Front Cover
 Title Page
 Species accounts
 Literature cited

Title: Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhophalocera) of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya, Haiti
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065376/00001
 Material Information
Title: Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhophalocera) of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya, Haiti
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Gali, Frank
Publisher: USAID/Haiti
Publication Date: 1986
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Haiti -- Hispaniola
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065376
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Species accounts
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Literature cited
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text



The National Parks of Haiti


Frank Gali
Albert Schwartz



The Butterflies (Lepidoptera:Rhophalocera)

of Morne La Visite

and Pic Macaya



Frank Gali
Miami Springs, Fla


Albert Schwartz, PhD
Miami Dade Community College
Miami, Fla

January 1986

Prepared for USAID/Haiti under contract Number
A4;th 'B,-i riliea.5

HY~;> *"'~a^^l j




156 S. Melrose Dr.,

Miami Springs, FL 33166



Miami-Dade Community College, North Campus

Miami, FL 33167

ABSTRACT. Twenty five species of rhopaloceran

Lepidoptera are known from the Morne la Visite and Pic

Macaya areas. Those species that are most common are

confirmed high elevation Hispaniolan butterflies, but there

are single or a very few specimens of low to moderate

elevation species. The lack of specimens of papilionids,

libytheids, and ithomiids may be due to the elevation or the

ecology of these upland areas.

The high uplands of the Massif de la Selle and Massif

de la Hotte on the Hispaniolan south island have been rarely


sampled as far as their lepidopteran faunas are concerned.

No one has made a serious effort to collect butterflies on

the Massif de la Hotte, and in fact the biology of that

range has been very poorly known, due primarily to its

inaccessibility. Biologists have visited the Massif de la

Selle with some frequency, but their itineraries did not

carry them into the area now included within the national

park boundary. Major exceptions are P.J. Darlington and M.

Bates, who, on 16-22.ix.1934, collected carabid beetles in

the high uplands of the Massif de la Selle on Morne la

Visite (Darlington, 1935). They collected, in addition to

beetles, some lepidopteran material. Darlington alone

collected in the Massif de la Hotte area (10-22.x.1934).

All specimens were deposited in the Museum of Comparative

Zoology at Harvard University, and the collections served as

sources of 5 holotypes of new taxa.

S.R. Yocom made collections at both Morne la Visite

(12.ii.1984-16.ii.1984) and in the vicinity of Pic Macaya

(23.i.1984-9.ii.1984). Gali likewise visited both areas and

collected specimens at Morne la Visite (l.ix.1984-5.ix.1984)

and at Pic Macaya and vicinity (9.ix.1984-13.ix.1984).

Chris Fastie and Koren Zimmerman collected in the La Visite

area (10.i.1985-16.i.1985) and in the Pic Macaya region

(21.i.1985-28.i.-1985). All collected in other areas

peripheral to the proposed national parks, but that material


is not included in the present report; we have included

here only those species that have been taken within the park


The high upland lepidopteran fauna of Hispaniola is

sparse. Although all collections were made during winter

and fall, not the prime times for butterfly activity on

Hispaniola, it is not likely that any collectors would have

encountered many additional species if they had collected in

the summer, the time of greatest abundance of many species.

The notably poor representation of some families

(Nymphalidae, for instance) is probably not an artifact of

the season but rather the reflection of the fact that there

are very few nymphalids that occur at these high elevations,

even during the summer. The scarcity of lycaenids and

hesperiids likewise is due to the high elevations involved.

Lycaenids are, on Hispaniola, primarily butterflies of

lowland xeric areas, and skippers have their greatest

species diversity from low to moderate elevations. The

exception to this statement is Paratrytone batesi, an upland

skipper described from the Massif de la Selle and common not

only there but in the Massif de la Hotte, as well as on the

Cordillera Central and the Sierra de Neiba in the Republica

Dominicana. Areas wherein all collectors worked are

primarily pine forest, a habitat that is not rich in

butterfly species.


