and its history
during that time belongs to that of the Roman

Empire generally. Latin probably was spoken by
the higher classes in the towns, but in the country
the Celtic tongue held its ground. The Romans
left their mark on the land more than on the
people. Parts of their roads, often called streets
from the Latin strata, a
paved way remain at this
day. Chester, cester, caster, a
word which enters into the
Names of many existing towns
-as Winchester, Leicester,
SDoncaster has come down
from the Latin castra, camp
or fortified place. We still
may see remains of the strong
City walls and other structures.
T H Most famous are the remains
" '*, I of the great military works in
Sthe north, where the fortifica-
'' tions had to be constantly
". -nTi'l".' l... .-l against the rest-
less Caledonians. In the year
= 12 the Emperor Hadrian vis-
ited Britain, and had the forts
between the Tyne and the Sol-
way connected by a ditch and
'-4- earthen rampart. A similar
S dyke was raised along Agrico,
la's northern line, about 139,
in the reign of the Emperot
Antoninus Pius. Still the Cal-
edonians gave trouble, and about 208 the Emperor
Severus not only drove them out of the province,
but led an expedition into their country, returning
to die in 21i at Eboracum, now called York, which
was then the chief city of Britain. Severus seems
to have strengthened Hadrian's wall with a second
line of earthworks. Finally, the great stone wall
along the same line, of which fragments still remain,
was made about the end of the fourth or beginning
of the fifth century.
The Christian faith made its way in Britain as in
other parts of the Roman Empire, but how or when
it was introduced is not known. Its first martyr is
said to have been St. Alban, who was put to death
for his faith, about 304, near Verulamium. There,
in the eighth century, an English King, Offa, found-
ed in his honor an abbey, round which grew up
the town bearing the martyr's name.




IN the fourth century, when the power of Rome
was going down, the free Celts of the north-the
Picts, as the Caledonians were now called, and their
allies the Scots-began to pour into Roman Britain,
while other enemies attacked the island by sea.
These latter were Teutonic tribes, speaking dialects
of the Low-Dutch or Low-German tongue, who
came from the mouths of the Elbe and the Weser
in North Germany. Early in the fifth century, in
the reign of the Emperor Honorius, the Roman
troops were withdrawn from Britain, and the na-
tives were left to resist their many enemies as they
best might. In the course of the fifth and sixth
centuries, the greater part of the country was con-
quered by Teutonic invaders, the founders of the
English nation, among whom three tribes stand out
above the rest, the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes.
These grew into one people under the name of
Anglo-Saxons, or more commonly of Angles or
English; and the part of Britain they dwelt in
came to be called England.
The faith of the English was much the same as
that of'the Teutonic tribes generally-heathenism,
though not of a degraded form. Woden, called by
the Danes Odin, was their chief god, the giver of
valor and victory; after him came Thunor-that is,
Thunder, better known by his Danish name of
Thor-the ruler of the sky; and many other gods
and goddesses. The names of the days of the week,
as Wednesday, Woden's day, Thursday, Thor's day,
still preserve the memory of some of these dei-
ties. The name of the goddess Eostre (Easter),
worshipped in the month of April, has passed to the
Christian Feast of the Resurrection. Wyrd, that is,
Fate, lives on in the word weird," which in north-

ern tales and ballads signifies a doom or curse inflict-
ed by supernatural power. There was also a belief
in spirits who haunted the wilds and the waters, and
in elves or fairies.
The English royal houses claimed descent from
the god Woden; but, though the King was taken
from the kingly line, he was nevertheless elected,
and a child, or a man thought incompetent, would
be passed over in favor of a kinsman better fitted
for the office. In early times the King was not
looked upon as lord of the soil, but as leader of
the people; and thus in after days, when a single
King ruled over all the English states, his usual
title was King of the English," not King of Eng-
The King was not absolute (that is, he did not
rule wholly according to his own will), but was
bound to observe the laws and customs of his
people. He was moreover guided by a council or
assembly, called the Witena-gem6t, that is, the
Meeting of the Wise, its members being the Witan,
the Wise Men. The powers of the Witan were
large; they elected the King; and they and he to-
gether made laws and treaties, and appointed or
removed the officers of the State. In small matters
the people governed themselves. The township
had its own little meeting, for making its by-laws
and settling its affairs. So the hundred, called in
some parts of the country the wapentake, a union
of townships, had a court and meeting for trying
criminals and settling disputes; and so too the
shire, a cluster of hundreds, had its court and meet-
ing, presided over by the Ealdorman, the Sheriff
(that is, shire-reeve, magistrate of the shire), and
the Bishop.



THE heathen English had learned nothing from
the Christian Welsh, and their conversion was first
undertaken by a mission from Rome. Gregory the
Great, who was made Pope in 590, was said to have
become interested in the English from seeing some

beautiful fair- k-;r rii, -ari.J i.:.g-haired boys from
Deira stan.lir~ in ihE r-n.irkct at Rome for sale as
slaves. W.ll ..ri;e trI y .,llId Angles, he said, for
they had the faces of angels; and sorrowing that
thnoe who N' r, --s.' lair .I' form should be in heathen




IN the fourth century, when the power of Rome
was going down, the free Celts of the north-the
Picts, as the Caledonians were now called, and their
allies the Scots-began to pour into Roman Britain,
while other enemies attacked the island by sea.
These latter were Teutonic tribes, speaking dialects
of the Low-Dutch or Low-German tongue, who
came from the mouths of the Elbe and the Weser
in North Germany. Early in the fifth century, in
the reign of the Emperor Honorius, the Roman
troops were withdrawn from Britain, and the na-
tives were left to resist their many enemies as they
best might. In the course of the fifth and sixth
centuries, the greater part of the country was con-
quered by Teutonic invaders, the founders of the
English nation, among whom three tribes stand out
above the rest, the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes.
These grew into one people under the name of
Anglo-Saxons, or more commonly of Angles or
English; and the part of Britain they dwelt in
came to be called England.
The faith of the English was much the same as
that of'the Teutonic tribes generally-heathenism,
though not of a degraded form. Woden, called by
the Danes Odin, was their chief god, the giver of
valor and victory; after him came Thunor-that is,
Thunder, better known by his Danish name of
Thor-the ruler of the sky; and many other gods
and goddesses. The names of the days of the week,
as Wednesday, Woden's day, Thursday, Thor's day,
still preserve the memory of some of these dei-
ties. The name of the goddess Eostre (Easter),
worshipped in the month of April, has passed to the
Christian Feast of the Resurrection. Wyrd, that is,
Fate, lives on in the word weird," which in north-

ern tales and ballads signifies a doom or curse inflict-
ed by supernatural power. There was also a belief
in spirits who haunted the wilds and the waters, and
in elves or fairies.
The English royal houses claimed descent from
the god Woden; but, though the King was taken
from the kingly line, he was nevertheless elected,
and a child, or a man thought incompetent, would
be passed over in favor of a kinsman better fitted
for the office. In early times the King was not
looked upon as lord of the soil, but as leader of
the people; and thus in after days, when a single
King ruled over all the English states, his usual
title was King of the English," not King of Eng-
The King was not absolute (that is, he did not
rule wholly according to his own will), but was
bound to observe the laws and customs of his
people. He was moreover guided by a council or
assembly, called the Witena-gem6t, that is, the
Meeting of the Wise, its members being the Witan,
the Wise Men. The powers of the Witan were
large; they elected the King; and they and he to-
gether made laws and treaties, and appointed or
removed the officers of the State. In small matters
the people governed themselves. The township
had its own little meeting, for making its by-laws
and settling its affairs. So the hundred, called in
some parts of the country the wapentake, a union
of townships, had a court and meeting for trying
criminals and settling disputes; and so too the
shire, a cluster of hundreds, had its court and meet-
ing, presided over by the Ealdorman, the Sheriff
(that is, shire-reeve, magistrate of the shire), and
the Bishop.



THE heathen English had learned nothing from
the Christian Welsh, and their conversion was first
undertaken by a mission from Rome. Gregory the
Great, who was made Pope in 590, was said to have
become interested in the English from seeing some

beautiful fair- k-;r rii, -ari.J i.:.g-haired boys from
Deira stan.lir~ in ihE r-n.irkct at Rome for sale as
slaves. W.ll ..ri;e trI y .,llId Angles, he said, for
they had the faces of angels; and sorrowing that
thnoe who N' r, --s.' lair .I' form should be in heathen


darkness, he at once conceived a wish for the con-
version of the English. So after he had become
Pope, he sent to Britain a band of priests and
monks having at their head Augustine, afterwards
styled Saint, who landed in 597 at Ebbsfleet.
NEthelbert, King of Kent, who was the most power-

'place in the Isle of Thanet, and, by .Ethelbert's
wish, in the open air, because spells and charms,
which he feared the strangers might use, were sup-
posed to have less power out of doors. After hear-
ing what they had to say, he gave them a house in
the royal city of Canterbury, where they worshipped


fui prince in Southern England, had married Bertha,
daughter of Charibert, one of the Frankish kings in
Northern Gaul. The Franks, a Teutonic people,
were Christians; and .Ethelbert, though himself a
heathen, had agreed to allow his wife free exercise
of her religion. He now consented to listen to
Augustine and his companions. The meeting took

in the little Roman church of Saint Martin, in which
Bertha was wont to pray. Erelong they converted
King Ethelbert of Kent, whose example was freely
followed by large numbers, and Augustine became
the first Archbishop of Canterbury.
Eadwine, or as we now write the name, Edwin, of
Deira, ascended the Northumbrian throne in 617,


and became the greatest King in Britain. His wife
dEthelburh, daughter of 2Ethelbert of Kent, was
a Christian; and to the Bishop Paulinus, whom she
brought with her, the conversion of her husband
was due.
The Scots of Ireland had been converted to

Irish schools, and Irish missionaries went out to
foreign lands. In the sixth century, St. Columba,
an Irishman, had founded the renowned monastery
of Iona, and had converted the Picts of the High-
lands. King Oswald of Northumbria having in his
youth been baptized by the Scots of Britain, applied


Christianity in the fifth century, chiefly, as tradition
says, by the famous missionary St. Patrick, who was
most probably born near Dumbarton. Christianity
quickly took root and flourished in Ireland; learn-
ing was there cultivated at a time when it had al-
most died out elsewhere; foreigners resorted to the

to them for a Bishop for his people. Aidan, a monk
of lona, was sent, and fixed his episcopal see in
Lindisfarn, since called Holy Island. Through his
own and his countrymen's labors, the Northum-
brians soon became Christians; but the faith of the
common people was often mixed with heathenism.




FOR some time Northumberland took the lead
among the English states; but towards the close of
the seventh century its power began to go down,
and Wessex and Mercia then disputed the suprem-
acy of the South. Among the Mercian kings the

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most famous is Offa, who reigned from 757 to 796.
He conquered a great part of the Welsh land of
Powys, including its capital town of Pen-y-wern,
now Shrewsbury. To guard his new-won land he
made a great dyke-" Offa's Dyke "-from the
mouth of the Wye 0o that of the Dee. Wessex rose
to power under the great King Ecgberht or Egbert,
who ascended the throne in 802, and brought all the

Cornwall and of what we now call Wales, more or
Ctnrawall and of what we now call Wales, more or

less into subjection. He was King of all the Saxons
and Jutes, and Lord of the East Angles, Mercians,
and Northumbrians, whose kings submitted to be
his men, or in later phrase, his vassals, owing him a
certain obedience. Egbert, as the chief, though
not the only king in the land, was thus able to call
himself King of the English. But hardly had Wes-
sex established its supremacy when it found a new
foe in the Scandinavian pirates, whose increasing
ravages troubled Egbert's later years.
Egbert was succeeded in 837 by his son zEthelwulf,
and he by his four sons, ZEthelbald, ,Ethelbert,
AEthelred I., and 'Elfred (or, as we now write it,
Alfred), who all reigned one after the other, none of
the first three living long. Under tEthelred began
the great Danish war, as to the cause of which
there are many Northern legends. The known
facts are that in 866 "a great heathen army landed
in East Anglia, and in the two next years subdued
Northumberland and Mercia. In 870 East Anglia
was again invaded, and its King; Edmund, was de-
feated and slain by the Danish leaders Ingvar and
Ubba, sons of Ragnar. Edmund, according to
legend, was offered his life and kingdom if he would
consent to reign under Ingvar. On his refusal to
submit to a heathen lord, the Danes bound him to
a tree, scourged him, made him, in savage sport, a
mark for their arrows, and at. last struck off his
head. He was honored as a martyr, and the Church
of St. Edmundsbury was afterwards erected over his
Alfred, when a child of four years old, had been
sent:by his father on a visit to Rome, where Pope
Leo IV. adopted him as his godson. At the age of
twenty-two he became King, and a hard fight he
had of it. Soon after his accession Wessex obtained
a respite, though the Danes still occupied Mercia
and the North. But after a time the attacks upon
Wessex were renewed, and early in 878 the army
under Guthrum, a Danish chief who had possessed
himself of East Anglia, made a sudden march upon
Chippenham, and thence overran the country.
Many of the people fled beyond the sea; the rest
submitted, while Alfred, with a few followers, dis-
appeared among the swamps and woods of Som-
ersetshire. At one time-so runs a tale which ap-
pears to have come to us from a ballad-he stayed
in disguise with one of his neatherds, who kept


the secret even from his own wife. One day the when hot. There is a story that in order to ascer-
woman having set some cakes to bake at the fire by tain the strength of the enemy he entered their
which Alfred was sitting making ready his bow and camp in the disguise of a minstrel, and there stayed


arrows, returned to find her cakes burning in the
sight of the unheeding King. Flying to save them,
she roundly scolded him for his neglect to turn the
cakes, which she said he was only too glad to eat

several days, amusing them and their King with his
music until he had learned all he wanted to know.
However this may be, in the springtime he mus-
tered the forces of Somerset, Wiltshire, and Hamp-


I r

--- -' ;." .-



shire, and gave the Danes such a beating at Ethan-
dun (probably Edington, near Westbury), that they
soon yielded to him. Guthrum submitted to bap-

7 :^. ,'

.. '


tism; and the Witan meeting at Wedmore, a treaty
was made, by which the Danes received, as vassals
of the West Saxon King, East Anglia, most part of
the old kingdom of Essex, and all Mercia beyond
the Ouse and the ancient road called Watling

Street. After all Alfred's labor, a large part of Eng-
land remained in Danish hands, and consequently
the English race became largely infused with Scan-
dinavian blood. The Danish settlements may be,
to a great extent, traced by the towns and villages
whose names end in by, which answers to the Eng-
lish ton (town) or ham. Streoneshalh and North-
weorthig got from the Danes their present names of
Whitby and Derby. This last town, together with
Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham, and Stamford,
formed a sort of Danish league, known as the Five
Alfred worked as hard in peace as in war. He
himself learned Latin, and translated many books
from that language, often adding passages of his
own composition. He sent out seamen to the
North on voyages of exploration; also embassies to
the Pope, to the Patriarch of Jerusalem, and what is
still more noteworthy, to India with alms for the
Christian churches there which had been founded,
it is said, by the Apostles St. Thomas and St. Bar-
Alfred was succeeded by his elder son Edward,
who equalled his father as a soldier, though not as
a scholar. He was well seconded by his sister
.Ethelflhed, who after the death of her husband
carried on the Mercian government; and with her
help he recovered from the Danish rule all Essex,
East Anglia, and Mercia. He became more power-
ful thai any former King in Britain, for at his
death he was King of the English as far as the Hum-
ber, and Lord of all Britain; the princes of Wales,
Northumberland, Scotland, and Strathclyde, all
owning him for their lord.


In those days there was a noted sea-rover, the
Northman Rolf, called in French Rou, and in Latin
Rollo, and surnamed, it is said, Ganger," that is,
the goer.or walker, because he was too tall to ride;
for wheno.nounted on one of the little horses of the
North his feet, touched the ground. Rolf spent
many years in plundering, and at last fixed himself
and his followers in and about Rouen. As he could

not be dislodged, the King of the West Franks,
Charles the Simple, bribed him to peace by granting
him the land at the mouth of the Seine with Rouen
for his capital. Rolf became a Christian and proved
a good ruler. He was the founder of a line of
princes, called Counts or Dukes of the Northmen or
Normans; and their land came to be called Nor-



KING IETHELSTAN, eldest son of Edward, added
to his kingdom Northumberland, and was succeeded
by Edward, his brother, who overran Cumberland
or Strathclyde, and granted it to Malcolm I., King
of Scots, on condition of receiving assistance from
him in war. Edmund came to a sad end when still
a young man, being stabbed by Liofa, a banished


robber, who, having insolently seated himself at the
royal board, resisted the attempts of the King and
others to turn him out.
Edmund's sons being still children, his brother
Edred was chosen King. He took as one of his
chief advisers, Dunstan, afterwards styled Saint,
who had been as a boy at Ethelstan's court, whence
he was driven by the jealousy of his companions.
Afterwards he turned monk and gave himself up

to study, and to arts useful for the services of the
Church, such as music, painting, and metal-work.
When hardly two and twenty years of age he was
by King Edmund made Abbot of Glastonbury.
Upon Edred's death, Edwy, elder son of Edmund,
though still very young, was chosen l, n-. The
history of his brief and troublous reign is obscure,

.,- -- -- ,

l' ,
i' .- .

puts. Dunstan, who had himself reformed his

Abbey, and made it famous as a school, sympa-
thized with the monks' party, though he was more

Edwy's marriage was another cause of strife.

pu t f ,,,.sg. tawho ha himslf rforme.d .hi

moderate and cautious than many of its supporters.
Edwy's marriage was another cause of strife.


Whether by his treatment of Dunstan, his marriage,
or his government in general, the King gave offence,
and in 957 all England north of Thames revolted,
choosing Edwy's brother Edgar for its King. The
next year Archbishop Oda prevailed on Edwy to
divorce ,Elfgifu.
Edwy's brother, King Edgar, a youth of sixteen,
was now chosen King over the whole nation, and
thirteen years after his accession to the throne
was crowned with great solemnity at Bath in 973.
He then sailed with his fleet to Chester, where some
six or eight of his vassal Kings with their fleets
came and swore to do him faithful service by land
and sea.
There was much disorder after Edgar's death, for
the parties of the monks and the seculars at once
began to quarrel again. Besides this, there was a
dispute as to which of Edgar's sons should be King;
but finally the elder, Edward. was chosen. After a
reign of less than four years, the young King was
murdered at Corfes Gate (Corfe Castle). He was
called The Martyr," a name which the English
then readily gave to any good man unjustly slain.
The story goes that young Edward, returning tired
and thirsty from hunting, stopped at the door of
his stepmother, iElfthryth (in Latin Elfrida). She
came out to welcome him; but while he was eagerly
draining the cup presented to him, he was stabbed
by one of her attendants. He at once put spurs to
his horse and galloped off, but sinking from the
saddle, his foot caught in the stirrup and he was
dragged along till he died.
tEthelred was only ten years old when raised to
the throne. Dunstan seems for some time before
his death, which happened in 988, to have taken no

part in the government, and ,Ethelred, when he
grew up, let himself be guided by unworthy favorites,
so that everything went to rack and ruin. Want of
union left the country an easy prey to the Danes
and Norsemen, who had,within two ', itr of his
accession, renewed their invasions. The plan of
buying off the invaders with large sums was soon
afterwards adopted by the King and his .advisers.
The land-tax called Danegeld, which continued to
be levied long after the Danish invasions had ceased,
was originally imposed for the payment of these
At last, in 1013, Swegen wrested the kingdom
from Ethelred. Sailing up the Trent, he obtained
without a blow the submission of the country be-
yond Watling Street. Northumbrian and Mercian
forces swelled his army on its march southwards,
and Wessex, terror-stricken by his cruelties, was
soon conquered. It must be noted to the credit of
London that it beat off the invaders four times dur-
ing this reign, only yielding after all the rest of the
country had done so. Swegenbeing now acknowl-
edged as King, iEthelred followed his wife Emma,
who had taken shelter with her brother, Duke
Richard the Good of Normandy.
Two rival Kings were now elected, Edmund,
2Ethelred's son by his first marriage, being chosen
in London, and Cnut at Southampton. Edmund,
Whose strength and valor gained him the name of
Ironside, fought six pitched battles against his rival,
but was at last induced to share the kingdom with
him. Edmund had all south of the Thames, to-
gether with East Anglia, Essex, and London; Cnut
took the rest. On November 30 in the same year
Edmund died, after a seven months' reign.



CNUT, or Canute, the Dane was soon acknowl-
edged as King of all England. He had for some
time professed Christianity, and though his earlier
deeds were those of a savage, in the end he proved
a good ruler. The late King's two infant sons he
sent to his half-brother Olaf, King of the Swedes,
praying him to put them to death. The Swede,
however, placed them unhurt under the care of the
King of the Hungarians. Cnut died at Shaftesbury
'in 1035. Not long after his accession he had mar-

ried Emma of Normandy, the widow of King _Ethel-
red, and by-her had one son, Harthacnut.
Of the legends about Cnut, the most famous is
that which records how he one day, during the
height of his power, ordered a seat to be placed for
him on the sea-shore, and bade the rising tide re-
spect him as its lord, nor dare to wet him. The
waves, regardless of the royal command, soon dashed
over his feet, and the King leaped back, saying,
" Let all the dwellers on earth know that the power


of Kings is vain and worthless, nor is there any
worthy of the name of King but He whose will
heaven, earth, and sea obey by eternal laws."
Thenceforth he never wore his crown, but placed it
on an image of our Lord on the Cross.

of the kingdom. He was seized by Harold's men
and carried off to Ely, where, his eyes being put
out, he died soon after. Earl Godwin was always
suspected of having betrayed the .'rt.1;lii but the
accounts are so confused that it is hard to judge.


Harthacnut succeeded his father in Denmark, but
in England his friends, Earl Godwin and the West
Saxons, could only obtain for him the rule of the
country south of Thames. North of that river the
kingdom was given to Cnut's illegitimate son
Harold. During this divided reign the AEtheling
Alfred, younger son of Ethelred and Emma, came
over from Normandy, probably hoping for a chance

In the next year, 1037, Harold was made ruler
over the whole country, his ill... -! i, having
never yet left Denmark.
On Harold's death in 1040, Harthacnut was
called to the throne, but his government was so bad
that the nation soon rued its choice. In 1042 he died
suddenly at a marriage feast at Lambeth, and by
his death England and Denmark became separated.




