Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Back Cover

Group Title: The book of the seasons : : a gift for the young : summer.
Title: The book of the seasons
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065170/00001
 Material Information
Title: The book of the seasons a gift for the young : summer
Alternate Title: Summer
Physical Description: 63 p. : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Devereux ( Engraver )
William Crosby and Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: William Crosby and Co.
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1841
Subject: Seasons -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Summer -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Months -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Gardens -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry   ( lcsh )
Children's stories -- 1841   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry -- 1841   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1840
Genre: Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
General Note: Printed illustrated linen wrappers.
General Note: Added t.p., engraved and signed: Devereux.
General Note: In prose and verse.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065170
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002222394
oclc - 51057319
notis - ALG2639

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Half Title
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Title Page
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15-22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Back Cover
        Page 66
        Page 67
Full Text


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TiE young people who have read, in the
Book of the Seasons, the account of Spring,
will have formed some acquaintance with the
family of Mr. Milton. Those who have not
met with this volume, may like to be intro-
duced to them. Those who know about them
can pass over this introduction, and go on to
the account of their doings.
Mr. and Mrs. Milton, with their two sons
and two daughters, lived at a very pleasant
house .in the country. They were so happy
in their situation, and knew so well how to
employ their time, and occupy themselves,
that each season, in its turn, was pleasant and
full of instruction to them. The spring had
passed away. The children, whose names
were George, Frank, Sophia, and Eleanor, had
been very busy, at their play hours, in making
for themselves gardens, in planting their seeds,


and had been much pleased to see the little
birds build their nests.
The weather had now become warm, and
very hot in the middle of the day. They
could not often walk or run about, and were
obliged to choose the coolest and shadiest cor-
ners of the house, and often use the fan to
alleviate the heats of summer.
But the mornings and evenings were very
pleasant for walking. They had a neighbor,
at a short distance from them, whom they were

e '"r --_ -- -

VW -- -

very happy to visit, and who always received
them with the greatest kindness. This was


an elderly lady, named Mrs. Eglantine. She
lived in a house of a rather peculiar construc-
tion, of which George Milton had made a
little sketch.
Mrs. Eglantine had several children, all of
whomr were happily married, and lived near
her. They, with their children, visited her
very often. She always received her grand-
children, and other young people who came
to see her, very kindly. She had a book-shelf
fitted up with the most entertaining children's
books. She bought the new ones, as they
came out, to add to the stock.
She employed herself with all the most
amusing kinds of fancy work in worsteds and
silks. She made watch-chains, and every kind
of netting and knotting was familiar to her;
so that the young girls of her acquaintance
were always much entertained in looking at
her ample stock of materials, for these differ-
ent kinds of fancy work. She loved to teach
those who were ingenious how these things
were made.
Adjoining her house was a largeplay-ground,
where there was room to runirbout, and sev-
eral methods of exercise provided, both for
girls and boys. The kind old lady was very


glad to sit at her window, and see the young
people who came to visit her enjoying them-
selves in the open air. Among other amuse-
ments, she had a very excellent- tilt, or see-
saw, so fixed that girls could sit upon it and
take this exercise quite at their ease.

One day Sophia and Eleanor went over to
see Mrs. Eglantine. They went out and seat-
Sed themselves on the see-saw. Sophia was a
little alarmed at finding herself up in the air;

SUmMER. 13

but Eleanor told her that it would give her
courage if she staid up a little while, and
that she should keep her end of the machine
down until Sophia should repeat twenty lines
of poetry. Sophia protested that this was un-
fair; but Mrs. Eglantine, who sat at the win-
dow, told her there was no danger, and ad-
vised her to do her best. So she repeated the
following lines: -

,"Twice one are two.
I am up, but down are you.
Twice two are four.
My sad fate I deplore.

"Twice three are six.
H6w joys and sorrows mix!

"Twice four are eight.
If I fall, I break my pate.

"Twice five are ten.
How grieved you would be then!

"Twice six are twelve.
You'd break your heart yourself.

Twice seven are fourteen.
No more would you try this sporting.

STwice eight are sixteen.
You smile while rhymes I am fixing.

14 suMIMER.

"Twice nine are eighteen.
Are you not tired of waiting ?
"Twice ten are twenty.
Pray, will not this content ye ?
Twice eleven are twenty-two.
A little more I am sure will do.

"Twice twelve are twenty-four.
I will not say a sentence more."

Eleanor was now glad to let Sophia come
down; and Mi.. Eglantine and the rest of
the company were all much pleased with the
readiness with which she had furnished her
rhymes. Sophia now declared her determina-
tion to keep Eleanor up until she had given as
many lines. Eleanor said, as long as her sis-
ter had set the fashion of rhyming the mul-
tiplication table,- she might as well go on with
the next line of it, though she was afraid she
should not make out the rhymes as well as
Sophia had done. She began with

"Three times one are three.
How high you have lifted me!
"Three times two are six.
'Tis hard these rhymes to fix.
"Three times three are nine.
I pause to find a line.
/ .-