Of the 7 families of butterflies collected, the

outstanding exception is the Satyridae. The sole Antillean

representative of this family, Calisto, is noteworthy for

its explosive radiation on Hispaniola, whence there are now

28 species known, in contrast to a maximum elsewhere of 4

species on Cuba. Jamaica and Puerto Rico have 1 species

each, and the Bahama Islands have 2 species, derived from

Cuba. Many Hispaniolan Calisto are high upland butterflies,

often restricted to 1 or a very few mountain massifs. These

upland species do not shun pine forest and often have their

maximum abundance there. It is not surprising that more

kinds of satyrids were collected than representatives of any

other family.

Since many localities on both Morne la Visite and in

the Pic Macaya region are not shown on any map, the senior

author compiled the following gazeteer for his localities.

This listing includes directions for reachingthe various

sites and gives a brief annotation of the habitat.

l'Ouest: Scierie (old sawmill), Morne la Visite. The

following localities are approximately 2 hours by vehicle

south of Port-au-Prince. On the road to Kenscoff, one

passes the towns of Petionville, Fermate, and Furcy. In

Furcy, the main road forks into a lower and an upper road.

The upper road takes one directly above Kenscoff, whereas

the lower road continues along the same elevational band and


then abruptly ascends toward a higher elevation. This road

is narrow and contains numerous mudholes. After a rainfall,

the road can be as smooth and slick as ice and warrants

extreme caution. After approximately 10 tedious km, one

comes to a flat stretch which is more or less the entrance

to the park area. The road continues through open mixed

pine-deciduous forest for approximately 3 km and eventually

descends to a creek almost immediately followed by a small

stream. This small stream feeds into the Riviere Blanche a

few 100 m below the road. Beyond the stream, less than 1 km

ahead, one arrives at Scierie.

5 km WNW Scierie. When traveling up the main road from

Furcy heading toward Scierie, there is a field with large

"cut up" boulders and/or rocks on the left with an

inconspicuous path. This path ascends and continues along

some open pineland with a tall grass understory. The path

follows a "strict" elevational band and eventually descends

toward Scierie. There are several open meadows, corn

fields, and side paths. It is very important to remain on

the main path which follows the same elevation.

East side of Pic Cabaio, ca. 2.4 km from Scierie. From

Scierie, one travels south and ascends Pic Cabaio, and then

descends to the south side of the Pic into fields of corn.

Once past the corn fields, one enters semi-open pinewoods.


1 km W Roche Cabrit. This locality can be approached

from the road that passes by Scierie. It is approximately 2

km from Scierie.

1.2 km S Scierie. When travelling on the road toward

Furcy from Scierie, at about 0.4 km down the road, there is

a path on the left-hand side, before the small stream.

Ascending this path and keeping to the right, one first

passes corn fields on the right and then through the middle

of a corn field. Eventually, one reaches some pinewoods

along the Riviere Blanche, which is below. The path is now

situated at the bottom of a shrubby hillslope with pines,

and below the path are many tall and short ferns mixed with

a few pines.

Sud: Massif de la Hotte and vicinity.

The high uplands of the Massif de la Hotte are

approached most easily from Camp Perrin near the southern

coast of the Tiburon Peninsula. Biologists have found Camp

Perrin and nearby Les Cayes (on the southern coast) to be

convenient locations to set up for field work on the distal

portion of the Tiburon Peninsula, due primarily to their

close proximity to the Massif de la Hotte and their

accessibility from Port-au-Prince.


From Camp Perrin, one travels on the road

south-southwest toward, and then west, across the Riviere du

Sud. From the west, one heads north across the Plaine des

Cayes to the Riviere 1'Acul and parallels the l'Acul on its

east side in a northeast direction. The 1'Acul switches

back, and one crosses to the west side to continue along the

1'Acul which switches back once again, and one travels

across to the west side to continue in a northeast


A gradual ascent is made up the Massif de la Hotte on a

tortuous road that can be quite an adventure for one

unfamiliar with Haitian high elevation roads. When one

arrives at Les Platons, travel by foot or mule is the only

mode of transportation available. From Les Platons, one

travels north across a fairly flat stretch along a path

through open scrub and rock. At a fairly brisk pace, one

can cross this flat stretch in 1.5-2 hr. Several small

native communities lie along the way where bananas and other

refreshments can be purchased for a minimal fee.