THE old royal line was now restored, Edward,
the elder son of zEthelred and Emma, being elected
to the throne. Unluckily, the new King, brought
up in Normandy from boyhood, was no better
than a foreigner. The Normans indeed were
Scandinavians by descent, but their manners, ideas,
and language were French, and the English com-
monly called them "Frenchmen." Edward's chief
desire was to bring over to England his foreign
friends and to load them with honors, offices, and
estates. A Norman monk, Robert of Jumieges,
whose influence was described as being such "that
if he were to say a black crow was white, the
King would believe him rather than his own
eyes," was made Archbishop of Canterbury. Earl
Godwin, however, who at the beginning of the
reign was the King's chief adviser, kept the for-
eigners in check as much as he could. On his
death his earldom and his power passed to his
son Harold, who in fact ruled the kingdom, and
who gained great credit by his victories over the
King Edward died in o166, having lived just
long enough to finish the building of an abbey on
the spot where Sebert, first Christian King of the
East Saxons, had founded a small monastery to
St. Peter, called the West Minster. In the thir-
teenth century King Henry III. and his successor
replaced Edward's work by the more magnificent
church now standing. On his deathbed the child-
less Edward recommended Earl Harold for his suc-
cessor; though, according to the Normans, he had
promised that their Duke, William, should reign
after him. In latter days the title of Confessor,

which the Church was wont to bestow upon those
that were noted for their holy life and death, was
conferred upon him.
On the day of Edward's death, Earl Harold,
though not of the royal house, was elected King
by the Witan; the next morning the late King was
buried and the new one crowned, in the West Min-
ster. On hearing of this, Duke William of Nor-
mandy was speechless with rage. He resolved to
appeal to the sword: but as it did not suit him
to appear a wrongful aggressor, he did his best to
make Europe believe he was in the right. He sent
to Rome to crave a blessing upon his enterprise,
and found there an ally in the Archdeacon Hilde-
brand (afterwards Pope Gregory VII.), who eagerly
seized the opportunity for bringing the Church of
England into more complete obedience to Rome.
Under Hildebrand's influence the Pope, Alexander
II., declared William the lawful claimant and sent
a consecrated banner to 1,111 the attack upon
Meanwhile the North of i]:1-li.I was invaded by
Harold Hardrada, the King of the Norwegians. The
invader had already received the surrender of York,
when Harold of England came suddenly upon the
Norwegian army at Stamford Bridge, September 25,
and the English gained a complete victory.
The King was holding the customary victory-feast
at York when a thane of Sussex entered with the
tidings that the :.. hi ... had landed at Pevensey.
Duke William, after waiting more than six weeks
for a south wind, had at last set sail, had landed un-
resisted on the defenceless Sussex shore, September
28, and occupied Hastings. With the utmost speed


Harold marched to London, calllin a!l r.:. h.. stand-
ard. From thence he again set out and pitched
his camp on the height called Senlac, about seven

battle. The combat was long and doubtful, but the
impatience of some of the shire levies, who, despite
Harold's previous orders, broke their ranks and


miles from Hastings. The eve of battle, so the Nor-
mans averred, was spent by the English in drinking
and singing, and by the invaders in prayer and
confession. On October 14 the armies joined

rushed down the hill in pursuit of some retreating
enemies, gave the first advantage to the Normans,
whose archers did the rest. An arrow pierced the
eye of the English King, who, falling, was hacked in


pieces by four French knights. Even to find the
mangled corpse was no easy task, and two canons
of Waltham, who had followed the English army,
made search for it without success, until they
brought a former favorite of Harold's, Edith of the
Swan's Neck," to aid them.
The Londoners, together with such of the great

-men as were at hand, now elected to the throne
the young Etheling Edgar, the grandson of Edmund
Ironside. But left unsupported, those in London
erelong tendered the crown to the Norman Duke,
then at Berkhamstead. On Christmas-day, William
the Norman-the Conqueror, as he is called in his-
tory-was crowned King at Westminster.




WILLIAM I.-ro66--o87.

WILLIAM, looking upon Harold as a mere usurper,
claimed to be the lawful successor of the Confessor,
and was careful to act in strictly legal form. Accord-
ing to his view, all Englishmen had been traitors,
for they had either tried to keep him out, or at least
not helped to bring him in; and as traitors, all
their estates might be confiscated-that is, taken
possession of by the State. He at once confiscated
a great deal, out of which he made grants to his fol-
lowers; and every fresh disturbance or rebellion was
made a ground for confiscating -more. The result
was that the country got a set of foreign nobles, and
that many Englishmen lost all, or nearly all, that
they had, or became tenants under'Norman lords;
but every one, French or English, held his lands
solely from the King's g .i.:
After an absence of less t !:n ix months, William
went over to Normandy, to -. :... himself in his new
dignity. Yet in truth his conquest was only begun;
and he had the West and the North still to win. The
most formidable rising was in o169, when the King
of the Danes, Swegen Estrithson, sent a fleet to the
help of the English in the North, who were joined
by the Etheling Edgar. York, where the Normans
had built two castles to command the Ouse, was
the first point of attack. There the stalwart Earl
Waltheof, so the story goes, took his stand by a
gate; and as the Normans pressed forth one by one,
their heads were swept off by his unerring axe.
William took a savage method of crushing the
North-country into obedience. At the head of his
troops he marched through the length and breadth
of the land between York and Durham, and delib-
erately made it a desert., For nine years the ground
remained waste, no man thinking it worth while to
till it; and even a generation later ruined towns
and uncultivated fields still bore witness to the
cruelty of the Conqueror. More than ioo,ooo peo-
ple, then no small part of the population, are said
to have died of hunger and cold that winter. Will-
iam was now master of the land, although a band of
outlaws and insurgents, chief among them one Here-
ward, still.held together in the Isle of Ely. When,
after a' brave defence, this last stronghold surren-
dered to William, Hereward, with a small band of
comrades, escaped by water, and legend goes on to
tell how he led an outlaw's life in the woods, and
was the terror of the foreigners, until he made his
peace with the king.

In his later years William was troubled by the
rebellion of his eldest son Robert, who had been
aggrieved by his father's refusal to make over to
him the Duchy of Normandy. Odo of Bayeux
also gave cause of displeasure. Having taken up
a notion of getting himself made Pope, he was
gathering a band of Normans for an expedition

'* ',' I '' :"

SI ,

:,, '.T

I, !'.



into Italy, when the King cut short his schemes
by ordering his arrest. As those present had
scruples about laying violent hands on a Bishop,
William himself arrested his brother. Instructed
by Lanfranc, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the
King was ready with his justification: I do not seize
the Bishop of Bayeux, but the Earl of Kent." And
accordingly the Earl-Bishop was kept in ward until
the King on his deathbed set him free. In 1087


William was laying waste the borderland between
France and Normandy in revenge for a stupid jest
which the French King had made upon his un-
wieldy figure. While riding through the burning
town of Mantes, and urging his men to add fresh
fuel to the flames, his horse, treading on the hot
embers, made a bound forward, and William, being
pitched against the pommel of the saddle, received
an internal injury,' of which he lingered many
On his deathbed he expressed a tardy penitence
for his unjust conquest of England, and above all

for the harrying of the North. What he had won
by wrong, he said, he had no right to -give away,
so he would only declare his wish that he might.
be succeeded in England by his second son Will-
iam, who had ever been dutiful to .him. Robert,
who was still at enmity with his father, was to
have Normandy, together with the adjoining prov-
ince of Maine, which William had conquered.
The King died at Rouen in Normandy, September 9,
and'was buried at Caen. Battle Abbey, near Has-
tings, was built by him upon the spot where Har-
old's standard had stood.


WILLIAM II.-Io87-1100.

THE Conqueror's wish was fulfilled, his son William
being elected and crowned King, September 26.
Rufus, or the Red King, as he was called from his
ruddy complexion, inherited his father's valor, but
no other of his virtues. He gave himself up to
gross vice, was irreligious and blasphemous in
speech, and surrounded himself with wicked and
foolish companions, who caused scandal equally by
their sins and their follies.
In 1091 the King attacked Robert in his Duchy,
and constrained him to surrender part of his domin-
ions. Having thus come to an agreement, the two
joined together to dispossess their third brother
Henry, whom they drove from his stronghold of
Mount St. Michael in Normandy. The King then
returned to deal with an invasion of the Scots; and
made a peace with their King, Malcolm, who re-
newed to Rufus the homage he had already paid to
the Conqueror. Malcolm's next invasion in 1093
cost him his life, he being killed before Alnwick.
In' the previous year William had enlarged the Eng-
lish Kingdom by the addition of the northern part
of modern Cumberland, with its capital, Carlisle.
This district, when Rufus marched into it, was a
separate principality, ruled by an English noble
named Dolfin, who was probably a vassal of the
Scottish King.
Meanwhile'Normandy, which the King had again
striven to win by force, came quietly within his
grasp. From early ages it had been the practice of
Christians to make pilgrimages to the Holy Land, to
pray at the Sepulchre of Christ; and about this
time a flame of indignation was raised throughout
S Europe by tales of the wrongs done by the Turks to

the native Christians of Palestine and to the pil-
grims. At the call of.the Pope, an armed expedi-
tion set out in 1096 to rescue the Holy Sepulchre
from the Mohammedans; and from all parts of
Europe, men flocked to the Crusade, so called be-
cause all who took part in it put a cross, in Latin
crux, upon their garments. Among those who
were stirred by the prevailing enthusiasm was Rob-
ert of Normandy. To meet the expense of his
undertaking, he mortgaged for 1o,ooo marks his
Duchy to his brother, and set off joyously to Pal-
estine, while William entered into full possession
of Normandy.
Rufus, like his father, was passionately fond of
the chase, and so far from continuing to allow the
liberty of hunting accorded at the beginning of his
reign, he at last made it death to take a stag. On
August 2, 11oo, he was hunting in the New Forest.
Some vague suspicion of intended foul play was
probably afloat, for evil dreams had been dreamed
by himself and others, and on this account he had
been half persuaded not to hunt that day. But
wine kindled his courage; a letter from the Abbot
of Gloucester, recounting a warning vision, was re-
ceived with the scornful question, Does he think
that I follow the fashion of the English, who will
put off a journey for a sneeze or an old wife's
dream?" and forth he went into the Forest.
Soon after, he was found lying pierced by the
shaft of a crossbow, and in the agonies of death.
Suspicion fell on one of the hunting-party, a
French knight named Walter Tyrell, who fled
for his life and got away to France. That he
had accidentally shot the King became the com-


mon belief, but he always denied it; and as no
one ever owned to having seen Rufus struck, the
matter remains in doubt. Some countrymen car-

who was thus cut off in the midst of unrepented
Westminster Hall was first built by Rufus, whose

.- --" J ....


ried the King's body in a cart to Winchester, where love of architecture was one of his better tastes,
it was buried without any religious rite; for it but it was afterwards cased over and otherwise
was thought unseemly to bestow such upon him altered in the time of Richard II.



HENRY I.-i00oo-1135.

HENRY, youngest son of the Conqueror, was one minster. To reconcile all to his accession, he put
of the hunting party when Rufus fell. As soon as out a Charter of Liberties, in which he promised to
he heard of his brother's death, he galloped for Win- the Church neither to sell nor farm benefices, nor


chester, and there made himself master of the royal
treasure. On the morrow the barons who were at
hand went through the form of electing him to be
King, and two days later he was crowned at West-

take any profit to himself from vacant sees and
abbeys; and to his vassals the abolition of sundry
arbitrary exactions and oppressive customs under
which they had suffered in the last reign, bidding


them make the same concessions to their own vas-
sals. To the nation at large he promised the
restoration of the law of King Edward "-that
is, the laws and customs that had prevailed in the
time of the Confessor-with the amendments made
by the Conqueror.
'The evil companions of Rufus were removed from
the court, and Archbishop, Anselm was recalled.
Further to win the people's hearts, Henry took to
wife Edith, daughter of Malcolm of Scotland, and,
on the side of her mother Margaret, descended
from the West Saxon Kings. She assumed the Nor-
man name of Matilda, and was by the people sur-
named "the Good." The King's next object was to
wrest Normandy from his brother; and by a victory
at Tinchebrai in 11o6 he obtained possession both
of the Duchy and of Robert, whom he kept a
prisoner until his death in 1134. The zEtheling
Edgar, who, having followed Robert, was among
the captives, was allowed to live unmolested in
Queen Matilda died in irI leaving t.. -- children
-the iEtheling William, and Matilda, married to
the Emperor Henry V. In 1120 William, a youth of
seventeen, was crossing from Normandy to England
in a vessel called the "White Ship." He was at-
tended by a train of wild young nobles; the crew
had been freely supplied with wine; and the priests
who came to bless the voyage were dismissed with
jeers and laughter. Driven by fifty rowers, the ves-
sel put to sea; but striking on a sunken rock, it
filled and went down, one man only being saved.
William, it is said, had put off from the sinking ship
in a boat, when the shrieks of his half sister, the
Countess of Perche, moved him to row back to the
wreck, where his boat was swamped by the multi-
tude of people who leaped in, and all were drowned.
As the King's second marriage with Adeliza of Lou-

vain proved childless, he determined to settle the
crown on his lately-widowed daughter Matilda.
The barons were loath to consent, for it was not
then the custom for women to rule; but they were
obliged to yield, and all swore to accept Matilda as
" Lady over England and Normandy. Her father
then, in 1127, married her, little to her liking, to
Geoffrey Plantagenet, a lad about fourteen, eldest
son of the Count of Anjou, whom Henry hoped thus
to turn from a dangerous neighbor into a friend.
Thrice over were oaths of fealty sworn to Matilda,
and on the last occasion, to her infant son Henry,
who was born in 1133.
King Henry, the only one of the Conqueror's sons
who was born in England, died in Normandy, De-
cember I, 1135, in consequence, it is said, of eating
lampreys. The reign of Henry was a time of misery;
his frequent wars caused England to be ground
down under a burthensome taxation, while a succes-
sion of bad seasons added to the sufferings of the
people. But they accounted Henry a good king,
and stood loyally by him, recognizing him as their
ally against the disorderly and oppressive barons;
and they saw in him the Lion of Justice spoken
of in the current prophecies attributed to the Welsh
soothsayer Merlin. He improved the administra-
tion of government and justice, sending judges
through the country to assess the taxes, and try
criminals; he also granted charters to the towns.
By severe punishment he put a stop to his followers'
plundering, which had got to such a pitch that the
people were wont to fly with their property to the
woods as soon as they heard of their Sovereign's ap-
proach. Indeed his great merit was the rigorous
justice he dealt out to thieves and robbers. Unfeel-
ing and grasping as he was, he allowed no tyranny
but his own ; and under him there was order, though
not freedom.


STEPHEN.--I 35- 154.

STEPHEN OF BLOIS, Count of Mortain and Bou-
logne, and son of Henry's sister Adela, came for-
ward as a candidate for the crown, regardless or his
oath to his cousin the Empress, as Matilda was com-
monly called. His easy manners and readiness to
laugh and talk with the common people had made
him popular; the citizens of London hailed him
with joy, and he was elected King and crowned

at Westminster. The barons, who disliked Matil-
da, and still more her husband, easily reconciled
their consciences to the breach of their oaths; and
Stephen, having possessed himself of Henry's vast
treasure, was able to buy support. He made large
promises of good government which he did not
keep, gave extravagant grants of Crown lands, and
surrounded himself with foreign mercenaries-sol-


diers who hired themselves out to any prince who
would pay them.
David I.; King of Scots, Matilda's uncle, taking

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up her cause, made inroads upon England, once
getting as far as Yorkshire. The armies met, Au-
gust 22, 1138, on Cowton Moor, near Northallerton,

where the English were drawn up round a strange
standard, a mast set on a wagon and crowned by a
silver casket containing a consecrated wafer. Hence
the ensuing combat, which ended in the utter rout
of the Scots, was called The Battle of the Stand-
Meanwhile Stephen, whose power of purchasing
support was exhausted, could no longer control the
barons. Neither man nor woman who had any
property was safe from them; they made the towns
pay them taxes, and when they could give no more,
they plundered and burned them. The Empress
landed in .England in 1139, upon which civil war
fairly broke out, and was carried on by both sides
chiefly with mercenaries, while the barons fought
and plundered on their own account. Early in 1141
Stephen, raI,, rl' 11 :,u sword and axe were broken,
was taken prisoner at Lincoln, and sent to Bristol
Castle; while Matilda, acknowledged as Lady of the
En Ii. entered London, where her imperious con-
duct so irritated the citizens that they soon drove
her out. In the auturin Stephen was exchanged
against the Earl of Gloucester, and the war being
renewed, besieged the Empress in Oxford Castle.
The garrison being straitened for food, Matilda
shortly before Christmas, 1142, made her escape.
The ground being covered with snow, she one night
wrapped herself in a white cloak so as not to at-
tract attention, and attended by three knights she
passed through the posts of the enemy, crossing the
river on the ice, and reached :'. i!!,,,i I .1 Castle in
safety. Wearied out at last, in 1147 she left Eng-
land, and about the same time Earl Robert died.
The war dragged on until in 1153 the bishops brought
about a peace, by which Stephen, who had recently
lost his eldest son Eustace, was to keep the kingdom
for his life, and was to be succeeded by Henry, the
eldest son of Matilda and Geoffrey. The next year,
October 25, 1154, Stephen died. His wife, Matilda
of Boulogne, who had valiantly supported him in his
warfare, had died two years earlier.


HENRY 11.-1154-1189.

EVEN before he succeeded, at the age of twenty-
one, to the English Crown, Henry was a powerful
prince. He was a vassal of the King of France, but
had got so many fiefs into his hands that he was
stronger than his lord and all the other great vas-

sals of the French Crown put together. Anjou and
Maine he had from his father, Normandy from his
mother, and the County of Poitou and Duchies of
Aquitaine and Gascony he had gained by marrying
their heiress Eleanor a few weeks after her divorce

:' _.



from Louis VII. of France. Energetic, hard-headed, In 1162 Henry procured the election of his inti-
and strong-willed, he was well fitted for the task of mate friend, the Chancellor Thomas Becket, the son
bringing England into order; and under the firm of a wealthy London citizen of Norman descent, to

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rule of a foreigner who had no national prejudices
of his own, the distinction between Norman and
Englishman faded away. He had been well edu-
cated, and took pleasure in the company of learned

the Archbishopric of Canterbury. Henry wished
to bring the clergy under the criminal jurisdiction
of the ordinary courts, and this Thomas strongly
opposed; but the King to a great extent carried his
point by means of the Constitutions of Claren-


don," so called becausethey were drawn up and
confirmed in a great council of prelates and bar-
ons, held in January, 1164, at the King's palace of
Clarendon in Wiltshire. Thomas at first gave his
assent to the Constitutions, but soon drew back,
saying he had sinned in accepting them. At this
Henry grew more angry than ever, till at last the
Archbishop, declaring that his life was in danger,
appealed to the Pope and fled to foreign parts.
The quarrel was kept up for six years and was em-
bittered in 1170 by a dispute about the coronation
of the King's eldest son, whom he designed for
his viceroy in England. No one but the Arch-
bishop of Canterbury, so Thomas maintained, had
a right to crown the King; but Henry never-
theless got Roger, Archbishop of York, to perform
the ceremony. Through the fear of the Pope's
anger, and of King Louis VII. of France, who took
up the exiled Archbishop's cause, Henry soon after-
wards consented to a reconciliation, and Thomas re-
turned amid the rejoicing of the people, who looked
upon him as an oppressed man. Haughty and un-
yielding as ever, he despatched letters from the
Pope, Alexander III., suspending the Archbishop
of York from his office, and excommunicating two
other Bishops. Henry flew into one of his fits of
passion: What cowards have I brought up in my
court!" he exclaimed; "not one will deliver me
from this low-born priest!" Four knights, taking
him at his word, at once proceeded to Canterbury,
and failing to frighten the Archbishop into submis-
sion, slew him on the pavement of his own cathe-
dral church, in which he had taken refuge, Decem-
ber 29, 1170. Henry, horror-struck at this result,
cleared himself with the Pope by making oath that
he had had no complicity in the murder, and by re-
nouncing the Constitutions of Clarendon.
Henry's life was clouded by quarrels with his sons,
among whom he intended to divide his dominions
at his death. Besides Henry, "the Younger King,"
who was to have England, No.mandy, and Anjou,
there was Richard, who had already received his
mother's inheritance of Aquitaine and Poitou; and
Geoffrey, for whom the King had obtained the suc-
cession to the Duchy of Brittany by betrothing him
to its heiress Constance. There. was also John, to
provide for whom the King wanted the other sons
to give up some castles out of their promised shares
of his dominions. Young Henry refused, and the
King's ill-wishers-Louis of France and his own
neglected wife Eleanor-stirred up the three elder
youths to rebel against their father. Round the re-
volted sons there gathered in 1173 a strong league
of discontented barons, English and foreign, aided

by the Kings of France and Scotland. Thinking
that these calamities were caused by the Divine
wrath for the murder of St. Thomas, as the late
Archbishop was styled, Henry did penance and let
himself be scourged before the Saint's tomb. Soon
he learned that on or about the day on which, hav-
ing completed his penance, he had left Canterbury,
the King of Scots, William the Lion, had been cap-
tured at Alnwick, July, 1174.
In 1183 Henry's two elder sons were again at war
with him; but that same year the Younger King
died, imploring his father's forgiveness. Geoffrey
was pardoned, and died in 1186. Richard in 1188
sought the protection of Philip Augustus, King of
France, and proceeded to invade his father's foreign
dominions. Henry, whose health was failing, sub-
mitted, after a feeble resistance, to the demands of
his enemies. He asked for a list of the barons who
had joined Richard against him, and the first name he
heard was that of his favorite son John. He turned
his face to the wall-for he was lying down to rest
-and g._.a-.i- : "Now," said he, "let all things go
what way they may; f care no more for myself nor
for the world." Already stricken with fever, he
sank under this cruel blow, ever and anon crying,
"Shame, shame on a conquered King," and died at
Chinon, July 6, 1189. Historians often speak of
him and the Kings of his line as the Plantagenets,
the surname borne by his father-probably because
his device was a sprig of planitagenista or broom-
and adopted in the fifteenth century by his descend-
ants. Henry II. laid the foundations of good gov-
ernment in England, arranging the administration
of justice, and taking pains to appoint faithful
judges, who made circuits to assess the taxes, hear
suits, and try criminals, as had been done before
under Henry I. Trusting the people more than
the barons, he reorganized thg militia, and every
freeman was bound to provide himself wth arms
according to his position. In foreign warfare
Henry usually employed soldiers hired with the
produce of taxes, called scutages, levied on the
feudal tenants in lieu of personal service. To
Henry II. belongs the credit of having, not indeed
created, but improved and extended the system out
of which trial by jury grew. In cases of disputed
possession of land, the possessor was allowed his
choice between trial by battle and the verdict of
twelve knights of the neighborhood, who had to de-
clare on oath which of the litigants had the right to
the land. These jurors were witnesses rather than
judges; they swore to facts within their own knowl-
edge; but in later days they gradually became, as
now, judges of the fact, giving their verdict only


after hearing evidence. The system was extended
to criminal matters; a jury was employed to pre-
sent reputed criminals to undergo the ordeal-the
origin of our grand juries. After a while a petty
jury was allowed to disprove the truth of the pre-

done till 1169, when Diarmaid of Leinster, a fugitive
Irish King, had obtained Henry's permission to en-
list adventurers in his service. A ruined nobleman,
Richard of Clare, Earl of Pembroke, surnamed
"Strongbow," and two Norman gentlemen from

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sentiment: and upon the abolition of ordeal in the Wales, Robert Fitz-Stephen and Maurice Fitz-
thirteenth century, that expedient came into gen- Gerald, accepted Diarmaid's offers, and, raising an
eral use. army, at first carried everything before them in Ire-
Early in his reign Henry had obtained author- land. On Diarmaid's death, Strongbow, who had
ity to invade Ireland from Pope Hadrian IV., or married his daughter Eva, assumed the royal au-
Nicholas Brakespere, noted as the only Englishman thority in Leinster; but finding that he was not
who has ever filled the Papal See. -Nothing was strong enough to make a lasting conquest, and that


Henry grew jealous, he thought it best to agree to
give up Dublin and the other fortified places of
Leinster to him, and hold his Irish lands as a vassal
of the English Crown. Henry himself went over to
Ireland in II71; his sovereignty was generally ac-
knowledged; and four years later a treaty was made
by which Roderick, King of Connaught, the head

King of Ireland, became his liegeman; but he could
not keep any hold upon the country. Ireland.
though supposed to be under English rule, re-
mained for centuries in utter disorder, the battle-
ground of Irish chiefs and Normar-English lords,
who became as savage and lawless as those whom
they had conquered.


