Historic note

Group Title: Bradenton GCREC research report - University of Florida Gulf Coast Research and Education Center ; BRA1989-10
Title: Evaluation of ornamental cabbge and kale as bedding plants during two winter seasons
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065234/00001
 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of ornamental cabbge and kale as bedding plants during two winter seasons
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Howe, T. K ( Teresa K )
Waters, W. E ( Will E )
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1989
Subject: Cabbage -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Kale -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: T.K. Howe and W.E. Waters.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June, 1989"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065234
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 63760516

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

)-oo ---------
'F6)Sm n Cei1rai Science
GC S Librari

OCT 25 1989

Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA1989-10 June 1989


T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters1

Ornamental cabbage and kale (Brassica oleracea L. Acephala group) were
evaluated in field trials during the winters of 1986-87 and 1987-88 at the
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Bradenton, FL. Although there
is no scientific distinction between ornamental cabbage and ornamental
kale, (they are the same genus, species and group) it is acceptable to
refer to the smooth edged or round leaved types as ornamental cabbage and
the fringed edged or serrated leaved types as ornamental kale. Both types
produce plants with leaves separate or in loose rosettes which do not make
solid heads (1).

The popularity of ornamental cabbage and kale for bedding plant use is due
to the striking foliar hues which range from combinations of green and
white, to green and pink, to purplish-green and fuchsia (called red).
Leaf types are variously described as round, wavy, fringed and feather.
The combinations of leaf color and shape produce eye-catching color and
texture unique among bedding plants.

Materials and Methods

Transplant production. Seed of ornamental cabbage and kale were sown on
October 2 for the 1986-87 trial and October 22 for the 1987-88 trial.
Seed were placed into 1.5 x 1.5 x 2.5 inch containerized cells filled with
Canadian peat:coarse vermiculite transplant mix (1:1) amended with
dolomite, superphosphate and minor elements. Transplants received soluble
fertilizer (20-20-20) as needed during production.

Field preparation and crop management. Beds of EauGallie fine sand were
formed to a width of 30 inches and a height of 6 inches on 4.5 ft centers.

In 1986-87: Incorporated, full bed width dressing of 18-0-25
fertilizer (25 lb/1000 linear ft of bed), borax (2 lb/1000 linear ft of
bed) and superphosphate (0-20-0 at 90 lb/1000 linear ft of bed) were
applied and the beds re-pressed. Also 18-0-25 fertilizer was placed in a
shallow groove in the center of the bed surface at the rate of 165 b/1000
linear ft of bed. Beds were fumigated with Vorlex at 35 gal/A and covered

1Biological Administrator I and Center Director, respectively.

with white plastic. On January 14, due to nutrient leaching (seen as
general chlorosis in vegetable brassica crops in the same field), an
additional 10 lb/1000 linear ft of bed of 18-0-25 was applied as a
sidedressing through holes punched at 1 ft intervals in the bed center.

In 1987-88: Incorporated, full bed width dressing included 18-0-25
fertilizer at 20 lb/1000 linear ft of bed. Center banded fertilizer was
18-0-25 fertilizer at 147 lb/1000 linear ft of bed. Beds were fumigated
with Vorlex and covered with white plastic as above.

The fields were in full sun and irrigated by seepage with lateral ditches
spaced every 7 beds. Plants were set in two rows per bed with 12 inches
between rows and 14 inches between plants within rows on November 3, 1986
and November 19, 1987. Plants were drenched with soluble 20-20-20
fertilizer at 5 lb/100 gal water. Four replications of 8 plants per
cultivar were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Cabbage
(smooth leaves) and kale (fringed leaves) cultivars were evaluated in
separate experiments.

Data collection. Cultivars were evaluated for mature plant height and
width, and were given subjective ratings for overall appearance (1986-87
and 1987-88), foliage color uniformity (1987-88) and foliage color
intensity (1987-88). Written descriptions and photographs documented the
color and leaf shape of each cultivar.