15 22

JUNE. 23

on her head, and she was conducted with con-
siderable state, by her maids of honor, to her
throne, which was a shaded seat, ornamented
with flowers, and placed on a little elevation.
But they soon were weary of these formal
sports, which suited not exactly with the sim-
ple taste of children; and the queen was not
sorry to descend from her throne, after a few
compliments were passed, and join in a good
romp with her maids of honor and her sub-
jects. There were provisions made for all
sorts of sports -comfortable swings, alleys
for bowling, balls, hoops, and every thing that
children could desire. The doctor joined
his young friends in their plays, and, after
passing several hours in this manner, they re-
turned home, much pleased with their June
As they returned home, they came in sight
of a broad.brook, and half-way over they dis-
covered an old gentleman who lived in the
neighborhood, and whom every body called
uncle Isaac. He had become so engaged in
his favorite sport of fishing, that he had waded
out from the shore, and stood half-leg deep in
the water, with his basket on his arm, await-
ing, with breathless anxiety, the success of a
nibble which he fancied he felt at the end of

24 JUNE.

his line. George was so pleased with the
surrounding scenery, and the figure of good
old uncle Isaac, that he made a sketch of it,
which is placed at the beginning of the month.
One day this month, after dinner, Frank
asked what the guns had been firing for,
which he had heard at noon that day? He
was told it was because it was the 17th of
June, and in commemoration of the battle of
Bunker Hill, which was fought on that day,
in the year 1775. He expressed a desire to
read an account of the battle, and George
brought forward a little abstract of American
history, from which he read the following
narrative of the day:-

"The American commanders had obtained
information that the British intended to post
themselves on Bunker Hill. The position
was a very important one, and it was deter-
mined to defeat their design. Accordingly,
on the 16th of June, a band of one thousand
provincials, under the command of Colonel
Prescott, was sent to take possession of the
station. It was late in the evening before
they reached the heights, and full midnight
before they began to dig the intrench-

JUNE. 25

ments. They proceeded in their labors with
order, and the utmost silence, and it was the
next morning before the British knew any
thing of their operations.
"At daybreak, the hasty works of the night
were discovered, and a heavy cannonade was
immediately commenced, from the ships, the
floating batteries, and all the fortifications
which could be made of any service. Bombs
and shot were incessantly pouring among the
hardy provincials, who continued, with unheed-
ing perseverance, to strengthen their breast-
works. In the course of the forenoon, they
received an addition to their numbers, so that
now they counted about fifteen hundred men.
"At one o'clock, the royal forces were ob-
served passing over to Charlestown, in boats
and barges. They consisted of about three
thousand men, well provided with artillery.
They were formed in two lines, and advanced
with great boldness to the attack. The Ameri-
cans withheld their fire till they were within
eight or ten rods, or, as General Putnam said,
' till they saw the white of their enemies' eyes.'
Their discharge of musketry was then general,
and very fatal, till the regular troops were
driven back in disorder, even to their boats.

26 JUNE.

With great difficulty, the officers succeeded in
rallying them, and they again marched forward
with valor, till a second deadly fire again put
them to flight.
A third assault was more successful. The
Americans had expended nearly all their am-
munition, and could obtain no further supply.
After resisting, as bravely as they could, with
stones and the butts of their muskets, they re-
treated under a heavy fire. They were not
very warmly pursued, and met with not a very
great loss.
"Among the killed was General Joseph
Warren, one of the earliest and most zealous
patriots in the cause of American freedom.
Such was his valor and his zeal, that he rushed
into the very front of the field, encouraging the
soldiers by his noble example.. Near the close
of the battle, he received a fatal shot, and in-
stantly died. His loss was much lamented,
and his memory is fondly cherished by his
countrymen. The corner-stone of a monu-
ment, on Bunker Hill, in commemoration of
this eventful day and its doings, was laid with
great ceremony on the 17th of June, 1825.
It is to be built of granite, and has risen to a
considerable height, but as yet remains un-

JUNE. 27

Just at the beginning of the battle, orders
were given by the British general to set fire
to Charlestown. In a short time, this ancient
town, consisting of about five hundred build-
ings, was wrapped in flames. It was almost
entirely consumed, and a great amount of
property, belonging to the distressed inhabit-
ants of Boston, was also destroyed. The
battle, and the conflagration, presented a scene
of the most intense interest to many thousand
spectators, who, from the surrounding heights,
the houses and steeples of the neighboring
towns, were waiting the issue of the contest."

This was a fine month for the garden. The
roses began to show promise of flowers, and
the cinnamon rose and early white bloomed
before the close of the month. The splendid
peonies made a very glorious show in the
borders. The sweet William of various kinds,
spiderwort, fox-glove, monk's-hood, and many
others, gave their garden a very gay appear-
ance, and furnished the young ladies with
flowers to place fresh every morning in the
vases, to decorate the parlor. They were all
employed, frequently, in weeding, as the chick-
weed, and other unwelcome visitors of the gar-

28 JUNE.

den, grew with great rapidity. The annuals
they had planted had come up in thick
bunches. These it was necessary to thin out,
and transplant such as were to be removed to
other parts of the garden. The birds visited
often their garden, and they found much
amusement in watching their motions. The
robins and swallows were very numerous.
Mr. Milton was not willing any birds should
be shot within his grounds, thinking that the
insects they devoured would have injured him
more than the loss of the cherries and peas with
which they sometimes took the liberty to regale
themselves, and moisten their throats after the
exertions they had made to send forth their
notes of melody.
This month also furnished some of the most
delicious garden fruits. Towards the close of
it, the Miltons had strawberries in abundance,
currants, raspberries and gooseberries; and the
cherries had advanced so far as to furnish ma-
terials for a cherry pudding, though they had
not yet become ripe enough to eat. But while
there were strawberries in plenty, they were
willing to wait for the cherries.
One warm evening, the children were much
pleased with the appearance of the fire-flies, or
liahtning-bugs, as they are sometimes called.