RICHARD 1--1i89-I I9.

RICHARD, though born in England, had been edu-
cated to be Duke of Aquitaine, and it is doubtful
whether he could speak a sentence in English.
Having spent his youth in Southern Gaul, then
the school of music and poetry, he had acquired its
tastes, and had some skill in composing verses in its
language. But his passion was for military glory,
which his strength, valor, and talents well fitted

fore his accession, Jerusalem, where the first Cru-.
saders had founded a Christian kingdom, had been
taken by Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and
the princes of Western Christendom for a moment
laid aside their quarrels to go to its rescue. To
raise money Richard sold honors, offices, Church
lands, aid to the King of Scots release from all
that Henry II. had imposed upon him-" I would

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him to win. He was a tall, stout man, ruddy and
brown-haired, and given to splendor and show in
dress. Fierce and passionate, he yet was not with-
out generous impulses; and after the fashion of a
Crusader, he was zealous for religion. For the
English he cared little, except as they supplied him
with money, and during his whole reign he was
only twice in the country, for a few months at a
time. After his coronation, Richard at once made
ready for a Crusade in company with his friend
Philip Augustus of France. About two years be-

sell London if I could find a buyer," he said. At
Midsummer, 1190, Richard and Philip set out to-
gether for the Holy Land; but before they got there
their friendship had cooled. Jealousies and quar-
rels ruined the Crusade; Philip soon went home to
lay plans for possessing himself of Richard's conti-
nental dominions; the other crusading princes were
disgusted with Richard's arrogance, and he with
their lack of zeal. After many brilliant exploits, the
King, weakened by. fever, and knowing that his
presence was needed at home, ended by. making a


truce with Saladin. His ill success had been great
grief to him. The Crusaders had not ventured to
attack Jerusalem, the object of their enterprise;
and when-so ran a tale long repeated among the
warriors of the Cross-Richard had come within
sight of it, he had covered his eyes with his gar-
ment, praying God with tears not to let him look
upon the Holy City, since he could not deliver it.
Yet the Crusade had checked the progress of the
great Saladin, and thus was not an utter failure.

himself at the head of the movement against the
Chancellor, was declared Regent and heir to the
Crown. But the new Justiciar and the Queen-
mother Eleanor, with good reason mistrusting John,
prevented him from getting any real power; and in
his vexation John began to give ear to the plots of
Philip of France against the absent Richard, who
set out for home in October, 1192.
The King, in his hurry to get home, had left his
fleet, and gone on as a private traveller. Having


During this reign, England was really ruled by the
King's Justiciars. Of these, the Chancellor William
of Longchamp, Bishop of Ely, though a faithful
servant to Richard, was disliked by the nobles, and
filled with contempt for the English, whose lan-
guage he would not or could not speak-for, up-
start as the nobles called him, he prided himself
upon his Norman blood. He was before long re-
moved from the Justiciarship by a meeting of the
earls, barons, and London citizens; Walter of Cou-
tances, Archbishop of Rouen, was appointed in his
stead, and the King's brother John, who had put

been wrecked on the coast of the Hadriatic Sea, he
made his way, in disguise, into Austria, where he
was seized by Leopold, Duke of that country, who
had been insulted by Richard during the Crusade,
The Duke sold his captive to the Emperor Henry
VI., who, wishing to do Philip of France a pleasure,
kept Richard closely guarded, and at one time, it is.
said, loaded with fetters. He was brought before a-
meeting of princes of the Empire, on various accu-
sations, among them that of having procured the
assassination of a fellow-Crusader, Conrad, Mar-
quess of Montferrat: and although he cleared him-


self, the Emperor still insisted on so heavy a ransom
that to raise it every Englishman had to give a fourth
of his goods ; even the church plate and jewels were

1194. "Take care of yourself, for the devil is let
loose," so Philip wrote to John, when he heard that
the King and the Emperor were coming to terms;



taken to make up the sum. After more than a
year's captivity, Richard was freed, in February,

but Richard inflicted on the brother who had tried
to bribe the Emperor to detain him in prison no


punishment beyond depriving him of his lands and
castles. Even this penalty he soon so far remitted
as to restore some of his estates.

fb r
oli .


perished in a petty quarrel with the Viscount of
Limoges. While besieging the Viscount's castle
of Chalus-Chabrol, Richard was wounded in the

,;1s -- -- _--


The rest of Richard's life was chiefly spent in war shoulder by an arrow. The castle being stormed
against Philip Augustus. In April, 1199, the King and taken, the King ordered all the garrison to be


at once hanged, reserving only Bertrand de Gurdon,
the crossbowman who had given him what proved
to be his death-wound. Finding his end drawing

bade the King to take what revenge he would. I
forgive thee my death," said Richard, and he or-
dered his release. Nevertheless, when the King

I ~

--- -


near, he had Bertrand brought before him. "What
harm have I done to thee, that thou hast killed
me?" The young archer, answering that his fa-
ther and two brothers had fallen by Richard's hand,

was no more, Marcadeus, the captain of his merce-
naries, had the crossbowman put to a cruel death.
Early in his reign Richard had married Berengaria
of Navarre, but had no children.

JO fHN. 31


JOHN.- 199-1216.

IN England John was chosen King; but in Anjou,.
Maine, and Touraine, the barons desired for their
ruler young Arthur of Brittany, son of John's elder
brother Geoffrey; and Philip of France, for his

be put out, but that the youth's keeper, Hubert of
Burgh, would not carry out the sentence. However
this may have been, Arthur disappeared after some
months' captivity, and rumor accused his uncle of

-S PA.L' C-.. .H, EDlrAL ', .

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own purposes, took up the lad's cause. A -victory
before Mirebeau in Poitou threw into John's power
Arthur, together with many of his partisans, some
of whom were starved to death in prison. It was
believed that the King ordered his nephew's eyes to

having stabbed him with his own hand. John was
summoned by Philip to clear himself before the
French Peers, and on his non-appearance he was
adjudged to have forfeited his fiefs. Philip speed-
ily made himself master of Normandy, Maine,

_ I I _I ~__~ ___ _1 111_ _


Anjou, Touraine, and eventually of great part of
Eleanor's inheritance; but the Channel Islands,
fragments of the Norman Duchy, together with
Gascony and part of Aquitaine, were left to the
English King.
In 1205 John embroiled himself with Pope Inno-
cent III., who laid the kingdom under an interdict.
That is, the churches were closed, and the Sacra-
ments no longer administered, except to infants

tribute. On May 15, 1213, in the Templars' Church
near Dover, he placed this charter in the hands
of the Pope's envoy, the subdeacon Pandulf, anc!
swore fealty to Innocent.
The barons were now resolved to put a check
upon John's tyranny; and in spite of the Royal
friendship with Rome, Archbishop Stephen and
the English Church gave their aid to the cause of
freedom. In a private meeting of the barons at St


and the dying; marriages took place only in the
church porch; and the dead were buried silently
and in unconsecrated ground. At first John was
defiant. But as he, though excommunicated, would
not give way, Innocent declared him deposed from
his throne, and committed the execution of the
sentence to Philip of France. Under this sentence,
which Philip was preparing to carry out, John's
courage failed him, and he by charter granted to
the Pope the Kingdoms of England and Ireland, to
be henceforth held by John and his heirs by a yearly

Paul's Church, August 25, 1213, Langton brought
forth the almost forgotten Charter of Henry I., which
was heard with great joy by all present, who saw in
it a precedent for the reforms they desired. Noth-
ing however was done till the next year, in the au-
tumn of which the confederate barons took an oath
upon the altar at St. Edmundsbury to withdraw
their allegiance if John should refuse their demands.
At Eastertide, 1215, they assembled their forces.
In his passion the King swore that he would never
grant them liberties which would make him a slave;


but when the confederates-" the Army of God and
of Holy Church"-marched under Robert Fitz-
S Walter upon London, and were willingly admitted,
he was brought to submit. At Runnymede, a
meadow near Windsor, on June 15, 1215, the King
met the barons, and sealed the Charter which em-
bodied their demands. Thus was won Magna Carta,
the Great Charter, held sacred to this day as the
foundation of English liberties. Yet it was no new
law, but rather a correction of abuses. The first
clause secured the liberties of the English Church;
others were framed for removing the grievances of
the barons as tenants of the Crown. No scutage or
aid (assistance in money from a vassal to his lord)
was to be levied without the consent of a national
council of prelates, earls, barons, and the King's ten-
ants generally, except for three specified purposes.
(These were, to ransom the King from captivity,
to provide for the expenses of making his eldest
son a knight, or of giving his eldest daughter in
marriage.) But, to their honor, the patriot nobles
did not take thought for themselves alone. The
Charter provided that the rights they claimed should
be extended by. them to their own vassals. The
"liberties and free customs" of London and other
towns were secured. Protection was given against
oppressions arising from process for debts or ser-
vices due to the Crown; against unreasonable
amercements (fines); and the abuses of the prerog-
ative of purveyance and pre-emption-that is, the
right claimed by the Crown of buying provisions at
its own valuation, and of impressing carriages for its
service. No man was to be so heavily amerced as
to take away his means of living-to the landholder
was to be left his land, to the merchant his mer-
chandise, to the villain his team and instruments
of husbandry-'and the penalty was to be fixed by a
jury of the neighborhood. The royal officers were to
pay for the provisions they took, and not to make
use of the horses and carts of the freeman without
his consent. The King should no longer make
money out of the proceedings in courts of law: To

no man will we sell," so runs one clause, to no
man will we deny, or delay, right or justice." Trade
was encouraged by the promise that merchants
should safely enter, leave, and pass through Eng-
land without paying exorbitant customs. Above
all, the liberty of the subject was secured. "No free-
man" was to be taken, or imprisoned, or disseized
[dispossessed], or outlawed, or exiled, or in any way
destroyed except by lawful judgment of
his peers, or by the law of the land." Twenty-
five barons were nominated to see that the Great
Charter was duly carried out, and were authorized
to seize on the royal castles and lands if the King
should fail to do his part.
After the assembly had broken up, John burst
into a rage and began to devise means of revenge.
At first the fortune of war favored him, who, in
order to punish the northern barons and their ally,
young Alexander II., King of Scots, marched north-
wards, ravaging as he went, as far as Berwick, then
a Scottish town. At last, in May, 1216, Louis,
eldest son of the French King, came over with a
French army, and was well supported. But when
the barons found the foreign prince granting lands
and castles to his own countrymen, they grew sus-
picious of him, and some began to think of return-
ing to their allegiance.
While John was crossing with his army the Wash
of Lincolnshire, his baggage and treasures were
swallowed by the rising tide. Vexation, coupled
with a surfeit of peaches and cider-or, according
to a later tradition, poison administered by a monk
-threw him into a fever, of which he died at New-
ark, October 19, 1216, leaving an evil name behind
him. He was the first Sovereign whose title ap-
pears on his Great Seal as King of England. By
his second wife, Isabel of Angouleme, he had two
sons-Henry, who succeeded him, and Richard,
Earl of Cornwall, who, in 1257, was, by some of the
German princes, elected King of the Romans (the
title borne by the German King before his corona-
tion as Emperor).


HENRY III.-1216-1272.

ON the tenth day after John's death, the Royal-
ists crowned at Gloucester his eldest son Henry,
then only nine years old. A plain circlet of gold
was placed on the child's head, .for the crown had

been lost with the rest of the royal treasures. Will-
iam Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, a wise and good
statesman, was made Governor of the King and
Kingdom." Many barons now left the French stand-


ard; and two battles put an end to the hopes of
Louis. The first, fought in May, 1217, in the streets
of Lincoln, between the Earl of Pembroke and the
French Count of Perche, was jestingly termed by
the victorious Royalists the Fair of Lincoln." The
second was a sea -fight between the Justiciar Hubert
of Burgh and a noted rn-ate, Eustace the Monk, who
was bringing a French fleet to the relief of Louis.
Hubert, who held Dover Castle, could get together
only forty sail, to oppose to more than eighty of the
enemy, and his case seemed so desperate that several
knights would not accompany him. But his cotir-

that a Norman said, Heaven gave us this child,
but the King sells him to us."
The Popes claimed the right to tax the clergy,
upon whom they made almost yearly demands, which
were complained of as much as the royal exactions.
They were further answerable for leading Henry in-
to his most signal act of folly, by offering to his sec-
ond son Edmund the crown of Sicily, or rather the
empty title, for the actual kingdom could only be
gained by war, the expenses of which Henry pledged
England to repay. Aghast at finding how enor-
mous was the sum to which they were committed,


age was rewarded, for the English, fearlessly board-
ing the enemy's ships and cutting the rigging, gained
a complete victory. After this Louis was glad to
make peace and go home. King Alexander of Scot-
land and the North Welsh prince Llywelyn, son of
Jorwerth, acknowledged the young Sovereign, who
now reigned undisputed.
The history of his reign is for a long time that of
a struggle against foreign influence. Though the
King had no positive vices, he was weak, vain, and
ostentatiously liberal, and consequently always poor
and greedy for money. On the birth of his first son
Edward, he sought after gifts with such eagerness

the barons in 1258 compelled Henry to agree that
twenty-four persons should be chosen, half by him,
half by themselves, to reform the government.
These twenty-four were appointed in a Parliament,
as the national council of barons and bishops was
now called, held at Oxford-the Mad Parliament"
Henry's friends named it. By this committee were
drawn up the Provisions of Oxford," under which
the royal authority was in fact placed in the hands
of a council of fifteen. But the new government did
not long work smoothly. The barons quarrelled
among themselves, and Henry took advantage of
this to try to get back his authority.

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This ended in a war between the King and the
malcontent barons, the latter being headed by the
most able man of their party, Simon of Montfort,

man, somewhat hot-tempered and impatient of op-
position, but bearing a high reputation for skill in
war and statesmanship. The unstable King, who


a Frenchman who had obtained the Earldom of
Leicester, upon which his family had a claim, had
married the King's sister Eleanor, and had become
a thorough Englishman. He was a brave and devout

had been the making of him, soon fell out with
him; and since 1258 Simon had stood forth as the
leader of the party of reform. His strength laynot
so much in the nobles, who did not thoroughly


trust him, as in the clergy, the Universities, the
people generally, and especially the Londoners.
The battle of Lewes, May 14, 1264, put an end for
the time to. the war. The action was begun by the
King's son Edward, who charged the Londoners in
the baronial army with such vigor as to send them
flying in utter rout; but his eagerness led him to
chase them four miles, and while he was slaughter-
ing fugitives, his own friends were defeated by
Simon. King Henry, who had defended himself
gallantly, had no choice but to surrender; while
his brother, the King of the Romans, was captured
in a windmill, to the great glee of his adversaries,
whose mocking song, how the King of Alemaigne"


- ~ .-


"made him a castle of a mill," has come down to
us. Though orders and writs continued to run in
the royal name, and the King was treated with re-
spect, he became no better than a prisoner to Earl
Simon. In vain the Papal legate, Guy Foulquois,
threatened the baronial party with excommunica-
tion: as soon as the Bulls (writings sealed with the
Pope's bulla or seal) containingthe sentence arrived,
the Dover men threw them into the sea.
The most famous act of Earl Simon during his
rule was the summoning, in Henry's name, of the
first Parliament to which representatives of the
borough towns were called. The Great Council of
the realm, the assembly of the King's tenants, was
already known by the French or Italian name of

Parliament; but Simon was the first to show how
it might be made what is understood by that name,
an assembly representing every class of freemen.
Its materials he found ready to his hand. The
greater barons, out of whom in later days the Housc
of Lords or Peers was formed, came, as they still do.
in person to the national council; and as the smalle-
tenants of the Crown or freeholders were too nu
merous to do likewise, a few of their number had
occasionally been summoned to act for them-sc
many knights from each county. This was the origir
of the county members, who still are called Knight
of the Shire. But a House of knights alone would
have been a poor representation of the whole
people. Simon brought the towns also into the
national assembly, making not only each county
send two knights, but each city and borough send
two of their citizens or burgesses. It was not, how-
ever, till thirty years later that representatives of
the towns began to be regularly and continuously
summoned to Parliament, forming, together with
the knights, the House of Commons. Simon's Par-
liament, which met January 20, 1265, was not what
would be called a full and free Parliament. The
number of earls and barons was small, Simon hav-
ing summoned only those who supported him; on
the other hand there was a large body of clergy, as
among that class he had many friends.
Fortune now turned against the Earl of Leicester,
whose plans were defeated by his son Simon allow-
ing himself to be surprised by Edward and the Earl
of Gloucester at Kenilworth. Edward and Glouces-
ter then advanced against the elder Simon at Eves-
ham, August 4, 1265, and, by displaying in their van
the banners they had won at Kenilworth, deluded
their adversaries into taking the approaching force
for that of young Simon. Earl Simon, unhorsed
and hemmed in by foes, fought on valiantly till a
blow from behind ended his life. His body was
brutally mangled by the Royalists, but some relics
of the corpse were buried by the friendly monks of
Evesham; and the clergy and people in general
honored him as a martyr.
The land being now at peace, Edward and Ed-
mund set off upon what proved to be the last Cru-
sade; and during their absence King Henry died,
November 16, 1272. He was buried in Westminster
Abbey, which he had begun to rebuild; and ere his
sepulchre was closed the Earl of Gloucester, laying
his hand on the corpse, swore fealty to the absent
Edward, who was at once proclaimed King.
The English Universities, which began to be of
importance in the time of Henry, had arisen in the
twelfth century, being at first gatherings of inde-

" I


pendent masters and scholars, not attached to any
great ecclesiastical foundation, and not as yet
formed into endowed societies. The first of these
settlements of students was at Oxford, which was
then one of the chief towns of England, a strong
military post, and a place in which great national
assemblies were often held. There, in 1133, a Bre-
ton, Robert Pulan, first began to lecture on divinity,

and in 1149 Vacarius, a Lombard, began to teach
the Roman law. By the close of the thirteenth
century, Oxford ranked as one of the greatest
schools of the Western world. Cambridge also be-
came the seat of a University, but of its early
history hardly anything is known. Incorporated
and endowed colleges within the Universities were
first founded in the thirteenth century.


EDWARD I.-1272-1307.

EDWARD, the first English prince after the Nor-.
man Conquest who was an E ,ol.: Iii i at heart,
was strong and tall, towering by head and shoulders
above the crowd, a good horseman, a keen hunter
and noted for his skill in knightly exercises. His
credit as a Crusader was heightened by his having
narrowly escaped with his life from the poisoned
dagger of a Mohammedan assassin. The touching
story that his wife Eleanor of Castile, at her own
peril, sucked the venom from his wound, is but a
romance; for in truth Edward's fortitude was put
to the test of having the poisoned flesh cut out.
Upon Edward's accession, Llywelyn, Prince of
Wales, was called upon to do homage. This he
persistently evaded, till he was at length declared a
rebel, and was soon brought by force of arms to sub-
mit. The King's son Edward was born April25, 1284,
at Caernarvon, and sixteen years later was created
Prince of Wales, a title which thenceforth was usu-
ally conferred on the Sovereign's eldest son. The
legend that the King promised to give the Welsh
a native prince who could not speak a word of Eng-
lish, and that he then presented to them his infant
son, rests on no good authority. Another story
that the King, finding that the native bards or poets
kept alive the memories of the ancient glories of
Wales, had them all massacred, is a fiction only
worthy of notice because it has been made famous
by the poet Gray.
The Scots, under which name were now included
all the people north of Tweed and Solway, whether
Gaelic-speaking Celts of the Highlands or English-
speaking Teutons of the Lowlands, were without a
King; the last of their old Celtic line of princes
was dead, and there was a crowd of claimants to the
throne. Of these the foremost were John Balliol,
Lord of Galloway, Robert Bruce, Lord of Annan-
dale, noblemen of Norman origin, holding lands

both in England and Scotland, who rested their
claim upon their descent from nieces of William the
Lion. The English King was now called in to
decide, and accordingly in 1291, after due inquiry,
Edward gave judgment in favor of Balliol, whose
fealty and homage for the realm of Scotland he
then received. But the new King and his bar-
ons, disliking their position as vassals, took ad-
vantage in 1295 of a quarrel between France
and England to ally themselves with France and
go to war with England. In this they were
worsted; and Balliol being compelled to give up
the crown in 1296, Edward took possession of
Scotland as a fief forfeited by the treason of its
holder, and carried away the Scottish crown jewels,
and with them a relic whose loss was deeply felt.
At Scone there was a fragment of rock on which the
Scots King was wont to be placed at his coronation.
It had been, so legend said, the pillow of Jacob at
Bethel; and where that fated stone was, there the
Scots should reign. The conqueror placed it, en-
closed in a throne, in Westminster Abbey, where
the stone and chair still remain, and upon them
every King of England has since been crowned.
The presence of Edward's garrisons in Scotland.
the unwonted taxes imposed to provide for the main-
tenance of order in the half-subdued land, soon
aroused opposition. William Wallace, a Clydesdale
man, who made himself a name as a chief of outlaws,
headed the popular movement. Mustering the peo-
ple of the Lowlands north of Tay, he defeated near
Stirling an English army led by Earle Warrenne; and
after having ravaged Northumberland and Cum-
berland, he became ruler of Scotland under the
title of Guardian of the Kingdom. His fall was as
rapid as his rise. Edward routed the insurgents at
Falkirk, July 22, 1298, after which Wallace resigned
the Guardianship, and being captured he was brought


to London and hanged at Tyburn, August 23, 1305,
winning by his death his place as the national hero
of Scotland. What he had failed to achieve was
brought about by Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick,
grandson of that Bruce who had claimed the throne.
Early in 1306 this young Bruce had an interview in

/r .