Weather information for the two winter seasons is in Table 1. In 1986-87,
maximum temperatures in November and December were 4 to 7 degrees above
the 33-year averages for this location, and minimum temperatures 7 to 10
degrees higher. In 1987-88 temperatures were more typical. Rainfall was
higher than average both years except for Feb. 1987 and 1988 and Dec.

Cultivars were planted into cabbage or kale trial areas based on seed
packaging labels. Although labeled as kale, 'Pink Beauty' and 'Rose
Bouquet' would be more appropriately called cabbage since the leaves are
rounded and only slightly ruffled (Table 2).

Ornamental Cabbage. In 1986-87 ornamental cabbage entries ranged from
13.3 inches in height for 'Tokyo Red' to 19.2 inches for 'Osaka Pink'
(Table 3). As a group, the 'Tokyo' series produced the shortest plants,
all under 15 inches tall. 'Tokyo' cultivars also produced plants which
had a height/width ratio less than 0.9. Overall ratings for cabbage were
fair when considered as a group. Ratings ranged from 6.6 for 'Osaka Mix'
to 9.5 for 'White Xmas'. Seven of the 13 cabbage entries were rated less
than 8.0. The ratings were not outstanding due to poor coloration of the
foliage. Typical white, pink and red hues did not develop until late in
the season and were not vivid or did not cover great leaf surface area.
Given the warm temperatures during the winter of 1986-87, poor foliar
color development was not surprising. Plants, however, were very
vigorous. 'White Xmas' received a rating of 9.5, the only entry rated
greater than 9, but seven other entries were not significantly different
than 'White Xmas'. Optimal performance was not achieved in 1986-87.

In 1987-88, plant heights ranged from 8.7 inches for 'Tokyo White' to 13.6
inches for 'Osaka Pink'. As in the previous winter, 'Tokyo' series
entries tended to be the shortest. 'Color Up' entries, not examined in
1986-87, were similar in height to 'Tokyo' entries, with the exception of
'Color Up White'. Ratios for plant height versus plant width were
smallest for the 'Tokyo' and 'Color Up' series, excluding 'Color Up
White'. Ratings in 1987-88 were expanded to define color attributes of
the entries. Although subjective, the ratings (1-5 scale, poor-excellent)
for color uniformity and color intensity do provide a basis for comparison
of the entries with respect to foliar color development.

Foliage color uniformity ratings ranged from 2.8 for 'Dynasty White' to
4.1 for 'Color Up Pink'. High ratings indicate the plant to plant
differences in coloration were minimal, eg. all plants colored to the same
degree would receive a rating of 5. Color uniformity among the series was
fairly similar. Conversely, foliage color intensity ranged from 2.1 for
'Osaka Mix' to 3.9 for 'Color Up Pink' and the 'Color Up' series provided
better foliar color than the other series, with the 'Tokyo' series placing

Overall ratings in 1987-88 ranged from 7.0 for 'Osaka Mix' to 9.3 for
'Tokyo Red'. Overall ratings considered all appearance factors,
uniformity in size and shape, vigor without regard to foliar color
characteristics. Only 'Osaka Mix' received a rating of less than 8.0.
All other entries were not significantly different from the highest rated

Ornamental kale. In 1986-87, ornamental kale entries ranged in height
from 10.2 inches for 'Chidori White' to 23.7 inches for 'Red Feather'
(Table 4). 'Red Feather' and 'White Feather' were the tallest followed by
'White Peacock'. 'Red Feather' and 'Pink Beauty' produced plants most
nearly equivalent in plant height and width, with height-to-width ratios
of 0.90 and 0.89, respectively. Overall ratings were fair to good,
ranging from 6.3 for 'Fringe White on Green' to 9.8 for 'Chidori White'.
Nineteen of the 24 entries were rated 8.0 or higher. As with the
ornamental cabbage in 1986-87, the ratings were not superior due to the
lack of characteristic foliar color development.