JtNE. 29

These little sparklers were seen in great num-
bers, twinkling about in a meadow opposite.
The children succeeded in catching one, which
they placed under a glass, that they might ex-
S amine it at leisure. They found it to be an in-
sect about the size of a honey-bee. The light
part was discernible, but was not nearly as bril-
liant when it was quiet as when it was in mo-
tion. George asked if the light produced by
this insect was the same as that given out by
the glow-worm, of which we read so much in
English books. His father told him he pre-
sumed it was, though more feeble; but Mr.
Milton had never seen a glow-worm. Mrs.
Milton asked them if they had ever read the
lines of Cowper, addressed to the glow-worm;
and finding they had not, Eleanor got the
volume and read them aloud.

"Beneath the hedge, or near the stream,
A worm is known to stray,
That shows at night a lucid beam,
Which disappears by day.
Disputes have been, and still prevail,
From whence his rays proceed;
Some give that honor to his tail,
And others to his head.

80 JUNE.

But this is sure-the hand of might,
That kindles up the skies,
Gives him a modicum of light
Proportioned to his size.
"Perhaps indulgent Nature meant,
By such a lamp bestowed,
To bid the traveller, as he went,
Be careful where he trod; -
"Nor crush a worm, whose useful light
Might serve, however small,
To show a stumbling-stone by night,
And save him from a fall.
"Whate'er she meant, this truth divine
Is legible and plain-
'Tis Power almighty bids him shine,
Nor bids him shine in vain.
Ye proud and wealthy, let this theme
Teach humbler thoughts to you;
Since such a reptile has a gem,
And boasts its splendor too."

Frank thought it was time now to uncover
the fire-fly, which had thus been the means of
giving them half an hour's entertainment. He
lifted the glass, and off flew the little fellow to
join his brilliant companions in the meadow.
Dr. Solander now came in, with a bouquet
of wild flowers. He told the young ladies he

JUNE. 31

thought it too hot for them to join him in a
walk; but he had been to visit a sick person,
and, returning through a little grove, he had
found a few flowers, which he had brought in
for their amusement. His bunch received a
very brilliant character from containing several
specimens of the Lilium Canadense, common
yellow lily, (class 6th, order 1st,) and the red
lily also. There were still remaining some
species of the Solomon's seal, Convallaria, of
the same class and order as the lily. There
were a few anemones, which he had found re-
maining, though it was quite late for them;
the Pyrola, winter-green, (class 10th, order
Ist;) the Sisyrinchium Anceps, blue-eyed
grass, (class 16th, order 5th;) the Azalia,
wild honeysuckle or swamp pink, (class 5th,
order 1st). This fragrant and beautiful plant
was hailed with great pleasure by the girls,
being the first they had seen the present sea-
son. He also had a specimen of the singular
plant called Sarracenia Purpurea, or side-sad-
dle flower, (class 13th, order Ist.) The leaves
of this plant are formed by a large hollow tube,
swelling in the middle, curved, and growing
smaller, till it ends in a stem, contracted at
the mouth, furnished with a large, spreading,


heart-shaped appendage at top, which is hairy
within, the hairs pointing downwards. The
full-grown leaves will contain a wine-glass of
water, and are rarely found empty. The pis-
til rises up in a peculiar manner, and spreads
itself out over the flower, like an umbrella.
He had also a specimen of the Calla, (class
2ist,-order 8th,) which they found but little
inferior in beauty to plants of the same spe-
cies cultivated in green-houses. Dr. Solander
showed them, lastly, some specimens of the
white-weed, Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum,
(class 19th, order 2d.) This, he told them,
the little French girls told fortunes with, by na-
ming silently their lover, then pulling out a leaf
and leaving one. When they pluck the leaf,
they say, He loves me; he loves me a little- a
great deal -none at all; yes no -yes;" and
whichever of these phrases they are speaking
when they pull out the last leaf, they think,
shows them the state of the young person's
mind after whom they named the daisy, as
they call it. The children immediately fell to
pulling the daisies to pieces, after the French
fashion, and the evening passed off in great
gayety and good humor.