%7 41 Pk'ci~


the Grey Friars' Church at Dumfries with John
Comyn of Badenoch, who, after the line of Balliol,
was the nearest heir to the Scottish throne. Rumor
said that Bruce urged Comyn to join in an attempt
to restore the kingdom, and that Comyn hung back.
Anyhow, the end of it was that Bruce stabbed
Comyn, leaving him wounded in the church, where
he was despatched by one of Bruce's followers.

Bruce had now no chance of safety but in playing
the boldest game. Summoning the Scots to his
standard, he had himself crowned King at Scone.
Edward's deepest anger was roused by this sacri-
legious murder, which he solemnly vowed to avenge.
Bruce, with his followers, was hunted about from



place to place, but he gained some small success,
sufficient to irritate Edward, who thereupon ad-
vanced from Carlisle as soon as he felt. his health
would permit. But the mere exertion of mounting
his horse proved almost too much for him, and in
the next four days he could only move six miles,
reaching Burgh-on-the-Sands, where, within sight of
Scotland, he died, July 7, 1307.



EDWARD II.-1307-1327.

THE young King already had a favorite, Piers or
Peter of Gaveston, son of a Gascon gentleman.
When he was at court nothing went on but danc-
ing, feasting, and merry-making; and the feelings
of the barons were further embittered by the con-
temptuous nicknames he bestowed upon them.
Discontent soon showed itself, and in 1310 Edward

had fixed the name of "The Black Dog," carried
him off to his own castle; and, his death being de-
termined on, he was beheaded in the presence of
Earl Thomas, on Blacklow Hill, near Warwick,
June 19, 1312.
While Edward was wrangling with his barons,
Scotland was lost, the fortresses there falling one


was obliged to give up the government for a year
to a committee of bishops, earls, and barons. The
Ordainers," as they were called, drew up articles of
reform, lessening the King's power, and banishing
Piers. But not a year had passed before Piers re-
joined the King, upon which the barons took up
arms under Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, cousin to
the King, and besieging Piers in Scarborough
Castle, obliged him to surrender. His enemy, Guy
Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, upon whom Piers

by one into the hands of Bruce. At last, in 1314,
Edward, with a large army, set out to save Stirling
Castle. The battle took place near Bannockburn.
Bruce's small force, chiefly made up of infantry,
was disposed in squares or circles of spearmen,
upon which the heavy cavalry, which formed the
strength of the English army, dashed thems -lves
in vain. Ill led, and thrown into disorder, the
English broke up in utter rout. Edward fled,
closely pursued by a party of Scottish horse, and


all his treasures and supplies fell into the hands
of the victors. Scotland had now won her inde-
pendence, though it was long before the English
would treat Bruce as King.
Ireland was torn asunder between the settlers in
the "pale" or English district, and the native septs
or clans, who were forever making war upon each
other and among themselves. O'Neill and other
chiefs of Ulster, joined by the Lacys, a Norman-
English family, now offered the Irish crown to Ed-
ward Bruce, brother of Robert. Edward came over
with an army to Ulster in 1315; and there gaining,
together with his Irish allies, some victories, was
crowned King at Carrickfergus. But the Irish
hopes were broken by the defeat of Athenree, Au-
gust Io, 1316; and two years later Edward Bruce
fell in battle near Dundalk.
After a time the King found a new favorite, Sir
Hugh le Despenser, upon whom he bestowed large
estates. Despenser and his father, who was Ed-
ward's chief adviser, were soon as much a cause of
strife as Gaveston had been, and sentence of for-
feiture and exile was passed upon them by the Peers.
On divers pretexts Charles IV., King of France,
quarrelled with Edward, who, believing that his
wife would have influence with her brother, sent her
in 1325 to France to negotiate for him, and allowed
his eldest son, Edward, Earl of Chester, a boy of

twelve, to join her. Months passed without either
mother or son returning, Isabel professing to have
fears of Hugh Despenser. At last, September 24,
1326, she landed in Suffolk; but it was at the head
of foreign soldiers and a number of exiles. So un-
popular were the Despensers that the Queen was
hailed as a deliverer; while the King, after vainly
appealing to the loyalty of the Londoners, fled to
the West, where his favorite's estates lay. The
elder Despenser, now Earl of Winchester, who com-
manded at Bristol, being forced to surrender to
Isabel, was hanged forthwith. Edward was cap-
tured in Glamorgan, together with the younger
Despenser, who, crowned with nettles, was hanged
fifty feet high at Hereford. The King being carried
prisoner to Kenilworth, a Parliament was sum-
moned,-which resolved-that he was unworthy to
reign, and that his eldest son should be King in his
stead. A resignation was obtained from the elder
Edward, who yielded with tears; and the ceremony
was closed by the steward of the household, Sir
Thomas Blount, breaking his staff of office and de-
claring all persons in the royal service discharged,
as was done at a King's death.
From Edward's deposition to his death was but a
step. Finally he was placed in Berkeley Castle,
where, on September 21, 1327, he was cruelly and
secretly murdered.


EDWARD III.-1327-1377.

ON the death in 1328 of Charles IV., Edward had
put in a claim to the crown of France in right of
his mother; but the French maintained that no
right could pass through women, who by a custom
supposed to be founded on the ancient Salic Law "
were shut out from the throne. Nothing came of
this claim until the actual King, Philip of Valois,
by encroaching in Aquitaine, and by supporting
the Scots in their hostilities, roused Edward into
setting it up again, and entering upon the Hun-
dred Years' War," so called because, though there
was not constant fighting, there was no lasting
peace during all that time. Edward at first formed
foreign alliances, especially with the Flemish cities,
but afterwards made war alone. His first great
victory was a sea-fight off Sluys, June 24, 1340; and
after six years more of alternate war and truce, he
gained the famous battle of Crecy, August 26, 1346.

The French far outnumbered the English, but they
were undisciplined and ill led, and their Genoese
crossbowmen, whose bowstrings had just been so
wetted by a shower as to be almost useless, gave
way before the terrible volleys of the English arch-
ers. Edward then proceeded to blockade by sea
and land the town of Calais, which he starved into
a surrender. The story goes that he would only
spare the people, whom he hated as pirates, on con-
dition that six principal burgesses, bareheaded,
barefooted, and with halters about their necks,
should bring him the keys of the town, and give
themselves up at discretion. "On them," he said,
" I will do my will." Eustace of St. Pierre, the rich-
est of the townsmen, volunteered to sacrifice him-
self, and his noble example was followed by five
others. The King seemed determined to have
their heads struck off; even Walter of Mauny, one


of his bravest knights, was silenced when he pleaded
for them. He only gave way when his wife, Philip-
pa of Hainault, fell in tears at his feet and begged
their lives. During Edward's absence in France,
the Scots, taking the opportunity of invading Eng-
land, were defeated near Durham, October 12, 1346,

piracies upon English vessels. Edward now stood
at the height of his glory. His foreign wars were
in many respects needless and cruel, but they placed
the country among the foremost nations of Chris-
In 1348 and 1349 a fearful plague called "the


and their King, David Bruce, was made prisoner.
Sir Ralf Neville, one of the English leaders, reared a
cross to mark the battle-field, which thence took
its name of Neville's Cross. The tale of victories
was completed August 29, 1350, by a sea-fight in the
Channel with the Spaniards, who had committed

Black Death," which swept over Europe, killed, it
is believed, more than half the inhabitants of
The French war was renewed in 1355, the chief
part being taken by young Edward, traditionally
known as the Black Prince," either from the


color of the armor he wore at Crecy, or from the
terror with which the French regarded him. The
naxt year he swept into Touraine and Poitou, but
this time his small army encountered, near Poitiers,

ing gallantly, was taken prisoner. With the cour-
tesy of the time, the Prince waited upon his royal
captive at supper the same evening; and in the fol-
lowing spring, when he entered London in triumph,


a great host led by the French King, John the
Good. The battle, which took place on September
19, 1356, was long and obstinate; but in the end
the French were overthrown, and their King, fight-

similar respect was paid to John's superior rank, he
being mounted on a splendidly caparisoned white
charger, while his conqueror rode by his side on a
black pony.


A peace was made at Bretigny, May 8, 1360, under
which John was to ransom himself for three million
gold crowns, and Edward gave up his claim to the
throne of France, but kept Poitou and Aquitaine,
beside Calais and some other small districts, no
longer as a vassal, but as an independent sovereign.
In 1367, the Black Prince, who ruled at Bordeaux
as Prince of Aquitaine, took the part of Don Pedro
or Peter the Cruel, the dethroned King of Castile,
and won him back his kingdom by the victory of
Navarrete. Against the advice of some of his
wisest counsellors, he levied a hearth-tax; and as
the English were already disliked because they "were
so proud that they set nothing by any nation but
by their own," the Aquitanian nobles turned to the
French King, Charles V., and war broke out again.
By 1374 hardly anything was left to the English in
Aquitaine, excepting Bordeaux and Bayonne; and,
wearied with disasters, King Edward obtained a
The King's third son, John, Duke of Lancaster,
called from his birthplace John of Ghent or Gaunt,
now took the lead at home; for the younger Ed-
ward was slowly dying, and the elder one had be-
come old and feeble. The government was waste-
ful, and the men whom the Duke appointed
unworthy of trust. Amid these evils, there met, in
1376, a Parliament, gratefully remembered by the
title of the Good," which, supported'by the Black
Prince, boldly set itself to the work of reform.
On June 8, the Prince died; and great was the
mourning of the nation for him who had won them
fame abroad, and striven with his last strength to
save them from misrule at home. He was buried
in Canterbury Cathedral, where his helmet, shield,
gauntlets, and surcoat embroidered with the arms

of both England and France, still hang above his
In his last moments at Shene, Edward was for-
saken by all his servants. One priest alone came,
to the King's bedside, and Edward, in tears, receiv-
ing a crucifix from him, kissed it and died, June 21,
1377. In this reign, St. Stephen's Chapel, West-
minster, was finished. The King founded the Order
of Knights of the Garter, and rebuilt the greater
part of Windsor Castle. His chief architect was
William of Wykeham, afterwards Bishop of Win-
chester, and Lord Chancellor. Wykeham, in the
next reign, founded New College, Oxford, and also
the College of Winchester, in which city he himself
had been educated.
In this and the next reign lived John Wycliffe,
born near Richmond in Yorkshire, a doctor of Ox-
ford, who put forth opinions differing on many
points, particularly on the Eucharist, from the re-
ceived doctrines, and assailed alike the Begging
Friars, who, professing to subsist upon alms, had
become rich and worldly, and the wealthy clergy,
his idea being that the clergy ought to live in
poverty. He spread his views abroad by his writ-
ings and by his poor priests," disciples whom he
sent out to preach among the people. His great
work was a translation of the Bible, made by him-
self and his followers. John of Gaunt and a party
at court for a time befriended him, more because
they were jealous of the power of the clergy than
from any real religious sympathy with him. Al-
though he was at last forbidden to teach at Oxford,.
he remained in his rectory of Lutterworth, where he
died peaceably in 1384; many years afterwards his
bones were taken up and burned as those of a here-
tic. His disciples were nicknamed Lollards.


RICHARD II.-1377-1399.

RICHARD OF BORDEAUX, son of the Black Prince,
became King at the age of eleven. His reign was
troublous and unfortunate. Four years after he
ascended the throne an insurrection broke out
among the peasants. Unknown men, bearing
names or nicknames which marked them as of the
same class as their followers -Jack Straw, Wat
Tyler, and the like-started up as leaders. The
insurrection began among the peasants of Essex,
where villainage was the special grievance, and

thence spread to Kent, where villainage was un-
known. The revolt there, according to a well-
known tradition, was partly brought about by the
tax-gatherer's insulting behavior to a young girl of
Dartford. Her father, John Tyler, so called because
he was a tiler by trade, killed the offender on the
spot with a stroke of his lathing-staff. The Kentish
insurgents are said to have numbered 1oo,ooo men
by the time they reached Blackheath, where they
were harangued upon the equality of mankind by a


priest named John Ball, who took as his text the
"When Adam delved, and Eve span,
Who was then a gentleman ? "
This rude army entered London, and on the mor-
row, June 15, its leader, Walter or "Wat" Tyler,
had an interview with the King in Smithfield.
Wat is described as behaving insolently, keeping
his cap on, and, according to one story, laying his
hand on Richard's rein; at all events, the confer-
ence ended in his being stabbed by the Mayor, Sir
William Walworth, and others. In Norfolk the in-
surrection was put down by Henry Spenser, "the
fighting Bishop of Norwich." On July 2, Rich-
ard, who indeed could not legally abolish villain-
age without consent of the Lords and Commons,
annulled the charters he had granted; and through-
out the country great numbers of the rioters were
tried and put to death.
Richard was noted for his beauty; his abilities
were good, and he could act on occasion with quick-
ness and daring; but he was wasteful, dissipated,
frivolously fond of shows and pageants, and violent
in temper. His first wife, "the Good Queen Anne "
of Bohemia, who seems to have been inclined
towards the doctrines of Wycliffe, and who was
beloved both by her husband and by the nation,
died in 1394. Two years later he married a child of
eight years old, Isabel, daughter of Charles VI. of
France. This step was unpopular, as the English
had no wish to be friends with France, and it was
strongly opposed by Gloucester; but Richard, whose
policy was one of peace, desired to secure a long
truce. The next year, 1397, he had his uncle
Gloucester seized and hurried off to Calais. The
governor of that town soon made report that the
Duke was dead-secretly murdered, as most thought.
The Earl of Arundel, Gloucester's chief ally, was
tried in Parliament, and beheaded; his brother,
Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, was
Of the noblemen who had given the King such
offence two remained-Thomas Mowbray, Duke of
Norfolk, and Henry of Bolingbroke, Duke of Here-
ford, son of John of Gaunt. Hereford-Duke of
Lancaster as he now was-took advantage of Rich-
ard's absence on an expedition to Ireland, to return
to England. In company with Archbishop Arundel

he landed, July 4, 1399, with a few men-at-arms, at
Ravenspurne, then a seaport on the Humber, but
which has now long been swallowed by the waves.
He was at once joined by the Eads of Northumber-
land and Westmoreland, the heads of the great
northern families of Percy and Neville, and his
few followers soon swelled to 60,000 men; while the
King's uncle, Edmund, Duke of York, who acted as
Regent, instead of attacking him, ended by espous-
ing his cause.
Owing to contrary winds, Richard heard nothing
from England till a fortnight after Henry of Lan-
caster's landing; and when the news arrived he
still lingered, irresolute, in Ireland. At last he
landed in Wales, but his troops fell off from him;
he was deluded into leaving his place of refuge,
Conway, by the treachery of the Earl of Northum-
berland, who then led him prisoner-to Flint Castle,
where he was handed over to Henry. He was
brought to London, and there formally resigned the
crown. The next day, September 30, the Lords and
Commons met, and voted his deposition on the
ground of misgovernment. Upon this Henry of
Lancaster rose, and claimed the crown, as being a
descendant of Henry III., and as-so he hinted
rather than plainly said-actual master of the realm,
which had been near its ruin through bad govern-
ment. Archbishop Arundel then led him to the
throne, on which he was placed amid the shouts of
the people who filled Westminster Hall.
The chief poets of the age were Geoffrey Chau-
cer and John Gower, who both were influenced by
the revival of learning in Italy and by the poets
of that nation, and both wrote the new English
whichvwas ih favor at Court, and which became our
standard language. Chaucer, who in genius was
far above his friend Gower, was son of a vintner in
London, and began life as page to the wife of
Lionel, Duke of Clarence. He was taken prisoner
and ransomed in the French war, was employed on
diplomatic missions in Italy and elsewhere, and in
1386 sat in Parliament as one of the members for
Kent. He died at Westminster, about a year after
Henry IV. came to the throne. His great poem is
the unfinished "Canterbury Tales," a series of sto-
ries supposed to be told by a party of pilgrims of
various ranks and callings, on their way to the
shrine' of St. Thomas of Canterbury.



HENRY IV.--399-1413.

HENRY was in fact an elected King, but, as has
been seen, he put forward a claim of right which
he rested partly on his descent from Henry III.
Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, descended from
Lionel, Duke of Clarence, elder brother of John of
Gaunt, was nearer to the throne according to the

King Richard. He soon made himself a terror to
the English on the marches, and, as his fame
spread, the Welsh scholars from the universities
and the Welsh laborers employed in England
flocked to join the insurgent chief, against whom
Henry led his armies in vain. Withdrawing to his


rule of hereditary succession, and in the last reign
his father had been declared the heir. But Ed-
mund was a mere child, and Henry was satisfied
with keeping this possible rival in confinement.
Henry had not been long on the throne when the
Welsh, by whom King Richard had been beloved,
rose in arms. They found a leader in Owain
Glyndwr or Owen Glendower, a gentleman of Meri-
Dnethshire, who traced his descent from Llewelyn,
Prince of Wales, and who had been esquire to

mountains Glendower left his foes to struggle hope-
lessly against wind and wet and the difficulties of
a wild and rugged country.
Henry's most powerful friends were the Percies-
the Earl of Northumberland, his brother Thomas,
Earl of Worcester, and his son Sir Henry-nick-
named Harry Hotspur." He and his father on
September 14, 1402, won the battleof Homildon Hill,
near Wooler, against the invading Scots. But the
Percies became discontented, chiefly because the


King would not, or rather could not, repay them
what they had spent in warfare and in the custo-
dy of the Scottish marches. Moreover he refused
to permit Sir Edmund Mortimer to be ransomed
from Glendower, to whom he was captive. Morti-
mer was Hotspur's brother-in-law, but he was also
uncle to the young Earl of March, and Henry was
therefore glad to have him out of the way. Being
thus offended, Mortimer and the Percies, with their
former foe Earl Douglas, planned to join Glen-
dower in an enterprise to win the crown for Richard
if alive, or else for the Earl of March. So little did
Henry seem to suspect the Percies that he was pro-
fessedly on his way to join them in an expedition
against the Scots, when he learned that Hotspur
and Worcester were in arms for King Richard and
marching for Wales. Hurrying westward, he fought
an obstinate and bloody battle with them on Hate-

ley Field, near Shrewsbury, July 21, 1403, when
Hotspur fell, pierced by a shaft in the brain, and
his followers fled; Worcester was taken, and paid
for his rebellion with his life.
King Henry's conscience, we are told, was un-
easy as to the manner in which he had come by the
crown, and he meditated going on a crusade; but
while praying at St. Edward's shrine in Westmin-
ster, he was seized with a fit, such as he was subject
to. His attendants carried him into a chamber of
the Abbot's, called "Jerusalem," which remains at
this day, and laid him on a pallet near the fire.
Coming to himself, he asked where he was; and
being told, he said that he knew he should die
there, for it had been prophesied to him that he
would depart this life in Jerusalem.. He lingered
there a few days, and died, March 20, 1413, at the
age of forty-seven.


HENRY V.-1413-1422.

WHATEVER had been the previous life of Henry
of Monmouth, and whether the tradition of his
sudden conversion be true or no, it is certain that
as King he was a man of almost austere piety.
He had been early trained in Welsh warfare, and
as a general and a statesman he often displayed the
hard and ruthless spirit characteristic of the fifteenth
century; but he was open and fearless, and there-
fore free from petty suspicion, and his natural dis-
position was generous. He set free the young Earl
of March; after some time he restored the son of
Hotspur to the lands and honors of the Percies;
and he had the body of King Richard II. removed
and buried in Westminster Abbey. A writer, sup-
posed to have been an ecclesiastic of the royal
household, has left us a description of Henry, from
which we learn that he had a delicate complexion
and regular features, with thick and smooth brown
hair, that his forehead was broad, and his frame
well-knit and vigorous-he could bear almost any
amount of fatigue, whether on horseback or on foot.
The alarm created by the Lollards was increasing.
Their chief leader, under whose patronage unli-
censed preachers spread over the country, was Sir
John Oldcastle, called Lord Cobham. Henry, who
had an old friendship for Cobham, spent his powers
of religious argument, backed up by threats, upon

him without success. Being tried in the Archbish-
op's court, and adjudged a heretic, Cobham was.
sent to the Tower, from whence he escaped, and
became a terror to the government, which dreaded
a Lollard rising under such a leader-for he was a
tried soldier. There was some mysterious midnight
meeting of Lollards in the fields at St. Giles, which
was dispersed by the King, and in which Cobham
was said to be concerned. After this, he lay hid
for a few years; but being then discovered, he was.
put to death as a traitor and a heretic, being hung
up in an iron chain and burned by a fire kindled
below. Whether he was a loyal subject hunted
down by the priesthood, or a traitor who aimed at
being president of a Lollard commonwealth, re-
mains matter of dispute.
Since the breaking of the Peace of Bretigny,
there had been sometimes truce and sometimes war
with France, but never a peace. Henry now re-
solved on an attempt to recover "his inheritance,"
the time being favorable, as the French King,
Charles VI., was insane. He set sail, and landing,.
August 14, 1415, near Harfleur, laid siege to the.
place, which yielded to his artillery and mines in
five weeks. On the plain of Agincourt, in Picardy,.
he was confronted by the French army. The battle
was fought the next day, October 25. The French


men-at-arms, in their heavy plates of steel, were
crowded together in a space so small that they had
hardly room to strike, and on ground so soft from

threw the first division of the French cavalry into
confusion. Throwing down their bows, the archers
fell upon them with sword and bill, and though the


recent rain that their horses could hardly flounder
through the mire. On foot, unarmored, some bare-
headed and barefooted, the English archers ad-
vanced, and. discharged their deadly volleys, which

French fought gallantly for two hours longer, their
fine army, reckoned at from six to ten times the
number of the English, was cut to pieces. When
the day was nearly won, an alarm was raised that


the French were about to renew the battle, upon
which Henry hastily ordered his soldiers to kill
their prisoners, lest they should aid the enemy-
orders which were in most cases carried out before

helmet, dinted with many blows, to be carried be-
fore him.
In July, 1417, Henry again invaded Normandy, and
the greatest of the French vassal princes, Philip the

- ----- -~





The mistake was discovered. After the victory
Henry sailed from Calais to Dover, and, with his
chief captives in his train, made a triumphant entry
into London, amid gorgeous shows and pageants.
He himself observed a studied simplicity in dress
and bearing, and, it is said, refused to allow his

Good, Duke of Burgundy, being blinded by desire
to avenge his father, who had just been murdered
during a conference with the French King's eldest
son Charles, turned to the English for aid. He and
the French Queen Isabel, who took the Burgundian
side against her son, brought the incapable King to


make at Troyes, May 21, 1420, a treaty with the
English invader, by which Henry obtained the hand
of the King's daughter Katharine, the regency of
the kingdom, and the succession after King Charles'
death to the crown, which was to be forever united
with that of England.
Henry soon afterwards returned to England with
his new-made Queen; but erelong he was recalled
to France by the defeat and death of his brother
the Duke of Clarence in battle at Baug6 in Anjou
against the Dauphin's men and their Scottish aux-

iliaries. On this campaign Henry carried with him
young King James I. of Scotland, who sixteen
years ago had been unjustly made prisoner by
Henry IV., and his presence served as an excuse
for hanging every captured Scot as a traitor taken
in arms against his sovereign. By the taking of
Meaux, Henry became master of the greater part
of France north of the Loire; but his career was
now run. He sickened, and died at Vincennes,
August 31, 1422, maintaining to the end his wonted


HENRY VI.-1422-1461.