In 1987-88, eighteen ornamental kale cultivars were evaluated. Plant
height ranged from 10.0 inches for 'Red Pigeon' to 21.8 inches for 'Red
Feather'. Tallest cultivars were 'Red Feather', 'White Feather', 'Red
Peacock' and 'White Peacock', all types with deeply serrated leaves.
Plant width ranged from 17.2 inches for 'Ball Mix' to 29.1 inches for 'Red
Feather'. The largest plant diameters were produced by 'Red Feather',
'White Feather', 'Red Peacock' and 'White Peacock'. These cultivars were
also among those which had the greatest plant height to width ratio.

Foliage color uniformity in 1987-88 ranged from 3.0 for 'Nagoya White' to
4.9 for 'Red Pigeon'. Color uniformity ratings were similar for 'Red
Pigeon', 'Red Peacock', 'White Peacock', 'White Pigeon', 'White Lady',
'Red Feather', 'White Feather' and 'Coral Prince' which were all rated
above 4.0.

Foliage color intensity ranged from 1.4 for 'White Lady' to 3.5 for 'White
Peacock' and 'Coral Prince'. Six other entries were similar in color
intensity to 'White Peacock' and 'Coral Prince'. In general, ratings were
suboptimal for color intensity.

Overall ratings ranged from 8.1 for 'Fringe Red on Green' to 10.0 for 'Red
Feather'. These ratings reflect plant vigor and uniformity of size and
shape, but exclude color characteristics.

Summary. Ornamental cabbage and kale were not suitable for use as bedding
plants in two consecutive winter seasons. Although plants were extremely
vigorous and of uniform size and shape, the vibrant coloration
characteristic of the species did not develop. Temperatures at or below
500F are not common through the winter months in west-central Florida, and
cool temperatures stimulate or intensify the coloring process. Reduced
fertilizer rates and root pruning have been suggested by others as ways to
modify the plant response to induce foliar coloring. Until further
studies on nutrient and temperature requirements for this crop are
conducted, the use of ornamental kale and cabbage as bedding plants should
be considered cautiously for this location.

Literature Cited
1. Staff of L. H. Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus Third. MacMillan
Publ., New York, NY.

Table 1. Temperatures during the 1986-87 and 1987-88 ornamental cabbage and kale trials.

Temperatures (OF)
1986-1987z 1987-1988Y 33 yr avgx Rainfall (inches)
Month Min Max Min Max Min Max 1986-1987 1987-1988 33 yr avg

Nov. 67 85 61 80 57 78 2.95 3.64 2.00
Dec. 59 77 54 75 52 73 2.78 0.76 2.37
Jan. 50 71 50 70 49 71 3.65 3.13 2.63
Feb. 54 74 49 74 51 73 2.62 2.34 3.25

z1986-1987 trial
Y1987-1988 trial
XFrom: Stanley,
Bradenton GCREC

evaluated Nov. 3 Feb. 2.
evaluated Nov. 19 Feb. 10.
C. D. 1988. Temperature and rainfall report for 1987.
Research Report BRA1988-11.

Table 2. Plant and leaf descriptions.

Cultivar series Leaf description Plant habit

Ornamental Cabbage

Color Up
White Xmas

Ornamental Kale

Beauty, Pink
Bouquet, Rose
Lady, White
Prima Donna



parsley-like ruffled edge
sl ruffled edge
sl ruffled edge
parsley-like ruffled edge
oak leaf edge
parsley-like ruffled edge
oak leaf edge
hvy ruffled parsley-like edge
parsley-like ruffled edge
parsley-like ruffled edge
parsley-like ruffled edge
parsley-like ruffled edge
finely serrated edge
sl ruffled edge

Flat, open, formed heads
Flat, open to conical
Cupped to conical

Open, cupped
Cupped, flat top
Cupped to conical
Open, cupped
Open, cupped
Cupped to sl conical
Open, cupped
Open, flat

Zsl = slightly; hvy = heavy.

Table 3. Evaluation summary of ornamental cabbage cultivars.