Subsequently, one arrives on the Plaine de Formon, at the

base of Pic Formon; this is the home of Madame Robert a

native hostess, where one can camp for the evening (base

camp #1). From the Plaine de Formon, one has a choice of

two directions in which to cross the Pic Formon range. The

route taken by Gali is given below.


When traveling from Plain de Formon one ascends the

southern slope of the Formon range. The slope is moderately

inclined, and at a fairly good pace one can arrive at base

camp #2 near the top of the Formon range in 2 hr. The

incline becomes rather steep at this elevation for several

hundred meters until it finally becomes more or less level.

At this locality, one is near Pic Formon; the aspect of the

range becomes more dense and wet. The situation typical of

high elevation collecting (sunny in the morning, overcast

and raining by midday) is usual. Although one is on level

ground, when traveling along, movement is quite difficult

due to the mud and slippery conditions. On the other side,

one begins a fairly steep and tortuous descent in which the

path courses in a zigzag pattern. Without question, the

stamina of one's quadriceps muscles is tested on this path!

The path courses downward into a large ravine between the

Formon and Macaya ranges. The location in the ravine is at

the head of the Riviere du Sud and is a fine campsite

because of the accessibility of water sources.

Ravine locality. The ravine is fairly wide and

continues for several kilometers in the direction of Les

Cayes on one hand and Pic Macaya on the other. The river

courses through the ravine and is outlined with boulders and

rocks of various sizes with paths of varying lengths at the

riversides. Landslides are known to be common and warrant


precaution in obvious situations. Vegetation along the

paths in the ravine is sparse, with tall shrubs and some

herbaceous plants along the paths.

1400 m. When travelling along the ravine in the

direction of Les Cayes, one continues for approximately 1

km; on the left hand there is a path that courses up the

Macaya ridge.

From the ravine, one travels up-river along the Riviere

du Sud as far as its source. There one ascends along a

mixed dirt and gravel path, and after approximately 2 hr, he

reaches the saddle between the Formon and Macaya ranges.

This saddle is approximately 400 m below Pic Macaya. The

incline is dangerously steep until Pic Macaya. One travels

through mixed overgrown pine and deciduous forest with

shrub-fern understory. A magnificent view is to the right

of the path, with a 300 m drop. Butterflies were collected

as they perched on the shrubs and ferns. Some Calisto were

seen; however, they regularly escaped into the forest,

using the shrubs and ferns as havens. The exceptionally

steep slope made collecting quite difficult. When one

arrives in the vicinity of Pic Macaya, the aspect of the

range became more dark and dense. A canopy is formed above

and allows for minimal sunlight. We encountered a small

patch of open area where previous biologists had camped. No

butterflies were seen or collected on Pic Macaya.


Species Accounts


Urbanus proteus domingo Scudder, 1872. Sud: ravine

between Pic Formon and Macaya, 1050 m, 1 (ll.ix, 0900-1300

h; 24-29 C).

Wallengrenia druryi Latreille, 1824. 1'Ouest: 2 km NW

Scierie, 1785-1810 m, 1 (3.ix, 0930-1100 h, 19-21 C); Sud:

ravine between Pic Formon and Macaya, 1050 m, 1 (ll.ix,

0900-1300 h, 24-29 C); Macaya, 1485 m, 1 (6.ii); o.5 km SE

Pic Macaya, 1732 m, 1 (28.i, 1345 h).