By the deaths of Henry V. and Charles VI. with-
in two months of each other, the infant Henry of
Windsor became King of England and France;
though in the latter country there was a rival King,
the Dauphin, who reigned at Bourges as Charles
VII., and kept up the war with John, Duke of Bed-

lish, Joan of Arc, came to Charles, declaring herself
sent by Heaven to raise the siege of Orleans and
to conduct him to Rheims for his coronation.
Rheims, the crowning-place of the French Kings,
was then in the English power. Mounted and
armed like a knight, Joan led a force to Orleans,


ford, who was Regent of France for his nephew
Henry. In 1428 the English began the siege of Or-
leans, and its fall, which would lay. the Dauphin's
provinces open to them, seemed at hand, when
France was delivered as by a miracle. From the
village of Domremy a peasant girl of sixteen, Jeanne
Darc by name, or, as she is commonly called in Eng-

and with a handful of men succeeded in entering
the city. From thence the French made assaults
upon the forts with which the besiegers had sur-
rounded the place. Though her hand never took a
life, "the Maid" was foremost in battl,;"and re-
ceived an arrow-wound while mounting a scaling-
ladder to the attack of one of the forts. It was not


long before the English commander, William de la
Pole, Earl. of Suffolk, had to raise the siege; and
thenceforth the stout English soldiers quailedd be-
fore the Maid of Orleans." Her mission in their
eyes was not from Heaven, but from Hell, and for
that they feared her all the more. Fresh successes
increased her reputation: the Earl of Suffolk was
captured at the storming of Jargeau, and J'hn,
Lord Talbot, one of the best of the English cap ns,
encountering her, June 18, 1429, at Patay, was de-
feated and taken prisoner. As she had promised,
Charles VII. was crowned at Rheims. But in the
next year, while making a sally from the besieged
town of Compiigne, she was taken prisoner by the
Burgundians, who sold her to the English, Charles
never so much as offering to ransom her. The Eng-
lish Council delivered her to be tried at Rouen on
charges of heresy before an ecclesiastical court.pre-
sided over by Peter Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais;
and French churchmen lent themselves to'her de-
struction. Condemned as a heretic, the heroic
Maid was burned alive in the market-place of
Rouen, May 30, 1431, a victim to the ingratitude of
her friends and the brutality of her foes. But she
had awakened the spirit of France, and the English
began to lose ground. The Duke of Burgundy in
1435 made peace on his own account with France;
in the same year the Regent Bedford died, and
gradually both the inheritance of Henry II. and the
subsequent conquests were lost past recovery.
Meanwhile in England there had been nothing
but jealousies and struggles among the great men.
King Henry, gentle and of weak intellect, had little
more authority as a man than he had had as a child,
and after his marriage in 1445, his wife Margaret
and her favorite counsellor, the Marquess (late
Earl) of Suffolk, had the chief power. At last in
1450, the Duke (as he now was) of Suffolk being
impeached in Parliament, the King, to satisfy the
people, ordered him to leave England for five years;
but his enemies would not let him escape so easily.
He was intercepted at sea by a vessel called the
Nicolas of the Tower, and his head was struck
The murder of the Duke of Suffolk was followed
by an insurrection of the people of Kent under one
John or Jack Cade. The insurgents, to the number
of 20,000, encamped on Blackheath, and from thence
sent to the King a statement of their grievances.
Sir Humfrey Stafford, pursuing the insurgents to
Sevenoaks, was there defeated and slain; after
which the King's army, which at heart sympathized
with the insurgents, broke up, and the Kentish cap-
tain, whose forces were swelled by bands from Sus-

sex, Surrey, and Essex, entered London unresisted.
Gallantly arrayed like a lord or a knight, he rode
through the streets to London-stone, which he
struck with his sword, saying, "Now is Mortimer
lord of this city." For three days Cade was master
of the city; but the plundering of some houses
turned the citizens against him, and with the aid of
soldiers from the Tower they defended London
Bridge against his re-entry, he being then on the
Southwark side. Cade in the end fled into Sussex,
and being pursued and taken by Alexander Iden,
the new sheriff of Kent, received a mortal wound in
the scuffle.
There was now a contest for power between the
Dukes of Somerset and of York. Edmund Beau-
fort, Duke of Somerset, was the representative of
an illegitimate branch of the House of Lancaster.
Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was the son of
the Earl of Cambridge who had been beheaded in
the last reign, and as Regent of France and Lieu-
tenant of Ireland he had shown high abilities.
York, supported by the two Richard Nevilles, Earls,
the one of Salisbury and the other of Warwick,
then took up arms, and overthrew and killed his
rival in the battle of St. Albans, May 22, 1455.
There was a hollow peace for a time, but in 1459
civil strife again broke out. These contests are
called the Wars of the Roses, because the badge of
the House of Lancaster was a red rose, and that
of the House of York a white one. At first things
went ill for York, who fled to Ireland, while the
Earls took refuge in Calais, of which town Warwick
was governor. But the next year the Earls came
back and gained a complete victory at Northamp-
ton, July 10, 1460, Henry being captured, and his
wife and son flying to Scotland. But many nobles
still upheld the interests of the young prince, and a.
Lancastrian army gathered together in the North.
York; with inferior, forces, encountering the Lan-
castrians near Wakefield, was completely defeated,
himself falling in the fight. His death was soon
avenged in the bloody fight of Mortimer's Cross, in
Herefordshire, by-his eldest son Edward, now Duke
of York, who followed up his victory by beheading
the King's stepfather, Sir Owen Tudor, and many
other prisoners. Meanwhile the northern army,
which had been joined by Margaret, advanced upon
London, defeating on the way, in a second battle
at St. Albans, the Earl of Warwick, and rescuing
the King, whom the flying Yorkists had left behind
them. But the Queen's army, largely composed of
Border plunderers, wasted time and roused hostil-
ity by pillaging; while Edward, joining Warwick,
boldly marched into London, where, in a council of



Lords Spiritual and Temporal, he was declared King,
and his claim being further acknowledged by a
meeting of the citizens and common people, he was

enthroned in Westminster Hall, March 4, 1461.
Thus ended the reign though not the life of the un-
fortunate Henry.

I~: ~ u~




MARCHING to the North, where the Lancastrian
forces now lay, Edward completed his triumph by
the victory of Towton, near Tadcaster.
For three years Margaret and her friends, flitting
between England, Scotland, and the Continent,
maintained a fitful struggle in the North. A for-
eign chronicler of the time tells a story that during
her wanderings Margaret fell among thieves and
was plundered of all she had. While they quarrelled
over their booty, she escaped with her young son
Edward into the depths of the forest. There she
was met by another robber, to whom, in despera-

her kindred with a profusion which offended the
old nobility, and especially the Earl of Warwick
and his brothers. An insurrection in Yorkshire
was fomented by the Earl with such success that
for a short time Edward was a prisoner in the hands
of his over-powerful subject. But the King soon
escaped or was let go; and the failure of a second
revolt in 1470 obliged Warwick and his son-in-law
to fly into France. Erelong they returned, and
proclaimed King "Henry; for at the French court
Warwick had become reconciled to his old foe
Queen Margaret, and had married his daughter



tion, she presented the boy, saying, Here, my
friend, save the son of thy King." The outlaw's
generosity was touched, and he led them to a place
of safety. The Lancastrians were at last crushed
for a time by the defeats of Hedgeley Moor, near
Wooler, and Hexham, where the Duke of Somerset,
son of the rival of Richard of York, was taken and
beheaded. King Henry, after this last defeat, lay
for more than a year hidden in Lancashire and
Westmoreland; but he was finally betrayed and
brought prisoner to the Tower.
In the autumm of 1464 Edward avowed his mar-
riage with Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Wydevile,
Lord Rivers, and widow of Sir John Grey, a Lan-
castrian. Honors and riches were showered upon

Anne to her son Edward. The people gathered to
Warwick in crowds, and it was now King Edward's
turn to fly the country; but on March 14, 1471,
he came back with a small force, landing, like Henry
of Bolingbroke before him, at Ravenspurne, and
with equal success; the citizens readily admitted
him into London; and from thence he marched
to encounter near Barnet the Earl of Warwick and
his brother the Marquess of Montacute. The battle
began about daybreak on Easter Sunday, April 14,
in a mist so thick that the combatants could scarce-
ly see each other; and after six hours' confused
fighting Edward gained the victory, Warwick-" the
King-maker," as historians call him-and Monta-
cute being both slain. The struggle was not quite



over, for that same day Queen Margaret landed,
and on May 4 her army encountered that of Ed-
ward at Tewkesbury, where it was utterly defeat-
ed, she herself being captured soon after. King
Henry, who had been again imprisoned in the
Tower, died shortly after-of a broken heart, as the
Yorkists said, or murdered, according to Lancastri-
an rumor, by Edward's youngest brother, Richard,
Duke of Gloucester.
The House of York now seemed firm upon the
throne, but it was a house divided against itself.

death he was living at Ludlow Castle, surrounded
by his mother's kinsmen and friends. But on his
road to London he was overtaken at Stony Strat-
ford by his uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, and
was lodged in the Tower, then a palace as well as a
fortress and a prison; and the Duke of Gloucester
was appointed Protector.
The little Duke of York then was removed from
his mother in the Sanctuary to join his brother in the
Tower, and thus Gloucester had both his nephews
in his hands. On Sunday, June 22, Dr. Ralf Shaw,


i-/ I-

--'~~~Ii .; 'ri
xl: .1 ,I I\ \\i
..........,_5 i
-- i:'

'-C I '1ji


The Duke of Clarence was at enmity with his royal
brother, to whom in 1478 he gave offence which led
to his committal to the Tower. Edward, himself ap-
pearing as accuser, impeached him of treason before
the Peers, who found him guilty. About ten days
later it was given out that the Duke had died in the
Tower-how was never certainly known, but a wild
story flew about that he had been drowned in a
butt of Malmsey wine. Edward himself died April
9, 1483, leaving two sons, Edward, Prince of Wales,
and Richard, Duke of York; one twelve, the other
ten years old.
Edward V. reigned less than three months, and
was never crowned. At the time of his father's

a preacher of some note, and brother to the Mayor
of London, preached a sermon at Paul's Cross-a
cross and pulpit which then stood at the northeast
corner of St. Paul's Churchyard-setting forth that
the children were illegitimate on the, ground that
when their father married Elizabeth Wydevile, he
was under a precontract to marry another woman.
According to the ecclesiastical law, this would make
his marriage with Elizabeth void. The Lord Pro-
tector was pointed out by the preacher as the right-
ful inheritor of the Crown. The claim thus first-
put forward was accepted by an assembly of Lords
and Commons, which was practically a Parliament,
though owing to some informality it was not after-





--._ i-'^' |, i ^ _p *- "-

: II


-- ,, .. .. :.
7.. : Tv,


citizens, desired the Protector to take upon him the ti. of England.
,1 I ,, ILL
'i -



RICHARD III.-1483-1485.

RICHARD and Anne his wife were crowned at
Westminster, July 6, 1483, the preparations which
had been made for the coronation 'of the nephew
serving for those of the uncle. About this period it


was reported that the children were no longer liv-
ing. In the next reign it was stated that Sir James
Tyrrel and John Dighton had confessed that on the
refusal of Sir Robert Brackenbury, Constable of the
Tower, to put his young prisoners to death, Richard
had bidden that the keys of the Tower should he

delivered to Tyrrel for twenty-four hours, and that
Tyrrel's groom Dighton, together with one Miles
Forrest, had smothered the sleeping children in
their bed, and then buried them at the stair-foot.
It was further rumored that by Richard's de-
*sire a priest of Brackenbury's household had
removed the bodies elsewhere. Some, however,
have doubted the murder, notwithstanding the
apparent confirmation of the popular belief by
a discovery inade 191 years later of the bones
of two boys, of about the age of the young
S princes, lying buried in the White Tower under
the staircase leading to the chapel. The reign-
ing King, Charles II., had them removed to
.f_ Henry the Seventh's Chapel as the remains of
_ Edward V. and Richard, Duke of York.
A league was now formed against Richard'
consisting of Buckingham, many old Lancas-
trians, and the Marquess of Dorset, Elizabeth
SWydevile's son, with others of the Wydevile
Party, acting in concert with Henry Tudor, Earl
of Richmond. To unite the Yorkists and Lan-
castrians, it was agreed that he should marry
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV.
In April, 1484, died the King's only child Ed-
ward, whereupon Richard declared his sister's
son, John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, his heir.
.In the next year Queen Anne died, broken
down by sorrow for the loss of her son, or, as
Richard's enemies afterwards chose to suggest,
S of poison given by her husband. In after days
men told how Richard was haunted by the
S memory of his murdered nephews; he knew
no peace of mind, his hand was ever on his
dagger. On August 7, 1485, Richmond, with
a body of adventurers, mostly Normans, landed
at Milford Haven, and, advancing into the
S country, 'was met by Richard, with an army
double in number. When the battle began,
near Market Bosworth, August 22, Lord Stan-
ley in the midst of the encounter joined Richmond,
while Northumberland looked on without stirring
a foot. "Jack of Norfolk," true to his master, fell
fighting gallantly; and as a last effort, the King
made a desperate charge upon Richmond's body-
guard. Cleaving the skull of one knight and un-
horsing another, he cut his way to his rival, when


Sir William. Stanley, who had hitherto- held- aloof,
brought up his followers to Richmond's rescue, and
Richard, crying "Treason! treason!" fell overpow-
ered by numbers. The crown which had been struck
from his helmet was picked up on the field, and

set by Lord Stanley on the head of Richmond,
who was hailed King. Richard's body was thrown
across a horse and carried to the Grey Friars'
Church at Leicester, where it was buried with scant


HENRY VII.-1485-1509.

I'HE coronation of Henry Tudor on the battle-
field was followed up by a more formal one at West-
minster. Without entering into questions of title,

off in order that it might not be thought that he
reigned by right of his wife.
In character Henry was cautious, crafty, fond of

J1L~-. _I I
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-W 1 F'

Parliament settled the crown on Henry and his
heirs, and in order to unite the rival Roses, pressed
him to carry out the intended marriage with Eliza-
beth of York, which he was supposed to have put

money, and ingenious in acquiring it. Being ever in
fear of a pretender to his throne, he was anxious for
the friendship of foreign princes, in order that they
might not help rebels against him. More especially


h7 Lili- 1 H. _z CH-1 LL ,,. LZ i ldii ZfLi, kLLL.).


he sought the alliance of Spain, the rival power to
France; and though he had no love for war, he joined
in 1489 with the Spaniards in sending troops to help
Brittany, then at strife with France. The English
being well disposed to fight the French, the King
got subsidies from Parliament, renewed the extor-
tion of money by benevolences," and under a show
of war-for he did as little as he could-filled his
coffers. At last, in 1492, he passed over to France,
laid siege to Boulogne for a few days, made peace,
and led his murmuring army back. Besides the
public treaty there was a private one, by which the


King of France bound himself to pay a hundred
and forty-nine thousand pounds to the King of
Meanwhile.a new claimant to the throne had ap-
peared, styling himself Richard Plantagenet, Duke
of York. According to his own account he was the
second son of Edward IV., and had been saved alive
when his brother Edward V. was put to death;
according to Henry, he was one Pierce Osbeck,
more commonly called Perkin Warbeck, of Tour-
In 1495 Richard passed into Scotland, where

the King, James IV., gave him -his kinswoman
Katharine Gordon in marriage. About two years
later the adventurer, landing in Cornwall, was there
joined by many of the people; but on the approach
of the royal army he left his followers and took
sanctuary, surrendering in a few days on promise
that his life should be spared. His beautiful wife,
"the White Rose," as she was called, became an at-
tendant on Henry's Queen. For two years Rich-
ard lived a prisoner; once he made his escape, but
being brought back, was set publicly in the stocks,
made to read aloud a confession of impostuie,
and then cast into a dark cell in the Tower. In
1499 he and a fellow-captive, the Earl of Warwick,
who, for no crime but his birth, had lain for four-
teen years in the Tower, were tried and put to
death on charges of high treason.
In 150r, at the age of fifteen, the King's eldest
son, named Arthur in memory of the Welsh hero
from whom Henry claimed descent, was married to
Katharine, daughter of King Ferdinand of Aragon,
whose power i:r..:nd.:l over nearly the whole of
the present Sp.ln i-;r[t Arthur dying within five
months' time, his young widow was contracted to -
the King's second son, Henry, a dispensation being
.obtained from the Pope to legalize this union with
a brother's wife. With intent to cement a peace
between England and Scotland, the King's eldest
daughter Margaret was married in 1503 to James
IV. of Scotland; and this politic alliance proved
in the end the means of uniting the two kingdoms
of Britain.
He died April 21, 1509, at the palace of Shene,
which he had rebuilt with great magnificence, and
had called, after his-earlier title, Richmond. He
was buried in his own beautiful chapel in West-
minster Abbey.
There was now springing up a spirit of maritime
enterprise which moved men to go in search of new
lands beyond the ocean. The best navigators of
the time were the Italians and Portuguese; and the
first European who is known for certain to have
sailed to the mainland of America was of Italian
origin, though born at Bristol. This was Sebastian
Cabot, who, accompanied probably by his father
John Gabotto or Cabot, a citizen of Venice, sailed
in 1497 from Bristol on a voyage of discovery, and
found out some part of North America, seemingly
Labrador and the coast north of Maryland. Some
think that the Cabots had already, in 1494, made a
voyage to America, and that the first land they saw
was the island of Cape Breton.




HENRY VIIL-1509-1547.

THE new King was a handsome youth of eigh-
teen, fair, auburn-haired, and of unusual height and
strength. He was a master of the national weapon,
the bow, and was perfect in those knightly exer-
cises with sword and lance, which, though they
were ceasing to be of much use in real warfare, were
still thought necessary accomplishments for a gen-
tleman. His intellectual training had likewise been
high; he was skilled in music, a good scholar, and
able to enter into and appreciate the new learning
and culture of his age. Frank in manner and good-
humored, though liable to bursts of passion, he
seemed to have all the qualities that Englishmen
admired in a ruler. But though he gave fair prom-
ise, Henry was of a fierce and tyrannical nature.
Yet he had a regard for the letter of the law, even
while he bent the law to his caprice; and thus,
though there was little freedom under his rule, all
the forms of free government remained. To sat-
isfy the revenge of those whom they had injured,
Empson and Dudley were beheaded on a frivolous
charge of high treason, and thus, though bad men,
they suffered unjustly for crimes which they had
not committed.
Henry, being desirous of playing a great part in
Europe, soon mixed himself up in continental wars,
taking the side opposed to France. Joined by the
Emperor-elect Maximilian, the King in 1513 routed
the French at Guinegate, in what was jestingly called
"the Battle of the Spurs," from the panic-strick-
en flight of the enemy's cavalry. The Scots took
advantage of this war to invade glandn, but were
defeated by Thomas Howard, of Surrey, in a
battle beneath the hill of Flo dc, Sept. 9, 1513,
where their King, James IV., together with the
flower of their nation, were left dead on the field.
The next year peace was made with the French,
their King, Louis XII., marrying Henry's sister
Mary, who, being left a widow in three months'
time, at once gave her hand to Charles Brandon,
Duke of Suffolk. In June, 1520, Henry had a series
of friendly meetings with the new King of France,
Francis I., between Guines and Ardres, in which
such splendor was displayed that the meeting-place
was called "the Field of the Cloth of Gold." But
nothing came of these interviews, for Henry had

already been won over to the interests of the Em-
peror Charles V.
During this period the King had been guided by
Thomas Wolsey, a royal chaplain, and son of a
wealthy burgess of Ipswich. Able and ambitious,
Wolsey had by his talents raised himself to the
highest pitch of favor. Honors and promotion were
showered upon him; he became Archbishop of
York, Chancellor, a Cardinal, and the Papal Legate,
in which position he was supreme over the English
Church; and he even hoped to be Pope. At last a
series of unforeseen circumstances brought about
the downfall of the powerful minister. The King
and his wife Katharine of Aragon, whom he had
married in the first year'of his reign, had only one
child living, Mary, born in 1516. Anxious, accord-
ing to his own story, for a male heir, the King be-
gan to think that the death of his sons in infancy
showed that his marriage with his brother's widow
was displeasing to Heaven. His scruples were
quickened or suggested by his having pItched up-
on Katharine's successor, Anne Boleyn, a beautiful
and lively maid of honor. He applied for a divorce
to Pope Clement VII., who, equally unwilling to
offend either Henry or Katharine's nephew the
Emperor Charles, could not make up his mind
what to do. At last, after the matter had been
dragging on for five years, Henry, regardless of the
Pope's prohibition, privately married Anne Boleyn.
The newly-appointed Primate, Thomas Cranmer,
who owed his elevation to the zeal with which he
had advocated the King's cause, then, on May 23,
1533, pronounced the marriage between Henry
and Katharine to have been null and void from
the beginning. More, however, than the fortunes
of Katharine or Anne had been concerned in this
affair. Henry became dissatisfied with Cardinal
Wolsey, who he thought had not served him well
in the matter; and Wolsey's enemies, chief among
whom was Anne, were therefore able to ruin him.
The Chancellorship was taken from him; he was
constrained to make over to the King the archie-
piscopal palace of York Place (now Whitehall), and
his possessions were all forfeited. In 1530, the
year after his fall, he was arrested on charges of
high treason, and brought towards London; but,


sickening on the way, he died at Leicester Abbey.
Nor was the fall of Wolsey all. Henry, at first
only in hopes of frightening the Pope, went along
with the general desire for a reform of ecclesiasti-

Easter, 1534, there should be no appeals to the
Bishop or See of Rome. All payments to Rome
were stopped, and the King was declared to be Su-
preme Head of the Church of England.