1986-1987 1987-1988
Plant Plant Ratio Ratio Foliage Foliage
Height Width (height/ OverallY Plant Plant (height/ Overallx Colorw Colorw
Cultivar Sourcez (inches) (inches) width) Rating Height Width width) Rating Uniformity Intensity

Ball Mix Ball 16.0 c-eV 17.0 c-f 0.96 bc 7.1 bc -
Color Up Mix Park 10.4 e-g 19.0 c-e 0.55 e-g 8.4 a 2.9 b 3.4 ab
Color Up Pink Park 9.7 gh 20.3 a-e 0.48 g 9.0 a 4.1 a 3.9 a
Color Up Red Park 10.7 d-g 21.1 a-c 0.51 g 9.0 a 3.8 ab 3.1 a-d
Color Up White Park 12.4 a-d 18.8 de 0.66 a-c 8.5 a 3.4 ab 3.9 a
Dynasty Mix Ball 11.7 b-f 20.2 a-e 0.58 d-f 8.9 a 3.5 ab 2.8 b-f
Dynasty Pink Ball 18.7 ab 16.7 c-f 1.14 a 7.3 bc 13.4 ab 18.8 de 0.71 a 8.1 ab 3.5 ab 2.3 ef
Dynasty Red Ball 15.5 d-f 17.1 c-f 0.92 bc 8.1 a-c 11.9 a-e 20.6 a-d 0.58 d-f 8.0 ab 3.9 ab 2.4 d-f
Dynasty White Ball 18.0 ab 18.8 ab 0.97 bc 8.3 a-c 12.8 a-c 20.9 a-d 0.62 b-e 8.1 ab 2.8 b 2.5 c-f
Osaka Mix Sakata 16.3 c-e 17.2 c-e 0.96 bc 6.6 c 12.9 a-c 20.5 a-d 0.64 b-d 7.0 b 3.3 ab 2.1 f
Osaka Pink Sakata 19.2 a 16.0 ef 1.21 a 7.8 a-c 13.6 a 19.8 a-e 0.68 ab 8.6 a 3.3 ab 2.1 f
Osaka Red Sakata 16.0 c-e 18.1 bc 0.90 bc 7.5 bc 11.5 c-f 19.2 b-e 0.60 c-e 8.5 a 3.5 ab 2.6 b-f
Osaka White Sakata 17.1 b-d 20.0 a 0.86 cd 7.3 bc 12.6 a-c 21.2 a-c 0.60 c-e 9.3 a 2.9 b 2.5 c-f
Tokyo Mix Sakata 13.5 g 16.4 d-f 0.84 cd 7.8 a-c 10.5 e-g 21.5 a 0.49 g 8.6 a 3.3 ab 2.9 b-f
Tokyo Pink Sakata 14.8 e-g 17.1 c-f 0.88 b-d 8.9 ab 10.1 f-h 19.8 a-e 0.51 fg 9.3 a 3.6 ab 3.0 b-e
Tokyo Red Sakata 13.3 g 17.9 b-d 0.75 d 8.3 a-c 10.6 d-g 21.4 ab 0.50 g 9.3 a 3.8 ab 3.3 a-c
Tokyo White Sakata 13.9 fg 15.5 f 0.91 bc 8.6 ab 8.7 h 18.1 e 0.48 g 8.5 a 3.4 ab 3.3 a-c
White Xmas Takii 17.3 bc 17.3 b-e 1.01 b 9.5 a 13.2 a-c 19.8 a-e 0.67 a-c 8.9 a 3.0 ab 3.0 b-e

ZSource of seed not necessarily developer of cultivar.
YRated Jan. 29, 1987. Overall rating scale: 0 = all plants dead; 1 = v. poor; 5 = acceptable; 10 = excellent. = not tested.
XRated Feb. 1, 1988. Overall rating scale: 0 = all plants dead; 1 = v. poor; 5 = acceptable; 10 = excellent.
WRated Feb. 1. 1988. Color uniformity and color intensity rating scale: 1 = poor, 5 = excellent.
VlMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


Table 4. Evaluation summary of ornamental kale cultivars.