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THE long, hot days of midsummer had now
come, and the children were obliged to confine
themselves to the house through the middle of
the day; but they enjoyed the mornings and
evenings, and more especially the sunset hour.
This month was the season for hay-making, and
though this part of the farmer's labors is not so
much a season of frolic and holiday with us as
it is represented to be in England, where it is
customary for women and girls to join in the
labors of hay-making, yet the fragrance of the
bay is so agreeable, and so many boys and
men are engaged in working in the same field,
that it is rather more merry and cheerful than
some other parts of a farmer's life. One after-
noon, when the weather had been very fine
through the early part of the day, and a large
quantity of grass was nearly ready for the
barn, clouds arose, and there was a prospect
of a violent shower. Mr. Milton and the bo's

36 JULY.

hastened to the hay-field, to assist all in their
power to get in the hay before the shower
came on. All the men and boys were col-
lected, and the labor went on briskly. Even
little Frank found he could be quite useful in
raking after, as it is called, that is, drawing the
rake after the cart, to collect the small bunches,
which occasionally fall off from the full-loaded
hay-cart. Their efforts were crowned with
success, and the last load, with Frank on the
top of it, was safely housed within the ample
barn, when the clouds burst, and the rain fell
in torrents. The rain, which was so near
drenching the hay, was very refreshing and
useful to the gardens. The weather had been
for a long time dry and sultry, and the earth
had become very much parched, and the flow-
ers, in the middle of the day, were so much
dried by the heat, that they had hardly time to
recover themselves in the evening and during
the night. But this fine shower gave them
new vigor, at the same time that it animated
the weeds, and called for more exertion on the
part of the young gardeners, to prevent them
from overrunning the whole spot. Their gar-
den was much infested with the chick-weed,
to which, notwithstanding it is so common,

JULY. 37

botanists have given the very pretty name of
Stellaria Media, and placed it in the 10th
class, 3d order. This little weed is a favorite
food of the Canary-bird; and the girls used to
collect it when they weeded the garden, and
carry it to a neighbor, old Madam Hutchin-
son, who kept a great many Canaries. The
girls wondered at her taste in keeping little
birds shut up in cages, when they are so much
happier in the open air, and their songs sound
so much sweeter when they are at liberty; yet,
as they could not make the old lady agree with
them in opinion, they were willing to do all in
their power to contribute to the comfort of the
little prisoners, and a fresh basket of Stellaria
always seemed very agreeable to fhem.
At the beginning of this month, the flower-
garden was indeed in its glory. The whole
family of roses, enough of themselves to make
the garden beautiful, shed sweetness all around.
Then there were long borders of pinks, which
flowered so abundantly, that the children could
gather the most immense bunches to take to
school; and there were still so many remaining,
that no one would suppose any had been
gathered. There were the larkspurs of vari-
ous colors. A very pretty amusement is found

38 JULY.

by some children, in pulling out the little horns
which are found in this common garden flower,
and putting them one into another till they
form a wreath. This wreath can be pressed,
and long retains its color and form. They
were able to gather for the vases the double
feverfew, coreopsis, scarlet lychnis, spireas,
phloxes, mullein pink, and Canterbury bells.
The honeysuckjes were in bloom over the
trellis that bordered the garden on one side,
and sent forth a very sweet odor, particularly
toward evening. The plants were tied to neat
sticks, as they advanced in height, to prevent
them from being beaten down by heavy rains
or high winds. All flower-stalks were cut off
after flowering, except such as were wanted
for seed, and all straggling branches neatly
trimmed off. There were several kinds of lily
at this time, which added to the beauty of the
The fruits still continued abundant, and of
various kinds. The cherries had now become
ripe, and this year were very plenty; -and
though the birds, with which the garden and
grounds were filled, helped themselves without
much delicacy, there were still enough left for
the use of the family; and it was found a very

JULY. 39

agreeable recreation, for either boy or girl,
toward the close of the day, when the rays of
the sun had lost something of their power, to
ascend a pair of steps, placed firmly under the
tree, and, seated on the highest step, select,
from among the thickly-hung branches, the
ripest and largest specimens of the fruit. The
young people were often all called upon, in
the morning, to pick strawberries and rasp-
berries for the day. On some occasions they
united to gather fruit in large quantities, and
Mrs. Milton and her daughters employed them-
selves in preserving it, in sugar or honey, that
they might in winter be able to enjoy some
of the luxuries which were now so abundantly
spread about them. The girls were very happy
to assist in these operations, and Sophia was
already quite skilful in the work, to which,
being the eldest, she had been longer accus-
tomed than her sister. Pears were very
abundant, as well as currants; and apples
were beginning to ripen.
On the 4th of the month, there had been,
as usual in almost every town, great or small,
in this country, a military parade, and other
signs of rejoicing. Frank, after dinner, said
to his father, "What do they have such a

40 JULY.

parade for, on this day? I hear it called
INDEPENDENCE, and, wishing to be as wise as
the rest, I have looked out the word in my
dictionary, and it said freedom exemption
from reliance or control.' Now, though I see
every body seems to do what he likes on the
4th of July, and sometimes, I think, rather
silly things, yet I do not know why people
should do it on the 4th more than any other
day of July, or of the year."
MR. MILTON. "I think, my dear, none but
a very little boy would be obliged to ask the
question; but if you have any doubts about
the matter, you do very right to ask to have it
explained, for I dare say you will enjoy the
gayety of the day better, when you know why
it is celebrated.
"You know, then, my dear, that the people
who first came to live in this country came
from Europe, and those who came to this part
of it, came from England. They had got tired
of living in England, because they could not
do as they liked there. There were laws
which compelled every body to worship God
after a particular form; and this form happened
to be one which the Puritans, as the people
who came over here, and those who thought