_ ': t. -I


cal abuses; and as the breach between the King
and Rome widened, step by step the English Church
was withdrawn from the power of the Pope. A
statute in restraint of appeals" enacted that from

Anne Boleyn did not survive for many months
the princess whom she had ousted. In May, 1536,
her marriage with the King was declared null and
void, and on a charge, true or false, of unfaithful-


ness, she was beheaded, leaving one daughter,
Elizabeth, born in 1533. The day after Anne's
death Henry married Jane Seymour, the daughter
of a Wiltshire knight. She died the next year,
shortly after the birth of her son Edward. Early
in 1540 Henry took a fourth wife, Anne, sister of
the Duke of Cleves. This match was brought
about by his chief minister, Thomas Cromwell,
who, being favorable to the Reformation, wished
the King to ally himself with the Protestant princes
of Germany. But unluckily Anne was not good-
looking, and Henry found a pretext for having this
marriage also declared null and void. Anne was
well pensioned off and spent the rest of her life in
England; while the King, without delay, married
Katharine Howard, niece of Thomas Howard, Duke
of Norfolk, who stood at the head of the party hos-


tile to Cromwell and to the Reformers. She, being
found to have misconducted herself, was beheaded,
February 12, 1542; and the next year the King
married his sixth and last wife, Katharine Parr,
widow of Lord Latimer, a discreet woman, who
kept her place as Henry's Queen until his death.
Wolsey's power passed to one who had been in
his service, Thomas Cromwell, created successively
Baron Cromwell and Earl of Essex. The King
made him his vicegerent in ecclesiastical matters,
and as during his administration all the monastic
foundations were destroyed, he has been called
" the Hammer of the Monks." This was not done
all at once. First, in 1536, the smaller monasteries
were dissolved by Act of Parliament, and their
revenues given to the King. The North-country
people, who clung to the old ways, broke out into
revolt at this: the Yorkshire rebellion, led by a
young barrister named Robert Aske, was quaintly
called "The Pilgrimage of Grace." After the re-
sistance had been put down and punished, the
destruction of the larger religious houses soon fol-
lowed, the abbots and priors being made to sur-

render them, as of free will, to the King, and an act
being passed in 1539 to confirm these and any future
surrenders. It must not be thought, however, that
the Reformed doctrines were triumphant. Under
the influence, indeed, of Cromwell and Cranmer,
the King caused Articles of Religion, approaching
somewhat to the Lutheran views, to be set forth;
translations of the Scriptures, such as had hitherto
been forbidden, were not only tolerated, but pub-
lished with the royal license; an edition of the
Bible in English was prepared and printed under
the avowed patronage of Cromwell, and an order
was issued that a copy of this version should be
placed in every church for all men to read. But in
1539 the party opposed to the Reformers obtained
the passing of the Act of the Six Articles," re-
membered by the Protestants under the name of
"the whip with six strings," which restored many
of the old doctrines and forbade the marriage of
priests. Cromwell's favor was already waning, and
his downfall was hastened by Henry's dissatisfac-
tion with Anne of Cleves. He was beheaded July
28, 1540, an Act of Parliament attainting him of
treason and heresy having been passed without his
being heard in his defence. Of the Protestants
put to death in this reign, one of the most notable
was Anne Ascue (daughter of Sir William Ascue),
who was burned in Smithfield in July, 1546.
In 1542 a war broke out with Scotland, whose
King, James V., was not disposed toward alliance
with his uncle Henry of England. A Scottish army
crossed the Border, but whether from disaffection
or from sudden panic, it fled before a few hundreds
of Englishmen at Solway Moss. This disgrace
broke the heart of James, who died not long after-
wards, leaving as his successor an infant daughter,
Mary Stuart.
Henry, who in his later years had become un
wieldy and infirm, and suffered great pain, died
January 28, 1547. In case his son Edward died
childless, the crown was settled by Act of Parlia-
ment on the King's daughters, first on Mary and
her heirs, then on Elizabeth and her heirs. After
them, Henry bequeathed it to the descendants of
his younger sister Mary.
Henry was the first of the Kings who bore the
title of "Defender of the Faith." This he obtained
in 1521, from the Pope, Leo. X., in return for his
having written against Luther a Latin treatise on
the Seven Sacraments; and he and his successors
still kept it after they had ceased, in papal eyes at
least, to deserve it.



EDWARD VI.-1547-1553.

THE King, who was only ten years old when he
came to the throne, being brought up by men of
strong Protestant views, naturally held their opin-
ions; and in piety and religious zeal he was be-
yond his years. Hugh Latimer, the most outspo-
ken of the Reformed preachers, the most fearless
rebuker of iniquity in high places, had a pulpit
erected for him in the King's garden, where young
Edward would sit and listen to sermons an hour
long. The boy received an excellent education,
and being intelligent, quick, and thoughtful, he
made great progress. Even before he was eight
years old he had written Latin letters to his father.
The first enemy Somerset, who had been made
Protector of his nephew the King, had to deal
with was his own brother, Thomas, Lord Seymour
of Sudeley, High Admiral of England, an ambi-
tious and unprincipled man, who had married the
widowed Queen Katharine Parr. Aiming at sup-
planting the Protector, he was himself destroyed
by a bill of attainder, without being heard in his
own defence, and was beheaded March 20, 1549.
That Seymour had been plotting to upset the gov-
ernment by force is likely enough; but, ruthless as
the age was, there were yet many who thought it a
horrible thing for one brother to send another to
the block. Somerset's rule did not last much longer,

his government proving a failure both at home and
abroad. But to the last Somerset was beloved,
especially as the administration of his successors
proved worse than his had been; and when, in
1552, he was beheaded on a charge of conspiring
against his rival, Warwick, now Duke of Northum-
berland, and two others of the Council, great was
the sorrow for him.
The Duke of Northumberland took the manage-
ment of affairs after Somerset's fall. In 1553 the
young King, who took much interest in public
affairs, and whose coming of age was looked forward
to with great hopes, fell dangerously ill. North-
umberland foresaw that if Katharine of Aragon's
daughter, the Lady Mary, who altogether disap-
proved of the doings of her brother's ministers in
religious matters, came to the throne, his power
would be at an end. He therefore persuaded the
dying boy to alter the succession-a thing which
the King had no right to do without authority from
Parliament-by shutting out his sisters and settling
the crown on his cousin, Lady Jane Grey. Shortly
after, Edward died at Greenwich, July 6, his last
prayer being that England might be defended from
papistryy." The common belief was that North-
umberland had hastened his end by poison, but of
this there is no sufficient proof.



IT had been intended to keep Edward's death a
secret until the Ladies Mary and Elizabeth had been
secured; but Mary had friends who gave her warn-
ing, and she at once made her escape into Norfolk.
Her innocent rival, Jane Grey, was but sixteen,
beautiful, accomplished, learned, and firm in the
Reformed faith. Jane had known nothing of her
father-in-law's ambitious schemes, and when he and
'our other lords came to her at Sion House, and
knelt before her as their Queen, she received their
information with amazement and dismay. On

July o1 she was proclaimed; but her reign only
lasted nine days. The nation was unanimous in re-
garding Mary as the rightful heir, and thousands
gathered round her. Not a blow being struck for
Jane, Mary entered London in triumph at the head
of her friends.
Unfortunately for her popularity, Mary was sin-
cerely devoted to the Church of Rome. The nation
indeed, disgusted with the Reforming statesmen of
the last reign, was by no means Protestant at heart,
except in London and the large towns. The de-



EDWARD VI.-1547-1553.

THE King, who was only ten years old when he
came to the throne, being brought up by men of
strong Protestant views, naturally held their opin-
ions; and in piety and religious zeal he was be-
yond his years. Hugh Latimer, the most outspo-
ken of the Reformed preachers, the most fearless
rebuker of iniquity in high places, had a pulpit
erected for him in the King's garden, where young
Edward would sit and listen to sermons an hour
long. The boy received an excellent education,
and being intelligent, quick, and thoughtful, he
made great progress. Even before he was eight
years old he had written Latin letters to his father.
The first enemy Somerset, who had been made
Protector of his nephew the King, had to deal
with was his own brother, Thomas, Lord Seymour
of Sudeley, High Admiral of England, an ambi-
tious and unprincipled man, who had married the
widowed Queen Katharine Parr. Aiming at sup-
planting the Protector, he was himself destroyed
by a bill of attainder, without being heard in his
own defence, and was beheaded March 20, 1549.
That Seymour had been plotting to upset the gov-
ernment by force is likely enough; but, ruthless as
the age was, there were yet many who thought it a
horrible thing for one brother to send another to
the block. Somerset's rule did not last much longer,

his government proving a failure both at home and
abroad. But to the last Somerset was beloved,
especially as the administration of his successors
proved worse than his had been; and when, in
1552, he was beheaded on a charge of conspiring
against his rival, Warwick, now Duke of Northum-
berland, and two others of the Council, great was
the sorrow for him.
The Duke of Northumberland took the manage-
ment of affairs after Somerset's fall. In 1553 the
young King, who took much interest in public
affairs, and whose coming of age was looked forward
to with great hopes, fell dangerously ill. North-
umberland foresaw that if Katharine of Aragon's
daughter, the Lady Mary, who altogether disap-
proved of the doings of her brother's ministers in
religious matters, came to the throne, his power
would be at an end. He therefore persuaded the
dying boy to alter the succession-a thing which
the King had no right to do without authority from
Parliament-by shutting out his sisters and settling
the crown on his cousin, Lady Jane Grey. Shortly
after, Edward died at Greenwich, July 6, his last
prayer being that England might be defended from
papistryy." The common belief was that North-
umberland had hastened his end by poison, but of
this there is no sufficient proof.



IT had been intended to keep Edward's death a
secret until the Ladies Mary and Elizabeth had been
secured; but Mary had friends who gave her warn-
ing, and she at once made her escape into Norfolk.
Her innocent rival, Jane Grey, was but sixteen,
beautiful, accomplished, learned, and firm in the
Reformed faith. Jane had known nothing of her
father-in-law's ambitious schemes, and when he and
'our other lords came to her at Sion House, and
knelt before her as their Queen, she received their
information with amazement and dismay. On

July o1 she was proclaimed; but her reign only
lasted nine days. The nation was unanimous in re-
garding Mary as the rightful heir, and thousands
gathered round her. Not a blow being struck for
Jane, Mary entered London in triumph at the head
of her friends.
Unfortunately for her popularity, Mary was sin-
cerely devoted to the Church of Rome. The nation
indeed, disgusted with the Reforming statesmen of
the last reign, was by no means Protestant at heart,
except in London and the large towns. The de-


prived bishops were restored, Gardiner was made
Chancellor, the foreign preachers were ordered out
of the country, Cranmer and Latimer were sent to
the Tower, and the mass was said as of old. When
Parliament met, all laws concerning religion passed
in the last reign were repealed, and it was enacted
that divine service was to be performed as in the
last year of Henry VIII. But Mary wanted more
than this, and had made up her mind to take the
Emperor's son, Philip of Spain, for her husband.
To hinder the marriage, Sir Thomas Wyatt raised
a formidable insurrection among the Kentishmen,
who marched upon London with the intention of
seizing upon the Queen. Wyatt's army fell off as he

wife, Parliament would not consent that he should
be crowned, or that he should succeed Mary if she
died childless. The next step after the marriage
was to bring about a reconciliation with Rome. On
November 30, 1554, the Lords and Commons met
at Whitehall, went on their knees, and were ab-
solved, together with the whole realm, from heresy
and schism, by Cardinal Reginald Pole, who had
come over as the Pope's Legate.
The statutes against heretics were not revived for
nothing. The fire was first kindled for John Rogers,
a canon of St. Paul's, who had worked upon the
translation of the Bible; and, by the end of the
reign, two hundred persons or more, men and wom-


A. --


advanced; and though he made his way into Lon-
don, no one joined him, and at Temple Bar he gave
himself up. Mary, being persuaded that her former
lenity had encouraged rebellion, ordered the execu-
tion of Lady Jane and her young husband Guilford
Dudley, who were accordingly beheaded February
12, 1554. The real design of the conspirators, it
was believed, had been to raise to the throne the
Lady Elizabeth with Courtenay as her husband;
both, therefore, were sent to the Tower. Renard,
truly considering Elizabeth to be a dangerous rival,
urged that she should be put to death; but as there
was no evidence against her, she was only placed
for a time in ward at Woodstock. Philip of Spain
came over in July, and the marriage took place. He
was called King of England so long as the Queen
lived ; but, to the great vexation of himself and his

en, had died at the stake. John Hooper, late
Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester, was burned
in his episcopal city of Gloucester. On the same
day was burned Rowland Taylor, the parish priest
of Hadleigh, whose tender parting with his wife and
daughters drew tears from the sheriff and the men
who guarded him. Ridley, late Bishop of London,
who had preached in defence of the Lady Jane's
claim to the crown, and the aged Latimer, bound to
one stake, were burned together at Oxford, October
16, 1555. Cranmer, of less firm mould than the
others, recanted; but this humiliation did not save
his life. Being brought to the stake, he abjured his
recantation, and, as an evidence of repentance,
thrust the hand that had written it first into the
flame, crying, This hand hath offended."
The marriage of Philip and Mary was unhappy.


They were childless, and though Mary doted on
her husband, he did not care for her; she was a
small, haggard, sickly woman, eleven years older
than himself; and he had married her only to suit
his father's policy. England, where he was regard- .
ed with suspicion and hatred, offered him no attrac-
tions; and when he left it to become, by the abdica-
tion of his father, sovereign of the Netherlands and
King of Spain, he had little inducement to return. 1
After this he only came over once for a few months
to urge the Queen to join him in war against '
France; she consented, and the result was disas-
trous. The government had neglected to repair the.
defences of Calais, or to keep a sufficient garrison -- i
in it; and in January, 1558, it was taken by the
French. It was no real loss; but it was a terrible
blow to English pride, and the Queen is reported :
to have said, "When I die, Calais will be found -' --
written on my heart." The unfortunate Mary, neg-
lected by her husband, broken down in health, and _-- !.
having lost the love of her people, died November.
17, 1558. Cardinal Pole, who had succeeded Cran-
mer in the archbishopric of Canterbury, survived -~ i-~- ---'"f'. -
the Queen only twenty-two hours. From that time -- -
the power of Rome in England was at an end. BURNING AT THE STAKE.


ELIZABETH.- 558-1603.

ELIZABETH was welcomed by all when, in her twen-
tysixth year, she succeeded to the crown. She had
conformed first to the religion of Edward VI., and
then, though unwillingly, to that of Mary, and her
own opinions were vague; but it soon appeared
that she intended to support a moderate Reforma-
tion, although Philip of Spain, not long after her
accession, offered her his hand on condition that
she would profess and uphold his creed. After some
delay she refused him, as in the end she did every
one of her suitors, although she gave hopes to many
and was earnestly pressed by Parliament to marry.
She had the art of choosing sagacious advisers, and
to the wise counsels of her chief minister, William
Cecil, afterwards Baron Burghley and Lord High
Treasurer, much of the success of her reign is to be
attributed, Sir Francis Walsingham and Robert
Cecil, second son of Lord Burghley and afterwards
created Earl of Salisbury, are also notable among
her advisers. She had also favorites, often clever
men, but owing their influence to their courtierlike

qualities, their accomplishments, their good mien,
and their professed devotion to her. Sometimes
these men had considerable power, but none ever
gained complete mastery over her. Foremost
among them was the handsome, polished, but worth-
less Lord Robert Dudley, younger son of the last
Duke of Northumberland, and created Earl of Lei-
cester. He was unpopular, and evil tales were told
of him; but he won the Queen's liking, though he
failed to obtain her hand. Elizabeth loved pomp
and show and to be surrounded by a gallant train
of nobles and gentlemen vying for her favor. It
was the fashion to address extravagant compliments
to sovereigns and to ladies; and thus the Queen re-
ceived a double portion of flattery. But her fear-
less spirit, her royal bearing, her shrewd and ready
wit, won genuine admiration from the great mass
of her subjects.
In religion Elizabeth's plan was to hold a mid-
dle course, and so to shape the Church that it should
content moderate men of both parties. But, willing

(7 -


or unwilling, all must accept her system; for to her,
as to most statesmen of those days, it seemed
necessary that the nation should be, outwardly at
least, united in religion. On this plan the Re-

-q t?~
1 -iI4



AN, 1Y


formed Church of England was now established, and
the supremacy of the Crown was restored by Act of
Parliament, though Elizabeth would not take the
title of Head of the Church. Elizabeth became,
more by force of circumstances than by her own
wish, the hope of the Reformed communions, and

the Puritans forgave her their own wrongs in
consideration of the help she doled out to their
Protestant brethren in France, Scotland, and the
Netherlands. One incident shows what the Puri-

tan mettle was. In 1579 Elizabeth pro-
fessed to be about to marry Francis,
the young Duke of Anjou, brother to the
French King. This proposed French
marriage was as unpopular as her sis-
ter's Spanish marriage had been. A
Puritan lawyer, John Stubbs, wrote a
pamphlet against it, so outspoken that
Elizabeth had the author and the book-
seller tried as stirrers-up of sedition
and punished by having their right
hands struck off. When his sentence
was executed, Stubbs, with unalter-
able loyalty, waved his hat with his re-
maining hand and cried, "God save
the Queen!" In Ireland the Church
was reformed as in England, but there
in its new shape it took no root, even
the settlers of the Pale, the English
district, being little inclined towards
it, and scarcely any trouble being be-
stowed upon winning them over other-
wise than by force of law.
The person generally looked upon as
Elizabeth's heir was Mary Stuart, Queen
of Scots and widow of Francis II., King
of France. Though left out of Henry
the Eighth's will (which, however, some
believed not to have been signed with
the King's own hand, and therefore to
be worthless), she was the nearest heir,
being the granddaughter of his elder
sister Margaret. Some of the Roman,
Catholics regarded her as rightful
Queen of England already, and she,
when in France, had taken that title.
The Scots were mainly Protestants of
Calvin's school; but Mary was herself a
Roman Catholic, and as the hopes of
the English Roman Catholics were fix-
ed upon her, she was a formidable rival
to Elizabeth. She was one of the most
fascinating of women, and in cleverness
and craft she matched Elizabeth, but

was inferior to her in caution and self-control. By
her folly, if by nothing worse, she laid herself open
to accusations of great crimes, on account of which
the Scottish lords forced her to resign her crown to
her infant son James VI., in the murder of whose-
father, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, she was be-


lived to have been an accomplice. They placed
her in captivity, from which she escaped, and flying
to England threw herself on Elizabeth's protection,
May 16, 1568. But, contrary to her expectation,
the English government detained her as a state
prisoner, in which position she became as danger-
ous to Elizabeth as Elizabeth had once been to her
own sister. Round the beautiful captive gathered
a succession of conspiracies against Elizabeth,
formed by Roman Catholics who looked to Spain
for help. Thomas Percy and Charles Neville, Earls
of Northumberland and Westmoreland, raised a
Roman Catholic rebellion in the North, where men
still clung to the old faith. It was quickly crushed,
and punished with extreme severity. Plans were
formed for marrying Mary to the chief nobleman
in England, the Duke of Norfolk (son of the poet
Surrey), and restoring the Roman Catholic relig-
ion by the help of a Spanish army. The plot be-
ing discovered, the Duke was beheaded, June 2,
1572. Pope Pius V. in 1570 published a bull absolv-
ing Elizabeth's subjects from their allegiance, which
in the end did more harm to the Pope's friends than
to the Queen. All hope of reconciliation between
the English government and Rome having died out,
the Roman Catholics generally ceased to attend the
Reformed services, and became distinctly marked
off as a separate religious body. There were con-
stant plots and rumors of plots to kill Elizabeth;
and the Puritans, who had a majority in the House
of Commons, from which Roman Catholics were
kept out by the oath of supremacy exacted from
the members, began to call for the death of Mary.
After she had been about nineteen years a cap-
tive, a plot, with which the watchful Secretary of
State, Walsingham, became, by means of spies and
intercepted letters, early acquainted, was formedby
Anthony Babington and many other young Roman
Catholics against Elizabeth's life. A statute passed
in 1585 had specially provided against plots made by
or on behalf of any person claiming the crown, and
had prescribed a mode of trial before a commission
of peers, privy councillors, and judges. Mary was
now charged with being accessory to Babington's
plot, and was accordingly put on her trial before
such a commission. She was found guilty, and
was beheaded February 8, 1587, in the hall of Foth-
eringay Castle. In the preceding year she had
sent word to Philip that she had bequeathed her
prospective rights upon England to him, having set
aside her son as being a Protestant.
In her dealings with foreign powers, Elizabeth
was vacillating and faithless; but capricious as her
conduct often seemed, she was constant in her

purpose of maintaining her independence and of
avoiding open war. Philip had at first striven to
keep on good terms with her, but the Queen being
gradually drawn on by her more Protestant ministers
and subjects, Spain and England entered upon a
course of bickering, and underhand acts of hostil-
ity: Elizabeth from time to time aiding Philip's re-
volted subjects, the Protestants of the Netherlands;
Philip encouraging the malcontents both in Eng-
land and Ireland, and planning an invasion which
was constantly deferred. At last, in 1585, the
Queen, having openly allied herself with the people


* -C4i



of the Netherlands, who had formed themselves
into the commonwealth of the United Provinces,
sent out to their aid an expedition, commanded by
the Earl of Leicester. This expedition did not ef-
fect anything; an engagement before Zutphen is
memorable, because it cost the life of Sir Philip
Sidney, who for his talents and his virtues was the
darling of the nation. It is told of him that having
left the field with what proved a mortal wound, he
asked for some drink. But as he lifted the bottle
to his lips, he saw a dying soldier, who was being
carried by, glance wistfully at' it. Sidney gave it to,
him untasted, saying, Thy necessity is yet greater


than mine." The strife with Spain was in great
measure fomented and kept up by a set of men
much of the stamp of the old Vikings, a passion for

that is, a passage to Asia round the northern coast
of America. John Hawkins, of Plymouth, was one
of the first Englishmen who engaged in the negro-


maritime adventure having taken possession of
England. Martin Frobisher and John Davis have
left their names to the Straits which they discov-
ered while seeking for the Northwest passage-

slave trade, in which so little shame was seen that
the Queen granted him a Moor as his crest irn mem-
ory of it, and herself shared in the profits. Phil-
ip, however, was aggrieved thereby, for Hawkins


sold his slaves to the Spanish-American colonies,
where the importation of negroes was illegal. Sir
Walter Raleigh, of Devonshire, one of Elizabeth's
favorites, attempted, though without permanent
success, to plant on the coasts of North America
a colony which Elizabeth named Virginia, in honor
of herself, the Virgin Queen ; "and by his colonists

from the Isthmus of Panama the Pacific Ocean, as
yet unknown to the English, and falling on his
knees, had prayed for life and leave once to sail
an English ship in those seas." Though he started
on his great voyage with five small vessels, he came
home with only one, but that one was heavy laden
with gold and jewels, the plunder of Spanish towns


the practice of smoking tobacco was introduced
into England. To Raleigh, according to the com-
mon tale, belongs the credit of having first brought
into Ireland the potato, a native production of
America.- Most famous of all is Francis Drake,
also a Devonshire man by birth, who started in life
as-an apprentice in a Channel coaster. Drake was
the first man who sailed in one voyage round the
world. In an earlier expedition he had described

and ships. The Queen herself, regardless of the
just complaints of Spain, partook of a banquet on
board Drake's ship, and there knighted the bold
adventurer. Drake and most of his fellows were
a strange mixture of explorer, pirate, and knight-
errant; Spain was the foe of their religion, and the
cruelties often inflicted upon English Protestants
on Spanish soil served as some excuse for the law-
less doings of the rovers. To spoil and burn the