Paratrytone batesi Bell, 1935. l'Ouest: 200 m N

Scierie, 1891 m, 2 (3.ix, 1230-1330 h, 25 C); 1.2 km S

Scierie, 1950 m, 1 (5.ix, 1230-1330 h, 24 C); 1 km SE

Scierie, 1891 m, 1 (l.ix, 1230-1330 h, 24 C); 2 km NW

Scierie, 1785-1810 m, 8 (3.ix. 0930-1100 h, 19-21 C); 4.8 km

NW Scierie, 2187 m, 1 (2.ix, 1230-1330 h, 19 C); 5 km WNW

Scierie, 1891 m, 24 (4.ix, 0930-1030 h, 21 C); 1-4 km WNW

Scierie, 1830-1891 m, 2 (4.ix, 1030-1230 h, 21 C); 1 km W

Roche Cabrit, 2000 m, 1 (5.ix, 1000-1030 h, 24 C); Sud:

Pic Formon, near top, 580 m, 3 (9.ix); 2 (12.ix, 1200-1300

h, 28 C); Pic Macaya, near top, 2300 m, 2 (10.ix, 1000-1200

h, 25 C); Morne Formon, 1750 m, 1 (2.ii). Yocom took the

last-listed specimen feeding on Ageratum (Asteraceae).


Panoquina sylvicola woodruffi Watson, 1937. l'Ouest:

2 km NW Scierie, 1785-1810 m, 1 (3.ix, 0930-1100 h, 19-21


Panoquina nero Fabricius, 1798. 1'Ouest: 5 km WNW

Scierie, 1891 m, 1 (4.ix, 0930-1030, 21 C).


Eurema pyro Godart, 1819. Sud: between Pic Formon and

Macaya, 1050 m, 1 (11.ix, 0900-1300 h, 24-29 C).

Nathalis iole Boisduval, 1836. l'Ouest: 200 m NW

Scierie, 1952 m, 4 (2-3.ix, 0900-1330 h, 22-24 C); 0.2 km

NE Scierie, 1484 m, 2 (11.i, 0900, 24 C); 1.8 km SE

Scierie, 1865 m, 4 (12.i, 0920, 21 C); Morne La Visite,

2100 m, 5 (13.ii); 2 km E Morne La Visite, 2121 m, 1 (15.i,

1445 h, 14 C).

Dismorphia spio Godart, 1819. l'Ouest: 1 km SE

Scierie, 1891 m, 1 (l.ix, 1230-1330 h, 24 C).


Strymon columella cybirus Hewitson, 1874. l'Ouest: 5

km WNW Scierie, 1891 m, 1 (4.ix, 0930-1030 h, 21 C).

Hemiargus hanno watsoni Comstock and Huntington, 1943.

1'Ouest: 5 km WNW Scierie, 1891 m, 1 (4.ix, 0930-1030 h, 21




Heliconius charitonius church Comstock and Brown,

1950. l'Ouest: Morne La Visite, 1430-1880 m, 3 (12, 16.ii).

Dryas iulia hispaniola Hall, 1925. l'Ouest: Scierie,

1685 m, 1 (10.i, 1140 h, 22 C).


Junonia evarete zonalis Felder and Felder, 1867.

l'Ouest: Scierie, 1936 m, 3 (12.i, 1020 h, 20 C); 2 km NW

Scierie, 1788-1810 m, 1 (3.ix, 0930-1100 h, 19-21 C); 1.2

km SW Scierie, 1806 m, 1 (10.i, 1230 h, 17 C); 1.4 km SW

Scierie, 1794 m, 1 (10.i, 1245 h, 15 C); 0.2 km NE Scierie,

1948 m, 5 (11.i, 0900-1520 h, 17-24 C); Morne La Visite,

2100 m, 8 (13.ii).

Vanessa cardui cardui Linnaeus, 1758. l'Ouest:

Scierie, 1891 m, 1 (28.ix, 1730 h, 23 C); 1685 m, 2 (10.i,

0900-1055 h, 19-21 C); 1685 m, 1 (10.i, 1600 h, 17 C); 5

km WNW Scierie, 1891 m, 1 (4.ix, 0930-1030 h, 21 C); 1.4 km

SSW Scierie, 1794 m, 2 (10.i, 1245 h, 15 C); 0.2 km NE

Scierie, 1948 m, 1 (11.i, 0906 h, 17 C); Morne La Visite,

2100 m, 1 (13.ii); Morne La Visite, 2165 m, 1 (16.i, 1130

h, 19 C); 0.5 km S Morne La Visite, 1988 m, 1 (16.1, 1430

h, 18 C).