JULY. 41

like them, were called, did not think the best,
and would not comply with, and for refusing,
they were sadly persecuted; so they concluded
to come over to this country, where there were
no people except Indians, of whom they thought
they could buy some land, and quietly settle
down, and serve God and do their own busi-
ness in their own way. They considered
themselves still as Englishmen, and the king
of England as their king. As this part of
America had been discovered first by English-
men, the king of England claimed it as his,
and they had to ask his permission to settle
here, and do as they liked in matters of re-
ligion. King James the First did not positively
agree that they should do this, but he did not
molest them. For many years they were
very poor, and the English government did
not think much about them; but when they
increased in numbers, the people in England
began to take more notice of them. They
made the Americans pay taxes to assist in
supporting the government, though they did
not allow them to send any of their men to
England to sit in the parliament, and say what
should be done with the money. They used
to choose governors in England, and send them

42 JULY.

out here to govern the people, instead of let-
ting them say who should be the governor.
And when the English were fighting with
France, they made the Americans help them,
by gathering armies, and going to fight the
people who lived in this country, but in parts
of it which were under the French govern-
ment. This the American people did; and I
suppose that what they learned about making
war in these combats with the French, helped
them when they came afterward to be obliged
to fight with the English. Things kept grow-.
ing worse and worse. The Americans in-
creased in numbers, and hated more and
more to be governed by the English; and the
more populous and valuable the country be-
came, the more unwilling the English were to
give it up; so they sent over armies to watch
the people, and at last they came to fighting.
The Americans had no regular army at first;
but the people were all so tired of being, as
they thought, so ill-treated, that every body
that could get a gun, was glad to take it and
fight the British whenever he could get a
chance. You have read about the Boston
massacre, the battles of Lexington and Con-
cord, and the battle of Bunker Hill. The


Americans thought, as they refused to obey
the English government, they ought to set up
one of their own. So each of the thirteen states
sent delegates to a Congress, which met at
Philadelphia. They chose General Washing-
ton to be commander-in-chief of their armies,
and declared the states INDEPENDENT of
the crown of Great Britain, that is, according
to your dictionary, free from its power, and no
longer submitting to its direction and control.
It was eight years before the British would
agree that they should be so, and they kept
sending out armies, and the Americans had a
sad time of it. The men were compelled to
leave their homes, and go and fight; and the
government had very little money to support,
and clothe, and pay them; but a good Provi-
dence carried them through all their difficulties,
and at last the British were obliged to give
up the matter, take home their troops, and
make peace. Since then the country has pros-
pered greatly. The government has become
established, and every thing goes on happily.
The declaration of Independence was made
on the 4th of July, in the year 1776; and, as
it was the beginning of the American govern-
ment, it is called the Birth-day of the Nation.
And if it is matter of rejoicing that the birth-

44 JULY.

day of a single little boy or girl has come
round, it certainly seems right that the birth-
day of a great and happy nation should be
observed in every part of it with marks of joy.
Some of the ways which are taken to celebrate
the day, seem, and are foolish; but the beauty
of the thing is, that every body feels he has a
right to spend this day and all his days just as
he pleases, provided he does nothing which
shall injure himself or another person; and this
is being INDEPENDENT."
FRANK. I thank you, papa, for giving me
this account. I think I understand the matter
pretty well, and I shall be glad when I am old
enough to read some good history of the coun-
try from beginning to end, and particularly
the life of General Washington; for I think
he must have been a wonderful man."
Sophia now produced some beautiful butter-
flies, which had just hatched out from the chry-
salises, where they had been concealed for sev-
eral months. She had seen some of the large
potato-worms, the last autumn, and having
been told that beautiful butterflies proceeded
from this animal, in itself so disagreeable, she
took them, when she perceived they were get-
ting into their torpid state, and placed them in
a box with some of the leaves of the plant on

JULY. 45

which she discovered them. Here, in a short
time, they spun for themselves the cone which
served for their winter quarters. When it was
near the time when she supposed they would
leave their cones, Sophia removed them to
another box, which was covered with a thin
lace at the top, through which she could see
what was going on. within. On visiting her
box this morning, to her great delight she dis-
covered three butterflies, of the largest size and
most brilliant colors. The children were much
pleased with looking at them; but the butter-
flies began to feel their new life, and fluttered
about as if they wanted more room. The box
was accordingly carried out to the piazza, and
the lace removed. The brilliant insects re-
mained for a few moments, opening and shut-
ting their wings, as if to make sure that they
knew how to use them, and then they soared
away into the air, and the children soon lost
sight of them. Sophia thought their splendid
appearance fully repaid her for the trouble she
had taken in preserving the potato-worms.
George told her that her butterflies reminded
him of some pretty lines he had seen lately,
which he should like to read. He was desired
to do so, and read

46 JULY.


"Thou hast burst from thy prison,
Bright child of the air,
Like a spirit just risen
From its mansion of care.