Spanish towns in the New World, to
waylay and capture the gold and silver
laden ships that sailed to Spain, were
at once profitable and, in their eyes,
virtuous acts. Even after the Queen
had sent troops into the Netherlands, -.
she still hung back from engaging vig- I
orously in war; but the adventurers
whose exploits she sanctioned or
winked at had no such hesitation.
Drake, in retaliation for a recent seiz-
ure by the Spaniards of English ships
and sailors, plundered Vigo, and pass-
ing on to the West Indies, stormed and. .P _
put to ransom the towns of San Do- .
mingo and Cartagena. In 1587, when
Philip was about to invade England, B.-
Drake, with six of the Queen's ships
and twenty-four privateers, entered the' .
harbors of Cadiz and Corufia, and de- '
stroyed the ships and great part of the .' -. -.
stores there; in his own phrase, he \. .
"singed the Spanish King's beard."
The threatened invasion, though delay-
ed by Drake, was actually attempted
the next year. A mighty naval force,
known by its Spanish name of Armada \
-that is, Fleet-was collected at Lis-
bon, and the flower of Spain joined .


in the enterprise, which, being undertaken at the
Instance of the Pope, Sixtus V., was looked on as a
holy war. Philip's general, Alexander Farnese,
i '" Duke of Parma, had another fine army ready in the
neighborhood of Nieuport and Dunkirk, for whose
., protection on its passage to England the Armada,
.:. 4 ,.fr commanded by the Duke of Medina Sidonia, was to
.make its way though the Channel to the North
Foreland. Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham,
'- ~' l commanded the English fleet, and with him were
..' '--~ t Drake, Hawkins, Frobisher, and others like them.
S- "" The Queen, who had believed to the last in the
S- possibility of peace, had been slow and sparing in
R rq'.'- her preparations. There were only thirty-four
ships of the royal navy; the rest were furnished by
S* "' .the seaport towns, or by noblemen, gentlemen, and
'.merchants. London is said to have supplied dou-
., __.. -.A .'" ble the number of ships and men requested of it.
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. The forces of the country were rapidly mustered,


an army of 16,ooo men, under the command of Lei-
cester, being assembled at Tilbury to cover London ;
and the mass of the English Roman Catholics came
forward as zealously as anybody else, for though
they might have invited foreign aid for Mary of
Scotland's sake, they were not minded deliberately
to make their country over to Philip. But every-
thing depended on the fleet; for full of spirit as the
land forces were, they were untried men, ill-fitted
to cope with the veteran troops of Spain. On July
19 Howard, who was then at Plymouth, learned
that the Armada-about a hundred and fifty sail-
was off the Cornish coast; and coming out with
about sixty or seventy ships, he cung upon the
enemy's rear. Fresh vessels joined nim daily until
jae mustered a hundred and forty. His plan was,
not to come to close quarters with the huge fleet,
which advanced up the Channel in the foir of a
half-moon, but to follow and harass it with his
small vessels, which, sailing twice as fast as the
Spaniards, could advance and retreat as they chose.
Medina Sidonia, fighting as he sailed along, an-
chored on the 27th in Calais roads. To drive him
out, at midnight on the 28th eight ships were fired,
and sent drifting with wind and tide among the
Spaniards, who, seized with a panic, cut their cables,
and ran out to sea in disorder. At daybreak the
scattered fleet was attacked by Howard, Drake, and
Lord Henry Seymour, and a hot fight took place
off Gravelines. Though the Spaniards fought gal-
lantly, in seamanship and gun-practice they were
inferior to their adversaries, and their floating cas-
tles were no match for the active little English ves-

sels. Had not the Queen's ill-timed parsimony
kept her fleet insufficiently supplied with powder,
the Armada would have been destroyed. As it


was, Sidonia fled away into the North Sea. "There
was never anything pleased me better," wrote
Drake to Walsingham, than seeing the enemy fly-
ing with a southerly wind to the northwards. With



the grace of God, if we live, I doubt not ere it be
long so to handle the matter with the Duke of
Sidonia as he shall wish himself at St. Mary Port
among his orange-trees." With part of the fleet,
Howard and Drake clung to their enemy till their
scanty provisions ran short. "Notwithstanding
that our powder and shot was well near all spent,"
wrote Howard, "we set on a brag countenance and
gave him chase, as though we had wanted nothing,
until he had cleared our own coast and some part

tempt to subdue and colonize Ulster: Young Es-
sex, gallant but headstrong, acquitted himself brill-
iantly as the leader of an expedition which took the
town of Cadiz; but he was not so successful in the
Lord Lieutenancy of Ireland, to which he was ap-
pointed that he might subdue the rebel Hugh
O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone. The Queen found fault
with his conduct, upon which Essex, believing that
he was being undermined by his rivals at court, and
presuming on Elizabeth's fondness for him, left his

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1: T ] PIS R AA

of Scotland." Even then the; misfortunes of the
Armada were only begun; the gale rose to a storm,
scattering the ships about in the seas of Scotland
and Ireland, which were almost unknown to the
Spaniards; and only fifty-four vessels lived to creep
shattered home. The English rejoiced, though
modestly, over their success. To them and to all
Protestants it seemed that Heaven had fought for
Leicester, dying in the midst of the rejoicing, was
succeeded in the Queen's favor by Robert Devereux,
Earl of Essex, whose father, Walter, Earl of Essex,
was noted for an adventurous but unsuccessful at-

post unbidden, and abruptly presented himself be-
fore her. But Elizabeth, rejecting his excuses, sent
out Lord Mountjoy to bring Ireland into order;
while Essex was deprived of his offices, and ordered
into confinement in his own house. For a time he.
lived quietly, but, finding that his enemies were
bent on his ruin, he determined to try to get back
his power by force. With a view to removing the
Queen's advisers, he gathered his friends round him,
and marched into the city, trusting that the Lon-
doners would take up arms in his behalf. But no
one stirred to help him, and it was with difficulty
that he escaped to his house, where he surrendered.


He was found guilty of treason, and, favorite of the
Queen though he had been, was beheaded in 16o0,
at the age of thirty-three. Tyrone, notwithstand-
ing that an armament was sent from Spain to his
aid, was reduced by Mountjoy to submission, and
received a pardon.
Queen Elizabeth died at Richmond, in the seven-
tieth year of her age, March 24, 1603. Robert
Cecil, her chief minister, affirmed that she declared

by signs that King James VI. of Scotland should
succeed her. This is not certain, but at any rate
James was proclaimed King of England, and the
reign of the Stuarts began.
On December 31, 160o, a charter of privileges was
granted to a recently formed company of London
merchants trading to the East Indies. This was
the famous East India Company, and from this
sprang the British dominion in India.


JAMES 1.-1603-1625.

ACCORDING to the will of Henry VIII. the crown
should have gone to the descendants of Mary,
Duchess of Suffolk; but James VI. of Scotland,
son of Mary Stuart and her second husband Lord
Darnley, was the nearest heir by birth, the nation
was willing to accept him, and after his coronation
an Act of Parliament was passed declaring his right.
In the first year of this reign, Sir Walter Raleigh
was condemned to death on a charge 'of having
conspired to raise to the throne, by the help of
Spain, Arabella Stuart, first cousin of James. He
was, however, reprieved, and spent thirteen years as
a prisoner in the Tower. Arabella, having had no
share in the plot, was unmolested until eight years
later, when she had privately married William
Seymour, a descendant of the Duchess of Suffolk.
This union of two possible pretenders to the throne
gave alarm; and Arabella was arbitrarily shut up
in the Tower, where she became insane and died.
Early in 1604 a conference between dignitaries
of the Church and leading Puritan divines was
held before the King at Hampton Court. Some
slight alterations were made in the Prayer-book,
and a new translation of the Bible was ordered.
This was finished in 1611, and is still our Author-
ized Version." The Puritans were not satisfied,
for, with a few exceptions, the practices to which
they objected were retained, and no deviation from
the established order was tolerated. Nothing short
of excluding from the Church all doctrines but their
own would have fully satisfied the Puritans; but the
way in which they were rebuked and browbeaten
by the King and the bishops was not likely to soothe
them. James felt proud of having argued them
down. "If this be all they have to say," he ob-
served triumphantly, "I shall make them conform
themselves, or I will harry them out of the land."

And in fact about three hundred refractory clergy-
men were turned out of their livings. As for the Ro-
man Catholics, who had been led to form hopes of

.. .,
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fearful vengeance was devised. Robert Catesby, a


Roman Catholic gentleman, proposed to a few
trusty friends to blow up the Parliament House
with gunpowder on the day the King was to open
the session. King, Lords, and Commons thus dis-
posed of, some of the confederates were to raise
the Roman Catholic gentry, and proclaim one of

plotters. A cellar under the House of Lords was
hired and barrels of gunpowder there laid under
fagots and coals. The task of firing the mine was
deputed to Guy or Guido Fawkes, an Englishman
who had served on the Spanish side in the Nether-
lands. The number of the conspirators was gradual-


the King's younger children as the new sovereign;
for the eldest, Prince Henry, would, it was expected,
accompany his father and perish with him. Before
the scheme was complete, James had the laws
against Popish recusants (that is, those who re-
fused to come to church) enforced in all their
harshness; and these severities only spurred on the

ly raised to thirteen, their last ally, Francis Tresham,
seems to have been the cause of their ruin. Every-
thing was ready against the opening of the session,
which was fixed for November 5, 1605, when
Tresham's brother-in-law Lord Mounteagle, also a
Roman Catholic, was warned by an anonymous let-
ter to keep away trom Parliament. This he showed


to Cecil, Earl of Salisbury; investigation followed,
and about midnight, on the eve of November 5,
Fawkes was seized in the cellar. On hearing of
this the chief conspirators fled, but were soon killed
or taken. Catesby was among the slain; Tresham
died in prison; and the survivors, including Fawkes,
were put to a traitor's death. Catesby's intended
crime bore bitter fruit for those he had hoped to
serve, as the Gunpowder Treason deepened the
hatred felt by the English in general for the Church
of Rome, and put an end for centuries to come to
any chance of relief for the -Roman Catholics.
New and more severe laws were made against
"Popish recusants," and a new oath of allegiance
was imposed, renouncing in the strongest terms the
doctrine that princes excommunicated by the Pope
might be deposed or murdered by their subjects or
others. This oath caused a division among the
Roman Catholics, some taking it, others, at the
bidding of Pope Paul V., refusing to do so. As
James was not disposed to persecution, the laws
against the Roman Catholics, were, much to the
dissatisfaction of the Puritans, not always fully ex-
After the death of Salisbury, in 1612, King James
gave his confidence to a young Scottish favorite,
Robert Carr, whom he afterwards created Earl of
Somerset. Somerset mixed himself up in scandal-
Dus and criminal doings, which not only led to his
own ruin, but reflected discredit upon his master.
After Somerset's disgrace, the royal favor passed to
George Villiers, created successively Earl, Marquess,
and Duke of Buckingham, a handsome young Eng-
lishman, whom James nicknamed "Steenie," and
by whom he allowed himself to be treated with
rude familiarity. In 1616 Raleigh was let out of
prison, and got leave to go on an expedition to
Guiana, there to open a gold mine he averred he
knew of. There was risk of strife with the Span-
iards, who claimed the New World and its treas-
ures for their own; but the desire uf gold over-
powered the King's habitual caution. Raleigh,
though warned that if he did any hurt to a Span-
iard his head should pay for it, believed that suc-
cess would excuse disobedience. When his fleet
reached the Orinoco, he sent a party up the river
without distinct orders not to fight. They came
into conflict with the neighboring Spanish settlers,
whose town they burned; but they did not find the
mine The Spaniards, not without reason, com-
piained of Raleigh as a pirate; and on his return,
empty-handed, he was beheaded, not avowedly for
any fresh fault he had committed, but on his old
sentence. The nation was indignant, for he was

looked on as a sacrifice to the vengeance of Spain.
In 1621 a Parliament met which boldly attacked
monopolies, corruption, and other abuses; the Lord
Chancellor, Francis Bacon, famous as one of the
greatest philosophers, was charged by the Commons
with taking bribes, and thereupon was sentenced
by the Lords to be forever incapable of holding
any office. But the Commons had less success
when they touched upon foreign affairs, which at

... ......... ...


- .- -

.. :- --- ---- -- -

that time were occupying everybody's thoughts. Inr
1619 the Protestants of Bohemia, then in revolt,
had set up as their King the Elector Palatine Fred-
erick V., who was the head of the Protestant princes
of Germany and the son-in-law of King James.
The Emperor, the Roman Catholic princes, and
the Spaniards joined together against Frederick,
who soon lost, not only his new kingdom, but his
own German lands as well. James wished to re-


cover the inheritance of his daughter's husband, but English, broken off. Charles and his friend camp
still he would not break with Spain, because he home out of temper, and bent upon war.
wanted to marry his son Charles, Prince of Wales, King James died of ague, March 27, I625. VhP


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to the Infanta Maria, daughter of King Philip III.
of Spain. The Prince, accompanied by the favorite
Buckingham, travelled in disguise to Madrid to see
his bride; but, though a marriage treaty was con-
cluded, in the end it was, to the great joy of the

was the author of many works in prose and verse
notably of a treatise against the practice of smoking
tobacco. His wife was Anne of Denmark, and nt
children were Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales,
who died in 1612; Charles, who succeeded to the


throne; and Elizabeth, the so-called Queen of Bo-
hemia, wife of Frederick V., Elector Palatine.
James took the title of King of Great Britain, and
had a national flag devised, on which the crosses of
the patron saints of England and Scotland, St.
George and St. Andrew, were blended-the first
"Union Jack;" but England and Scotland, though
they had for the time fallen to one and the same
sovereign, remained otherwise entirely separate.
In 1607 some adventurers sent out by a London
Company of Merchants founded in Virginia James
Town, the first permanent settlement of Englishmen
in North America. In 1620 a body of Independents,
who had been driven from England to Holland by
the laws against non-conformity, sailed for North
America, and settled in New England, at a place
to which they gave the name of Plymouth. These
are the most ancient of those colonies which after-
wards, throwing off the rule of the mother-country,
formed the United States of America. Fresh ef-
forts were made in this reign to find a Northwest
passage. Henry Hudson in 16o1 sailed through the
Strait and explored the Bay now called by his name.
In those seas he perished, for his crew, which had
suffered much from want of provisions, mutinied,
and sent him and eight of his followers adrift in
an open boat. Nothing more was heard of them.
Further discoveries were made by Thomas Button,
the first navigator who reached the eastern coast of
America through Hudson's Strait, and by Robert
Bylot and William Baffin, who discovered and pene-
trated to the most northern extremity of Baffin's
Sir Thomas Wyatt, father of the insurgent Wyatt
of Queen Mary's reign, and the ill-fated Earl of
Surrey, who died on the scaffold in 1547, were the
leaders of a school of poets who followed Italian
models. Surrey, a graceful and polished writer,
though hardly a man of genius, was the first to use,
in his translation of the _Eneid, what we now call
blank verse. To the Italian school also belonged
the great Elizabethan poet, Edmund Spenser, au-
thor of the Faery Queen," a long though unfinished
tale of chivalrous adventure, veiling a religious and
political allegory. Spenser's poem represents the
wide range of thought of the Elizabethan age-in
it the old knightly romances are mixed up with fic-
tions borrowed from the classical poets, and with
the Protestant ideas of his own time. His was the
form of Protestanism which adored Elizabeth and
hated the power of Rome, and Mary Queen of Scots
as the championess of that power, but which had
nothing of the Puritan austerity and hostility to
episcopacy. The age was fertile in poets, among

whom Sidney may again be mentioned as a writer
of graceful love poems; and some of the most spirit-
ed of the English ballads belong to the reigns of
Elizabeth and James. Dramatic art was now mak-
ing an advance. Of the earliest attempts, the Mys-


o- -


rl I

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+ i7
r~mr~~; ----~I

-- -- -

I ,-


teries and Miracle Plays, we have specimens as old
as the time of Edward III. These, which were
acted in churchyards or streets, were rude represen-
tations of Biblical stories, and in the days of few
books and little general education, were thought
useful for teaching Scripture history to the people.
.v -4'-, .-' '- : : -,- IF" : i'

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-- '.. -- : .. 71 2 1.
teries nd Mirale Play, we hae speci ensa l
as th tim of EwardIII. hese whic wer
acted~~~~~~ ~~~~ incucyrd rsretwr ud ersn


Next came the Moralities, allegorical dramas, which
were distinguished by the introduction of a char-
acter called the Vice, who played a part much like
that of Punch in the puppet-shows. The first regu-
lar English comedy, Ralph Roister Doister," was
composed probably as early as the reign of Henry
VIII., by Nicholas Udal, master first of Eton and
afterwards of Westminster School, who was wont
to write plays for his scholars to act. This piece
gave a picture of the manners of the London gal-
lants and citizens. Under Elizabeth the taste
spread ; the first theatres, rude buildings, open, ex-
cept above the stage, to the weather, were erected;
and a school of playwrights sprang up. Some of
these early dramatists show great power; but they
have all been thrown into the shade by William
Shakespeare, the greatest name in English litera-
ture. Little is known of his life beyond the mere
outline. Born in 1564 at Stratford-upon-Avon,
where his father was a well-to-do townsman, he
became an actor and playwright, holding a share in
the Blackfriars Theatre, which was built in 1576.
He was also one of the proprietors of the Globe
Theatre on the Bankside, which was built in I594.
Retiring in his latter days to his native town, he
there died in 1616. In the deep knowledge of hu-
mah nature which his dramas display, no other has

ever approached him; and he is further distin-
guished by his healthy moral tone and by the na-
tional spirit which pervades his historical plays. In
them is expressed the fearless temper of the genera-
tion which drove back the Armada, and its pride in
its sovereign and its country, "this royal throne
of kings, this sceptred isle." After Shakespeare,
though far below him, stands Benjamin, or as he is
always called, Ben Jonson. Other contemporary
dramatists of repute were Francis Beaumont and
John Fletcher, who wrote in concert, and so identi-
fied themselves with each other that it is almost
impossible to distinguish their respective shares
in their joint work. They represent the tone of
thought and the type of men of the court of James
I. Fletcher appears also to have had the honor of
being a coadjutor of Shakespeare; the greater part of
the play of Henry VIII.," which goes under Shake-
speare's name, is believed to have been the work of
Fletcher. After Beaumont's death in 1615,.Fletch-
er was assisted by Philip Massinger, another of the
great dramatic poets of the Elizabethan school.
Massinger, who died in the reign of Charles I., is
best remembered by his character of Sir Giles Over-
reach. This was meant for Sir Giles Mompesson, a
fraudulent monopolist, who was impeached by the
Commons in 1621.


CHARLES I.-1625-1649.

SHORTLY after his accession the young king mar-
ried Henrietta Maria, daughter of the great Henry
IV. of France-an alliance which, though less hate-
ful than one with Spain, was yet not liked, as the
bride was a Roman Catholic. Charles himself, dig-
nified in his bearing, well conducted, and religious,
was welcomed as a great improvement on his pred-
ecessor; but events soon showed that his father's
maxims of arbitrary authority had sunk deep into his
heart. The strife between King and Parliament
began at once; for while the King wanted money
for war with Spain, the Parliament wanted redress
of grievances and the removal of Buckingham, who
was more powerful than ever. After dissolving two
Parliaments within the space of a year, Charles had
recourse to arbitrary methods of raising money,
until a petty and mismanaged war on behalf of the
French Protestants so increased difficulties that
he had to summon a third Parliament. This. by

granting him five subsidies (taxes levied on every
subject according to the value of his lands or goods),
obtained his assent to its Petition of Right, by
which the recent illegal practices-arbitrary taxes
and imprisonment, forced billetings of soldiers up-
on the people, exercise of martial law-were con-
demned. Emboldened by victory, the Commons pre-
sented a remonstrance against the excessive power
of Buckingham as the chief cause of the national ca-
lamities; words which had a terrible effect, for about
two months later the Duke, then at Portsmouth
making ready for an expedition against France, was.
stabbed .o death by one John Felton, who thought
by this crime to do his country service. Though
the Duke was gone other causes of strife remained.
Charles levied of his sole authority certain duties on
exports and imports, called tonnage and poundage;
and this the Commons asserted to be contrary to,
the Petition of Right. All this put the Commons


into an angry mood, and Charles tried to keep
things quiet by ordering the House to adjourn.
But when the Speaker rose to leave the chair, two
members, Denzil Holles and Benjamin Valentine,
held him down by force; the doors were locked,
and amid shouts of Aye! Aye! Holles read out
three resolutions which had been drawn up by Sir
John Eliot, the leader of the Opposition party:
Whoever should bring in opinions disagreeing from
the true and orthodox Church, whoever should ad-
vise the levying of tonnage and poundage without
grant of Parliament, whoever should pay these du-
ties, was to be accounted an enemy, to the king-


dom (March 2, 1629). Upon this the King again
dissolved Parliament; and Sir John Eliot, with
Holles and some other members who had aided
and abetted him, were sent to prison, where Eliot,
refusing to make any submission, was kept till his
Charles, now resolving to govern, at least for the
time, without Parliaments, found two ministers to
serve his purpose-Thomas, Viscount Wentworth,
better known by his later title of Earl of Strafford,
and William Laud, Bishop of London, afterwards
Archbishop of Canterbury. These two labored
zealously to make their master absolute-a scheme

which they spoke of among themselves by the term
of "thorough." Wentworth was a wealthy York-
shire landowner, who had been one of the most dis-
tinguished members of the Opposition in the Lo--


..-...... .
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... .-'..

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er House, but having gone over to the King, had
been raised to the peerage, and made President of
the Council of the North, a tribunal which exercised
special powers north of the Humber, and for which
= _- ..+ = - .-'-_ : : .. - __ -._- +.