Vanessa virginiensis Drury, 1770. l'Ouest: ca.

Scierie, 2030 m, 1 (11.i, 1500 h, 18 C); 4 km NW Scierie,


2000 m, 1 (2.ix, 1100-1145 h, 21 C); 2 km NW Scierie,

1785-1810 m, 1 (3.ix, 0930-1100 h, 19-21 C); 5 km WNW

Scierie, 1891 m, 1 (4.ix, 0930-1030 h, 21 C); Morne La

Visite, 2100 m, 3 (13.ii); Morne La Visite, S slope, 2100 m,

1 (14.i, 0845 h, 16 C); Morne La Visite, 2200 m, 1 (14.i,

1545 h, 18 C); Roche Cabrit, 2200 m, 1 (15.ii); Sud: Morne

Formon, 1635-1800 m, 5 (27.i-4.ii); Pic Macaya, 2345 m, 3

(25.1, 1400 h).


Calisto archebates Menetries, 1832. l'Ouest: 1 km SE

Scierie, 1891 m, 23 (l.ix, 1230-1330 h, 24 C); 2 km NW

Scierie, 1785-1810 m, 1 (3.ix, 0930-1100 h, 19-21 C); 200 m

N Scierie, 1891 m, 1 (3.ix, 1230-1330 h, 24 C); 200 m W

Scierie, 1675 m, 4 (10.i, 1105 h, 21 C); 0.6 km W Scierie,

1820 m, 1 (10.i, 1210 h, 22 C); 5 km WNW Scierie, 1891 m, 2

(4.ix, 0930-1030 h, 21 C); Morne La Visite, S slope, 2100

m, 1 (14.i, 1115 h, 23 C).

Calisto loxias Bates, 1935. Sud: Pic Formon, nr. top,

1900-1910 m, 7 (9, 12.ix, 1200-1300 h, 28 C).

Calisto chrysaoros Bates, 1935. l'Ouest: 1.2 km S

Scierie, 1950 m, 12 (5.ix, 1100-1230 h, 29 C); Sud: Pic

Formon, nr. top, 1900-1910 m, 31 (9-13.ix, 0830-1330 h,

21-28 C); Morne Formon, 1830 m, 3 (2.ii).


Calisto tragia Bates, 1935. 1'Ouest: 4 km NW Scierie,

610 m, 2 (2.ix, 1100-1145 h, 21 C); 5 km WNW Scierie, 1891

m, 9 (4.ix, 0930-1030 h, 21 C); 1-4 km WNW Scierie,

1830-1891 m, 19 (4.ix, 1030-1230 h, 21 C); 1 km SE Scierie,

1891 m, 1 (l.ix, 1230-1330 h, 24 C); 1.2 km S Scierie, 1950

m, 2 (5.ix, 1100-1230 h, 29 C); 1 km W Roche Cabrit, 2000

m, 3 (5.ix, 1000-1030 h, 24 C); east side, Pic Cabaio, 2100

m, 2 (5.ix, 0900-0950, 22 C); Morne La Visite, S slope,

2085 m, 1 (14.i, 1020 h, 19 C).

Calisto hysia Godart, 1819. Sud: Morne Formon, 1000 m,

2 (l.ii); Pic Formon, nr. top, 1900-1901 m, 1 (12.ix,

1200-1300 h, 28 C); western end of Pic Macaya ridge, 1400

m, 8 (11.ix, 1300-1340 h). Bates (1935) reported this

species from "La Visite", but no recent collectors have

taken it there.

Calisto clenchi Schwartz and Gali, 1984. l'Ouest: 1.2

km S Scierie, 1950 m, 2 (5.ix, 1100-1230 h, 29 C).