"Thou art joyously winging
Thy first ardent flight
Where the gay lark is singing
Her notes of delight, -

"Where the sunbeams are throwing
Their glories on thine,
Till thy colors are glowing
With tints more divine; -

"Then tasting eew pleasure
In summer's green bowers,
Reposing at leisure
On fresh-opened flowers;-

"Or delighted to hover
Around-them to see
Whose charms, airy rover,
Bloom sweetest for thee, -

"And fondly inhaling
Their fragrance, till day
From thy bright eye is failing
And fading away.

JULY. 47

"Then, seeking some blossom
Which looks to the west,
Thou dost find in its bosom
Sweet shelter and rest; -

"And there dost betake thee
Till darkness is o'er,
And the sunbeams awake thee
To pleasure once more."

The girls thanked George for the lines, and
Sophia requested a copy for her scrap-book,
which George not only promised her, but
agreed to make the copy for her in his own
neatest hand.
Dr. Solander now came in, and invited
them all to walk. He told them that the
field-flowers were not as beautiful as those
which bloom earlier in the summer, but he
thought they might find some that were pretty.
They would have the walk, at any rate, and
could return by way of his grounds, where his
gardener would be very happy to make up any
deficiencies that might be found. John had
been lamenting to him, that it was at least
three days since the young ladies had been
over to look at his flowers, and he depended

48 JULY.

on making up a nice bouquet for an Inde-
pendence present to them.
The walk proved very agreeable. They
found a number of flowers in the woods,
though hardly any of the more delicate and
tender kind. They gathered some of the Spirea
Alba, meadow-sweet, (class 12th, order 4th,)
and another of the same family, commonly
called the hardhack. They gave a delicious odor
to their bouquets by adding to them sprigs of
the sweet-brier leaves, the Rosa Rubiginosa,
(class 12th, order 5th.) They found in abun-
dance the flowering raspberry, Rubus Odoratus,
(class 12th, order 5th.) They were far enough
from the sea-shore to be able to find the splen-
did mountain laurel, Kalmia Latifolia, (class
10th, order Ist.) The hedges of this beautiful
plant make the most brilliant appearance at the
season when it is in flower. They passed a
pond, on the surface of which floated the
graceful water-lily, Nymphkea Odorata, (class
13th, order 1st.) The boys, with some diffi-
culty, succeeded in getting a few specimens
of this beautiful and fragrant flower, from
whose large root, firmly placed at the bottom
of the pond, springs up the long stalk which
carries nourishment to the flower and the

JULY. 49

large, round leaves, which float on the surface
of the water, and enjoy the rays of the sun.
Of these and many others they formed very
pretty bouquets, and returned home, as had
been arranged, through the doctor's grounds.
John was awaiting them with the largest and
most tastefully arranged bouquet of garden-
flowers which was ever seen. He wondered
a little that they would take the trouble to go
so far after what he considered no better than
weeds, when the garden at home was in such
glory. He had for each of the girls a flower
of the fragrant magnolia, Magnolia Glauca,
(class 13th, order 6th,) gathered from a shrub
which had been transplanted from a distant
part of the state, and flourished in Dr. Solan-
der's garden. The very powerful and deli-
cious odor of this flower was highly praised;
and, wishing John a good night, the young
party returned home, Frank bearing in tri-
umph the enormous bouquet, and the rest of
the party well satisfied with the success of
their botanical researches.





THE season advanced, and the days began
to shorten, though this change was not very
perceptible at the beginning of the month.
The fruits were advancing to maturity, and
many of the grains were already ripe. The
Indian corn, although not ripe, was in a
state to be eaten green, and furnished a most
delicious article of food, particularly when,
after having been boiled, it was cut from the
cob and mixed with shell-beans. This dish,
so great a favorite in New England, is said to
have been in use among the Indians, whose
name for it is now retained in some parts of
the country, viz. succotash.
"Father," said Frank, toward the close of
this month, "I heard John saying the other
day, that he must make haste and get in his
grain; for if the rains came on before it was
housed, it would grow. Is it not good to
have it grow as long as it remains in the


field? I should think the more it grew the
better it would be."
MR. MILTON. "In a late season, or when
the weather has been rainy, the grain gets
beaten down to the ground, the seeds are
shed, or rotted by the wet, and, if the weather
is warm, the grain grows; that is, the seeds
begin to sprout and put out shoots. Grain in
this states sweet and moist: it soon spoils on
keeping, and bread made from it is clammy
and unwholesome."
GEORGE. "I recollect, you explained this
to me once, when I was reading Mr. Southey's
story about Bishop Hatto, who was eaten up
by the rats."
FRANK. "Eaten up by the rats! What
was that story, and what had it to do with
grain sprouting ?"
GEORGE. "I will try to repeat the lines to
you, and then you will see.

The summer and autumn had been so wet,
That in winter the corn was growing yet;
'Twas a piteous sight to see all around
The grain lie rotting on the ground.
"Every day the starving poor
Crowded around Bishop Hatto's door,
For he had a plentiful last year's store,


And all the neighborhood could tell
His granaries were furnished well.

"At last Bishop Hatto appointed a day
To quiet the poor without delay;
He bade them to his great barn repair,
And they should have food, for the winter, there.

