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5qs': UNIVERSITY OF
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, FL 34203
Bradenton GCREC Research Report
BRA-1995-2 (January 1995)
APR 20 1995
University of Florida
EVALUATION OF SEED PROPAGATED SHALLOT
DONALD N. MAYNARD
GCREC Research Report BRA1995-2
EVALUATION OF SEED PROPAGATED SHALLOT
Donald N. Maynard'
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
University of Florida, IFAS
5007 60th Street East
Bradenton, FL 34203
Shallot, Allium cepa Aggregatum Group, is traditionally vegetatively propagated
by bulbs. A feasibility study conducted here on vegetatively-propagated shallot
was unsuccessful because the plants continued to divide without forming bulbs.
Recently, seed-propagated shallot have been developed for direct-seeding at high
plant populations for single bulb production.
The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of seed-propagated
shallot production in west-central Florida.
Materials and Methods
Soil in the experimental area was sampled before fertilization and analyzed by
the University of Florida Extension Soil Testing Laboratory (Hanlon and DeVore,
1989): pH = 7.2, Mehlich I extractable P = 36, K = 28, Mg = 136, Ca = 940, Zn =
2.8, Cu = 1.3, and Mn = 2.5 ppm.
The EauGallie fine sand was prepared in early January by incorporating 4 Ibs 18-
0-25 and 4 Ibs 18-6-12 (Osmocote) per 100 linear bed feet (Ibf) which is
equivalent to 1.4-0.2-1.5 lb N-P2 5-K20 per 100 Ibf or 120-17-130 lb N-P205-
K 0/acre. The final beds were 32 in. wide and 8 in. high and were spaced on 5
ft centers with six beds between seepage irrigation/drainage ditches which were
on 41 ft. centers.
'Creation' and GS-106 shallot seeds (de Groot en Slot) were planted in 080 Todd
planter flats (0.8 x 0.8 x 1.75 in.) on 17 November 1993. The transplants were
grown by a commercial plant grower. They were set 3 in. apart in the bed in
three rows 8 in. apart on 12 January 1994. Each entry was replicated three times
in 10-ft. long plots arranged in a randomized complete-block design. Additional
fertilizer was sidedressed on 31 January and 17 February at 30 lb N/acre from 6-
6-6 (N-P20n-K20). Weeds in the bed were hoed or hand pulled and row middles were
Time of harvest was judged subjectively when about 50% of the plants had dry
tops. The bulbs were lifted on 21 April and allowed to air dry before clipping
the tops. The bulb clusters were air dried on wire screens in a greenhouse
before weighing and counting. Then, 25 clusters of each entry were selected at
random for determination of bulbs/cluster, wt/cluster, and wt/bulb.
'Professor of Horticultural Sciences and Extension Vegetable Specialist.
Results and Discussion
Temperature from 12
the period (Table 1).
January to 21 April was above normal throughout the
Rainfall, on the other hand, was below normal throughout
Yields of GS 106 were almost five times those of 'Creation' (Table 2). Likewise,
GS 106 had significantly more bulbs/cluster, higher weight per cluster, and
higher weight per bulb. GS 106 bulbs had better appearance too, scale color and
finish was superior to that of 'Creation'.
There are no published yield data for shallot in Florida. In Louisiana, yields
of green bunching shallot range from 1000 to 2000 dozen bunches/acre and yields
of shallot sets range from 2000 to 3000 Ib/acre (Southern Region Extension
Vegetable Specialists, 1994), but these yields cannot be compared with those
obtained here. Data are available from France, the major producer of dry shallot
bulbs. The average yield of dry bulbs there is about 14,000 Ib/acre (Brewster,
1994). Accordingly, the more than 10,000 Ib/acre obtained here is close to the
average yield obtained in the leading production country. So, there is the
possibility of commercial production here based on yield potential.
The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental results and
should not be used as recommendations for crop production. Where trade names are
used, no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.
Brewster, J. L. 1994. Onions and other vegetable alliums.
Hanlon, E. A. and J. M. DeVore. 1989. IFAS extension soil testing laboratory
chemical procedures and training manual. Fla. Coop. Ext. Circ. 812.
Southern Region Extension Vegetable Specialists
in the southern region of the United States.
Stanley, C. D. 1994. Weather report for 1993.
Education Center Res. Rept. BRA1994-1.
Yield of vegetable crops
Gulf Coast Research and
Table 1. Temperature and rainfall at the Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center from 12 January to 21 April 1994 and 40-year averages
Average daily temperature (OF)
1994 40-yr average Rainfall (in).
Month' High Low High Low 1994 40-yr averages
January (12-31) 73 54 72 50 1.95 2.77
February 78 58 74 52 0.75 3.08
March 80 58 77 55 2.33 3.35
April (1-21) 86 63 82 60 1.32 1.72
11994 data are for the dates shown, 40-year averages are for the entire
Table 2. Yield and bulb characteristics of seed-propagated shallot. Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center. Winter-Spring 1994.
Yield Bulbs/ Wt/cluster Wt/bulb
Entry (lb/A)1'2 cluster (no.)3 (q)3 (g)
GS 106 10,386 12.2 53 4.5
Creation 2,237 8.3 26 3.3
Significance4 ** ** ** **
IAcre = 8712 Ibf.
2Means of three replications.
3Means of 25 observations.
** = 1% level of probability.
The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.
In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.
The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.
Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement of fundamental knowledge of disciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
" The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
Q A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
" Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
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Q A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
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funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
Q An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
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Enhancing for all Floridians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-