CH RLES I.~~,~,,~~,
erHue u aiggn vrt h ig a

*~ ""* -.'"':


Lord Wentworth now obtained almost unlimited
authority. He was next removed to Ireland, which
he governed with ability indeed, but in the most
despotic manner. Laud devoted himself to forcing
the Puritans into conformity to the rules and cere-
monies of the Church.

l''f''"~ l

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,, i i l ii ,, ll ,l

I. jI, .

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vices for raising money. He wanted a fleet, and his
-_ .-I i i I '

the maritime counties had occasionally been called'

upon to furnish ships. This had been done in
Elizabeth's reign, and indeed once in his own. Ac-
i 1 -sr-- ,', "
'1 ': I I ,

.- l: "

vices for raising money. He wanted a fleet, and his
Elizabeth's reign, and indeed once in his own. Ac-I,,
..t- -- .__W_-_----=-- i 7 ----

Elizabeth's reign, and indeed once in his own. Ac-

cordingly he first demanded ships, or money in lieu
of them, from the towns and counties on the coast*
and then, going a step further, he levied ship-
money" upon every shire. John Hampden, a
country gentleman of Buckinghamshire, refused, as
did also some others, to pay his share. The sum


D OF. B-C'It '--AM '

was small, but on it turned the question whether
the King or the House of Commons should be su-
preme; for if the King could take what money he
pleased, he would soon be able to do what else he
pleased. On the case being argued, the-majority of
the judges decided against Hampden; but the argu.


ments in favor of the lawfulness of the tax were so
weak that Charles lost more than he gained by his
victory, while Hampden's courage raised him in the
estimation of his countrymen. Ship-money con-
tinued to be levied, but amid growing opposition.

renewal of the Scottish war and the invasion of
England by a Scottish army, he was that same year
constrained to summon another, since famed as
" the Long Parliament." The Commons, led by
the great orator John Pym, member for Tavistock,


In 1638, the year in which the decision in favor of
ship-money was given, the Scots were driven into
rebellion by the King attempting to force upon them
a liturgy much like that of England. In hopes of
obtaining money, he called, early in 1640, a Parlia-
ment, known as "-the Short Parliament," which he
dissolved after three and twenty days; but by the

at once impeached of treason Strafford and Laud.
Strafford was brought to trial; but as it was very
doubtful whether the offences charged against him
amounted legally to high treason, the Commons,
going in this against Pym's wishes, dropped the imr-
peachment, and a Bill of Attainder was passed, to
which Charles in tears gave his assent. "Piut not


your trust in' princes," was the Earl's exclamation.
Strafford walked to the scaffold on Tower Hill bear-
ing himself more like a general at the head of an
army than like a condemned man." As he passed
by the window of Laud's prison-chamber, he paused
to receive the Archbishop's blessing. Laud lifted
up his hands to bestow it; but, overcome with grief,
he fell back fainting. "Farewell, my Lord," said
the Earl, God protect your innocency." Strafford
was beheaded on May 12, 1641, and with. him fell
the system of government he had endeavored to
Although Charles had now yielded so much that
many began to turn towards him, he was still mis-
trusted by Pym and his party. When, in the autumn
of 1641, the Irish rose in rebellion and slaughtered
the Ulster colonists, some suspected, though unjust-
ly, that Charles had himself stirred up this out-
break, which soon became a general insurrection of
the Irish Roman Catholics. Pym and his friends in
Parliament framed a Grand Remonstrance," set-
ting forth all the past grievances against the King,
and urging on him the employment only of minis-
ters whom the Parliament could trust. The Re-
monstrance was opposed by the moderate party,
and a stormy debate ensued, which lasted from noon
till two o'clock the next morning. A small majority
carried the Remonstrance, but the debate waxed
yet hotter when it was proposed to print it. Ex-
cited members handled their sword-hilts, and a fray
seemed imminent, when Hampden's calm voice re-
called them to reason (November 22 and 23, 1641).
The King's own violence was his ruin. Attended
by some five hundred armed men, he went, on Jan-
uary 4, 1642, to the House of Commons, there to
seize Pym, Hampden, Holles, and two other leading
members of the Opposition, whom he had caused
to be impeached of treason. Warning having
been timely conveyed, the accused had withdrawn;
and when Charles demanded of the Speaker Lent-
hall whether they were there, Lenthall, falling on
his knees, answered, May it please your Majesty, I
have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this
place, but as the House is pleased to direct me."
Charles saw, as he expressed it, that his birds were
flown; and as he moved out of the House, cries of
"Privilege! privilege!" followed him, for it was
held that the King's proceedings were a breach of
the privileges enjoyed by Parliament. A majority
of the Lords and many of the Commons joined the
King; both parties made ready to draw the sword,
and on August 22, 1642, Charles set up at Notting-
ham his standard, which bore the motto, "Give
Caesar his-due," and-called on his subjects to' ral-

ly round him. The two parties in this struggle
were distinguished as Royalists and Parliamentari-
ans, or more familiarly as Cavaliers and Round-
heads. On the whole the northwest of England,
then the wilder ard less thickly peopled part of the
country, was for the King; and the busier and
wealthier southeast, with the city of London, was
for the Parliament. Robert Devereux, Earl of Es-
sex, son of Elizabeth's favorite, a soldier who had
seen service in the Netherlands, was appointed
commander-in-chief of the Parliament army, and
opposed the King in person at Edgehill in Warwick-
shire, where, on October 23, an indecisive battle,
the first important action of the war, was fought.
Things at first looked well for the King, whose cav-
alry gained many successes. Their leader, Prince
Rupert, a son of the Queen of Bohemia, was the
terror of the Parliament's raw levies; but he was
rash and headlong, and the license of plunder he
gave to his men brought discredit on his party. In
June, the next year, the noble and blameless Hamp-
den, who had proved one of the best of the Parlia-
ment officers, was mortally wounded in a skirmish
with Rupert at Chalgrove. Another man of note,
Lord Falkland, of the opposite party, perished not
long afterwards in the indecisive battle of Newbury
(September 20). About this time, when the King
was on the whole, gaining ground, the Parliament
entered into alliance with the Scots, who in the be-
ginning of 1644 sent an army to its aid. Charles
meanwhile made a truce with the insurgent Roman
Catholics in Ireland in order that he migtt bring
over troops from thence, and summoned those of
the Peers and Commons who adhered to his party
to meet in Parliament at Oxford, where they ac-
cordingly assembled. In the Parliament at West-
minster,men of Presbyterian opinions had hitherto
been the prevailing party; but in the army the sect
of the Independents was gaining power. Both
were opposed to episcopacy or prelacy; but beyond
that they ceased to agree. The Presbyterians had
a regular system of church government by councils
of ministers and elders, and wished to enforce their
doctrines throughout the land; while the Indepen-
dents looked on every congregation as an indepen-
dent church, competent to direct itself without in-
terference from any other power. To these latter
belonged one of the most vigorous of the Round-
head officers, Oliver Cromwell, a Huntingdonshire
gentleman, and a member of Parliament, who raised
in the Eastern counties a famous regiment of horse,
traditionally known as the Ironsides. Early in the
war he had remarked to his cousin Hanpden what
a poor'set of- men were'enlisted for the Parliament-


horse, unlikely to cope with the gallant gentlemen
who composed the King's cavalry. "You must," he
added, "get men of a spirit that is likely to go on as
far as gentlemen will go, or else you will be beaten
still." Cr.:.n-i..':ii ...: 1 r.-T I. none but those whose
hearts were in the cause, and who would submit to
strict discipline, though he did not care to which of
the many religious sects they belonged. They
were never beaten," he said afterwards. In 1643
it was in the eastern counties alone, where Crom-
well was serving under the Earl of Manchester, that
the Parliament cause decidedly throve, and the
eastern forces, raised and trained under Cromwell's
influence, were soon able to push further north,
joining with the Yorkshire leaders, Lord Fairfax
and his son Sir Thomas, and the Scots. In the
battle of Marston. Moor, July 2, 1644, the Royalists,
after a long and fierce contest, were routed by the
allied English and Scots. Cromwell wrote in tri-
umph how his men had worsted Rupert's renowned
horse : God made them as stubble to our swords."
Sir Thomas Fairfax, who had been the mainstay of
the Parliament cause in Yorkshire, and had won
great credit at Marston Moor, received the chief
command, with Cromwell as his second. The
" New-Model army," its ranks filled with the flower
Sf the Puritan yeomen and workmen, inflicted an-
other defeat upon the Royalists at Naseby, June 14,
1645, so crushing as to render the King's cause
thenceforth hopeless. Charles kept up the struggle
till the following spring, when, in despair, he sur-
rendered himself to the Scots army before Newark,
and by it was subsequently delivered up to the Eng-
lish Parliament (January 30, 1647).
In 1643 the Houses bound themselves, after the
Scottish fashion, in a "Solemn League and Cove-
nant to "endeavor the extirpation of popery "
and prelacyy." By an ordinance of Parliament, as
the Acts of the two Houses were called, the aged
Laud, who since his impeachment had lain appar-
ently forgotten in the Tower, was condemned for
high treason, and beheaded January Io, 1645-an
act of needless revenge, which did the Presbyterian
party no credit. The use of the Book of'Common
Prayer, even in private families, was forbidden; and
episcopacy gave way to. the Presbyterian system,
which, however, owing to the subsequent rise of the
Independents, was never fully established except in
Middlesex and Lancashire. Large domains belong-
ing to the Bishops and the Crown were seized and
sold, and heavy fines were laid on the vanquished
The King remained a prisoner, honorably treat-
ed, at Holmby House, near Northampton, for more

than four months. Negotiations were proceeding
between him and the Parliament, when the army
took matters into its own hands, one Joyce, a cor-
net of Fairfax's guard, with a party of horse riding



" There is my commission," said the cornet, point-
ing to his troopers. "It is written in characters

,, -_-_
i' 2 ..:. -


fair and legible enough," replied the King, smiling;
and with little reluctance he let himself be carried
off to the army, which, consisting mainly of Inde-
pendents and other "sectaries," and objecting to

he said, for his life, he made his escape from Hamp-
ton Court, where he had been lodged, and threw
himself into the power of Colonel Hammond, gov-
ernor of the Isle of Wight, by whom he was placed


have Presbyterianism forced upon it, was now the
rival, not the servant, of Parliament. Moreover,
the fiercer spirits among the soldiers became so
violent against the King that at last, alarmed, as

in Carisbrooke Castle, from which he afterwards
vainly sought to make his escape. This was after
he had entered into a secret treaty with the Scots,
by which he bound himself to maintain the Presby-


terian system in England for three years, and they
undertook to restore to him his throne. On all
sides, in anticipation of the coming of the Scots,
Royalist risings took place, first in Wales and the
West, then in Kent and in the North; while the
Scottish army, made up of Royalists and moderate
Presbyterians, and led by the Duke of Hamilton,
invaded England. But all these attempts were put
down by the energy of Fairfax and Cromwell, the
latter of whom routed the Scots at Preston and

were shut out. Thus purged," the Commons, or
rather the remains of them, voted that it was trea-
son in the King of England to levy war against
the Parliament, and followed this up with an ordi-
nance appointing a High Court of Justice to try
Charles on that charge. The Lords refusing to
concur, the Commons voted that the supreme au-
thority resided in themselves, and the so-called High
Court of Justice-was finally constituted by the au-
thority of the so-called Commons alone. The most


Warrington in Lancashire (August 17 and 19, 1648).
The southern insurgents, who had thrown them-
selves into Colchester, after a desperate defence,
surrendered to Fairfax; and thus ended the brief
struggle known as the Second Civil War.
Charles was now removed by soldiers to Hurst
Castle, a lonely stronghold on the shore of the So-
lent, and as the Parliament decided to come to a
reconciliation with him, it was purged "-that is,
the entrance to the House was barred by Colonel
Pride with a regiment of foot, and more than a
hundred members displeasing to the army party

notable of its members were Cromwell, his son-in-
law Henry Ireton, and the president of the court,
John Bradshaw.
On January 20, 1649, the King was brought from
St. James' Palace before the High Court in West-
minster Hall. Of a hundred and thirty-five mem-
bers of the Court, less than seventy, Cromwell be-
ing among them, were present. When the name of
Fairfax, as one of the members, was called, his wife's
voice was heard in answer, "He is not here, and
will never be; you do him wrong to name him."
Charles, bearing himself with kingly firmness and


dignity, refused to acknowledge the jurisdiction of "Charles Stuart, King of England," as "a tyrant,
the tribunal. Marks of public sympathy for him traitor, murderer, and public enemy to the good peo-
were not wanting, and the soldiers' shouts of Jus- pie of the nation." The names of fifty-nine members
tice! "Execution! were mingled with counter- of the Court were subscribed to the warrant of execu-


cries of "God save the King!" On the last day,
January 27, of the trial, Charles requested a confer-
ence with the Lords and Commons, but was ie-
fused, and sentence of death was pronounced upon

tion. Charles calmly resigned himself to his fate,
taking a tender farewell of his two youngest chil-
dren, the Princess Elizabeth, aged thirteen, and
Henry, Duke of Gloucester, who was but eight., The


rest of his time was spent at his devotions, in the
company of William Juxon, Bishop of London, by
whom he was attended on the scaffold in front of
Whitehall, where he was beheaded, January 30. A
few faithful adherents followed him to his grave in
St. George's Chapel, Windsor. About a week after

who held the office of Stadtholder or chief magis-
trate of Holland, and their son was afterwards King
William III. of England. Elizabeth, and Henry,
Duke of Gloucester, who were in the power of the
Parliament, were treated after their father's death
like the children of a private gentleman. Elizabeth


I F _La
I ''*" Iji~



his death the Commons voted that the House of
Lords and the office of King were useless and dan-
gerous and ought to be abolished.
Of the children of Charles, his eldest sons, Charles,
Prince of Wales, born 1630, and James, Duke of
York, born in 1633, each in turn became King.
Mary married William, Prince of Orange Nassau,

died in 1650 in Carisbrooke Castle, where she had
been placed together with her brother Henry, who,
two years later, was allowed to join his family
abroad. He died in 1660, soon after his brother
Charles had been restored to the throne. Henri-
etta Maria, born 1644, married Philip, Duke of Or-
leans, brother of King Louis XIV. of France.



THE House of Commons, such as it was, for it
now seldom exceeded some fifty members, had be-
come the sole ruling power, an'd by it a Council of
State, of which Bradshaw was the first president,
was appointed to carry on the government. The
Duke of Hamilton and two other Royalist noble-
men taken in the Second Civil War were beheaded,
and England was declared a Commonwealth and
Free State, to be governed without any King or
House of Lords.
Young Charles, who was regarded as King by
every Royalist, was an exile abroad. His chief

hopes lay in Ireland, where James Butler, Mar-
quess of Ormonde, the Royalist Lord-Lieutenant,
gathered around him every one, whether Roman
Catholic, Episcopalian, or Presbyterian, who would
fight for the King. Against these the Council of
State sent out, as their Lord-Lieutenant, Cromwell,
who, by dint of unsparing severity towards all who
resisted, and by drawing over the Protestants to
the Parliament side, broke the strength of the
Royalist cause. After nine months he was called
away to Scotland, leaving Ireton to carry on his
work in Ireland. Under the rule of the Common-


wealth, permission was given to the Roman Cath-
olic leaders and their followers to enter the service
of foreign states; many of the Irish were shipped
to the West Indies; large confiscations of land were
made, certain counties of Munster, Leinster, and Ul-
ster being portioned out among Parliamentary sol-
diers; while the old proprietors were transplanted "
to lands assigned them in the wilds of Connaught
and Clare.

the sun rose over the sea the English general
exclaimed Now let God arise, and his enemies
shall be scattered; and scattered the Scots were,
in utter rout. In the course of the next year, whilst
Cromwell was still engaged in Scotland, Charles and
his army suddenly crossed the Border, and though
their hopes of a rising in their favor were disap-
pointed, they pushed as far as Worcester, where
Cromwell overtook and defeated them on the anni-

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., "


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.. . .. .' ...
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Scotland, where Charles had arrived and was ac-
cepted as King, was next invaded by Cromwell,
who, unable to bring the Scots to a battle, and
with his troops distressed by sickness and scarcity
of food, had eventually to fall back upon Dunbar.
Before him was the Scots army under David Lesley,
strongly posted on Doon Hill, behind him the sea,
and on his left the enemy had seized the pass
towards-England. But the Scots beginning to de-
scend the hill, Cromwell suddenly attacked them
in flank, about daybreak on September 3, 1650. As

versary of Dunbar. Cromwell wrote of this victo.
as a crowning mercy; and in fact it was the last
battle he had to fight. A reward of a thousand
pounds was offered for the apprehension of Charles,
who, having made his escape from Worcester, went
through a succession of hazardous adventures, dur-
ing which he entrusted himself to more than forty
persons, none of whom failed in fidelity or caution.
A Roman Catholic family of the name of Penderell,
country folk living at or about Boscobel in Shrop-
shire, were among the chief agents in his conceal-


ment. At one time, with hair cut short, and
dressed as a peasant, he lay hidden in Boscobel
wood; at another, shrouded in the thick leaves of
a great oak-tree, he caught glimpses of the Parlia-
ment soldiers hunting up and down in search of
fugitives. Having walked till he was footsore, he
was glad when he left Boscobel House for Moseley,

then a small fishing village. He was recognized by
the master, who, however, said he would venture
life and all for him; and thus, after so many perils,
Chailes landed safely in Normandy.
In 1652 a war broke out with the Dutch-as the
people of the Seven United Provinces of the Neth-
erlands were commonly called-between whom and


the abode of a Roman Catholic gentleman, to ride
the horse of the miller, Humfrey Penderell, who to
Charles's complaint of its jolting pace, replied that
he must remember it was carrying the weight of
three kingdoms. Moseley he left in disguise of ser-
vant to a gentlewoman, Jane Lane, who rode be-
hind him on a pillion, as the manner then was for
women to travel. Finally he and his friend Lord
Wilmot sailed in a collier vessel from Brighton,

the English there was much ill-will, arising partly
out of commercial jealousy. This war is memora-
ble as a trial of strength between Admiral Robert
Blake and the great Dutch seamen, Martin Tromp
and Michael de Ruyter. Once, after worsting Blake
in the Downs, Tromp, it is said, sailed through the
Channel with a broom at his masthead, to signify
that he had swept those seas of the English-an in-
sult which was afterwards avenged in three stub-


born contests. Blake, owing to ill-health, was not
in the last of these battles, fought in July, 1653, in
which Tromp fell. In the next year peace was
made with the Dutch.
While this War was going on, the government
was again changed; for the rivalry between the
Parliament-or the Rump," as the remnant of the
House of Commons was contemptuously called-
and the army had ended in the triumph of the lat-
ter. On April 20, 1653, the Lord General Cromwell
entered the House, and after some praise of the
Parliament's care for the public good began to tax
it with injustice, delays of justice, self-interest."
A member rose to remonstrate. "Come, come,"
cried Cromwell, I will put an end to your prating."
And calling in some twenty or thirty musketeers
he ordered the members out, upbraiding them as
they went. Pointing to the mace, the symbol of
authority, he bade a soldier take away that bau-
ble." The House was cleared, and the doors were
A temporary Council of State was appointed
and Cromwell, acting with the advice of a council
of his officers, summoned about 140 persons by
name to serve as members of an assembly which is
known as the Little Parliament," or as the Cava-
liers nicknamed it, Praise-God Barebones Parlia-
ment," after the quaint name of one of its mem-
bers. This assembly set to making legal and eccle-
siastical reforms at such a rate that the people got
frightened, and in about five months' time the.
more moderate members thought it best to sur-
render their powers to Cromwell, who was there-
upon appointed by his officers Lord Protector of
the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ire-
land (December 16, 1653). There was to be an
elected Parliament, consisting of one House only;
all who had aided or abetted war against Parliament
were disqualified temporarily from electing or being
With few friends except among the soldiers,
Oliver-for, king-like, he styled himself by his
Christian name-had for enemies not only the
Royalists but also the Republicans, who looked
upon him as the destroyer of the Commonwealth.
The Protector's first Parliament, which met in 1654,
questioned his authority, and was dissolved by him
in anger. The next Parliament, which met in 1656,
proposed that he should take the title of King;
but a number of the officers of the army and of
those who favored a Republic opposed so strongly
that he thought it better to refuse. Almost all the
old forms of the Constitution were, however, re-
stored under new names. The Protector was en-

throned with all but kingly pomp in Westmin-
ster Hall, and there were again to be two Houses of
Parliament. The Other House," as the Com-
mons called it, was to be a House of Lords, but it
proved a failure. A few of the old nobles were
summoned, but almost all kept aloof; the Pro-
tector's two sons, members of his Council, military
officers, lawyers, and others, mostly taken from the
House of Commons, made up the rest. The Com-
mons raised such difficulties about giving them the
title of Lords that Cromwell dissolved the Parlia-
ment, February 4, 1658. As Scotland, where the
English rule was maintained by Monk and his army,
and Ireland were now united with the English Com-
monwealth, representatives for those countries sat in
the Parliaments of the Protectorate.
Whatever might be thought of the Protector's
honie rule, the success of his foreign policy dazzled
even his opponents. Under him England became
one of the most formidable powers in Europe; and
France, Spain, and the United Provinces alike
courted his friendship. Blake enforced from the
Grand Duke of Tuscany reparation for damage to
English commerce, and burned the Moorish pirate-
vessels in the Bay of Tunis. An attack in 1655
upon the West Indian possessions of Spain proved
an exception to the general success of Cromwell's
schemes, as the expedition failed of its main object,
San Domingo, and though it took the island of
Jamaica, this was at first regarded as a worthless
acquisition. But at sea the English held their own;
and in 1656 the Londoners were gladdened by the
sight of a train of thirty-eight wagons conveying
to the Tower the silver taken from a Spanish fleet.
In the next year the daring Blake fought his last
fight, attacking and burning, under a tremendous
fire from the batteries on shore, the Spanish treas-
ure-ships in the harbor of Santa Cruz, in Teneriffe.
Blake did not live to receive the praise of his coun-
trymen; he died within sight of Plymouth, August
17, 1657. Cromwell, taking Queen Elizabeth as his
model, aspired to be the protector of the Reformed
faith throughout Europe; and by means of his in-
fluence with the French government he was able to
check the Duke of Savoy's persecution of the Vau-
dois, the Protestants of Piedmont. In the last year
of his rule he gave the country a compensation for
the still regretted Calais. An English force was
sent to join the French in war against the Span-
iards, and shared in the Battle of the Dunes in 1658,
the result of which was the surrender of the town
of Dunkirk, which England retained as the price of
its assistance.
Oliver, who was in ill-health, did not long sur-

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