"Rejoiced, such tidings glad to hear,
The poor folk flocked from far and near;
The barn was full as it could hold
Of women and children, young and old.

"And when he found it would hold no more,
Bishop Hatto he shut fast the door;
And while for mercy on Christ they call,
He set fire to the barn and burnt them all.

"'In faith, 'tis a glorious bonfire,' said he,
'And the country is much obliged to me
For ridding it, in these times forlorn,
Of rats which" only consume the corn.'

"Away to his palace then hastened he,
And he ate his supper merrily;
And he slept that night like an innocent man,
But Bishop Hatto never slept again.

"In the morning, when he entered the hall,
Where his picture hung against the wall,
A sweat, like death, all over him came,
For the rats had eaten it out of the frame.

"A man came running from the farm,
And he had a countenance pale with alarm;
'My lord, when I opened your granary this morn,
The rats had eaten all the corn.'


"Another came running presently,
And he was pale as pale could be.
'Fly, my lord bishop, fly,' said he;
'An army of rats is coming this way;
The Lord forgive you for yesterday.'
"'I'll go to my tower on the Rhine,' said he;
"Tis the strongest place in Germany;
The walls are high, and the river is deep,
And the stream is broad, and the bank is steep.'
"Then quick to the castle he hastened away,
And he crossed the stream without delay;
And he entered the tower, and barred with care
All the windows, doors, and loop-holes there.
"He laid him down and closed his eyes,
But soon a scream made him arise;
He listened and looked- it was only the cat;
But the bishop he grew more fearful for that;
For she was staring wild with fear
At the army of rats that were drawing near.
"For they have crossed the water so deep,
And they have climbed the bank so Bsteep;
And now by thousands in they crawl
Through the cracks and loop-holes in the wall.

"And in at the windows, and in at the door,
And down from the ceiling, and up through the floor,
From within and without, from above and below,
And all at once to the bishop they go.

SThey have whetted their teeth against the stones,
And now they pick the bishop's bones;
They tore the flesh from every limb,
For they were sent to do judgment on him."


FRANK. "What an odd story that is, father!
but I know it is not true."
MR. MILTON. "I thought you were wise
enough to know that, Frank, or I should not
have allowed George to tell you the story;
but it is so extravagant and wonderful, that
I thought you would listen to it in the same
manner as you do to a fairy tale. There is,
however, a tower on the river Rhine, in Ger-
many, which is called the Maiise Thurm, or
Mouse Tower; and there is a story told about
it, from which Mr. Southey made this poem.
Perhaps there was once a very miserly bishop,
who refused to give food to his poor neigh.
bors, and went away to this strong tower with
his corn, and shut himself up there; and the
rats came after his corn, and, perhaps, killed
him; but I suspect there was never any one,
bishop or not, who was so wicked as to bum
S up a whole barn full of people."
SOPHIA. "I perceived to-day, father, in -
beginning to read Scott's Napoleon, that
Bonaparte was born in this month of August.
Can you remember much about him?"
MR. MILTON. "0, yes, my dear. The
days of his glory were not over until the
year 1815, not much more than twenty years
ago; so that your mother and I have the most


distinct recollection of the startling events of
his career, as they used to burst upon us,
month after month, when vessels arrived from
Europe. It was certainly a most wonderful
period of the world's history."
FRANK. "Cannot you tell us a little about
Bonaparte, father, and how he came to be so
great a man. I am not old enough to remem-
ber about him, nor even to read a full account
of his life."
MR. MILTON. I am afraid we should both
get tired, if I were to undertake to give you
much of an account of him and his doings;
but I will try to give you a little sketch of the
"You know that France is a very large
country in Europe, with a very pleasant
climate, and inhabited by a vast number of
people. They had been governed, for a great
many hundred years, by kings of one family,
The people of the country were divided pretty
nearly into very rich and very poor people.
There were much fewer of the class of whom,
happily, we in this country have so many,
who are neither very rich nor very poor, than
there is with us. The very rich people had
become, in a great many instances, very idle
and extravagant; the poor were, in general,


very ignorant; and the learned men had taken
up some strange and wicked notions, and in-
stead of making people better by the books
they made, they confused the minds of folks,
and made them 6rget what little good they
knew before. After the American revolution
had been finished, and our country was going
on well, some of their people wished very
much to make a change in France; but every
thing was so different there from what it was
in our country, that it was very difficult to
arrange any thing as it ought to be. They
put down the king and his family, and at last
beheaded them. They endeavored to estab-
lish a new government, but they did not suc-
ceed in arranging any permanent one; the
greatest confusion arose; thousands of people
were beheaded, many more driven off from
their homes; property was taken from its real
owners; and for many years France was the
scene of the most terrible actions that were
ever known. Bonaparte appeared first as a
soldier. He was born at Corsica, August 15th,
1769; he was educated at a military school,
and soon entered the army; he advanced by
degrees, until he succeeded in abolishing most
of the forms of government, and making him-
self emperor, with the most uncontrolled