1986-1987 1987-1988
Plant Plant Ratio Ratio Foliage Foliage
Height Width (height/ OverallY Plant Plant (height/ Overallx Colorw Colorw
Cultivar Sourcez (inches) (inches) width) Rating Height Width width) Rating Uniformity Intensity

Ball Mix
Beauty, Pink
Bouquet, Rose
Chidori Red
Chidori White
Coral Prince
Coral Queen
Emperor Mix
Emperor Red
Emperor White
Feather, Red
Feather, White
Fringe Red on
Fringe White on
Kamone, Red
Kamone, White
Lady, White
Nagoya Mix
Nagoya Red
Nagoya White
Prima Donna
Peacock, Red
Peacock, White
Pigeon, Red
Pigeon, White


19.2 d-f
15.7 ij
16.7 h-j
17.6 f-h
17.5 gh
21.1 bc
21.4 b
19.2 d-f
18.9 d-g
19.0 d-g
26.3 a
26.2 a

0.66 e-g
0.89 a
0.83 b
0.66 e-g
0.58 h
0.73 cd
0.71 d-f
0.64 gh
0.64 gh
0.64 gh
0.90 a
0.72 c-e

10.8 g
11.2 e-g
10.6 g
10.9 fg
16.0 c

21.8 a
19.8 b

17.2 g
19.8 ef
21.7 de
19.3 e-g
25.0 bc

29.1 a
28.9 a


0.75 a
0.69 b

10.0 a 4.1 a-c
9.6 a-c 4.1 a-c

12.6 g-i 19.1 d-g 0.67 d-g 8.1 a-d 13.1 d 21.4 de 0.62 c-f 8.1 e



19.4 de
18.1 e-h
16.9 hi
18.1 e-h
19.8 cd
19.0 d-g
18.1 e-h
19.0 d-g

26.5 a
15.4 j
18.8 d-g

0.67 d-g
0.67 d-g
0.69 d-g
0.66 e-g
0.65 fg
0.66 e-g
0.68 d-g
0.65 fg

0.66 fg
0.85 ab
0.77 c

6.3 e
8.5 a-d
8.3 a-d
8.5 a-d
8.3 a-d
8.3 a-d
6.8 de
8.6 a-d

9.1 ab
8.3 a-d
9.1 ab

10.5 g
10.0 g
11.3 e-g

12.3 d-f
12.5 de
11.2 e-g
19.9 b
19.0 b
10.0 g
12.5 de

20.2 ef
20.0 ef
19.8 ef

23.0 cd
22.7 cd
20.9 de
26.9 a
27.6 a
17.8 fg
19.7 ef

0.52 g-i
0.50 hi
0.57 d-g

0.54 g-I
0.55 f-i
0.54 g-i
0.75 a
0.69 ab
0.56 f-i
0.65 bc

8.8 b-e
8.6 c-e
9.5 a-d
9.8 a-c
10.0 a

3.3 d-f
3.9 b-e
3.8 b-f
3.9 b-e
4.1 a-c

2.4 b-e
2.9 a-c
2.8 a-c
2.0 c-f
3.5 a

2.9 a-c
2.8 a-c

1.6 ef

3.1 ef

3.5 c-f
3.1 ef
4.3 a-c

3.5 c-f
3.0 f
4.0 b-d
4.5 ab
4.3 a-c
4.9 a
4.3 a-c

8.4 de
9.8 a-c
9.4 a-d

8.9 a-e
9.3 a-d
9.8 a-c
9.5 a-d
9.9 ab
9.9 ab
9.9 ab

zSource of seed not necessarily developer of cultivar.
YRated Jan. 29, 1987. Overall rating scale: 0 all plants dead; 1 v. poor; 5 acceptable; 10 excellent. not tested.
XRated Feb. 19P8. Overall rating scale: 0 all plants dead; 1 v. poor; 5 acceptable; 10 excellent.
wRated Feb. 1, 19E8. Color uniformity and color intensity rating scale: 1 poor, 5 excellent.
vlean separation Iy Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.

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