Danaus cleophile Godart, 1819. Sud: between Pic

Formon and Macaya, 1050 m, 1 (11.ix, 0900-1300 h, 24-29 C).

Danaus plexippus megalippe Hubner, 1819. 1'Ouest:

Scierie, 1936 m, 1 (12.i, 1020 h, 21 C); 1 km W Scierie,

1827 m, 1 (10.i, 1215 h, 21 C); 2 km NW Scierie, 1785-1810

m, 1 (3.ix, 0930-1100 h, 21 C); Morne La Visite, 1430-1880


m, 3 (12, 16.ii); Sud: Morne Formon, 1000-1200 m, 3


Anetia briarea briarea Godart, 1819. l'Ouest: 5 km

WNW Scierie, 1891 m, 1 (4.ix, 0930-1030 m, 21 C); Morne La

Visite, S slope, 2085-2100 m, 7 (13-14.i, 1030-1245 h, 18-24

C). Fastie and Zimmerman observed as many as 12 individuals

of this species feeding on the flowers of Eupatorium

(Asteraceae) on 14.i at 1245 h and 24 C.

Anetia jaegeri Menetries, 1832. l'Ouest: Scierie, 1685

m, 3 (10.i, 0900-1045 h, 19-20 C); 200 m NW Scierie, 1952

m, 2 (2.ix, 0900-0930, 22 C); 0.4 km S Scierie, 580 m, 3

(5.ix, 1045-1050 h, 25 C); 0.5 km S Scierie, 1845 m, 3

(12.i, 0920 h, 16 C); ca. 4.8 km NW Scierie, 2187 m, 1

(2.ix, 1230-1330 h, 19 C); Morne La Visite, 2058-2066 m, 5

(14-15.i, 0945-1530 h, 15-24 C); Morne La Visite 1880 m, 6

(12.ii); Sud: Pic Formon, nr. top, 1910 m, 2 (9.ix); Pic

Macaya, nr. top, 2300 m, 1 (10.ix, 1000-1200 h, 25 C); Pic

Macaya, 2320 m, 3 (27.i, 1045-1115 h); Morne Formon,

1800-1880 m, 3 (29-30 i).


Twenty five species of butterflies, representative of

seven families, are herein reported from the Morne la Visite

and Pic Macaya areas. These are: 5 skippers, 3 pierids, 2

lycaenids, 2 heliconiids, 3 nymphalids, 6 satyrids, and 5


danaids. The two areas have six species in common: W.

druryi, P. batesi, V. virginiensis, C. chrysaoros, D.

plexippus, and A. jaegeri. Although the remaining 19

species are generally widespread on Hispaniola, some (U. p.

domingo, P. s. woodruffi, E. pyro, N. iole, D. spio, S. c.

cybirus, H. h. watsoni, H. ch. church, D. i. hispaniola, J.

e. zonalis) have their elevations of maximum abundance in

the lowlands or reach to only moderate elevations in the

mountain ranges. On the other hand, some species (P.

batesi, V. c. cardui, V. virginiensis, C. archebates, C.

loxias, C. chrysaoros, C. tragia, C. clenchi, D. cleophile,

A. b. briarea, A. jaegeri) are predominantly high elevation

butterflies, rarely descending to moderate or low

elevations. Of this group, C. archebates is restricted to

the Massif de la Selle (in which range Morne La Visite lies)

and C. loxias has been known only from the Massif de la

Hotte (of which Pic Macaya is the culminating peak).

Although it is perhaps foolhardy to make

generalizations based on collections which total only 63

man/days, all in fall and winter, still there are certain

peculiarities that bear noting.

The lack of records for J. e. zonalis in the Macaya

region is peculiar; this species is abundant at Morne La

Visite. This nymphalid is a butterfly of open areas

-fields, roadsides, pastures, and other disturbed areas.


Vanessa c. cardui is unknown from the Macaya region,

yet it appears to be common at Morne La Visite. This

species too is a butterfly of more or less open areas.