power. The nation was exhausted by all
the horrors it had passed through; and his
course was so rapid, that the people had
hardly time to know what he was meditating,
until he had raised himself above all control.
He was not content with this, but retained
his great armies; conquered the whole of
Italy; made one of his brothers king of
Spain, another king of Holland, and his
infant son king of Rome. He compelled
the pope, who, you know, in countries-where
the Catholic religion prevails, is the most
sacred of all persons, to leave Rome, and come
to Paris, where he detained him for some
time, and made him assist at his coronation
as emperor. All this grandeur, however, did
not satisfy him; he raised the most immense
army ever known, and went to the north to
conquer Russia; he advanced to the city of
Moscow, the ancient capital of the Russian
empire. The Russians did not attack him,
but set on fire their own city; it was impos-
sible/to stop the flames, and the unfortunate
Frenchmen found themselves, in the depth
of winter, in an enemy's country, and with-
out any means of subsistence. They tried
to return home, and had to encounter the cold
of the winter, at the same time that they


were pursued by the armies of the Russians.
The Russians, the Prussians, and British, had
formed an alliance against Bonaparte. He
had separated himself from his first wife, and
married a daughter of the emperor of Austria.
On this account, the emperor of Austria did
not openly join the'allies against Bonaparte;
but his troops, that were in connection with
Napoleon, had a secret agreement with the
allies, and did not act heartily for France.
At last, after the most incredible sufferings,
the remains of the French army reached
Paris. The French were much dissatisfied
with the result of this campaign. Bonaparte,
however, raised a new army, and went into
Germany to fight with the allied army. His
former success did not follow him; his army
was defeated, and the wreck of it returned,
broken and dispirited, to Paris, the allied
armies following him there. Bonaparte then
agreed to give up the government, which was
restored to the family, members of which had
worn the crown for so many years before; and
Louis XVIII., the brother of the one who was
beheaded in the time of the revolution, was
made king. Bonaparte was banished to Elba,
in the year 1814, a small island near the coast


of Italy,over which he had the dominion. But
the dominion of such a little corner was only a
mockery to his proud spirit. He kept up the
most close attention to the affairs of Europe,
and when he found a favorable opportunity,
about a year after he gave up the government,
he escaped from Elba, February 26th, 1815;
returned to France; made a proclamation to
the army; and the royal family left Paris. The
greatest confusion prevailed, in the midst of
which Bonaparte took possession of the gov-
ernment. He raised a new army to meet the
allies, who immediately prepared for him.
The battle of Waterloo took place in June,
when the allies conquered the French army,
and followed Bonaparte to Paris. Here he
offered to make a treaty with them, by giving
up the government to his infant son. But
this the allies refused, and he relinquished the
government altogether, and the old royal fam-
ily, the Bourbons, were again called back.
Bonaparte then went on board an English
ship, and gave himself up to the English gov-
ernment. After considering what was best
to do with him, it was concluded to carry
him to St. Helena, an island in the middle of
the South Atlantic Ocean, where he was kept


a prisoner until his death, which took place
May 5th, 1821, at the age of fifty-two. None
of his own family followed him to this retreat;
but several of those to whom he had been
friendly in the days of his glory, accompanied
him, and remained with him as long as he
lived. He did not bear the reverses of his
fortune very calmly, but was constantly com-
plaining and groaning at petty annoyances,
which, perhaps, could not have been avoided.
He lamented his separation from his wife and
child, though it does not appear that she ever
solicited the permission to share his exile.
The friends who had followed him to St.
Helena showed him always the greatest re-
spect and attention. He was always addressed
by them as emperor, and the forms of a court
were kept up about him. He lies buried at
St. Helena, and a willow is planted at the
head of his grave; and a little spring of fresh
water,' which he had caused to be opened
during his life, flows gently near the spot
where he rests, after all the tois, and splen-
dors, and mortifications, of his life. His son,
who received in his cradle the title of king
of Rome, lived under the care of his grand-
father, the emperor of Austria, and died


at about the age of sixteen. When you come
to read, in detail, all the events in the life of
this wonderful man, you will be astonished
that so much could be crowded into so short
a space; and that persons no older than your
father and mother, can remember the rse,
and progress, and fall, of a man whose doings
fill so many volumes of the history of the

The garden was very gay and brilliant this
month. The sun-flowers, the hibiscus, and the
hollyhocks, the phloxes, the tiger lily, among
the larger plants; the yellow Eschscholitzia,
the four-o'clocks, the tassel flower, the mignio-
nette, balsams, and many other smaller flow-
ers,-furnished materials for the flower-vases,
and gave the garden a very bright appear-
On the borders of the brooks still lingered
the splendid cardinal flower, Lobelia Canaden-
sis, (class 5th, order 1st.) Its bright scarlet
colors gave glory to the bouquet, though it
withered soon on being gathered. The Cle-
matis Virginiana, the traveller's joy, (class
13th, order 6th,) was seen climbing round,
making a very pretty appearance. The long


feathery tails of the seeds resemble tufts of
wool. Several of the Gerardias, (class 14th,
order 2d,) the yellow and purple, made, this
month, a pretty show. The Mimulus Ringens,
or monkey flower. These, and many others,
served as texts for Dr. Solander to explain the
science of botany to his young friends, and
the field-flower bouquets compared very well
with those of the garden.




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