There are no records of C. hysia from Morne La Visite

(although it has been reported from that area by Bates

[1935]), but this satyrid is not uncommon in the Macaya

area. The species is altitudinaly and geographically

widespread on the Hispaniolan south island, and its absence

from Morne La Visite is inexplicable.

Likewise, A. b. briarea is an upland butterfly

throughout Hispaniola; there are no Macaya records for this

species, although it is modestly abundant at La Visite. Its

congener, Anetia pantherata Martyn 1797, has not been taken

in either area; this species likewise is a common butterfly

of Hispaniolan high elevations.

The apparent rarity of D. cleophile, known from only

one Macaya specimen and unknown from Morne La Visite, is

peculiar, since this species is a moderate to high elevation


The absence of 3 families of butterflies whose

representatives occur on Hispaniola (Papilionidae,

Libytheidae, Ithomiidae) from the park areas deserves

comment. The single Hispaniolan libytheid (Libytheana

terena Godart 1819) does occur in the uplands but is


distinctly uncommon there and is more abundant in lowland

forests, either mesic or xeric. It is rarely encountered in

pine forest. The single Hispaniolan ithomiid (Greta

diaphana Drury 1773) is widely distributed on the Dominican

portion of the north island and is known in the Republica

Dominicana from the Sierra de Baoruco on the south island.

The species has not been taken in the Dominican portion of

the Massif de la Selle (between Los Arroyos and El Aguacate)

and may well be absent from the Massif de la Selle as well

as the Massif de la Hotte. This clearing is a butterfly of

dappled sun-and-shade situations that occur along streams or

forest margins. Schwartz has never seen this "proper"

habitat in Haiti, but Gali found what appeared to be

suitable habitat near Morne La Visite (a deciduous wooded

stream near Scierie; Fig.2) but did not encounter G.

diaphana. It may be that (1) the species does not occur in

Haiti (there are no Haitian records) or (2) that the

requisite habitat is very uncommon and local.

The swallowtails (Papilionidae) on Hispaniola are

almost without exception butterflies of low to moderate

elevations. It is rare indeed that one encounters such

species as Battus polydamas Linnaeus 1758, Heraclides

aristodemus Esper 1794, H. machaonides Esper 1796, or

Priamides pelaus Fabricius 1775 in the uplands, and even

more so if the forest cover is pine. Other papilionids


(Heraclides aristor Godart 1819, Eurytides zonarius Butler

1869) are distinctly xeric lowland species, although

occasional individuals may wonder to moderate elevations.

The single upland papilionid is Battus zetides Munroe 1971.

This species is locally very abundant but occurs only in

deciduous upland forest. Although there are no recent

Haitian records (due to habitat destruction?), the species

is expected in both park areas, either as a vagrant in pine

forest or in streamside deciduous forest. It is most

abundant in the summer (June-August), but individuals may be

seen or taken at other times of the year.


Bates, M. 1935. The satyrid genus Calisto. Occ. Papers

Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 8:229-248.

Darlington, P.J. 1935. West Indian Carabidae II. Itinerary

of 1934; forests of Haiti; new species; and a new key

to Colpodes. Psyche, 42:167-215.


Butterflies of the National Parks of Haiti

Parc La Visite Pare Macaya

Urbanus proteus domingo 0 +
Wallengrenia druryi + +
Paratrytone batesi + +
Panoquina sylvicola woodruffi + 0
Panoquina nero + 0
Eurema pyro 0 +
Nathalis iole + 0
Dismorphia spio + 0
Strymon columella cybirus + 0
Hemiarqus hanna watsoni + 0
Heliconius charitonius church + 0
Dryas iulia hispaniola + 0
Junonia evarete zonalis + 0
Vanessa cardui cardui + 0
Vanessa virginiensis + +
Calisto archebates + 0
Calisto loxias 0 +
Calisto chrysaoros + +
Calisto tragia + 0
Calisto hysia ? +
Calisto clenchi + 0
Danaus cleophile 0 +
Danaus plexippus megalippe + +
Anetia briarea briarea + 0
Anatia jaegeri + +

20 11

Total number of families 7

Total number of species 25

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